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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158867, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36122712

RESUMO

To meet the increasing demand for meat and milk, the livestock industry has to increase its production. Without improving its efficiency, increased livestock, especially ruminant animals, will worsen the environmental damage, mainly from enteric CH4 emission. Enteric CH4 emission from ruminants not only exacerbates the global greenhouse effect but also reduces feed energy efficiency for the animals. The rumen disposes of metabolic hydrogen ([H]) primarily through methanogenesis and propionate formation. Theoretically, redirecting [H] from methanogenesis to propionate formation to reduce CH4 production could be a promising method for reducing greenhouse gas emission from ruminants, and may also increase animal productivity. However, the feasibility of such a shifting has never been synthetically discussed. Thus, the objectives of this review are to provide a brief overview of the biochemical pathways for disposal of H2 in the rumen, to analyze current feeding strategies that potentially promote propionate formation and their effects on methanogenesis, and to deliberate the challenge and opportunity associated with propionate formation as a sink to store the [H] shifting from enteric CH4 inhibition.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Metano , Animais , Metano/metabolismo , Propionatos/metabolismo , Ruminantes/fisiologia , Rúmen , Gases de Efeito Estufa/metabolismo , Gado , Dieta
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158915, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152862

RESUMO

Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient element for life, and also a major element involved in the composition of greenhouse gases, surface water pollutants, air pollutants, etc. Quantifying and evaluating the nitrogen budget of a region is very important for effectively controlling the nitrogen discharge and scientifically managing the nitrogen cycle. In this paper, the urban Rural Complex N Cycling (URCNC) model was used to analyze the nitrogen budget of Mwanza region, a typical lakeside area with insufficient data, and the nitrogen flow process of livestock subsystem, cropland subsystem, human subsystem and landfill subsystem was clearly described and the nitrogen input sources of atmospheric subsystem and surface water subsystem were clarified. And the results demonstrated: (1) the cropland subsystem was the subsystem with the largest nitrogen flux, and the input, output and accumulation of nitrogen were 33,116 t of N, 31,925 t of N and 1191 t of N, respectively. Livestock subsystem was the second largest subsystem of nitrogen flux, and the input, output and accumulation of nitrogen were 31,013 t, 30,183 t and 830 t, respectively. The nitrogen flux of the human subsystem was also large, and the nitrogen input, output and accumulation were 17,905, 17,125 and 780 t, respectively. The nitrogen input, output and accumulation of the landfill subsystem were 3700 t, 770 t and 2930 t, respectively. (2) 8093 t of N, 6864 t of N, 3959 t of N, and 758 t of N emitted into the atmospheric subsystem from the livestock subsystem, cropland subsystem, human subsystem, and landfill subsystem, respectively. (3) The total Nr input of surface water subsystem increased from 18,545 t of N in 2010 to 20,174 t of N in 2020, with an increase of 8.78 % in the past decade. It was estimated that by 2030, the total Nr input of the surface water subsystem would reach 24,946 t of N with an increase of 23.65 % compared with 2020. The livestock subsystem was the largest source, the cropland subsystem was the second largest source and human subsystem was an important source. (4) Population growth, economic development and urbanization are the main nitrogen driving factor. (5) Technology and policy together have important contributions to the reduction of nitrogen pollution in surface water.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Nitrogênio , Humanos , Animais , Nitrogênio/análise , Tanzânia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Urbanização , Gado , Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 1): 159018, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36167139

RESUMO

Increasing the overall use efficiency of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) resources in food production while minimizing losses to the environment are required to meet the dual challenge of food security and sustainability. Yet studies quantifying the overall performance of different agro-system types and how these have changed over time remain rare, although they are essential to propose solution pathways. Here, we reconstructed fluxes of N and P within 78 watersheds of the St. Lawrence Basin (SLB) of eastern Canada between 1901 and 2011, using the Generalized Representation of Agro-Food System model (GRAFS). This analysis allowed us to classify different agro-food system types and to evaluate how agricultural specialization influenced nutrient efficiencies and potential losses to the environment over time. Using a cluster analysis, we identified four agro-food system types with different overall outcomes in efficiencies and losses. We show that agricultural practices in the SLB were similar until the 1950's and deemed unsustainable in several watersheds by depleting agricultural soils of their nutrients (particularly N). With the advent of manufactured fertilizers and the intensification of livestock farming, the SLB then rapidly shifted through the 1970s and 1980s to more intensified and highly unsustainable agro-food system types, where, in 2011, ~77 % of N and ~ 94 % of P inputs were lost to the environment. We also show that nutrient pollution continued to increase despite gains in the nutrient use efficiency of animal farming due to higher nutrient throughput from intensive production. The increased proportion of confined animals, disconnected from croplands, indeed resulted in inefficient nutrient recycling. While nutrient use efficiency may mitigate nutrient pollution, reducing the absolute nutrient flux through agro-food systems should be a priority, likely through a reconnection of crop and animal farming and an overall reduction of meat production, specifically from concentrated, intensive livestock systems.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Fósforo , Animais , Agricultura/métodos , Fertilizantes , Nitrogênio , Gado , Nutrientes
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 1): 159010, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174681

