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1.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0301972, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38771763

RESUMO

Livestock excrement is composted and applied to agricultural soils. If composts contain antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (ARB), they may spread to the soil and contaminate cultivated crops. Therefore, we investigated the degree of transmission of ARB and related antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) and, as well as clonal transmission of ARB from livestock to soil and crops through composting. This study was conducted at Rakuno Gakuen University farm in Hokkaido, Japan. Samples of cattle feces, solid and liquid composts, agricultural soil, and crops were collected. The abundance of Escherichia coli, coliforms, ß-lactam-resistant E. coli, and ß-lactam-resistant coliforms, as well as the copy numbers of ARG (specifically the bla gene related to ß-lactam-resistant bacteria), were assessed using qPCR through colony counts on CHROMagar ECC with or without ampicillin, respectively, 160 days after compost application. After the application of the compost to the soil, there was an initial increase in E. coli and coliform numbers, followed by a subsequent decrease over time. This trend was also observed in the copy numbers of the bla gene. In the soil, 5.0 CFU g-1 E. coli was detected on day 0 (the day post-compost application), and then, E. coli was not quantified on 60 days post-application. Through phylogenetic analysis involving single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and using whole-genome sequencing, it was discovered that clonal blaCTX-M-positive E. coli and blaTEM-positive Escherichia fergusonii were present in cattle feces, liquid compost, and soil on day 0 as well as 7 days post-application. This showed that livestock-derived ARB were transmitted from compost to soil and persisted for at least 7 days in soil. These findings indicate a potential low-level transmission of livestock-associated bacteria to agricultural soil through composts was observed at low frequency, dissemination was detected. Therefore, decreasing ARB abundance during composting is important for public health.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Produtos Agrícolas , Fezes , Gado , Microbiologia do Solo , Animais , Gado/microbiologia , Bovinos , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Bacterianos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Solo/química , Agricultura/métodos , Japão
2.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303877, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38771828

RESUMO

Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, is a zoonotic bacteria of global public health significance. The organism has a complex, diverse, and relatively poorly understood animal reservoir but there is increasing evidence that macropods play some part in the epidemiology of Q fever in Australia. The aim of this cross-sectional survey was to estimate the animal- and tissue-level prevalence of coxiellosis amongst eastern grey (Macropus giganteus) and red (Osphranter rufus) kangaroos co-grazing with domestic cattle in a Q fever endemic area in Queensland. Serum, faeces and tissue samples from a range of organs were collected from 50 kangaroos. A total of 537 tissue samples were tested by real-time PCR, of which 99 specimens from 42 kangaroos (84% of animals, 95% confidence interval [CI], 71% to 93%) were positive for the C. burnetii IS1111 gene when tested in duplicate. Twenty of these specimens from 16 kangaroos (32%, 95% CI 20% to 47%) were also positive for the com1 or htpAB genes. Serum antibodies were present in 24 (57%, 95% CI 41% to 72%) of the PCR positive animals. There was no statistically significant difference in PCR positivity between organs and no single sample type consistently identified C. burnetii positive kangaroos. The results from this study identify a high apparent prevalence of C. burnetii amongst macropods in the study area, albeit seemingly with an inconsistent distribution within tissues and in relatively small quantities, often verging on the limits of detection. We recommend Q fever surveillance in macropods should involve a combination of serosurveys and molecular testing to increase chances of detection in a population, noting that a range of tissues would likely need to be sampled to confirm the diagnosis in a suspect positive animal.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Coxiella burnetii , Macropodidae , Febre Q , Animais , Coxiella burnetii/genética , Coxiella burnetii/imunologia , Macropodidae/microbiologia , Queensland/epidemiologia , Febre Q/epidemiologia , Febre Q/veterinária , Febre Q/microbiologia , Febre Q/imunologia , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Gado/microbiologia , Bovinos , Estudos Transversais
3.
Elife ; 132024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747972

RESUMO

Systematically tracking and analysing reproductive loss in livestock helps with efforts to safeguard the health and productivity of food animals by identifying causes and high-risk areas.


