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1.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 451-460, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046930

RESUMO

Armed conflict significantly impacts livestock production, animal health, public health, and the delivery of Veterinary Services by limiting resources, eroding border control, disrupting land use, impairing disease surveillance, and reducing food safety and quality. Those seeking to build capacity in animal health in areas of conflict should focus on strengthening resilience in animal production systems and animal health infrastructure to minimise the devastating effects of conflict. Methods for reconstructing Veterinary Service systems should be tailored to each country's specific needs. These can be determined through participatory assessment, with a focus on building sustainable relationships among all stakeholders. Although it is tempting for animal health professionals to focus primarily on improving animal health on individual farms or targeting specific diseases, attention should be centred on entire systems and on developing sustainable agricultural improvements that will enhance livelihoods on a national scale. Aiding economic growth can also help to lower the probability of future conflict.


Assuntos
Gado , Saúde Pública , Agricultura , Animais , Inocuidade dos Alimentos
2.
J Environ Qual ; 49(4): 1062-1072, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016481

RESUMO

Erosion and sedimentation pose serious threats to soil and water quality worldwide, including in the U.S. southern Great Plains. To better understand these processes in agricultural landscapes, eight 1.6-ha watersheds were established and instrumented in 1976 at the USDA-ARS Grazinglands Research Laboratory, ∼50 km west of Oklahoma City near El Reno, OK, to measure precipitation and surface runoff quantity and quality. Prior to construction, all watersheds were in native grass, primarily big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman.), little bluestem [Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash], and Indiangrass [Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash]; afterwards, four of the eight watersheds were cropped initially into winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (two conventionally tilled and two minimally or no-till). Although there have been many peer-reviewed papers from the Water Resources and Erosion (WRE) watersheds, none included all the datasets collected during the period 1977-1999. The objectives of this paper were (a) to present and discuss all archived historical data, including methods of collection and analysis, (b) to provide summary analyses of the variability in each dataset, and (c) to provide details about how to access these datasets. These datasets are valuable resources to improve modeling in relation to land use and management changes, climate variability, and other environmental factors and may be useful in developing strategies to mitigate environmental impacts of agricultural systems. They are available at https://doi.org/10.15482/USDA.ADC/1518421.


Assuntos
Gado , Água , Animais , Pradaria , Oklahoma , Poaceae
3.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 625-635, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046914

RESUMO

Livestock production systems and the societies in which they are embedded face a set of risks presented by infectious diseases and natural and human-made disasters which compromise animal health. Within this set, threats are posed by natural, deliberate and accidental actions that can cause sudden changes in animal health status, requiring the allocation of additional resources to manage animal health. Determining the benefit of preparing for such emergencies is a challenge when the total set of risks includes the unknown. Any method for analysing the economic costs and benefits of animal health emergencies must not only accommodate this uncertainty, but make it a central feature of the analysis. Cost-benefit analysis is a key approach to economically evaluating animal health interventions. However, the value of this approach in dealing with uncertainty is often called into question. This paper makes the case that, by restricting the outcomes of an emergency event to specified states of nature, boundaries can be placed on the uncertainty space, allowing cost-benefit analysis to be performed. This method, which merges state-contingent analysis with cost-benefit analysis, is presented here. Further discussion on the economic characteristics of emergency events, and the nature of the threats posed to animal health systems, is also provided.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Desastres , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Análise Custo-Benefício , Emergências/veterinária , Humanos , Gado
4.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 481-490, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046927

RESUMO

Climate change is predicted to change the nature and distribution of global farming systems, and strategies will be needed to adapt and optimise global food-producing systems. If genomic technologies are to be useful in this scenario, there is a need for the careful definition of phenotypes and routine sample collection, as well as large-scale genotyping of animal populations. Genomic tools will greatly enhance the characterisation of available germplasm and exploration of local genetic resources, while faster and cheaper DNA sequencing is leading to an increased understanding of the underlying genetic basis of traits. The use of genomic tools to increase animal resilience, reduce methane emissions from cattle and sheep, improve disease resistance, decrease environmental impact, reduce competition for land and water and, finally, increase production may be the most feasible path for the future of livestock production. In this review, the authors discuss various genomic strategies in the light of climate change, focusing on the selection of resistant/tolerant animals, landscape genomics, metagenomics and gene editing.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Genômica , Agricultura , Animais , Bovinos , Genoma , Gado , Ovinos
5.
Phytochemistry ; 178: 112465, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888672