RESUMO

Earthworm conversion is an eco-friendly biological process that converts livestock waste into a benign nutrient-rich organic fertilizer. However, little is known about the impacts of earthworm-converted livestock manure on the antibiotic resistome in the earthworm gut microbiota. Herein, lab-scale vermicomposting was performed to comprehensively evaluate the shift of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the earthworm gut-feeding on cow manure (CM)-by metagenomic analysis. The effects of copper (Cu) as a food addictive were also evaluated. CM substantially enriched the antibiotic resistome in the foregut and midgut, while it decreased in the hindgut. A similar trend was observed for metal resistance genes (MRGs). Notably, Cu in the CM had little effect on composition of ARGs and MRGs in earthworm gut. The earthworm gut microbiome altered by CM was responsible for the shift of ARGs and MRGs. In wormcast, Cu (100 and 300 mg/kg) significantly increased the abundance of ARGs and MRGs. Our study provides valuable insight into the response of ARGs and MRGs to CM in earthworm gut, and underscores the need for the judicious use of heavy metals as feed additives in livestock and poultry farming.


Assuntos
Esterco , Oligoquetos , Animais , Feminino , Bovinos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Genes Bacterianos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Gado , Metais
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 1): 159220, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36209876

RESUMO

To gain insight in the environmental impacts of crop, soil and nutrient management, an integrated model framework INITIATOR was developed predicting: (i) emissions of ammonia (NH3) and greenhouse gases (GHG) from agriculture, including animal husbandry and crop production and (ii) accumulation, leaching and runoff of carbon, nutrients (nitrogen, N, phosphorus, P, and base cations) and metals in or from soils to groundwater and surface water in the Netherlands. Key processes in soil are included by linear or non-linear process formulations to maintain transparency and to enable data availability for spatially explicit application from field up to national level. Calculated national trends in nutrient losses over 2000-2020 compared well with independent estimates and showed a reduction in N and P input of 26 to 33 %, whereas the surplus declined by 33 % for N and 86 % for P due to increased crop yields and reduced inputs. This was accompanied by a reduction of 30-35 % in atmospheric emissions of ammonia and nitrous oxide as well a decline in N and P runoff of 35 and 10 %, respectively, whereas the emission of methane increased with 4 %. Model results compared well with (i) large scale observations of ammonia concentrations in air and nitrate concentrations in upper groundwater and ditch water, (ii) with nitrous oxide emissions and phosphorus adsorption in experiments at field scale and (iii) with metal adsorption in large scale soil datasets. Various mitigation measures were evaluated in view of policy ambitions for climate, soil and environmental quality for 2030, i.e. a reduction of 50 % for NH3, 11-17 % for GHG, 20 % for N runoff and 40 % for P runoff and an ambition of 50 % GHG emission reduction for 2050. The measures focused on a combination of animal feeding, low emission housing and application technologies, improved crop, soil and nutrient management, all being applied with an effectiveness of 100 % and 50 %, respectively. In addition, we evaluated impacts of 50 % livestock reduction, and combination scenarios of measures and livestock reduction. Full implementation of all measures can reduce NH3 emission, N leaching and N runoff by approximately 40-50 % and GHG emissions by approximately 30 %, but there is less potential to reduce P runoff, being <10 %. The combination of a more likely 50 % implementation/effectiveness of measures with 25 % livestock reduction leads to a comparable reduction. Required reductions from Dutch agriculture seem not possible with improved management only, but also requires livestock reduction, especially when the NH3 ambitions at the short term (2030) and the climate ambitions for the long term (2050) should be attained.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Metais Pesados , Animais , Amônia/análise , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Esterco , Fertilizantes , Água , Agricultura/métodos , Solo , Gado , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Nutrientes , Fósforo
6.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt A): 116611, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36419303