Assuntos
Gado , Animais , Gravidez , Feminino , Aborto Animal
4.
Acta Trop ; 255: 107240, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705342

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis (CE), caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus, is a zoonotic parasitic disease that still represents a serious threat to human and animal health worldwide. The Mediterranean basin is recognized as one of the major hotspots of CE due to several factors, including the presence of diverse intermediate host species as well as socio-economic and cultural conditions of local communities. This study aims to take a closer look at epidemiological data on CE in the Mediterranean area and assess the knowledge attitudes and practices of shepherds towards this disease in four countries (Algeria, Greece, Italy and Tunisia), highly endemic for CE, with the final goal of identifying highly endemic risk areas and practices in use which might potentially allow the persistence of E. granulosus infection in these areas. To update the epidemiological scenario of CE in Mediterranean areas, a comprehensive review of peer-reviewed literature on CE prevalence data published during the 2017-2023 period was carried out and, through a geographical information system (GIS), a map displaying the current CE distribution in the Mediterranean area was generated. In addition, a questionnaire survey was conducted through in-depth interviews of the farmers to collect information on their management system as well as knowledge attitudes and practices towards CE. From the farmer-participatory survey some risky practices emerged including the non-regular deworming of dogs or the use of ineffective drugs or dosing, as well as the provision of uncooked animal viscera to dogs. Finally, lower levels of knowledge and awareness of the disease was observed among farmers from North Africa compared with those of European countries. In conclusion, the results obtained highlight that CE is still a very serious problem in Mediterranean areas and increased efforts are needed to promote awareness among farmers and to turn research results into policy in order to reduce the spread of this disease, according to the One Health perspective.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Echinococcus granulosus , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Gado , Animais , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Equinococose/prevenção & controle , Gado/parasitologia , Cães , Região do Mediterrâneo/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Grécia/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Bovinos , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Argélia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ovinos , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Toxins (Basel) ; 16(5)2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38787070

RESUMO

Food-producing animals are exposed to mycotoxins through ingestion, inhalation, or dermal contact with contaminated materials. This exposure can lead to serious consequences for animal health, affects the cost and quality of livestock production, and can even impact human health through foods of animal origin. Therefore, controlling mycotoxin exposure in animals is of utmost importance. A systematic literature search was conducted in this study to retrieve the results of monitoring exposure to mycotoxins in food-producing animals over the last five years (2019-2023), considering both external exposure (analysis of feed) and internal exposure (analysis of biomarkers in biological matrices). The most commonly used analytical technique for both approaches is LC-MS/MS due to its capability for multidetection. Several mycotoxins, especially those that are regulated (ochratoxin A, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, aflatoxins, fumonisins, T-2, and HT-2), along with some emerging mycotoxins (sterigmatocystin, nivalenol, beauvericin, enniantins among others), were studied in 13,818 feed samples worldwide and were typically detected at low levels, although they occasionally exceeded regulatory levels. The occurrence of multiple exposure is widespread. Regarding animal biomonitoring, the primary objective of the studies retrieved was to study mycotoxin metabolism after toxin administration. Some compounds have been suggested as biomarkers of exposure in the plasma, urine, and feces of animal species such as pigs and poultry. However, further research is required, including many other mycotoxins and animal species, such as cattle and sheep.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Contaminação de Alimentos , Micotoxinas , Animais , Micotoxinas/análise , Ração Animal/análise , Ovinos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Aves Domésticas , Suínos , Bovinos , Monitoramento Biológico , Gado
6.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303649, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753680

RESUMO

Alalili system is one among the fewest remnant African indigenous and local knowledge systems that is traditionally practiced by Maasai pastoral communities to conserve certain portions of rangeland resources such as pastures and water for subsequent grazing during dry seasons. Despite its existence, East African rangelands face diverse threats from tenure security, unsustainable practices, climate, and land-use change that are notably endangering the biodiversity, livelihoods, and ecosystems in the landscape. Like other indigenous conservation systems, the sustainability of Alalili systems is being threatened, as Maasai communities are in transition due to continuous socio-cultural transformations coupled with increased livestock and human populations. We aimed to capture and document the existing occurrence and potential of Alalili systems as a pathway to improve resilience and sustain both biodiversity conservation and community livelihoods in rangeland areas of northern Tanzania. A cross-sectional research design was applied with the adoption of both purposive and stratified random sampling techniques to distinctively characterize the Alalili systems by land use and tenure types. Our results identified the existence of both communal and private Alalili systems. Their sizes varied significantly across types (t = 4.4646, p < 0.001) and land uses (F = 3.806, df = 3, p = 0.0123). While many (82%) of these Alalili systems are found in the communal land, our observations show a re-practice of Alalili systems in the private land is considered largely a re-emerging strategy for securing pastures in the face of local and global change. More than half (73%) of Alalili systems were found within game-controlled areas with little representation (about 8%) in non-protected land. Therefore, their sustainability is threatened by anthropogenic and climatic pressures, making their persistence more vulnerable to extinction. We recommend mainstreaming these practices into core pasture production and management areas, facilitating their reinforcement into policy and practices.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Tanzânia , Humanos , Animais , Ecossistema , Gado , Estudos Transversais , África Oriental , População da África Oriental
7.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303647, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753684