RESUMO

Broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae) and threadleaf snakeweed (G. microcephala) are suffrutescent plants found in many parts of western US rangelands and are possibly toxic to grazing livestock. The toxic components are not known, but it has been suggested that the diterpene acids may be both toxic and abortifacient. One hundred sixty-two samples of snakeweed were collected from 55 locations in Colorado, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Texas, Wyoming and Utah and were taxonomically classified. Samples were analyzed by GC-MS in a chemophenetic analysis and grouped into individual chemotypes based on diterpene acid content. The GC-MS profiles were found to be diverse showing at least eight different chemotypes. From each of the chemotypes the major diterpene acids were isolated and characterized by IR, MS and NMR spectroscopy. Twenty-one diterpenoids were identified and found to be a mix of furano, lactone, di-acid and esters of labdane, ent-labdane and chlerodane acids and alcohols. Only four of the 21 compounds isolated had been previously reported as occurring in G. sarathorea or G. microcephala, while another eight compounds were previously reported from other Gutierrezia or related species. Nine of the isolated diterpenoids have not been previously reported and their structure elucidation is reported.


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Diterpenos , Animais , Gado
7.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13352, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783336

RESUMO

Vitamin E is an essential nontoxic fat-soluble micronutrient whose effects on livestock performance and products can be attributed to its antioxidant and nonantioxidant properties. Although it is needed in small quantity in the diet, its roles in livestock production are indispensable as it is required in boosting performance, nutritional qualities, and yield of animal and animal products. The dietary or oral supplementation of vitamin E is essential in reducing lipid oxidation in muscle, egg, and dairy products as well as lowering cholesterol concentrations and improving antioxidant status of livestock. Evidence has shown that bioavailability of vitamin E-enriched animal products could serve as an invaluable nutritional benefit to consumers; especially those in regions of limited resources where vitamin E deficiencies pose a risk that may be detrimental to some cellular activities of the body and on human health. It is therefore important to redirect research on the impact of vitamin E supplementation as antioxidant on livestock performance and animal products.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Dieta/veterinária , Gado , Vitamina E , Animais , Antioxidantes , Disponibilidade Biológica , Suplementos Nutricionais , Diterpenos , Vitamina E/metabolismo , Deficiência de Vitamina E
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 746: 140327, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768776

RESUMO

The collection of field-based animal data is laborious, risky and costly in some areas, such as various nature reserves. Although multiple studies have used satellite imagery, aerial imagery, and field data individually for some animal species surveys, several technical issues still need to be addressed before full standardization of remote sensing methods for modeling animal population dynamics over large areas. This study is the first to model the population dynamics of livestock in the Longbao Wetland National Nature Reserve, China by utilizing yak estimations from Worldview-2 satellite imagery (0.5 m) collected in 2010 and yaks counted in a ground-based survey conducted in 2011 in combination with the animal population structure precisely extracted from UAS imagery captured in 2016. As a consequence, 5501, 5357, and 5510 yaks were estimated to appear in the reserve in 2010, 2011 and 2016, respectively. In total, 1092, 1062 and 1092 sheep were estimated to appear in the reserve in 2010, 2011 and 2016, respectively. The uncertainty of the presented method is also discussed. Primary experiments show that both the satellite imagery and UAS imagery are promising for use in yak censuses, but no sheep were observed in the satellite imagery because of the low resolution. Compared to the ground-based survey conducted in 2011, the UAS image estimate and satellite imagery count deviated in yak quantity by 2.69% and 2.86%, respectively. UASs are a reliable and low-budget alternative to animal surveys. No discernable changes in animal behaviors and animal distributions were observed as the UAS passed at a height of 700 m, and the accuracy of UAS imagery counts were not significantly affected by the short-distance animal movement and image mosaicking errors. The experimental results illustrate the advantages of the combination of satellite and UAS imagery in modeling animal population dynamics.


