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1.
Toxicol Lett ; 318: 50-56, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622650

RESUMO

The development of three generic multi-compartment physiologically based kinetic (PBK) models is described for farm animal species, i.e. cattle, sheep, and swine. The PBK models allow one to quantitatively link external dose and internal dose for risk assessment of chemicals relevant to food and feed safety. Model performance is illustrated by predicting tissue concentrations of melamine and oxytetracycline and validated through comparison with measured data. Overall, model predictions were reliable with 71% of predictions within a 3-fold of the measured data for all three species and only 6% of predictions were outside a 10-fold of the measured data. Predictions within a 3-fold change were best for cattle, followed by sheep, and swine (82%, 76%, and 63%). Global sensitivity analysis was performed to identify the most sensitive parameters in the PBK model. The sensitivity analysis showed that body weight and cardiac output were the most sensitive parameters. Since interspecies differences in metabolism impact on the fate of a wide range of chemicals, a key step forward is the introduction of species-specific information on transporters and metabolism including expression and activities.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Gado/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Oxitetraciclina/farmacocinética , Triazinas/farmacocinética , Ração Animal/toxicidade , Animais , Bovinos , Oxitetraciclina/administração & dosagem , Oxitetraciclina/efeitos adversos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Carneiro Doméstico , Especificidade da Espécie , Sus scrofa , Distribuição Tecidual , Triazinas/administração & dosagem , Triazinas/toxicidade
2.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(4): 434-435, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612683

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the surveillance data after schistosomiasis transmission interruption from 1985 to 2018, so as to provide scientific basis for the future prevention and control of schistosomiasis. METHODS: The data pertaining to snail survey, surveillance of schistosomiasis in humans and livestock, and health education were collected and analyzed in Songjiang District after schistosomiasis transmission interruption from 1985 to 2018. RESULTS: From 1985 to 2018, there were 8 townships, 68 villages and 1 462 settings with snails in Songjiang District, covering an area of 96.399 hm2. There were 4 townships and 59 villages with snails newly identified in previously schistosomiasis non-endemic areas, with emerging snail habitats of 60.161 hm2. A total of 26 148 snails were captured, and no infections were detected. The snail habitats were mainly distributed in the river course, ditches and farmlands, which accounted for 45.28%, 33.17% and 21.55% of total snail habitats, respectively. A total of 245 955 humans were subjected to the serological test, with a positive rate of 0.03%, and 37 humans were subjected to the parasitological test, with 3 positives detected. These three egg-positives were all imported chronic cases with schistosomiasis. A total of 9 109 livestock were detected using the serological test, and no infection was found. Most of the awareness rate of schistosomiasis control knowledge and the rate of correct behavior formation were over 80% in residents and students. CONCLUSIONS: The achievements of schistosomiasis control are consolidated in Songjiang District; however, there are still risk factors of schistosomiasis transmission, including residual snails, snail diffusion and importation of external source of infection. The future surveillance of schistosomiasis should focus on snails and sources of infection.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose , Caramujos , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Ecossistema , Humanos , Gado/parasitologia , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Rios , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Caramujos/parasitologia
3.
Rev Sci Tech ; 38(1): 135-144, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564734

RESUMO

Infectious diseases are known to disproportionately affect the poorer sectors of society, particularly those living in low- and middle-income countries. These vulnerable populations battle disease, debt, loss of livelihood and reduced economic well-being with consequences that extend to their families, communities, livestock and the environment. A strong One Health approach is acknowledged as a successful way of enhancing current capacity for the prevention and control of emerging infectious diseases. Furthermore, it is also an effective way to address the multifaceted nuances of poverty. In recognising the interconnectedness of human and animal health with the health of our shared environment, One Health offers a valuable framework to prevent and control emerging infectious diseases through collaboration, coordination and communication across the various sectors involved. In recent years, as examples of One Health implementation have been documented and assessed, the linkages between One Health interventions and poverty alleviation have become more obvious. One Health interventions have the potential to reduce the economic burden of disease and create more efficient systems and approaches that generate higher savings, both direct and indirect, at the human-animal-environment interface. This paper describes aspects of this potential in detail. Although, at present, examples of the relationship between One Health and poverty alleviation are few, they are compelling. The authors believe that they provide persuasive evidence to encourage governments and policy-makers to employ the One Health approach in their efforts to alleviate poverty. Measuring the impact of this link between One Health and poverty alleviation has its constraints since appropriate metrics are still evolving. However, this paper hopes to establish the wisdom of recognising the role that One Health can play in reducing poverty, as well as its capacity to enhance existing policy frameworks.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Saúde Única , Pobreza , Animais , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Política de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Gado , Pobreza/prevenção & controle
4.
Rev Sci Tech ; 38(1): 103-111, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564737

