Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.352
Filtrar
1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502840

RESUMO

With the growing adoption of the Internet of Things (IoT) technology in the agricultural sector, smart devices are becoming more prevalent. The availability of new, timely, and precise data offers a great opportunity to develop advanced analytical models. Therefore, the platform used to deliver new developments to the final user is a key enabler for adopting IoT technology. This work presents a generic design of a software platform based on the cloud and implemented using microservices to facilitate the use of predictive or prescriptive analytics under different IoT scenarios. Several technologies are combined to comply with the essential features-scalability, portability, interoperability, and usability-that the platform must consider to assist decision-making in agricultural 4.0 contexts. The platform is prepared to integrate new sensor devices, perform data operations, integrate several data sources, transfer complex statistical model developments seamlessly, and provide a user-friendly graphical interface. The proposed software architecture is implemented with open-source technologies and validated in a smart farming scenario. The growth of a batch of pigs at the fattening stage is estimated from the data provided by a level sensor installed in the silo that stores the feed from which the animals are fed. With this application, we demonstrate how farmers can monitor the weight distribution and receive alarms when high deviations happen.


Assuntos
Internet das Coisas , Agricultura , Animais , Fazendas , Gado , Software , Suínos
2.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 450, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533635

RESUMO

Brucellosis caused by facultative intracellular bacteria, Brucella, remains a global threat to both animal and human health. In this study we aimed to identify potential risk factors of bovine brucellosis and to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) of livestock keepers in Hisar, India. A standardized questionnaire was used to collate information regarding potential risk factors of bovine brucellosis and livestock owners' KAPs. A total of 127 livestock keepers were involved. Serum samples from their animals (n = 635) were tested for the presence of antibodies against Brucella by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). Out of these, 78 (61.4%) of the herds had at least one seropositive animal, and 302 (47.6%) of the cattle were seropositive. Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed significant associations between intensive farm type (OR = 4.6; 95% CI, 1.6-16.7; P = 0.009), hygienic disposal of aborted fetuses (OR = 0.3; 95% CI, 0.08-0.9; P = 0.04) and herd seropositivity for brucellosis. The majority, 96 (75.6%) of the respondents, were males aged 18-50, and 82 (64.6%) owned a small-backyard farm. Only 51 (40.2%) of the participants knew about brucellosis; out of them, 54.9% (28/51) could not identify clinical signs of brucellosis. Six (11.8%) participants indicated abortion as the most noticeable clinical sign, and 45.1% indicated that consumption of raw milk is associated with high risk of contracting brucellosis. A large proportion of respondents confirmed that milk from their animals was regularly consumed (86.6%) and sold (59.8%) to other people. These results suggest that bovine brucellosis is endemic in Haryana, where Brucella-contaminated milk is likely being regularly sold. Brucellosis control efforts in Haryana should include education programs to raise awareness of the disease and means to control it in cattle and to prevent zoonotic transmission.


Assuntos
Brucelose Bovina , Brucelose , Doenças dos Bovinos , Animais , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Brucelose Bovina/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Gado , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
3.
Rev Sci Tech ; 40(2): 383-394, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542091

RESUMO

This paper reviews the rapidly changing global demands for animal-source foods, examines the agri-food systems behind these changes, and discusses the potential responses required by public-sector Veterinary Services to meet these new demands.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Gado , Animais , Serviços de Saúde , Setor Público
4.
Rev Sci Tech ; 40(2): 567-584, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542092