Assuntos
Gado , Áreas Alagadas , Aeronaves , Animais , China , Dinâmica Populacional , Imagens de Satélites , Ovinos
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236638, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764754

RESUMO

Grazing effects on soil properties under different soil and environmental conditions across the globe are often controversial. Therefore, it is essential to evaluate the overall magnitude and direction of the grazing effects on soils. This global meta-analysis was conducted using the mixed model method to address the overall effects of grazing intensities (heavy, moderate, and light) on 15 soil properties based on 287 papers published globally from 2007 to 2019. Our findings showed that heavy grazing significantly increased the soil BD (11.3% relative un-grazing) and PR (52.5%) and reduced SOC (-10.8%), WC (-10.8%), NO3- (-23.5%), and MBC (-27.9%) at 0-10 cm depth, and reduced SOC (-22.5%) and TN (-19.9%) at 10-30 cm depth. Moderate grazing significantly increased the BD (7.5%), PR (46.0%), and P (18.9%) (0-10 cm), and increased pH (4.1%) and decreased SOC (-16.4%), TN (-10.6%), and P (-23.9%) (10-30 cm). Light grazing significantly increased the SOC (10.8%) and NH4+ (28.7%) (0-10 cm). Heavy grazing showed much higher mean probability (0.70) leading to overgrazing than the moderate (0.14) and light (0.10) grazing. These findings indicate that, globally, compared to un-grazing, heavy grazing significantly increased soil compaction and reduced SOC, NO3-, and soil moisture. Moderate grazing significantly increased soil compaction and alkalinity and reduced SOC and TN. Light grazing significantly increased SOC and NH4+. Cattle grazing impacts on soil compaction, SOC, TN, and available K were higher than sheep grazing, but lower for PR. Climate significantly impacted grazing effects on SOM, TN, available P, NH4+, EC, CEC, and PR. Heavy grazing can be more detrimental to soil quality based on BD, SOC, TN, C: N, WC, and K than moderate and light grazing. However, global grazing intensities did not significantly impact most of the 15 soil properties, and the grazing effects on them had insignificant changes over the years.


Assuntos
Carbono/análise , Herbivoria , Gado , Nitrogênio/análise , Solo/química , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008288, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841229

RESUMO

In the absence of national control programmes against Rhodesian human African trypanosomiasis, farmer-led treatment of cattle with pyrethroid-based insecticides may be an effective strategy for foci at the edges of wildlife areas, but there is limited evidence to support this. We combined data on insecticide use by farmers, tsetse abundance and trypanosome prevalence, with mathematical models, to quantify the likely impact of insecticide-treated cattle. Sixteen percent of farmers reported treating cattle with a pyrethroid, and chemical analysis indicated 18% of individual cattle had been treated, in the previous week. Treatment of cattle was estimated to increase daily mortality of tsetse by 5-14%. Trypanosome prevalence in tsetse, predominantly from wildlife areas, was 1.25% for T. brucei s.l. and 0.03% for T. b. rhodesiense. For 750 cattle sampled from 48 herds, 2.3% were PCR positive for T. brucei s.l. and none for T. b. rhodesiense. Using mathematical models, we estimated there was 8-29% increase in mortality of tsetse in farming areas and this increase can explain the relatively low prevalence of T. brucei s.l. in cattle. Farmer-led treatment of cattle with pyrethroids is likely, in part, to be limiting the spill-over of human-infective trypanosomes from wildlife areas.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Gado , Tripanossomíase Africana/epidemiologia , Tripanossomíase Africana/transmissão , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Modelos Teóricos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Piretrinas , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Trypanosoma , Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense , Tripanossomíase Africana/prevenção & controle , Moscas Tsé-Tsé
11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236895, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735578