RESUMO

The common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) is one of the most endangered mega herbivore in Africa. Although the human-hippo conflict (HHC) is currently escalating due to habitat loss, little is known about the scope of the conflict and potential mitigation measures. From 2021 to 2022, the extent of HHC, the perception of local inhabitants towards the animal, and its impacts on the conservation of the hippo were assessed within and in the surrounding areas of Dhidhessa Wildlife Sanctuary, southwestern Ethiopia. A total of 227 households were used as a data sources, participating in the questionnaire survey, focus group discussion and key informant interviews. Direct field observations were also used as key data source. Crop raiding and damage (63%, n = 143), was the most severely reported source of conflict, followed by direct human attack (22.9%, n = 52). Livestock predation and increased hippo mortality were also common types of HHC in the area. According to the study, the majority of respondents (74.4%, n = 169) agreed that the trend of conflict was increasing, while 16.7% (n = 38) argued that there was no change. Food scarcities in the buffer zone, as well as agricultural expansion in the area, have been identified as major drivers of HHC. The majority of respondents had a negative attitude toward hippo conservation; however, there were differences based on gender, age, and educational level. The major traditional hippo conflict mitigation strategies in the area include guarding, fencing, and trenching. Field observation revealed that a large extent of the former grazing and ranging areas of hippo in the area are heavily encroached and taken over by large private and public agricultural investments. Vacating and recovering at least the former buffer areas dedicated to the wildlife in the area and modern, non-lethal mitigation strategies are recommended for better conservation and safeguarding of the currently good-sized hippo population of the sanctuary.


Assuntos
Artiodáctilos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Animais , Etiópia , Humanos , Masculino , Animais Selvagens , Feminino , Ecossistema , Inquéritos e Questionários , Gado
8.
Funct Integr Genomics ; 24(3): 81, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709433

RESUMO

One of the primary concerns for the survival of the human species is the growing demand for food brought on by an increasing global population. New developments in genome-editing technology present promising opportunities for the growth of wholesome and prolific farm animals. Genome editing in large animals is used for a variety of purposes, including biotechnology to improve food production, animal health, and pest management, as well as the development of animal models for fundamental research and biomedicine. Genome editing entails modifying genetic material by removing, adding, or manipulating particular DNA sequences from a particular locus in a way that does not happen naturally. The three primary genome editors are CRISPR/Cas 9, TALENs, and ZFNs. Each of these enzymes is capable of precisely severing nuclear DNA at a predetermined location. One of the most effective inventions is base editing, which enables single base conversions without the requirement for a DNA double-strand break (DSB). As reliable methods for precise genome editing in studies involving animals, cytosine and adenine base editing are now well-established. Effective zygote editing with both cytosine and adenine base editors (ABE) has resulted in the production of animal models. Both base editors produced comparable outcomes for the precise editing of point mutations in somatic cells, advancing the field of gene therapy. This review focused on the principles, methods, recent developments, outstanding applications, the advantages and disadvantages of ZFNs, TALENs, and CRISPR/Cas9 base editors, and prime editing in diverse lab and farm animals. Additionally, we address the methodologies that can be used for gene regulation, base editing, and epigenetic alterations, as well as the significance of genome editing in animal models to better reflect real disease. We also look at methods designed to increase the effectiveness and precision of gene editing tools. Genome editing in large animals is used for a variety of purposes, including biotechnology to improve food production, animal health, and pest management, as well as the development of animal models for fundamental research and biomedicine. This review is an overview of the existing knowledge of the principles, methods, recent developments, outstanding applications, the advantages and disadvantages of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription-activator-like endonucleases (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas 9), base editors and prime editing in diverse lab and farm animals, which will offer better and healthier products for the entire human race.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Edição de Genes , Gado , Edição de Genes/métodos , Animais , Gado/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética
9.
J Environ Manage ; 359: 120934, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714031