RESUMO

Supplying safe livestock products made from healthy animals is the primary purpose of the agriculture industry, making it essential to include agriculture in the One Health approach to disaster preparedness and response. After the Great East Japan Earthquake of 11 March 2011, and the following crisis at the Fukushima Nuclear Complex, producing and supplying safe livestock products became a challenging issue, because the area was highly polluted with radiation leaks from the nuclear plants. To produce livestock products that satisfied the safety standards for radioactive materials in food for humans, it was necessary to create feeding management guidelines and set standard limits for radioactive materials in animal feeds. The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) established provisional maximum limits on radioactive caesium in feeds in order to secure safe food for the nation. Furthermore, there were other issues that Japan's livestock industry had to tackle. The authors outline key measures taken by the Livestock Industry Department of the MAFF to reconstruct the livestock industry, which was a small but important part of the whole reconstruction plan. They also discuss the measures implemented to protect companion animals.


Assuntos
Terremotos , Gado , Saúde Única , Agricultura , Animais , Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Humanos , Japão
5.
Ecol Lett ; 22(12): 2067-2076, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595680

RESUMO

Microbial communities drive soil ecosystem function but are also susceptible to environmental disturbances. We investigated whether exposure to manure sourced from cattle either administered or not administered antibiotics affected microbially mediated terrestrial ecosystem function. We quantified changes in microbial community composition via amplicon sequencing, and terrestrial elemental cycling via a stable isotope pulse-chase. Exposure to manure from antibiotic-treated cattle caused: (i) changes in microbial community structure; and (ii) alterations in elemental cycling throughout the terrestrial system. This exposure caused changes in fungal : bacterial ratios, as well as changes in bacterial community structure. Additionally, exposure to manure from cattle treated with pirlimycin resulted in an approximate two-fold increase in ecosystem respiration of recently fixed-carbon, and a greater proportion of recently added nitrogen in plant and soil pools compared to the control manure. Manure from antibiotic-treated cattle therefore affects terrestrial ecosystem function via the soil microbiome, causing decreased ecosystem carbon use efficiency, and altered nitrogen cycling.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Esterco , Animais , Antibacterianos , Carbono , Bovinos , Gado , Nitrogênio , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 99, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489077

RESUMO

Introduction: The burden of brucellosis among smallholder farmers is poorly-documented in Uganda. The disease burden is likely to be high, given the high levels of endemicity, lots of exposures and due to lack of control measures. In order to designate appropriate control measures, the magnitude and risk factors for brucellosis need to be known. We established the burden of and risk factors for Brucella seropositivity in cattle, goats, and humans in Iganga district, eastern Uganda. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in in Kigulamo Parish, Iganga District. We enrolled 226 households and administered a structured questionnaire to heads of households to capture data on socio-demographic characteristics, human brucellosis-related risk factors, and livestock farming practices. Human, cattle, and goat blood samples were collected and tested serologically using commercial indirect-ELISA kits manufactured by USDA, USA. Results: Of 451 human blood samples, 20 (4.4%) were positive. Among 345 cattle blood samples, 4 (1.2%) were positive and among 351 goat blood samples, one (0.3%) was positive. Persons who reported consuming locally-made dairy products had 4 times higher odds of Brucella seropositivity (OR = 4.0, CI = 1.14-14.03, p = 0.031) than those who did not. None of the risk factors we asked about were significantly associated with seropositivity in cattle and goats. Conclusion: The seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans in smallholder households in Kigulamo was relatively low and associated with consumption of locally made dairy products. No risk factors were significantly associated with seropositivity in livestock, likely due to the small number of seropositive animals. We recommend a One Health approach to control brucellosis simultaneously in animals and humans needed to sustainably reduce the burden of brucellosis in Uganda and beyond.