RESUMO

Investments in animal health and Veterinary Services can have a measurable impact on the health of people and the environment. These investments require a baseline metric that describes the burden of animal health and welfare in order to justify and prioritise resource allocation and from which to measure the impact of interventions. This paper is part of a process of scientific enquiry in which problems are identified and solutions sought in an inclusive way. It poses the broad question: what should a system to measure the animal disease burden on society look like and what value would it add? Moreover, it aims to do this in such a way as to be accessible by a wide audience, who are encouraged to engage in this debate. Given that farmed animals, including those raised by poor smallholders, are an economic entity, this system should be based on economic principles. These poor farmers are negatively impacted by disparities in animal health technology, which can be addressed through a mixture of supply-led and demand-driven interventions, reinforcing the relevance of targeted financial support from government and non-governmental organisations. The Global Burden of Animal Diseases (GBADs) Programme will glean existing data to measure animal health losses within carefully characterised production systems. Consistent and transparent attribution of animal health losses will enable meaningful comparisons of the animal disease burden to be made between diseases, production systems and countries, and will show how it is apportioned by people's socio-economic status and gender. The GBADs Programme will produce a cloud-based knowledge engine and data portal, through which users will access burden metrics and associated visualisations, support for decisionmaking in the form of future animal health scenarios, and the outputs of wider economic modelling. The vision of GBADs, strengthening the food system for the benefit of society and the environment, is an example of One Health thinking in action.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais , Saúde Única , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Animais , Aquicultura , Gado
5.
Rev Sci Tech ; 40(2): 585-595, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542093

RESUMO

Within the framework of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations, particularly those that livestock impact most significantly (SDGs 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 12, 13, 15 and 17), this paper provides an overview of the livestock sector's impact on food system sustainability and opportunities for building solutions through sustainable livestock options that are supported by robust animal health services. The discourse is shaped by the experiences of the Global Agenda for Sustainable Livestock, a multi-stakeholder partnership which facilitates policy dialogue and action among diverse stakeholders to make livestock systems more sustainable. The Global Agenda for Sustainable Livestock adopted the aforementioned SDGs as the reference framework for its actions, which are organised under four domains (food and nutrition security, animal health and welfare, livelihoods and economic growth, and climate and natural resources). These domains are used to highlight the complexity and diversity of the livestock sector, its positive and negative relationships to development, the integral roles of animal health systems and the opportunities for livestock sector contributions towards a sustainable future.


Assuntos
Gado , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Animais , Saúde Global , Objetivos , Nações Unidas
6.
Rev Sci Tech ; 40(2): 511-521, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542097

RESUMO

The emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major global public health issue, but it also jeopardises the effectiveness of antimicrobials as a means of curing infections in animals that threaten their health, welfare and productivity. Several reports show that infections in humans caused by antimicrobial-resistant pathogens may be linked to antimicrobial use (AMU) and AMR in food-producing animals; however, to what extent this happens is unknown. Use of antimicrobials drives the emergence of AMR, therefore, their extensive over-use and misuse in livestock is of concern. Robust AMU and AMR data are important to monitor the progress of interventions aiming to reduce AMR in the livestock sector. However, not all countries have complete data on antibiotic sales or use, so our current knowledge of global AMU is primarily based on modelling estimates. Antimicrobial resistance prevalence data are limited, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, but in some high-income regions fairly robust data are available. It should also be noted that monitoring guidelines and protocols are available to provide globally harmonised AMR data. Using antimicrobials rationally and not using them for disease prevention purposes is key to reducing AMU. To ensure that these drugs are used appropriately we must ensure that: a) veterinary services are accessible and affordable for farmers; b) antibiotics are only sold on prescription; c) veterinarians earn no revenue linked to the sale or prescription of antibiotics; d) veterinarians have substantial skills in preventive medicine (good animal husbandry, efficient biosecurity and vaccinology); and e) the benefits of preventive measures must appeal to farmers so that they are willing to pay for them.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Gado , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Fazendeiros , Humanos
7.
Rev Sci Tech ; 40(2): 523-532, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542098

RESUMO

Disparities in nutrition security and the harmful health effects of malnutrition are pronounced as the world's population continues to rise and nutrition-related development falls short of targets. This paper discusses the importance of animal source foods (ASFs) in global nutrition security and the roles that Veterinary Services play in enhancing availability of and equitable access to ASFs. The first section of this paper reviews the nutritional value of ASFs and disparities in global consumption patterns. It also presents the biological basis for ASF-derived nutrition, its importance throughout the human lifecycle and the negative effects of both under- and overnutrition. The second section discusses the various roles of Veterinary Services along the pathway from terrestrial livestock production to positive outcomes in nutrition security. It addresses the importance of Veterinary Services in improving production efficiencies in extensive livestock systems as well as the contributions of Veterinary Services to integrated approaches for improved human and livestock health and security. Gaps between ASF availability and nutrition security are then discussed along with the importance of closing these gaps by targeting smallholders and women. The paper concludes with recommendations for incorporating targeted, nutrition-sensitive approaches in Veterinary Services to help populations vulnerable to nutrition insecurity gain more equitable access to ASFs as part of sustainable healthy diets.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Gado , Animais , Abastecimento de Alimentos
8.
Rev Sci Tech ; 40(2): 497-509, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542099