RESUMO

This study offers a first-of-its-kind investigation into the spatial and temporal transformation of agricultural land use and expansion in crops and livestock at national scale during the middle and latter half of the 19th century. We introduce an innovative methodological framework that combines historical data with advanced spatial analysis to trace and map the evolution of frontiers of agricultural land use changes, illustrating Denmark's agricultural evolution towards the modern era. Our research uncovers critical shifts in cropland, grazing land, and livestock density offering unprecedented insights into the mechanisms driving agricultural expansion and intensification. The mechanisms driving this expansion and their potential impact on contemporary agroecological challenges linked to land use intensification are explored. Our results point to a significant broadening and shifting of land use frontiers offering a historical perspective on agricultural land use. This sets the stage for promoting the analysis of drivers of change and gaining insights into how landscape development could be steered into an environmentally and societally more desirable and sustainable direction tackling present-day agroecological challenges.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Produtos Agrícolas , Dinamarca , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Animais , Gado
10.
Comput Biol Chem ; 110: 108077, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38691895

RESUMO

A wealth of experimental evidence has suggested that open chromatin regions (OCRs) are involved in many critical biological activities, such as DNA replication, enhancer activity, and gene transcription. Accurately identifying OCRs in livestock species can provide critical insights into the distribution and characteristics of OCRs for disease treatment in livestock, thereby improving animal welfare. However, most current machine-learning methods for OCR prediction were originally designed for a limited number of model organisms, such as humans and some model organisms, and thus their performance on non-model organisms, specifically livestock, is often unsatisfactory. To bridge this gap, we propose DeepOCR, a lightweight depth-separable residual network model for predicting OCRs in livestock, including chicken, cattle, and sheep. DeepOCR integrates a single convolution layer and two improved residue structure blocks to extract and learn important features from the input DNA sequences. A fully connected layer was also employed to further process the extracted features and improve the robustness of the entire network. Our benchmarking experiments demonstrated superior prediction performance of DeepOCR compared to state-of-the-art approaches on testing datasets of the three species. The source code of DeepOCR is freely available for academic purposes at https://github.com/jasonzhao371/DeepOCR/. We anticipate DeepOCR servers as a practical and reliable computational tool for OCR-related studies in livestock species.


Assuntos
Cromatina , Aprendizado Profundo , Gado , Animais , Gado/genética , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/química , Cromatina/metabolismo , Bovinos , Ovinos , Galinhas
11.
Reprod Fertil Dev ; 362024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744493