Assuntos
Brucella/isolamento & purificação , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Animais , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/veterinária , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Laticínios/microbiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Cabras , Humanos , Gado , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda/epidemiologia
7.
J Environ Manage ; 250: 109473, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505382

RESUMO

In the field of environmental wastewater treatment, it is a very meaningful topic to recover phosphate from swine wastewater in the form of struvite precipitation. The solution pH is one of the important influencing factors in the process of struvite precipitation. In this paper, an attempt was made to recover the phosphate from swine wastewater by adding plant ash. Experimental results have revealed that aeration can be replaced by optimal plant ash adding mode to increase the phosphate recovery efficiency. With the dosages of plant ash and magnesium metal were respectively 11.66 and 3.33 g/L the phosphate recovery efficiency reached 97.69% in 60 min. The efficiency was still above 95% after repeatedly using magnesium pellet for 3 times. The economic evaluation further revealed that the recovery cost of the proposed method was 0.62 $/kg PO4-P.


Assuntos
Fosfatos , Águas Residuárias , Animais , Precipitação Química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Gado , Compostos de Magnésio , Fósforo , Estruvita , Suínos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
8.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 251-257, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544402

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To build a schistosomiasis transmission risk surveillance system in Sichuan Province, so as to provide technical support for facilitating the progress towards schistosomiasis elimination in the province. METHODS: The surveillance sites for schistosomiasis transmission risk were assigned in 63 endemic counties (districts) of 11 cities (prefectures) in Sichuan Province. During the period from 2015 through 2018, wild feces contamination, the sources of Schistosoma japonicum infections (fever patients, livestock and wild animals), water infectivity in key settings, snail distribution in key settings, and snail breeding risk (snail importation and spread, floating debris carrying snails and snail breeding in ecological wetlands) were monitored in the surveillance sites. RESULTS: From 2015 to 2018, a total of 1 636 wild faces were detected in Sichuan Province, and 3 faces were positive for S. japonicum, with a 0.18% positive rate; among 3 995 livestock and 59 wild mice monitored, no S. japonicum infection was detected. A total of 49 414 fever patients were monitored in 2018, and 493 were seropositive for S. japonicum infection; then, 445 seropositives were subjected to stool examinations, and no egg-positives were found. From 2010 to 2018, a total of 93 sentinel sites were assigned, and 3 994 sentinel mice were placed for monitoring the water infectivity, with one S. japonicum-infected mouse detected. Between 2015 and 2018, a total of 4 156 key settings were investigated covering an area of 1 998.46 hm2, and 668 settings were detected with snails (16.07%), covering an area of 193.26 hm2; 497 suspected settings with a likelihood of snail importation with plant introduction were monitored from 2017 to 2018, and 65 settings with snails were found with 2 673 snails captured; 593 sites were assigned to collect the floating debris from 2017 to 2018, and 9 191.39 kg floating debris were collected with 186 snails captured; 4 wetlands were monitored for the risk of schistosomiasis transmission from 2013 to 2015, and snail breeding was found in 2 wetlands. No S. japonicum infection was identified in snails captured from all surveillance sites. CONCLUSIONS: A sensitive and effective schistosomiasis transmission risk surveillance system has been successfully established in Sichuan Province. There is still a risk of schistosomiasis transmission risk in local areas of Sichuan Province. Therefore, the integrated schistosomiasis control measures with emphasis on the control of the source of S. japonicum infections should be further intensified, and snail monitoring and control and monitoring and control of schistosomiasis in wetlands should be also intensified.


Assuntos
Vigilância da População , Esquistossomose Japônica , Esquistossomose , Animais , Cruzamento , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Gado , Camundongos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Prevalência , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose/transmissão
9.
J Environ Manage ; 251: 109579, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563601