RESUMO

Growth in the livestock sector is associated with heightened risk for epidemic diseases. The increasing spillover of new diseases from wildlife is being driven by wide-scale anthropogenic changes allowing for more frequent and closer wildlife-human and wildlife-livestock contacts. An increasing number of epidemics in livestock are associated with rapid transition of livestock systems from extensive to intensive, and local to global movement of livestock and their products through value chain networks with weak biosecurity. Major livestock epidemics in the past two decades have had substantial economic impacts, and the COVID-19 pandemic highlights the devastating socio-economic consequences that spillovers can have when not identified and controlled early in the process of emergence. This highlights the importance of Veterinary Services to integrated, whole-of-society efforts to control infectious diseases in animals. Emphasis within Veterinary Services must be placed on prevention and preparedness. The authors suggest four areas for continued improvement in Veterinary Services to meet this challenge. These are a) continued development of staff capacity for risk assessment and value chain analysis, together with improved policies and communication, b) appropriate adaptation of approaches to prevention and control in resource-poor settings, c) improved multi-sectoral and transboundary cooperation, which enables the sharing of resources and expertise, and d) systematic approaches that enable Veterinary Services to influence decisionmaking for trade, markets, business, public health, and livelihood development at the national and regional levels.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Animais , Animais Selvagens , COVID-19/veterinária , Humanos , Gado , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Rev Sci Tech ; 40(2): 483-495, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542101

RESUMO

Animal health services play an essential role in supporting livestock production, with the potential to address the challenges of hunger, poverty, health, social justice and environmental health as part of the path towards the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) defined in the United Nations, 2030 Agenda. However, the provision of animal health services remains chronically underfunded. Although the aspiration that â€Ëœno one will be left behind' is core to the SDG agenda, animal health service provision still fails to meet the basic needs of many of the poorest livestock owners. This review draws largely on experience from Tanzania and highlights the obstacles to equitable provision of animal health services, as well as identifying opportunities for improvement. Delivery models that rely on owners paying for services, whether through the private sector or public?private partnerships, can be effective for diseases that are of clear economic importance to animal keepers, particularly in more market-orientated production systems, but are currently constrained by issues of access, affordability, availability and quality. Substantial challenges remain when attempting to control diseases that exert a major burden on animal or human health but are less well recognised, as well as in the delivery of veterinary public health or other public good interventions. Here, the authors propose solutions that focus on: improving awareness of the potential for animal health services to address the SDGs, particularly those concerning public and environmental health; linking this more explicitly with advocacy for increased investment; ensuring that the voices of stakeholders are heard, particularly those of the rural poor; and embracing a cross-cutting and expanded vision for animal health services to support more adaptive development of livestock systems.


Assuntos
Setor Privado , Saúde Pública , Animais , Gado , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
10.
Rev Sci Tech ; 40(2): 431-438, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542104

RESUMO

Climate change due to increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is one of the most pressing issues facing society on a global scale. The growth of GHG emissions between 2000 and 2010 was higher than in each of the previous three decades, and each of the past four decades has been successively warmer than any preceding decades since 1850. Continued GHG emissions will cause further warming and changes in the climate system. Climate change affects livestock production in multiple ways, both directly and indirectly. Many of the impacts on the livestock sector result from increasing frequency and magnitude of weather and climate extremes such as droughts, flash floods, untimely rains, frost, hail and severe storms. This article describes some of the most vulnerable disaster communities in Asia, Africa, Australia, Europe and South America. It then describes the importance of meteorological information provided by national Meteorological and Hydrological Services to help Veterinary Services support sustainable management of livestock in vulnerable pastoral communities.