RESUMO

In developing countries, it is critical that novel and swift strategies are devised to help direct and prioritize potential greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation activities. The Carbon Benefit Project (CBP) analysis tool is a modular, web-based system that allows a consistent comparison of various projects by providing a standardized GHG benefits protocol. In this study, we used the CBP tool to estimate the GHG mitigation potential of the agriculture, forestry, and other land uses (AFOLU) sector and prioritize components for their GHG benefits in three districts of Wolaita Zone, southern Ethiopia. The study area is 90,731 ha of which about 2% was covered by forest, 7% by grassland, 78% by annual crops, 12% by home garden and 1% by settlements. The livestock population in the study area was 512,622 heads. Using the CBP's Detailed Assessment, we estimated mitigation potential in the AFOLU consisting of different managements strategies for a period between 2016 and 2030 in the smallholder agricultural landscape. The results showed an overall GHG benefit of 1,725,052 (±5%) Mg CO2e from the projected scenario in the study area. The GHG benefit was in the order of biomass C (683,757 Mg CO2e) > soil C (619,210 Mg CO2e) > livestock (408,981 Mg CO2e) illustrating the greater mitigation potential of trees in different systems. The soil C plus biomass C was high in agroforestry systems, and this component had the highest priority for GHG mitigation. This was followed by high enteric methane emission reduction in the livestock category. The GHG emission from manure increased by 71,633 Mg CO2e in the project because manure was not managed. The surprisingly low GHG benefit of the forest was primarily because of its low land cover (i.e., about 2%) in the agroecosystem. Despite the low GHG benefit in the cropland from best management practices, the improved soil quality in it can affect GHG benefits from other land uses by contributing to their conservation through food security. Thus, a comprehensive project may be a viable strategy in a mitigation effort at the agroecosystem level because of the interactions amongst the components. The CBP analysis tool is useful in prioritizing mitigation activities and may be an option to quantify GHG benefits if studies collate Teir 2 factors in data scarce areas.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Animais , Etiópia , Florestas , Esterco , Solo , Carbono , Gado
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 2): 159145, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36206896

RESUMO

A carbon footprint assessment, combining various scales of analysis and including a territorial assessment, is proposed to estimate the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from crops and livestock in an Indian village impacted by both Green (for crops) and White (for milk) revolutions. It is based on the GHG assessment of 10 cropping systems, 8 livestock farming systems and 9 production systems using the comparative agriculture and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approaches. Results show that mineral fertilisation, irrigation and methane from paddy fields are the main drivers of emissions at plot level. Livestock farming systems emit from 4.7 tCO2eq/female to 8.6 tCO2eq/female, enteric fermentation being the first source of emission. Disparities at farm level are huge, ranging from 9 to 733 tCO2eq. At village level, emissions yield 37 tCO2eq/ha and livestock contributes to 60 % of GHG emissions. The high GHG emissions are a legacy of the Green and White Revolutions: the livestock population is high, fed on highly emissive fodder and concentrates and produces little milk. The results enhance our understanding of the share of carbon emissions from crops and livestock at farm and territorial level. They pinpoint the environmental and socio-economic downsides of livestock farming intensification.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Feminino , Animais , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Gado , Agricultura/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas , Metano/análise
8.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt A): 116254, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36265233

RESUMO

Mechanical solid-liquid separation is an emerging closed-loop technology to recover and recycle carbon, nutrients and water from dilute livestock manure. This closed-loop concept is tested using a modular separation technology (Z-Filter) applied at full-scale for the first time to treat effluent from a pasture-based dairy. Effluent flow rates were 200-400 L min-1 at a total solids (TS) content of 0.52% (pH 7.2). Separation efficiency and composition of the separated solid fraction were determined, and chemically-assisted separation with cationic polymer flocculant with/without hydrated lime was also tested. Without flocculant and lime, 25.9% of TS and 33.4% of volatile solids (VS) ended up in the solid fraction, but total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), phosphorus (P) and potassium recovery was not significant, likely being in poorly separable fine particle or soluble fractions. With a 5% flow-based dosage of flocculant, most of the TS (69%) and VS (85%), and notable amounts of TKN (52-56%) and P (40%) ended up in the solid fraction. Phosphorus recovery was further increased to 91% when both flocculant and hydrated lime was added up to pH 9.2. The solid fraction was stackable with 16-20% TS, making transport more economical to enable further processing and beneficial reuse of nutrients and organic matter. Removal of VS also reduces fugitive methane emissions from uncovered anaerobic effluent ponds. Overall, the results indicated that solid-liquid separation could provide improved environmental management options for dairy farmers with dilute manure effluent to beneficially utilise organic matter and nutrients.