RESUMO

Ecosystem stability is one of the main factors maintaining ecosystem functioning and is closely related to temporal variability in productivity. Resistance and resilience reflect tolerance and recovering ability, respectively, of a plant community under perturbation, which are important for maintaining the stability of ecosystems. Generally, heavy grazing reduces the stability of grassland ecosystems, causing grassland degradation. However, how livestock grazing affects ecosystem stability is unclear in alpine steppe ecosystems. We conducted a five-year grazing experiment with Tibetan sheep in a semi-arid alpine steppe on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. The experimental treatments included no grazing (NG), light grazing (LG, 2.4 sheep per ha), moderate grazing (MG, 3.6 sheep per ha) and heavy grazing (HG, 6.0 sheep ha). We calculated resistance and resilience of three plant functional groups and ecosystem stability under the three grazing intensities using aboveground primary productivity. The results showed that with increasing grazing intensity, aboveground biomass of each functional group significantly decreased. As grazing intensity increased, the resistance of forbs first increased then decreased. The resilience of graminoids in HG was significantly lower than in LG plots, but the resilience of legumes in HG was higher than in LG and MG plots. The resilience of graminoids was significantly higher than legume and forbs under LG and MG treatments. In HG treatments, resilience of legumes was higher than graminoids and forbs. Ecosystem stability did not change under different grazing intensities, because of dissimilar performance of the resilience and resistance of functional groups. Our results highlight how the differential resistance and resilience of different function groups facilitate the tolerance of alpine steppe to grazing under even a heavy intensity. However, the degradation risk of alpine steppe under heavy grazing still needs to be considered in grassland management due to sharp decreases of productivity.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Gado , Animais , China , Pradaria , Ovinos , Tibet
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121872, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377516

RESUMO

Anaerobic digestion of manure is a common practice; however, the low biogas yield of manure can hamper the profitability of systems in small to medium farms. An increase in biogas yield could be achieved by co-digesting animal manure with co-substrates such as cheese whey. A Techno-economic assessment of anaerobic co-digestion of animal manure and cheese whey (cow, goat and sheep), has been carried out. The results obtained showed that for a farm with 250 adult cattle heads, the revenues generated in an anaerobic mono-digestion process are not able to offset the initial required investment. However, the co-digestion of manure with 30% of cheese whey showed a good economic performance and positive returns (Net Present values >0, Internal Rate of Return >11% and a Return of the investment in <10 years). Electricity selling price and biogas production are the key parameters to determine the profitability of the system.


Assuntos
Queijo , Esterco , Soro do Leite/metabolismo , Anaerobiose , Animais , Biocombustíveis/economia , Bovinos , Fazendas , Feminino , Cabras , Gado , Ovinos
11.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(7): 2371-2383, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418241

RESUMO

The intensification and industrialization of agricultural production leads to more and more serious separation of crop and livestock, which causes serious contradiction between livestock excrement and environment, and major challenges for agricultural sustainable development. Here, we quantitatively investigated the spatial pattern and evolutionary trend of the sustainable development index (ESI) of the crop-livestock system using the emergy analysis and the input/output data in Shandong Province (1999-2015). The results showed that the sustainability of the crop-livestock system in Shandong Province decreased from 1999 to 2015 by 22.0%. The net emergy yield ratio (EYR), environmental load ratio (ELR), and the benefits of unit economic inputs significantly increased. The environmental pressure from the crop and livestock production increased obviously, which was closely related to the increase of industrial resources input including electricity, compound fertilizer, and agricultural machinery. There were differences in the sustainable development level of the crop-livestock system among administrative prefectures in Shandong Province. The ESI level of crop-livestock system in most regions was relatively high, while that in the coastal regions (e.g., Weihai, Yantai) and industrial region (e.g., Zibo) was relatively low. The trends of the sustainable development of crop-livestock system varied in different cities. The sustainability of central and southern Shandong was decreasing, while that of northern Shandong was increasing year by year. In 2015, the ESI of the expected crop-livestock system (100% livestock manure replaced fertilizer) could reach 8.4, which was 2.6 times of that of the current crop-livestock system (30% livestock manure replaced fertilizer).


Assuntos
Agricultura , Gado , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Animais , China , Cidades
12.
J Environ Manage ; 249: 109365, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442908