RESUMO

Many studies on the coexistence of wildlife with livestock have focused primarily on similar-sized species. Furthermore, many of these studies have used dietary overlap as a measure of potential competition between interacting species and thus lack the important link between dietary overlap and any negative effects on a particular species-a prerequisite for competition. Consequently, the mechanisms that drive interspecific interactions between wildlife and cattle are frequently overlooked. To address this, we used an experimental setup where we leveraged different cattle stocking rates across two seasons to identify the drivers of interspecific interactions (i.e. competition and facilitation) between smaller-bodied oribi antelope and cattle. Using direct foraging observations, we assessed dietary overlap and grass regrowth, and also calculated oribi nutritional intake rates. Ultimately, we found that cattle compete with, and facilitate, smaller-bodied oribi antelope through bottom-up control. Specifically, cattle facilitated oribi during the wet season, irrespective of cattle stocking density, because cattle foraging produced high-quality grass regrowth. In contrast, during the dry season, cattle and oribi did not co-exist in the same areas (i.e. no direct dietary overlap). Despite this, we found that cattle foraging at high densities during the previous wet season reduced the dry season availability of oribi's preferred grass species. To compensate, oribi expanded their dry season diet breadth and included less palatable grass species, ultimately reducing their nutritional intake rates. Thus, cattle competed with oribi through a delayed, across-season habitat modification. We show that differences in body size alone may not be able to offset competitive interactions between cattle and wildlife. Finally, understanding the mechanisms that drive facilitation and competition are key to promoting co-existence between cattle and wildlife.


Assuntos
Antílopes/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Gado/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Tamanho Corporal , Bovinos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Dieta/veterinária , Ecologia , Ecossistema , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Poaceae , Estações do Ano , África do Sul
12.
Bioresour Technol ; 315: 123809, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682262

RESUMO

Phytoremediation, the application of vegetation and microorganisms for recovery of nutrients and decontamination of the environment, has emerged as a low-cost, eco-friendly, and sustainable approach compared to traditional biological and physico-chemical processes. Livestock wastewater is one of the most severe pollution sources to the environment and water resources. When properly handled, livestock wastewater could be an important alternative water resource in water-scarce regions. This review discussed the characteristics and hazards of different types of livestock wastewater and available methods for the treatment. Meanwhile, the current status of investigations on phytoremediation of livestock wastewater via different hydrophyte systems such as microalgae, duckweed, water hyacinth, constructed wetlands, and other hydrophytes is reviewed, and the utilization of hydrophytes after management is also discussed. Furthermore, advantages and limitations on livestock wastewater management via phytotechnologies are emphasized. At last, future research needs are also proposed.


Assuntos
Eichhornia , Águas Residuárias , Animais , Biodegradação Ambiental , Gado , Áreas Alagadas
13.
Bioresour Technol ; 314: 123779, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652450

RESUMO

This work aimed to study the behavior of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in constructed wetlands with different exogenous inducers additions (oxytetracycline and its resistant bacteria) by high-throughput quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results indicated that constructed wetlands have the potential to reduce ARGs relative abundances in wastewater, and the total ARGs removal efficiency could exceed 60%. ARGs profile in the effluent differed from that in the influent, and that did not directly reflect the export of dominant ARGs in wetland biofilms. Meanwhile, the highest levels of detected numbers and relative abundances of ARGs were 43 and 3.35 × 10-1 for control system and 44 and 6.40 × 10-1 for treatment system, respectively, which meant that ARGs generation in wetlands were inevitable, and antibiotic and antibiotic-resistant bacteria from wastewater could indeed promote ARGs abundance in the system. Compared to the single roles of inducers, their synergistic role had a more significant influence on ARGs relative abundance.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/genética , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Bacterianos , Gado , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
14.
J Environ Manage ; 272: 111052, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669254

RESUMO

Intensive farming is widespread throughout the UK and yet the health effects of bioaerosols which may be generated by these sites are currently not well researched. A scoping study was established to measure bioaerosols emitted from intensive pig (n = 3) and poultry farms (n = 3) during the period 2014-2015. The concentration of culturable mesophilic bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, Staphylococcus spp., and fungi selecting for presumptive Aspergillus fumigatus were measured using single-stage impaction Andersen samplers, whilst endotoxin and (1 â†’ 3)-ß-D-glucan was undertaken using inhalable personal samplers. Particulate matter concentration was determined using an optical particulate monitor. Results showed that culturable bacteria, fungi, presumptive Staphylococcus aureus (confirmed only as Staphylococcus spp.) and endotoxin concentrations were elevated above background concentrations for distances of up to 250 m downwind of the source. Of all the culturable bioaerosols measured, bacteria and Staphylococcus spp. were identified as the most significant, exceeding published or proposed bioaerosol guidelines in the UK. In particular, culturable Staphylococcus spp. downwind was at least 61 times higher than background at the boundary and at least 8 times higher 70m downwind on the four farms tested. This research represents a novel dataset of intensive farm emissions within the UK. Future research should exploit the use of innovative culture-independent methods such as next generation sequencing to develop deeper insights into the make-up of microbial communities emitted from intensive farming facilities and which would better inform species of interest from a public health perspective.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Gado , Aerossóis/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fazendas , Fungos , Aves Domésticas , Suínos
15.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234005, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609768