Assuntos
Gado , Esterco , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Fósforo , Nitrogênio , Anaerobiose
9.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt A): 116400, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36270127

RESUMO

Domesticated ruminants supply nutrient-dense foods but at a large environmental cost. However, many ruminant production systems are multi-functional, providing ecosystem services (ES) other than direct provision of food. When quantifying the climate impact of ruminant products using life cycle assessment (LCA), provisioning ES (i.e. beef and milk) are generally considered the only valuable outputs and other ES provided are ignored, which risks overlooking positive contributions associated with ruminant production. Non-provisioning ES can be included in LCA by economic allocation, using compensatory payments (through agri-environmental schemes) as a proxy for the economic value of ES. For example, farmers can receive payments for maintenance of pastures, which supports e.g. pollination. However, the association between different payment schemes, the ES provided, and livestock production is not always straightforward and it can be difficult to determine which payment schemes to include in the allocation. This study examined how accounting for ES in quantification of climate impact for beef and milk production on Swedish farms was affected by different ways of coupling ES to livestock production through payment schemes. Quantification was done using LCA, attributing the climate impact to beef, milk, and other ES by economic allocation. This resulted in <1-48% and 11-31% of climate impacts being allocated to other ES, instead of beef and milk, respectively, affecting suckler farms most. The results were influenced by which payment schemes, representing different ES, that were included; when only payments directly related to livestock rearing were included, the difference in the climate impact was still large between farm types, while the difference decreased considerably when all environmental schemes were included. While emissions do not disappear, ES-corrected climate impact can potentially be useful as part of consumer communication or in decision-making, reducing the risk of overlooking ES provided by ruminant production in a simpler way than using separate indicators.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Leite , Animais , Bovinos , Ruminantes , Gado , Fazendas
10.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt B): 116480, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36306626

RESUMO

Biological invasions produce negative impacts worldwide, causing massive economic costs and ecological impacts. Knowing the relationship between invasive species abundance and the magnitude of their impacts (abundance-impact curves) is critical to designing prevention and management strategies that effectively tackle these impacts. However, different measures of abundance may produce different abundance-impact curves. Woody plants are among the most transformative invaders, especially in grassland ecosystems because of the introduction of hitherto absent life forms. In this study, our first goal was to assess the impact of a woody invader, Pinus contorta (hereafter pine), on native grassland productivity and livestock grazing in Patagonia (Argentina), building abundance-impact curves. Our second goal, was to compare different measure of pine abundance (density, basal area and canopy cover) as predictors of pine's impact on grassland productivity. Our third goal, was to compare abundance-impact curves among the mentioned measures of pine abundance and among different measures of impact: total grassland productivity, palatable productivity and sheep stocking rate (the number of sheep that the grassland can sustainably support). Pine canopy cover, closely followed by basal area, was the measure of abundance that best explained the impact on grassland productivity, but the shape of abundance impact curves differed between measures of abundance. While increases in pine density and basal area always reduced grassland productivity, pine canopy cover below 30% slightly increased grassland productivity and higher values caused an exponential decline. This increase in grassland productivity with low levels of pine canopy cover could be explained by the amelioration of stressful abiotic conditions for grassland species. Different measures of impact, namely total productivity, palatable productivity and sheep stocking rate, drew very similar results. Our abundance-impact curves are key to guide the management of invasive pines because a proper assessment of how many invasive individuals (per surface unit) are unacceptable, according to environmental or economic impact thresholds, is fundamental to define when to start management actions.