RESUMO

Compared with arable land, there is a paucity of field-based measurements of erosion rates and controls for lowland temperate grassland supporting ruminant agriculture. Despite this evidence gap, reducing diffuse fine sediment pollution from intensively farmed grassland has been recognised as essential for improving compliance with water quality targets. Improved information on erosion rates and controls within intensively managed lowland grazing livestock systems are prerequisites for informing best management practices for soil and water resource conservation. Accordingly, this study assembled such information using the North Wyke farm platform in south west England where flow, suspended sediment concentration, rainfall and soil moisture are monitored quasi-continuously in 15 hydrologically-isolated (1.54-11.12 ha) catchments. This region of the UK is representative of temperate lowland ruminant grazing landscapes with semi permeable soil drainage. Catchment area was the major control on both water and sediment flux. When normalised to catchment area, sediment yields were controlled by the erodibility of the catchment's soils. Ploughing for re-seeding of grass swards was the major factor that affected this. Whilst total rainfall had a small effect on sediment yields, slope and the damage of soils by livestock had no significant effects. This finding may be due to the overriding effects of ploughing and re-seeding of some fields during the study period. Detachment by impacting raindrops mobilised sediment particles across the entire field with diffuse saturation-excess overland flow responsible for their transport. The majority of erosion occurred during the rising limbs of storm events when there is an abundance of easily detached soil particles. Given that erosion and sediment transport are driven mechanistically by processes affecting the entire field areas, a reduction in sediment yield through the implementation of highly spatially-targeted in-field management such as that for feeder ring use, troughs, poached tracks or gateways would likely be very challenging. Instead, stocking density and grazing regime management, as well as carefully planned ploughing and re-seeding will be more beneficial for erosion control.


Assuntos
Gado , Solo , Agricultura , Animais , Inglaterra , Sedimentos Geológicos , Movimentos da Água
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 685: 1169-1180, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390707

RESUMO

The generation and poor disposal of waste from livestock industries is the major cause of pollution of water sources, soil, and air. Therefore, profitable alternatives are required for their correct disposal and use. Anaerobic digestion plants are a technologically viable solution to overcome this problem. In this study, it is proposed a methodology for the design and economic assessment of projects using anaerobic digestion plants to produce electrical energy, thermal energy, and biofertilizer from livestock waste. The methodology is developed based on the assumption that the process is mainly composed of an anaerobic digester and an electric generator having a Diesel-cycle internal combustion engine. It is programmed in "MS Excel" sheet and assessed using technical and economic data from a three real anaerobic digestion plants. The methodology obtains technical parameters such as energy production efficiency with an average difference of 35% compared to the real plants data. In addition, the unit capital costs are calculated, obtaining a value of €3789/kW with a difference of 21.1%, as well as unit operating costs of €729/kW per year with a difference of 15.2%. The financial viability of the project is assessed by calculating the net present value and obtaining €577,050 with a difference of 17.8% and an internal rate of return with a percentage difference of 3%. The proposed methodology specifies the technical parameters and the basic engineering of an anaerobic digestion plant in a stationary state, where the basic streams and dimensions of primary equipment, such as anaerobic reactors and electric generators, are specified. Moreover, the methodology calculates capital and operating expenses for an anaerobic digestion plant, which may be useful to assess the technical and financial feasibility for a project of this type.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Fertilizantes/economia , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Resíduos/economia , Animais , Gado
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 392, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonosis caused by cestodes of Echinococcus granulosus (sensu lato) complex. In Nigeria, reports on the prevalence of CE, although limited, have been found to vary with location and host with higher prevalence and fertility rate observed in camels than other livestock. Until now, information regarding the molecular characteristics, genetic population structure, and genotypes of Echinococcus is lacking. Therefore, this study was aimed at addressing these gaps in knowledge. METHODS: We describe the genetic status of 31 Echinococcus isolates collected from slaughtered livestock (camels, cattle and goats) based on the full-length mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) genes. RESULTS: The resulting nucleotide sequences via the NCBI BLAST algorithm and Bayesian phylogeny of cox1 and cox1-nad1 genes using MrBayes v.3.1.2 showed that all isolates were clearly E. canadensis (G6/G7) and were 99-100% identical to previously reported G6/G7 haplotypes across Europe, Asia, North and East Africa. CONCLUSIONS: Although, the G1 genotype is believed to be responsible for the majority of global CE burden, reports from a number of West African countries including Nigeria suggest that E. canadensis G6/G7 genotype could be the major causative agent of CE in the subregion. This study provides for the first time insight into the genetic population structure of Echinococcus species as well as implications for CE control in Nigeria.