RESUMO

Rhipicephalus microplus is recognized as a tick species highly prevalent in cattle, with a wide pantropical distribution that seems to continue spreading geographically. However, its role as a biological vector has been scarcely studied in the livestock context. In this study, a 16S rRNA next-generation sequencing analysis was used to determine bacterial diversity in salivary glands and gut of R. microplus from two contrasting livestock agroecosystems in Antioquia, Colombia. Both the culture-independent approach (CI) and the culture-dependent (CD) approach were complementarily adopted in this study. A total of 341 unique OTUs were assigned, the richness showed to be higher in the Northern than in the Middle Magdalena region, and a high diversity was found at the phylum and genus levels in the samples obtained. With the CI approach, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria were the most common phylum of bacteria regardless of the organ, or geographic origin of the specimens analyzed. While the relative abundance of bacteria at a phylum level with the CD approach varied between analyzed samples, the data obtained suggest that a high diversity of species of bacteria occurs in R. microplus from both livestock agroecosystems. Bacterial genera such as Anaplasma, Coxiella, and Ehrlichia, recognized for their implications in tick-borne diseases, were also detected, together with endosymbionts such as Lysinibacillus, previously reported as a potential tool for biological control. This information is useful to deepen the knowledge about microbial diversity regarding the relations between endosymbionts and pathogens and could facilitate the future development of epidemiological surveillance in livestock systems.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Rhipicephalus/genética , Rhipicephalus/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Colômbia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Gado/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Saliva/química , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235969, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645097

RESUMO

Decisions surrounding the presence of infectious diseases are typically made in the face of considerable uncertainty. However, the development of models to guide these decisions has been substantially constrained by computational difficulty. This paper focuses on the case of finding the optimal level of surveillance against a highly infectious animal disease where time, space and randomness are fully considered. We apply the Sample Average Approximation approach to solve our problem, and to control model dimension, we propose the use of an infection tree model, in combination with sensible 'tree-pruning' and parallel processing techniques. Our proposed model and techniques are generally applicable to a number of disease types, but we demonstrate the approach by solving for optimal surveillance levels against foot-and-mouth disease using bulk milk testing as an active surveillance protocol, during an epidemic, among 42,279 farms, fully characterised by their location, livestock type and size, in the state of Victoria, Australia.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/patogenicidade , Febre Aftosa/diagnóstico , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Gado/virologia , Modelos Teóricos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Medição de Risco/normas , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Febre Aftosa/transmissão
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235226, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639968

RESUMO

Although evidence of organic materials has consistently been reported in the archaeology of southern Africa little attention has been given to how this evidence, so slight in comparison to pottery and lithics, might be used to understand the transition from foraging to livestock-keeping in southern African Archaeology. We have compiled a geo-referenced, radiocarbon database of these organic, material culture remains, with particular reference to containers made of ostrich eggshell, wood, gourd, tortoise shell, twine, and leather over a 2300-year period to capture the periods before and after the appearance of livestock. We have mapped the organic materials for the period 800 cal BC to cal AD 1500 and explored the subsistence base of those who used them. This distribution is compared to that of pottery and livestock remains-conventionally the two archaeological markers of pastoralists. The paper interrogates what this might add to the vexed question of how the practice of livestock-keeping and pottery-making spread into and through the region (the hunter-herder debate). Our analysis suggests that ostrich eggshell containers can be used as a proxy for hunter-gatherers. By comparing areas of bead manufacture with those that have evidence only of bead use, we show the areas to which items may have travelled, along already established hunter-gatherer exchange networks. Our results suggest that hunter-gatherers widely and quickly adopted pottery across southern Africa in a process of cultural diffusion and local innovation, and that this was possibly the main mechanism for the dispersal of livestock at 2100 years ago.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/história , Embalagem de Produtos/história , África Austral , Animais , Arqueologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Casca de Ovo/química , História do Século XV , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Gado
19.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(2): 997-1004, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608762