Assuntos
Pinus , Árvores , Ovinos , Animais , Pradaria , Ecossistema , Espécies Introduzidas , Gado
11.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt B): 116573, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323114

RESUMO

Livestock manure is one of the main sources of heavy metals (HMs) in agricultural soil. So, it is necessary to reduce its bioavailability before used as organic fertilizer. In this study, the passivation effect of HMs and the evolution of dissolved organic matter (DOM) during four composting processes were explored. Results showed that different composting methods had a great effect on HMs passivation rate and humification degree. HMs were released during the thermophilic phase, and were bound by resynthesized humus during the cooling period. The best passivation effect of HMs was found in FV + T treatment, the passivation rate of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb reached 63.80%, 34.07%, 86.54% and 45.14%, respectively, then followed by the treatment of NV + T and SC. UV-Vis spectra and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra indicated that humus precursors were produced during thermophilic phase and the accumulation of humus mainly occurred in cooling period. This study can be used as a theoretical support for the safe utilization livestock manure.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Metais Pesados , Animais , Esterco , Galinhas , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo , Gado
12.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt B): 116638, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36335698

RESUMO

Feces in livestock farms is a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), which can disseminate into surrounding soil and air, bringing risks to human health. In this study, seasonal dissemination of ARGs in a livestock farm and implications for human exposure was explored. The experimental results showed that ARGs abundance basically ranked as feces > soil > air, and significant seasonal dependence was observed. The total ARGs in pig feces was relatively higher in autumn (109.7 copies g-1) and winter (1010.0 copies g-1), and lower in summer (105.0 copies g-1). Similarly, the lowest total ARGs in soil and air were also observed in summer. There were correlations among ARGs, integron intI1, and bacterial community. Total organic carbon was an important factor affecting ARGs distribution in the feces, and pH and moisture content significantly affected soil ARGs. The daily intakes of integron intI1 and ARGs from air were 10°.5 copies h-1 and 102.3 copies h-1 for human exposure, respectively. Pseudomonas was a potential pathogenic host of blaTEM-1 in feces, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter were potential pathogenic hosts of multiple ARGs in soil, while ARGs in air did not migrate into pathogens.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Gado , Humanos , Suínos , Animais , Fazendas , Solo , Genes Bacterianos , Estações do Ano , Bactérias/genética
13.
J Hazard Mater ; 441: 129870, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36063716

RESUMO

The formation and transmission of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have attracted increasing attention. It is unclear whether the internal mechanisms by which antibiotics affect horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of ARGs during anaerobic digestion (AD) were influenced by dose and type. We investigated the effects of two major antibiotics (oxytetracycline, OTC, and sulfamethoxazole, SMX) on ARGs during AD according to antibiotic concentration in livestock wastewater influent. The low-dose antibiotic (0.5 mg/L) increased ROS and SOS responses, promoting the formation of ARGs. Meanwhile, low-dose antibiotics could also promote the spread of ARGs by promoting pili, communication responses, and the type IV secretion system (T4SS). However, different types and doses of antibiotics would lead to changes in the above functional modules and then affect the enrichment of ARGs. With the increasing dose of SMX, the advantages of pili and communication responses would gradually change. In the OTC system, low-dose has the strongest promoting ability in both pili and communication responses. Similarly, an increase in the dose of SMX would change T4SS from facilitation to inhibition, while OTC completely inhibits T4SS. Microbial and network analysis also revealed that low-dose antibiotics were more favorable for the growth of host bacteria.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Oxitetraciclina , Anaerobiose , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/genética , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Gado , Oxitetraciclina/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/farmacologia , Sulfametoxazol , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo IV , Águas Residuárias/análise
14.
Food Chem ; 400: 134041, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087480

RESUMO

Traditional meat freshness evaluation methods are cumbersome and time consuming. In this study, the freshness of goat and duck meat at -1, 4, 10, and 25 °C was monitored by the fluorescent film sensor, and the content of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) and biogenic amines (BAs) of the samples was also determined using traditional methods. Correlation and partial least squares (PLS) regression analyses were performed between sensor response intensity (RI) and freshness indices. The results showed that the RI, TVB-N, and BAs contents of goat and duck meat at a subcutaneous sampling depth of 0-1 cm were highly correlated. Moreover, the regression coefficients (R2) of the PLS model of TVB-N were all higher than 0.8. Notably, the R2 of duck meat at 25 °C in the PLS model was 1. This study accurately predicted TVB-N values in livestock and poultry meats by the fluorescent film sensor for the first time, which is real-time, and rapid, with great potential for meat freshness evaluation in future production.