Assuntos
Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Filogenia , Matadouros , Animais , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/genética , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Gado/parasitologia , NADH Desidrogenase/genética , Nigéria/epidemiologia
15.
Global Health ; 15(1): 43, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs)-chronic human health problems such as cardiovascular diseases linked to poor diets-are significant challenges for sustainable development and human health. The international livestock trade increases accessibility to cheap animal products that may expand diet-related NCDs worldwide. However, it is not well understood how the complex interconnections among livestock production, trade, and consumption affect NCD risks around the world. METHOD: Our global dataset included 33 livestock products (meat, offal, and animal fats) in 156 countries from 1992 to 2011. We employed path analysis to uncover how livestock trade contributes to diet-related NCDs and identify underlying environmental and socioeconomic factors of livestock trade. Then we performed trend analyses to investigate long-term changes in livestock production and trade at a country level. RESULTS: We found that livestock consumption through livestock import increased diet-related NCD risks. This was especially true in developing countries, which in general were not well prepared in terms of policies for NCD risk reduction, and where there was a lack of funding to implement the policies. Population size and income level were the main factors affecting global livestock import activities. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that new governance structures to incorporate separate international efforts, improved national policies, and bolstering individual efforts are needed to decrease NCD risks, particularly in developing countries.


Assuntos
Comércio , Internacionalidade , Gado , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 863, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With increasing demand for red meat in Tanzania comes heightened potential for zoonotic infections in animals and humans that disproportionately affect poor communities. A range of frontline government employees work to protect public health, providing services for people engaged in animal-based livelihoods (livestock owners and butchers), and enforcing meat safety and food premises standards. In contrast to literature which emphasises the inadequacy of extension support and food safety policy implementation in low- and middle-income countries, this paper foregrounds the 'street-level diplomacy' deployed by frontline actors operating in challenging contexts. METHODS: This research is based on semi-structured interviews with 61 government employees, including livestock extension officers/meat inspectors and health officers, across 10 randomly-selected rural and urban wards. RESULTS: Frontline actors combined formal and informal strategies including the leveraging of formal policy texts and relationships with other state employees, remaining flexible and recognising that poverty constrained people's ability to comply with health regulations. They emphasised the need to work with livestock keepers and butchers to build their knowledge to self-regulate and to work collaboratively to ensure meat safety. Remaining adaptive and being hesitant to act punitively unless absolutely necessary cultivated trust and positive relations, making those engaged in animal-based livelihoods more open to learning from and cooperating with extension officers and inspectors. This may result in higher levels of meat safety than might be the case if frontline actors stringently enforced regulations. CONCLUSION: The current tendency to view frontline actors' partial enforcement of meat safety regulations as a failure obscures the creative and proactive ways in which they seek to ensure meat safety in a context of limited resources. Their application of 'street-level diplomacy' enables them to be sensitive to local socio-economic realities, to respect local social norms and expectations and to build support for health safety interventions when necessary. More explicitly acknowledging the role of trust and positive state-society relations and the diplomatic skills deployed by frontline actors as a formal part of their inspection duties offers new perspectives and enhanced understandings on the complicated nature of their work and what might be done to support them.


Assuntos
Diplomacia , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Empregados do Governo/psicologia , Carne/normas , Saúde Pública/métodos , Animais , Feminino , Empregados do Governo/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Gado , Masculino , Pobreza , Saúde Pública/normas , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Tanzânia , Confiança , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
17.
J Environ Manage ; 246: 897-908, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276894

RESUMO

Natura 2000 areas are designated according to the EU's Birds and Habitats Directives in order to protect particular habitats and species. A variety of these habitats and species are particularly sensitive to deposition of nitrogen caused by ammonia emissions. Livestock farming is the primary source of this pollution. The purpose of this paper is to compare the costs of reaching the ammonia emission targets for different livestock farms near Natura 2000 sites in the Netherlands, Germany (Schleswig-Holstein), and Denmark. These countries have some of the highest NH3 deposition rates in Europe, and Germany in particular will have to implement new measures to reach the NEC requirements for 2030. This will also benefit nature sites in Denmark as a large share of the ammonia emissions is dispersed over long distances. The general regulation includes implementation of BAT technologies and emission ceilings. The analysis looks at regulatory aspects, the emission requirements and the cost of implementing the technologies to reduce emissions further. The selected case farms are a finisher farm and a dairy farm, and the distance to a Natura 2000 site is 400 and 2000 m. In all three countries, relatively few livestock farms are situated near or inside Natura 2000 areas. The regulatory approach is very different in the three countries and key issues are: additional deposition from projects, neighbouring livestock farms (cumulation), the inclusion of background deposition and the use of the critical loads concept. The Dutch PAS system is interesting as projected reductions in emissions are distributed as additional "room for development" today. The costs for the case farm with finishers in Schleswig-Holstein are the highest as the Filter Decree requires the use of air scrubbers. The findings suggest that farms 400 m from a Natura 2000 site in the Netherlands face lower and less costly constraints than in the other countries, whereas the opposite is the case for farms 2000 m from Natura 2000 sites. The requirements near Natura 2000, where strict requirements apply, are so high that farms will expand at a different site instead.