RESUMO

Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a prominent class of persistent synthetic compound. The widespread use of these substances in various industrial applications has resulted in their pervasive contamination on a global scale. It is therefore concerning that PFAS have a propensity to accumulate in bodily tissues whereupon they have been linked with a range of adverse health outcomes. Despite this, the true extent of the risk posed by PFAS to humans, domestic animals, and wildlife remains unclear. Addressing these questions requires a multidisciplinary approach, combining the fields of chemistry, biology, and policy to enable meaningful investigation and develop innovative remediation strategies. This article combines the perspectives of chemists, soil scientists, reproductive biologists, and health policy researchers, to contextualise the issue of PFAS contamination and its specific impact on reproductive health. The purpose of this article is to describe the challenges associated with remediating PFAS-contaminated soils and waters and explore the consequences of PFAS contamination on health and reproduction. Furthermore, current actions to promote planetary health and protect ecosystems are presented to instigate positive social change among the scientific community.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorocarbonos , Saúde Reprodutiva , Animais , Humanos , Fluorocarbonos/toxicidade , Fluorocarbonos/efeitos adversos , Fluorocarbonos/análise , Gado , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos
12.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0304090, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38776300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the How Farm Vets Cope project was to co-design, with farm veterinary surgeons, a set of web-based resources to help them and others deal with the different situations that they can face. As part of the wider project, participants were recruited for one-to-one semi-structured phone interviews. These interviews focused on elements of job satisfaction and how the participants coped during periods of poor mental wellbeing or with setbacks and failure. METHODS: Transcripts of these interviews were analysed using both quantitative methods of sentiment analysis and text mining, including term frequency/inverse document frequency and rapid automated keyword extraction, and qualitative content analysis. The twin aims of the analysis were identifying the important themes discussed by the participants and comparing the results of the two methods to see what differences, if any, arose. RESULTS: Analysis using the afinn and nrc sentiment lexicons identified emotional themes of anticipation and trust. Rapid automated keyword extraction highlighted issues around age of vets and support, whilst using term frequency/inverse document frequency allowed for individual themes, such as religion, not present across all responses, to be identified. Content analysis supported these findings, pinpointing examples of trust around relationships with farmers and more experienced vets, along with some examples of the difference good support networks can make, particularly to younger vets. FINDINGS: This work has confirmed previous results in identifying the themes of trust, communication and support to be integral to the experience of practicing farm veterinary surgeons. Younger or less experienced vets recognised themselves as benefiting from further support and signposting, leading to a discussion around the preparation of veterinary students for entry into a farm animal vet practice. The two different approaches taken showed very good agreement in their results. The quantitative approaches can be scaled to allow a larger number of interviews to be utilised in studies whilst still allowing the important qualitative results to be identified.


Assuntos
Mineração de Dados , Gado , Saúde Mental , Médicos Veterinários , Humanos , Mineração de Dados/métodos , Animais , Médicos Veterinários/psicologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Satisfação no Emprego , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Entrevistas como Assunto , Fazendas
13.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(5): e17303, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741339

RESUMO

Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from livestock manure contribute significantly to the growth of atmospheric N2O, a powerful greenhouse gas and dominant ozone-depleting substance. Here, we estimate global N2O emissions from livestock manure during 1890-2020 using the tier 2 approach of the 2019 Refinement to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines. Global N2O emissions from livestock manure increased by ~350% from 451 [368-556] Gg N year-1 in 1890 to 2042 [1677-2514] Gg N year-1 in 2020. These emissions contributed ~30% to the global anthropogenic N2O emissions in the decade 2010-2019. Cattle contributed the most (60%) to the increase, followed by poultry (19%), pigs (15%), and sheep and goats (6%). Regionally, South Asia, Africa, and Latin America dominated the growth in global emissions since the 1990s. Nationally, the largest emissions were found in India (329 Gg N year-1), followed by China (267 Gg N year-1), the United States (163 Gg N year-1), Brazil (129 Gg N year-1) and Pakistan (102 Gg N year-1) in the 2010s. We found a substantial impact of livestock productivity, specifically animal body weight and milk yield, on the emission trends. Furthermore, a large spread existed among different methodologies in estimates of global N2O emission from livestock manure, with our results 20%-25% lower than those based on the 2006 IPCC Guidelines. This study highlights the need for robust time-variant model parameterization and continuous improvement of emissions factors to enhance the precision of emission inventories. Additionally, urgent mitigation is required, as all available inventories indicate a rapid increase in global N2O emissions from livestock manure in recent decades.


Assuntos
Gado , Esterco , Óxido Nitroso , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Esterco/análise , Animais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise
14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10027, 2024 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38693177

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify the status, determining factors, and challenges in adopting climate smart livestock production practices by farmers. Three-staged sampling techniques were used to select the research sites and 233 sample farmer household respondents. Data were collected mainly using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Key informant interviews and focus group discussions were also conducted to complement the household survey data. Descriptive statistics and an ordered logistic regression model were applied to analyze the quantitative data. The result revealed that the most adopted practices were composting (85.41%) and manure management (70.39%) while the least adopted technologies were biogas generation (3.86%) and rotation grazing (22.32%). The adoption status of the sampled farmers was also categorized into low (19.74%), medium (67.81%), and high adopter (12.45%). The high cost of improved breed, use of manure for fuel, free grazing, lack of information and awareness were the major constraints to adopting the climate smart livestock production technologies. The result also revealed that education, grazing land, total livestock holding, and extension agent contact contributed significantly and positively to the adoption of smart livestock production technology, while the distance from the water source had an insignificant and negative effect on the adoption status of climate smart livestock production practices. The study suggests the relevance of the cooperation of stakeholders and strengthening extension services for the maximum benefits of climate smart livestock production.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Fazendeiros , Gado , Etiópia , Animais , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Esterco , Clima , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1339285, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720961

