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1.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1335911, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38318181

RESUMO

The galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) epitope is the cause of a global allergic disease, the α-Gal syndrome (AGS). It is a severe form of allergy to food and products of mammalian origin where IgE against the mammalian carbohydrate, α-Gal, is the cause of the allergic reactions. Allergic reactions triggered by parenterally administered α-Gal sources appear immediately, but those triggered via the oral route appear with a latency of several hours. The α-Gal epitope is highly immunogenic to humans, apes and old-world monkeys, all of which produce anti-α-Gal antibodies of the IgM, IgA and IgG subclasses. Strong evidence suggests that in susceptible individuals, class switch to IgE occurs after several tick bites. In this review, we discuss the strong immunogenic role of the α-Gal epitope and its structural resemblance to the blood type B antigen. We emphasize the broad abundance of α-Gal in different foods and pharmaceuticals and the allergenicity of various α-Gal containing molecules. We give an overview of the association of tick bites with the development of AGS and describe innate and adaptive immune response to tick saliva that possibly leads to sensitization to α-Gal. We further discuss a currently favored hypothesis explaining the mechanisms of the delayed effector phase of the allergic reaction to α-Gal. We highlight AGS from a clinical point of view. We review the different clinical manifestations of the disease and the prevalence of sensitization to α-Gal and AGS. The usefulness of various diagnostic tests is discussed. Finally, we provide different aspects of the management of AGS. With climate change and global warming, the tick density is increasing, and their geographic range is expanding. Thus, more people will be affected by AGS which requires more knowledge of the disease.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Picadas de Carrapatos , Carrapatos , Animais , Humanos , Galactose , Epitopos , Alérgenos , Imunoglobulina E , Mamíferos
2.
Biotechnol J ; 19(2): e2300415, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38375553

RESUMO

We designed and constructed a green and sustainable bioprocess to efficiently coproduce D -tagatose, bioethanol, and microbial protein from whey powder. First, a one-pot biosynthesis process involving lactose hydrolysis and D -galactose redox reactions for D -tagatose production was established in vitro via a three-enzyme cascade. Second, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent galactitol dehydrogenase mutant, D36A/I37R, based on the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent polyol dehydrogenase from Paracoccus denitrificans was created through rational design and screening. Moreover, an NADPH recycling module was created in the oxidoreductive pathway, and the tagatose yield increased by 3.35-fold compared with that achieved through the pathway without the cofactor cycle. The reaction process was accelerated using an enzyme assembly with a glycine-serine linker, and the tagatose production rate was 9.28-fold higher than the initial yield. Finally, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was introduced into the reaction solution, and 266.5 g of D -tagatose, 162.6 g of bioethanol, and 215.4 g of dry yeast (including 38% protein) were obtained from 1 kg of whey powder (including 810 g lactose). This study provides a promising sustainable process for functional food (D -tagatose) production. Moreover, this process fully utilized whey powder, demonstrating good atom economy.


Assuntos
Hexoses , Lactose , Soro do Leite , Soro do Leite/metabolismo , Pós/metabolismo , Lactose/metabolismo , Indústria de Laticínios , Galactose/metabolismo
3.
Parasite ; 31: 6, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38334686

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that recombinant Trichinella spiralis galectin (rTsgal) is characterized by a carbohydrate recognition domain sequence motif binding to beta-galactoside, and that rTsgal promotes larval invasion of intestinal epithelial cells. Galactomannan is an immunostimulatory polysaccharide composed of a mannan backbone with galactose residues. The aim of this study was to investigate whether galactomannan inhibits larval intrusion of intestinal epithelial cells and enhances antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), killing newborn larvae by polarizing macrophages to the M1 phenotype. The results showed that galactomannan specially binds to rTsgal, and abrogated rTsgal facilitation of larval invasion of intestinal epithelial cells. The results of qPCR, Western blotting, and flow cytometry showed that galactomannan and rTsgal activated macrophage M1 polarization, as demonstrated by high expression of iNOS (M1 marker) and M1 related genes (IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α), and increased CD86+ macrophages. Galactomannan and rTsgal also increased NO production. The killing ability of macrophage-mediated ADCC on larvae was also significantly enhanced in galactomannan- and rTsgal-treated macrophages. The results demonstrated that Tsgal may be considered a potential vaccine target molecule against T. spiralis invasion, and galactomannan may be a novel adjuvant therapeutic agent and potential vaccine adjuvant against T. spiralis infection.