Assuntos
Amônia , Gado , Animais , Dinamarca , Europa (Continente) , Fazendas , Alemanha , Países Baixos
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(9): 7664-7683, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255270

RESUMO

An important goal in animal breeding is to improve longitudinal traits; that is, traits recorded multiple times during an individual's lifetime or physiological cycle. Longitudinal traits were first genetically evaluated based on accumulated phenotypic expression, phenotypic expression at specific time points, or repeatability models. Until now, the genetic evaluation of longitudinal traits has mainly focused on using random regression models (RRM). Random regression models enable fitting random genetic and environmental effects over time, which results in higher accuracy of estimated breeding values compared with other statistical approaches. In addition, RRM provide insights about temporal variation of biological processes and the physiological implications underlying the studied traits. Despite the fact that genomic information has substantially contributed to increase the rates of genetic progress for a variety of economically important traits in several livestock species, less attention has been given to longitudinal traits in recent years. However, including genomic information to evaluate longitudinal traits using RRM is a feasible alternative to yield more accurate selection and culling decisions, because selection of young animals may be based on the complete pattern of the production curve with higher accuracy compared with the use of traditional parent average (i.e., without genomic information). Moreover, RRM can be used to estimate SNP effects over time in genome-wide association studies. Thus, by analyzing marker associations over time, regions with higher effects at specific points in time are more likely to be identified. Despite the advances in applications of RRM in genetic evaluations, more research is needed to successfully combine RRM and genomic information. Future research should provide a better understanding of the temporal variation of biological processes and their physiological implications underlying the longitudinal traits.


Assuntos
Cruzamento/métodos , Genômica , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Animais , Lactação/genética , Gado/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Análise de Regressão
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 691: 430-441, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323588

RESUMO

Urine deposited by grazing animals is the main source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in New Zealand. Recent studies have suggested that certain pasture plants, for example plantain (Plantago lanceolata), can curb N2O emissions from livestock systems. This study aimed to i) evaluate the potential of plantain for reducing N2O emissions from cattle urine patches; ii) determine the effect of including plantain in animal diets on urine-N loading and its influence on N2O emissions; and, iii) evaluate whether any effects on N2O emissions reduction could be attributed to a 'urine' or a 'plant' effect. A static chamber method was used to measure N2O fluxes from urine collected from cows fed a 0, 15, 30 or 45% plantain mixed with "standard" ryegrass/clover (Lolium perenne/Trifolium repens) diet and applied to plots with the corresponding percentage of plantain in the sward. In addition, we measured N2O emissions from different proportions of plantain in the sward (0, 30, 60 and 100%) that received urine collected from cows fed on ryegrass/clover. The urine N loading rates of animals fed plantain, significantly reduced with increasing proportions of plantain in the diet (r2 = 0.987, P < 0.01). There was a trend of lower N2O emissions with an increasing proportion of plantain in the diet (r2 = 0.830, P < 0.08). However, there was no significantly difference in the N2O emission factors (P > 0.10). Following applications of standard urine, total N2O emissions and emission factor reduced linearly as the proportion of plantain in the sward increased (r2 = 0.969, P < 0.05 and 0.974, P < 0.05, respectively). The results suggest that the efficacy of plantain as a N2O mitigation option is due to both a reduction in urinary N excretion and a plant effect. The latter could be due to biological nitrification inhibition (BNI) caused by the release of root exudates and/or changes in the soil microclimate.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Agricultura/métodos , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta , Gado , Lolium , Nitrificação , Plantago , Verduras
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