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), often referred to as nature's antibiotics, are ubiquitous in living organisms, spanning from bacteria to humans. Their potency, versatility, and unique mechanisms of action have garnered significant research attention. Unlike conventional antibiotics, peptides are biodegradable, adding to their appeal as potential candidates to address bacterial resistance in livestock farming-a challenge that has been under scrutiny for decades. This issue is complex and multifactorial, influenced by a variety of components. The World Health Organization (WHO) has proposed a comprehensive approach known as One Health, emphasizing the interconnectedness of human-animal-environment relationships in tackling such challenges. This review explores the application of AMPs in livestock farming and how they can mitigate the impact of this practice within the One Health framework.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Antimicrobianos , Gado , Saúde Única , Gado/microbiologia , Animais , Humanos , Peptídeos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
J Biosci ; 492024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726821

RESUMO

Disease cross-transmission between wild and domestic ungulates can negatively impact livelihoods and wildlife conservation. In Pin valley, migratory sheep and goats share pastures seasonally with the resident Asiatic ibex (Capra sibirica), leading to potential disease cross-transmission. Focussing on gastro-intestinal nematodes (GINs) as determinants of health in ungulates, we hypothesized that infection on pastures would increase over summer from contamination by migrating livestock. Consequently, interventions in livestock that are well-timed should reduce infection pressure for ibex. Using a parasite life-cycle model, that predicts infective larval availability, we investigated GIN transmission dynamics and evaluated potential interventions. Migratory livestock were predicted to contribute most infective larvae onto shared pastures due to higher density and parasite levels, driving infections in both livestock and ibex. The model predicted a c.30-day antiparasitic intervention towards the end of the livestock's time in Pin would be most effective at reducing GINs in both hosts. Albeit with the caveats of not being able to provide evidence of interspecific parasite transmission due to the inability to identify parasite species, this case demonstrates the usefulness of our predictive model for investigating parasite transmission in landscapes where domestic and wild ungulates share pastures. Additionally, it suggests management options for further investigation.


Assuntos
Cabras , Gado , Animais , Índia/epidemiologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Gado/parasitologia , Ovinos/parasitologia , Migração Animal , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/transmissão , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/transmissão , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Nematoides/transmissão , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Infecções por Nematoides/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Larva/parasitologia , Nematoides/patogenicidade
17.
Lancet Planet Health ; 8(5): e309-e317, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing awareness of the environmental and public health impacts of expanding and intensifying animal-based food and farming systems creates discord, with the reliance of much of the world's population on animals for livelihoods and essential nutrition. Increasing the efficiency of food production through improved animal health has been identified as a step towards minimising these negative effects without compromising global food security. The Global Burden of Animal Diseases (GBADs) programme aims to provide data and analytical methods to support positive change in animal health across all livestock and aquaculture animal populations. METHODS: In this study, we present a metric that begins the process of disease burden estimation by converting the physical consequences of disease on animal performance to farm-level costs of disease, and calculates a metric termed the Animal Health Loss Envelope (AHLE) via comparison between the status quo and a disease-free ideal. An example calculation of the AHLE metric for meat production from broiler chickens is provided. FINDINGS: The AHLE presents the direct financial costs of disease at farm-level for all causes by estimating losses and expenditure in a given farming system. The general specification of the model measures productivity change at farm-level and provides an upper bound on productivity change in the absence of disease. On its own, it gives an indication of the scale of total disease cost at farm-level. INTERPRETATION: The AHLE is an essential stepping stone within the GBADs programme because it connects the physical performance of animals in farming systems under different environmental and management conditions and different health states to farm economics. Moving forward, AHLE results will be an important step in calculating the wider monetary consequences of changes in animal health as part of the GBADs programme. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the UK Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office, EU Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Gado , Animais , Doenças dos Animais/economia , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/economia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Galinhas , Carga Global da Doença , Saúde Global
18.
Onderstepoort J Vet Res ; 91(1): e1-e8, 2024 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38708768