RESUMO

This study sets out to understand the evolution of the microbial community structure in industrial composting with livestock manure and peach branches. Pig manure, peach branches, and decomposed organic fertilizer were used as materials for composting. Changes in physical and chemical indicators and the evolution in the structure of the compost microbial community, determined by high-throughput sequencing, were analyzed. The results of physical and chemical parameters show that the pile reached the high-temperature stage on day 2, and the thermophilic period lasted for 30 days. The changes in total carbon were volatile, and there was an overall decline in the amount of TOC in the whole process of composting; The final content of TN was 20.58 g·kg-1, which was 5.90% lower compared to the initial compost. Alpha analysis indicated that a different microbial community diversity existed at different times during aerobic composting periods. At the bacterial phyla level, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla, and the proportion of relative abundance were 79.31%-95.09% and 2.98%-19.70%, respectively, in the entire compost. The relative abundance of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were 87.36% and 9.66%, respectively, and their respective relative abundances were 79.38% and 19.70% at the end of composting. At the bacterial genus level, the dominant group changed from Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, Terrisporobacter, and Bacillus to norank_f_Bacillaceae, Bacillus, Oceanbacillus, and Pseudogracilibacillus; Regarding the fungus phyla, the Ascomycota was the dominant phylum. For the fungus genus, the relative abundance of norank_c_Sordariomycetes gradually increased during composting, and finally was predominant group. The redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that the correlation rank between environmental factors and microbial community structure was:pH > NH4+-N > T > TOC > TN, where pH had the greatest impact on the microbial community composition. norank_c_Sordariomycetes, norank_o_Sordariales, and norank_c_Agaricomycetes may be related to the volatilization of ammonium nitrogen.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Esterco , Microbiota , Prunus persica , Animais , Gado , Solo , Suínos
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(31): 39105-39122, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32642898

RESUMO

Climate change is persistently causing adverse effects to the agriculture sector of developing countries, specifically in Asia. Pakistan is no exception to this effect and is ranked among the top 10 countries, which are most vulnerable to climate change. A huge upcoming challenge is to sustain an equilibrium among production and environmental protection. In this context, adaptation to climate change is considered as a win-win strategy for agriculture sectors in developing countries. However, numerous studies have focused on current farm-level adaptation while a scant interest has been shown on the role of physiological factors in the process of shaping small livestock herders' intentions towards environmental enrichment measures. A possible explanation of their lagging intentions is particular significance as they may comply with requisite climate adaptation measures or not. For deeper understanding, the current study investigates different psychological factors that affect the small livestock herder's intentions on adopting climate smart practices by using theory of planned behavior (TPB) with additional constructs (moral norms, risk perception, and social attributes). To this end, 405 small livestock herders from Punjab, Pakistan, were selected on the basis of multistage random sampling. The results of structural equation model showed that all constructs accounted for 57% of the variances in small livestock herders' adoption intentions. The outcome of this research offers a new indication regarding the interrelationship of numerous variables which are crucial to understand behavioral changes and psychological interventions. Overall attitude was the most prominent construct in the extended TPB model, which is mainly influenced by risk perception awareness. The results suggest that veterinary experts and extension agents should focus on psychological factors to explore different prospects to increase the involvement of livestock herders in environmental enrichment measures with little effort rather than tackling with traditional practices because it will be more likely to affect people's consideration of the external obstructions to act. Findings also offer public and private intervention for enabling technical and policy environment and strengthen social networks to keep livestock herders on track of updates of running government policies to ensure them to adopt climate change measures for their prosperous future.


Assuntos
Intenção , Gado , Agricultura , Animais , Mudança Climática , Paquistão
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