Title: Le galactomannane inhibe l'invasion par Trichinella spiralis des cellules de l'épithélium intestinal et améliore la cytotoxicité cellulaire dépendante des anticorps tuant les larves en activant la polarisation des macrophages. Abstract: Des études antérieures ont montré que la galectine recombinante de Trichinella spiralis (rTsgal) est caractérisée par un motif de séquence de domaines de reconnaissance des glucides se liant au bêta-galactoside, et que la rTsgal favorise l'invasion larvaire des cellules épithéliales intestinales. Le galactomannane est un polysaccharide immunostimulateur composé d'un squelette mannane avec des résidus galactose. Le but de cette étude était de déterminer si le galactomannane inhibe l'intrusion larvaire des cellules épithéliales intestinales et améliore la cytotoxicité cellulaire dépendante des anticorps (CCDA) tuant les larves nouvelles-nées en polarisant les macrophages au phénotype M1. Les résultats ont montré que le galactomannane se liait spécialement au rTsgal et supprimait la facilitation du rTsgal sur l'invasion larvaire des cellules épithéliales intestinales. Les résultats de la qPCR, du Western blot et de la cytométrie en flux ont montré que le galactomannane et le rTsgal activaient la polarisation des macrophages M1, comme le démontre la forte expression de l'iNOS (marqueur de M1) et des gènes liés à M1 (IL-1ß, IL-6 et TNF-α), et l'augmentation des macrophages CD86+. Le galactomannane et le rTsgal ont également augmenté la production de NO. La capacité de destruction de la CCDA médiée par les macrophages sur les larves était également significativement améliorée dans les macrophages traités au galactomannane et au rTsgal. Les résultats ont démontré que Tsgal pourrait être considéré comme une molécule cible potentielle d'un vaccin contre l'invasion par T. spiralis, et que le galactomannane pourrait être un nouvel agent thérapeutique adjuvant et un adjuvant vaccinal potentiel contre l'infection à T. spiralis.


Assuntos
Galactose/análogos & derivados , Doenças dos Roedores , Trichinella spiralis , Triquinelose , Animais , Camundongos , Mananas/farmacologia , Mananas/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Mucosa Intestinal , Citotoxicidade Celular Dependente de Anticorpos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(5): e37067, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum galactomannan (GM) and ß-D-glucan (BG) are known markers of invasive aspergillosis (IA). The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficiency of serum GM and BG as diagnostic markers of symptomatic IA infection and compare the performance of the combined tests with that of either test individually. METHODS: A literature search was carried out using PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases to include relevant studies published in English up to May 2023. The quality assessment was performed using Review Manager 5.3 software. A bivariate model was applied to pool diagnostic parameters using Stata 14.0 software. We used Cochrane I2 index to assess heterogeneity and identify the potential source of heterogeneity by meta-regression. Paired t tests were used to compare the value of GM and BG for IA diagnosis when used in combination or alone. RESULTS: Sixteen studies were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. For proven or probable IA, serum GM and BG yielded a pooled sensitivity of 0.53 (95% CI 0.40-0.66) vs 0.72 (95% CI 0.61-0.81) and a pooled specificity of 0.94 (95% CI 0.91-0.97) vs 0.82 (95% CI 0.73-0.88). The area under the curve (AUC) of ROC was 0.90 (95% CI 0.87-0.92) vs 0.83 (95% CI 0.80-0.86) for all studies. The pooled sensitivity and specificity for IA diagnosis by combined GM and BG assays (GM/BG) were 0.84 (95% CI 0.69-0.86) and 0.76 (95% CI 0.69-0.81), respectively. The sensitivity of the combined GM/BG test to diagnose IA was higher than of the GM or BG test alone. CONCLUSION: Serum GM and BG tests had a relatively high accuracy for IA diagnosis in suspected patients. The diagnostic accuracy of both assays is comparable, and the diagnostic sensitivity is further improved by the combined detection of the 2 markers.


Assuntos
Aspergilose , Galactose/análogos & derivados , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas , Aspergilose Pulmonar Invasiva , beta-Glucanas , Humanos , Aspergilose/diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Mananas , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/diagnóstico , Aspergilose Pulmonar Invasiva/diagnóstico
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 4123, 2024 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38374148

RESUMO

Although cataract is the leading cause of blindness worldwide, the detailed pathogenesis of cataract remains unclear, and clinically useful drug treatments are still lacking. In this study, we examined the effects of glutamate using an ex vivo model in which rat lens is cultured in a galactose-containing medium to induce opacity formation. After inducing lens opacity formation in galactose medium, glutamate was added, and the opacity decreased when the culture was continued. Next, microarray analysis was performed using samples in which the opacity was reduced by glutamate, and genes whose expression increased with galactose culture and decreased with the addition of glutamate were extracted. Subsequently, STRING analysis was performed on a group of genes that showed variation as a result of quantitative measurement of gene expression by RT-qPCR. The results suggest that apoptosis, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, cell proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), cytoskeleton, and histones are involved in the formation and reduction of opacity. Therefore, glutamate may reduce opacity by inhibiting oxidative stress and its downstream functions, and by regulating the cytoskeleton and cell proliferation.