RESUMO

Interface areas shared by humans, domestic and wild animals may serve as high transmission contexts for Toxoplasma gondii. However, knowledge about the epidemiology of T. gondii in such areas is currently limited. The present study assessed the seroprevalence of T. gondii in different hosts from Mpumalanga, South Africa. Furthermore, we investigated the local knowledge and related practices about T. gondii by conducting a questionnaire study in the community. Blood samples were obtained and analysed for T. gondii antibodies using a commercial multispecies latex agglutination kit. The seroprevalence detected in humans (n = 160; patients showing signs of acute febrile illness), cats (n = 9), chickens (n = 336) and goats (n = 358) was 8.8%, 0.0%, 4.2% and 11.2%, respectively. Seroprevalence in impalas (n = 97), kudus (n = 55), wild dogs (n = 54), wildebeests (n = 43), warthogs (n = 97) and zebras (n = 68) was calculated at 5.2%, 7.3%, 100.0%, 20.9%, 13.4% and 9.1%, respectively. The questionnaire revealed that 63.0% of household owners were subsistence farmers, and 35.9% were pet owners. A high level of female participation was found (75.3%) when compared to male participation (24.7%). The results show a low circulation of T. gondii in the domestic cycle and suggest the presence of possible bridges between the wildlife cycle and the surrounding domestic cycle.Contribution: The study contributes to identifying transmission patterns and risk factors of T. gondii within human and animal populations. This topic fits within the scope of the journal presenting original research in veterinary science, with the focus on wild and domestic populations on the African continent on a topic of universal importance.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Gatos , Gado/parasitologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Zoonoses , Cabras , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 37(2): 138-152, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577723

RESUMO

This review is aimed at summarizing the current state of knowledge about the relationship between environmental exposure to the bioaerosol emitted by intensive livestock farming and changes in the microbiome of people living in livestock farm vicinity. The PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases were searched by crossing keywords from the following 3 groups: a) "livestock," "animal farms," "animal breeding"; b) "microbiome," "resistome"; c) "livestock vicinity," "farm vicinity," "neighborhoods and health" in 2010-2022. Literature screening did not reveal any paper related to the full microbiome composition in the population studied. In the study, the authors included 7 papers (5 from the Netherlands, 1 from the USA, and 1 from China). The studies confirmed the carriage of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), livestockassociated MRSA (LA-MRSA MC398) and multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDRSA) in the nasal microbiome of adults and children living within 500-2000 m from a livestock farm. Clostridium difficile, including LA-ribotype RT078 carriage, was detected in the intestinal microbiome of adults living within 500-1000 m. Extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae were confirmed in the intestinal microbiome of adults living within 500-6200 m. Knowledge on the composition of the microflora of people living in livestock farm vicinity is insufficient to conclude about changes in the microbiome caused by the environmental emission of bioaerosol. The carriage prevalence of the LA-bacteria, including both strains with antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial resistance genes, confirms the presence of zoonotic bacteria in the human microflora in populations without occupational contact with animals. It cannot be ruled out that zoonotic bacteria, as a component of the microbiome, have a negative impact on people's health. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2024;37(2):138-52.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Humanos , Animais , Fazendas , Gado/microbiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Microbiologia do Ar , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/classificação
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 931: 172593, 2024 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38642765

RESUMO

Wastewater surveillance has evolved into a powerful tool for monitoring public health-relevant analytes. Recent applications in tracking severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection highlight its potential. Beyond humans, it can be extended to livestock settings where there is increasing demand for livestock products, posing risks of disease emergence. Wastewater surveillance may offer non-invasive, cost-effective means to detect potential outbreaks among animals. This approach aligns with the "One Health" paradigm, emphasizing the interconnectedness of animal, human, and ecosystem health. By monitoring viruses in livestock wastewater, early detection, prevention, and control strategies can be employed, safeguarding both animal and human health, economic stability, and international trade. This integrated "One Health" approach enhances collaboration and a comprehensive understanding of disease dynamics, supporting proactive measures in the Anthropocene era where animal and human diseases are on the rise.


Assuntos
Gado , Águas Residuárias , Animais , Águas Residuárias/virologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Viroses/veterinária , Viroses/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Saúde Única
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