Assuntos
Gado , Nitrogênio , Animais , Aminas Biogênicas , Corantes , Cabras , Carne/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Aves Domésticas
15.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323287

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: As Germany's wolf population is steadily becoming more widespread, conflicts with livestock owners are increasing. In this context, the wolves' impact on grazing livestock is of particular interest. The study aimed to investigate the wolves' influence on the husbandry of endangered sheep and goat breeds. Thus, livestock owners were interviewed about the types of measures taken to protect their herds against wolf predation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire consisting of 11 questions was published online by the "Gesellschaft zur Erhaltung alter und gefährdeter Haustierrassen e. V. (GEH)" and completed anonymously by 494 sheep and goat owners from all over Germany. RESULTS: 33 % of the endangered sheep breeds and 80 % of the endangered goat breeds are owned by fewer than ten of the livestock owners, who predominantly keep these animals as a hobby or as a supplementary source of income. The cessation of livestock husbandry by any of these owners may therefore have a significant negative impact on the continued existence of the breed in question. However, the mean herd sizes of the studbook breeds do not indicate any negative impact on animal numbers in recent years, although the majority of respondents consider their grazing livestock to be threatened by wolves. It is noteworthy that significantly more livestock owners situated far away from wolf habitats expressed the wish to discontinue their husbandry as opposed to those within range of wolf habitats. Preventative measures mentioned most frequently are fencing and enclosures as well as avoiding certain areas entirely. The use of guard dogs does not seem to play a major role. CONCLUSIONS: The abandonment of animal husbandry by individual farmers poses the risk of reducing breed diversity in small ruminants. Therefore, they need special protection, which must be taken into account when planning and defining compensation measures.


Assuntos
Lobos , Cães , Ovinos , Animais , Cabras , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Gado , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 63(5): 177-181, 2022.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36328473

RESUMO

A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based method was developed for determining quinclorac in livestock products. Quinclorac was extracted from the samples using a solution of acetone and hydrochloric acid mixed in a 99 : 1 ratio. The crude extract was purified with ethyl acetate under basic conditions, followed by quinclorac extraction with ethyl acetate under acidic conditions and analysis using LC-MS/MS. The average recoveries of quinclorac from five livestock products (n=5) fortified at the maximum residue limits or 0.01 mg/kg ranged from 85.6 to 93.5%, with the precision of repeatability ranging from 1.7 to 6.8%. The quantification limit in this analytical method was 0.01 mg/kg. These results suggest that the developed method is useful for analyzing quinclorac in livestock products.


Assuntos
Gado , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
17.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277118, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36322602

RESUMO

Brucellosis is one of the main livestock disease risks in Kazakhstan. It's been endemic there since 1930, accounting for over 1300 human cases per annum. The economic loss was 45 million USD in 2015 alone. Since 1952, Kazakhstan has implemented various control strategies with little success. One Health approaches have been suggested to tackle brucellosis, however, there is a lack of evidence for best practices to operationalise One Health in the literature, and methods for implementation are not established. The intention of this study was to introduce the One Health approach during the evaluation phase of the policy cycle. A two-day workshop was organized by the authors to familiarize participants with the evaluation methodology. Twenty-one specialists representing veterinary and public health sector, together with researchers, took part in this study. For two weeks following the workshop, first author conducted individual interviews with workshop participants to obtain individual scorings to assess knowledge integration capacity (One Health-ness). The evaluation results show that there is a lack of knowledge about the perceived damage caused by brucellosis to animal owners and other stakeholders. There is insufficient data available about farmers' practices, interests and motivations, and also data is missing for important transmission processes such as the amount of unsafe dairy consumption. The absence of such data illustrates the extent of the uncertainty to which decision-makers are exposed despite well-elaborated transmission models and supports the importance of co-producing solutions with participatory methods. The results suggest the need for broader involvement of stakeholders. Outputs of this study could help navigate the initial stages of One Health operationalization.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Saúde Única , Animais , Humanos , Cazaquistão/epidemiologia , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/prevenção & controle , Brucelose/veterinária , Gado , Fazendeiros
18.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277817, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395279