Assuntos
Desastres , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Animais , Mudança Climática , Secas , Efeito Estufa , Gado
11.
Rev Sci Tech ; 40(2): 413-420, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542105

RESUMO

The world is facing a broad range of challenges related to agriculture, and particularly the livestock sector, including threats to productivity, the natural environment and human health. While much research has been conducted into potential risks and their drivers, the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic demonstrated how governments can be affected by shocks that are to some extent predictable but for which they are often ill prepared. Policy seeks to anticipate and also influence the future and, as policy-makers, national Veterinary Services have an important role in both anticipating and influencing the future of their countries and the world. In the first part of this paper, the author summarises a wide range of Foresight methodologies and tools relevant to, or used by, Veterinary Services or veterinary researchers. This discussion is followed by an example of the adaptation and application of a Foresight framework tailored specifically to Veterinary Services. Finally, the author draws conclusions on Foresight methodologies useful to Veterinary Services.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Medicina Veterinária , Agricultura , Animais , COVID-19/veterinária , Humanos , Gado , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Rev Sci Tech ; 40(2): 421-430, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542106

RESUMO

Climate change due to increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is one of the most pressing issues facing society on a global scale. The growth of GHG emissions between 2000 and 2010 was higher than in each of the previous three decades, and each of the past four decades has been successively warmer than any preceding decades since 1850. Continued GHG emissions will cause further warming and changes in the climate system. Climate change affects livestock production in multiple ways, both directly and indirectly. Many of the impacts on the livestock sector result from increasing frequency and magnitude of weather and climate extremes such as droughts, flash floods, untimely rains, frost, hail and severe storms. This article describes some of the most vulnerable disaster communities in Asia, Africa, Australia, Europe and South America. It then describes the importance of meteorological information provided by national Meteorological and Hydrological Services to help Veterinary Services support sustainable management of livestock in vulnerable pastoral communities.


Assuntos
Desastres , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Animais , Mudança Climática , Secas , Efeito Estufa , Gado
13.
Rev Sci Tech ; 40(2): 395-411, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542107

RESUMO

Rising per capita consumption, economic growth, and urbanisation, particularly in developing countries, have been driving an increased global demand for food. These changing socio-economic trends, which have greatly influenced changes in dietary patterns globally and, more specifically, have increased consumption of livestock products in developing countries, are expected to endure and to place new pressures on livestock-sector infrastructure and the delivery of veterinary services. This paper summarises current trade in meat and presents plausible projections for the future. It highlights the impact of animal disease on trade and considers the effect of ongoing disease outbreaks, particularly the outbreaks of African swine fever and COVID-19, on current and future trade dynamics. The authors analysed published statistics on the demand for, and international trade in, livestock products at national and regional levels and made projections of the same up to 2050, generated from an integrated model of the global agricultural and food system. The resulting analyses identified patterns of trade consistent with growing populations, increasing incomes and changing diets in developing countries. The analyses also pointed to slow expansion of livestock production, and the impacts of countries' disease status on livestock trade. For most of the livestock products analysed, economic model projections indicate increased consolidation of production and exports among a few countries. Marked increases in the trade in livestock products suggest a changing role for Veterinary Services in facilitating trade and extension in the years to come.


Assuntos
Febre Suína Africana , COVID-19 , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , COVID-19/veterinária , Comércio , Países em Desenvolvimento , Internacionalidade , Gado , SARS-CoV-2 , Suínos
14.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 62(4): 113-118, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470939

RESUMO

A method for determining albendazole metabolite (metabolite I) in livestock products using LC-MS/MS was proposed. Livestock samples were hydrolyzed with 6 mol/L HCl at 110℃ for an hour and defatted with ethyl acetate and n-hexane (1 : 1, v/v) mixture. Metabolite I was extracted with acetonitrile from the sample, and the extracts were salted out under basic conditions, allowing the acetonitrile layer to separate. The acetonitrile solution was cleaned up using a cartridge column packed with divinylbenzene-N-vinylpyrolidone copolymer bearing sulfo groups. The HPLC separation was conducted on an Inertsil ODS-4 column with a gradient formed from water containing 0.05% (v/v) formic acid and acetonitrile containing 0.05% (v/v) formic acid. To detect metabolite I, tandem mass spectrometry with positive ion electrospray ionization was used. Truenesses (n=5) of metabolite I from cattle meat, fat, liver, and milk spiked at the maximum residue limits or the 0.01 mg/kg were in the range from 83.6 to 97.9%, and the relative standard deviations were from 1.6 to 6.1%.


Assuntos
Gado , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Albendazol , Animais , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida
15.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 487, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590182

RESUMO

Protein production from animal origin should increase to meet the needs of a growing global population. This article presents an overview on copper (Cu) forms and their importance for animals' physiological functions. Moreover, it will focus on the current and promising nano-Cu applications in poultry, livestock, and fish production systems. Use of Cu as a feed additive directly or indirectly impacts the human food chain and may affect the safety and/or quality of food. Finally, the expected risks and hazards related to the use of nano-Cu that can affect animals, humans, and the environment are described. It is concluded that nano-Cu applications have the potential to provide an efficient solution for reducing the Cu amount in the poultry, livestock, and fish diets, which can help in reducing costs and environmental contamination and increasing animals' productivity. However, concerns over the safety of nano-Cu applications hamper their immediate implementation. Thus, rigorous risk assessments should be conducted to ensure the safety of animal-origin products in the case of supplementation animal diets with nano-copper.


Assuntos
Gado , Aves Domésticas , Ração Animal , Animais , Cobre , Dieta/veterinária , Medição de Risco
16.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(19): 7115-7121, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499200

RESUMO

Antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) have been administered in livestock for decades to improve food digestion in growing animals, while also contributing to the control of microbial pathogens. The long-term and indiscrimate use of AGPs has generated genetic modifications in bacteria, leading to antimicrobial resistance (AMR), which can be disseminated to commensal and pathogenic bacteria. Thus, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are used to replaced AGPs. AMPs are found in all domains of life, and their cationic characteristics can establish electrostatic interactions with the bacterial membrane. These molecules used as growth promoters can present benefits for nutrient digestibility, intestinal microbiota, intestinal morphology, and immune function activities. Therefore, this review focuses on the application of AMPs with growth promoting potential in livestock, as an alternative to conventional antibiotic growth promoters, in an attempt to control AMR. KEY POINTS: • The long-term and indiscriminate use of AGPs in animal food can cause AMR. • AMPs can be used as substitute of antibiotics in animal food suplementation. • Animal food suplementated with AMPs can provied economic efficiency and sustainable livestock production.


Assuntos
Gado , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/uso terapêutico , Animais , Gado/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
Waste Manag ; 134: 241-250, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454190

RESUMO

Biomass waste is a desirable additive in livestock feces biochar preparation due to its easy access, better moisture adjustment, and abundant organic content. In the present study, co-pyrolysis of livestock feces (PM: pig manure, CM: chicken manure) and biomass wastes (WC: wood chips, BS: bamboo sawdust, RH: rice husk, and CH: chaff) with different blending ratios was conducted at 600 °C to investigate the biochar characteristic and Cu/Zn immobilization performances. The results showed that WC and BS have more significant effect on the increase in fixed carbon content and heating value and the decrease in ash content of biochar. The biochar with lower pH and electrical conductivity is obtained from co-pyrolysis of manure with RH and CH. Compared with CM-based biochar, PM-based biochar presented better potential as fuel and soil remediation considering the higher heating value and lower aromatic H/C ratio. Specially, the residual fractions of Cu and Zn in PM biochar increased from 73.09% and 65.54% to 90.68% and 72.31% after 10 wt% BS addition and those in CM biochar increased from 81.07% and 73.57% to 88.87% and 84.11% after 10 wt% WC addition, which induced the lowest environmental risk of biochar. This work provided a strategy and direction for targeted enhancement in biochar characteristics with selective biomass addition during manure pyrolysis, which is beneficial to the local treatment and utilization of farm wastes.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Pirólise , Animais , Biomassa , Carvão Vegetal , Fezes , Gado , Suínos
18.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(4): 435, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392430