RESUMO

This study investigates the financial cost of increasing the diversity of cereal grains in livestock feed rations. We first develop a nonlinear mathematical programming model that determines the least-cost composition of livestock feed rations of one metric ton that have at least the same energy and nutrient content as a reference feed ration. We then add into the model a diversity constraint using the Simpson Index of diversity to examine how changes in the diversity of the commodities in the ration affect the cost of the ration while maintaining the ration's energy and nutrient content at a reference ration value. We apply the model to cereal grain feed rations for livestock in 153 countries, using reference rations that depict the historical composition of cereal grain feed rations offered to livestock in each country. Results suggest that a one percent change in ration diversity changed the ration cost (i.e., the cost-diversity elasticity) from -0.67% to 1.41% (average = -0.02%) across all countries. Our results suggest that changes in ration diversity can come at a financial cost, but this financial cost appears negligible in many countries. This negligible cost could provide the feed sector more encouragement to diversify its feed supply and potentially become more resilient to price and production shocks.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível , Gado , Animais , Ração Animal/análise
19.
Genet Sel Evol ; 54(1): 73, 2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36348272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent research shows that genetic selection has high potential to reduce the prevalence of infectious diseases in livestock. However, like all interventions that target infectious diseases, genetic selection of livestock can exert selection pressure on pathogen populations. Such selection on the pathogen may lead to escape strategies and reduce the effect of selection of livestock for disease resistance. Thus, to successfully breed livestock for lower disease prevalence, it is essential to develop strategies that prevent the invasion of pathogen mutants that escape host resistance. Here we investigate the conditions under which such "escape mutants" can replace wild-type pathogens in a closed livestock population using a mathematical model of disease transmission. RESULTS: Assuming a single gene that confers sufficient resistance, results show that genetic selection for resistance in livestock typically leads to an "invasion window" within which an escape mutant of the pathogen can invade. The bounds of the invasion window are determined by the frequency of resistant hosts in the population. The lower bound occurs when the escape mutant has an advantage over the wild-type pathogen in the population. The upper bound occurs when local eradication of the pathogen is expected. The invasion window is smallest when host resistance is strong and when infection with the wild-type pathogen provides cross immunity to infection with the escape mutant. CONCLUSIONS: To minimise opportunities for pathogens to adapt, under the assumptions of our model, the aim of disease control through genetic selection should be to achieve herd-level eradication of the infection faster than the rate of emergence of escape mutants of the pathogen. Especially for microparasitic infections, this could be achieved by placing animals into herds according to their genetic resistance, such that these herds stay completely out of the invasion window. In contrast to classical breeding theory, our model suggests that multi-trait selection with gradual improvement of each trait of the breeding goal might not be the best strategy when resistance to infectious disease is part of the breeding goal. Temporally, combining genetic selection with other interventions helps to make the invasion window smaller, and thereby reduces the risk of invasion of escape mutants.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Gado , Animais , Gado/genética , Fenótipo , Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças Transmissíveis/genética , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18473, 2022 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323741

RESUMO

The identification of appropriate references genes is an integral component of any gene expression-based study for getting accuracy and reliability in data interpretation. In this study, we evaluated the expression stability of 10 candidate reference genes (GAPDH, RPL4, EEF1A1, RPS9, HPRT1, UXT, RPS23, B2M, RPS15, ACTB) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of livestock species that are adapted to high altitude hypoxia conditions of Leh-Ladakh. A total of 37 PBMCs samples from six native livestock species of Leh-Ladakh region such as Ladakhi cattle, Ladakhi yak, Ladakhi donkey, Chanthangi goat, Double hump cattle and Zanskar ponies were included in this study. The commonly used statistical algorithms such as geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper and RefFinder were employed to assess the stability of these RGs in all the livestock species. Our study has identified different panel of reference genes in each species; for example, EEF1A1, RPL4 in Ladakhi cattle; GAPDH, RPS9, ACTB in Ladakhi yak; HPRT1, B2M, ACTB in Ladakhi donkey; HPRT1, B2M, ACTB in Double hump camel, RPS9, HPRT1 in Changthangi goat, HPRT1 and ACTB in Zanskar ponies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic attempt to identify panel of RGs across different livestock species types adapted to high altitude hypoxia conditions. In future, the findings of the present study would be quite helpful in conducting any transcriptional studies to understand the molecular basis of high altitude adaptation of native livestock population of Leh-Ladakh.


Assuntos
Doença da Altitude , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Bovinos/genética , Cavalos/genética , Animais , Gado/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Hipóxia/genética , Cabras/genética , Equidae/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Padrões de Referência
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