RESUMO

The present study aims to assess (1) the ecosystem services (ES) provided by LFS and (2) the differential ES between local (Creole) and exotic breeds from pig, cattle and goat. The ES are defined as the benefits that humans derive from LFS. They were summarized in 12 ES indicators that cover services related to provisioning, ecological and socio-cultural aspects and territorial vitality. A total of 106 LFS units that covers the five agroecological zones of Guadeloupe were analysed. Functional typologies of LFS per species were created from surveys. The effect of breed on the ES indicators was tested. Results showed that the 40 pig LFS units were separated into 3 clusters that were differentiated in ES according to provisioning ES (cluster 1), cultural use and sale to the neighborhood (cluster 2) and pork self-consumption (cluster 3). The typology of the 57 farms with cattle distinguished 4 clusters with differences in ES provided in self-consumption (cluster1), ecological ES (cluster 2), socio-cultural ES for racing or draught oxen (cluster 3) and ES associated with territory vitality (cluster 4). The 66 goat LFS units were classified into 3 clusters different in ES concerning self-consumption (cluster 1), cultural aspects (cluster 2) and provisioning ES (cluster 3). Our study highlights that ES indicators are not breed dependent (P > 0.10) but rather livestock farming system dependent. The ES rely more on the rearing management than on the breed type, and up to now, there are no specifications in Guadeloupe to differentiate management between breeds.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Gado , Agricultura , Animais , Bovinos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Guadalupe , Suínos
19.
J Environ Manage ; 297: 113337, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333313

RESUMO

The production impact of agricultural residues are generally not accounted for in LCAs when they are given a second life as feedstocks for bio-fuels/plastics/fertilizers. Such is the case for the organic fertilizers manure and blood meal (stemming from livestock) used in organic cultivation. This raises questions on how realistic comparisons are between conventional cultivation systems and organic systems: the flows of resources and associated impacts are not represented equivalently in both systems. The aim of this study is to conduct sensitivity analyses for different possible allocation procedures and to select the most preferable one. The cultivation of organic apples in Flanders is used as case study. Considering no production impacts for organic fertilizers was firstly assessed as it is the generally used approach in LCA. In system expansion, the production impacts of two products: a mineral fertilizer and an organic plant-based fertilizer, are allocated to apple cultivation as a substitute for the organic fertilizers. For mass and economic allocation, the production impact is considered as a fraction of the impacts of the livestock system based on mass flows and economic value, respectively. Several possible allocation factors were assessed and price variations were considered. The different allocation procedures lead to diverging results, underlining the importance of selecting an appropriate procedure. Accounting no production impact is not advised since organic growers do not carry any environmental burden for a product they need for fertilization. System expansion causes too much uncertainties, needing to make speculative scenarios for factors lying outside the studied system. Economic allocation causes the impact of a product to change with its price while production stays the same. Therefore, mass allocation is preferable - though more harmonization research is needed - since no parameters from outside the system are needed, leading to a stable and close approximation of reality. For this case study, the amount of N available in fertilizers as a fraction of live weight and the mass of N in manure, is chosen as the least worse option. Our general recommendation is that the allocation factor needs to be chosen such that it is a representation of the function of the organic fertilizers and is comparable between different fertilizers.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Fertilizantes , Gado , Animais , Esterco
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444382

RESUMO

The rapid growth of the livestock and poultry industries has resulted in the production of a large amount of wastewater, and the treatment of this wastewater requires sustainable and environmentally friendly approaches such as phytoremediation. A substrate-free floating wetland planted with water dropwort (Oenanthe javanica), a common vegetable in Southeast China, was constructed to purify a lagoon with anaerobically and aerobically treated swine wastewater in Suqian, China. The average removal rates of total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, and chemical oxygen demand were 79.96%, 95.04%, 86.14%, and 59.91%, respectively, after 40 days of treatment. A total of 98.18 g∙m-2 nitrogen and 19.84 g∙m-2 phosphorus were absorbed into plants per harvest through the rapid growth of water dropwort biomass, and the nitrogen accumulation ability was similar to that observed of other plants, such as water hyacinth. In addition, the edible part of water dropwort was shown to comply with the Chinese National Food Sanitation Standards and be safe for human consumption. Its low soluble sugar content also makes it a suitable addition to the daily diet. Overall, substrate-free floating constructed wetlands planted with water dropwort could be more widely used for livestock wastewater purification and could be integrated with plant-livestock production in China because of its high removal efficiency and recycling utilization of water dropwort biomass.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Purificação da Água , Animais , Biodegradação Ambiental , Gado , Nitrogênio , Fósforo , Suínos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Áreas Alagadas
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...