Assuntos
Catarata , Cristalino , Ratos , Animais , Galactose/metabolismo , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Catarata/induzido quimicamente , Catarata/genética , Cristalino/metabolismo , Apoptose , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339050

RESUMO

Human milk is abundant in carbohydrates and includes human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) and N/O-glycans conjugated to proteins. HMO compositions and concentrations vary in individuals according to the maternal secretor status based on the fucosyltransferase 2 genotype; however, the profile of N/O-glycans remains uninvestigated because of the analytical complexity. Herein, we applied a label-free chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) technique to elucidate the variation in the composition and concentration of N/O-glycans in human milk. We used label-free LC-MS to relatively quantify 16 N-glycans and 12 O-glycans in 200 samples of Japanese human milk (1-2 months postpartum) and applied high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection to absolutely quantify the concentrations of 11 representative HMOs. Cluster analysis of the quantitative data revealed that O-glycans and several HMOs were classified according to the presence or absence of fucose linked to galactose while N-glycans were classified into a different group from O-glycans and HMOs. O-glycans and HMOs with fucose linked to galactose were more abundant in human milk from secretor mothers than from nonsecretor mothers. Thus, secretor status influenced the composition and concentration of HMOs and O-glycans but not those of N-glycans in human milk.


Assuntos
Fucose , Leite Humano , Feminino , Humanos , Leite Humano/química , Japão , Fucose/análise , Galactose , Polissacarídeos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Oligossacarídeos/química
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(7): 3644-3653, 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335068

RESUMO

The limited availability of high-cost nucleotide sugars is a significant constraint on the application of their downstream products (glycosides and prebiotics) in the food or pharmaceutical industry. To better solve the problem, this study presented a one-pot approach for the biosynthesis of UDP-Gal using a thermophilic multienzyme system consisting of GalK, UGPase, and PPase. Under optimal conditions, a 2 h reaction resulted in a UTP conversion rate of 87.4%. In a fed-batch reaction with Gal/ATP = 20 mM:10 mM, UDP-Gal accumulated to 33.76 mM with a space-time yield (STY) of 6.36 g/L·h-1 after the second feeding. In repetitive batch synthesis, the average yield of UDP-Gal over 8 cycles reached 10.80 g/L with a very low biocatalyst loading of 0.002 genzymes/gproduct. Interestingly, Galk (Tth0595) could synthesize Gal-1P using ADP as a donor of phosphate groups, which had never been reported before. This approach possessed the benefits of high synthesis efficiency, low cost, and superior reaction system stability, and it provided new insights into the rapid one-pot synthesis of UDP-Gal and high-value glycosidic compounds.


Assuntos
Nucleotídeos , Uridina Difosfato Galactose , Difosfato de Uridina , Galactose
8.
JAMA ; 331(6): 510-521, 2024 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38349368

RESUMO

Importance: An estimated 7.6% of children and 10.8% of adults have IgE-mediated food-protein allergies in the US. IgE-mediated food allergies may cause anaphylaxis and death. A delayed, IgE-mediated allergic response to the food-carbohydrate galactose-α-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal) in mammalian meat affects an estimated 96 000 to 450 000 individuals in the US and is currently a leading cause of food-related anaphylaxis in adults. Observations: In the US, 9 foods account for more than 90% of IgE-mediated food allergies-crustacean shellfish, dairy, peanut, tree nuts, fin fish, egg, wheat, soy, and sesame. Peanut is the leading food-related cause of fatal and near-fatal anaphylaxis in the US, followed by tree nuts and shellfish. The fatality rate from anaphylaxis due to food in the US is estimated to be 0.04 per million per year. Alpha-gal syndrome, which is associated with tick bites, is a rising cause of IgE-mediated food anaphylaxis. The seroprevalence of sensitization to alpha-gal ranges from 20% to 31% in the southeastern US. Self-injectable epinephrine is the first-line treatment for food-related anaphylaxis. The cornerstone of IgE-food allergy management is avoidance of the culprit food allergen. There are emerging immunotherapies to desensitize to one or more foods, with one current US Food and Drug Administration-approved oral immunotherapy product for treatment of peanut allergy. Conclusions and Relevance: IgE-mediated food allergies, including delayed IgE-mediated allergic responses to red meat in alpha-gal syndrome, are common in the US, and may cause anaphylaxis and rarely, death. IgE-mediated anaphylaxis to food requires prompt treatment with epinephrine injection. Both food-protein allergy and alpha-gal syndrome management require avoiding allergenic foods, whereas alpha-gal syndrome also requires avoiding tick bites.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Picadas de Carrapatos , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Anafilaxia/etiologia , Anafilaxia/terapia , Arachis , Epinefrina , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/complicações , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/terapia , Galactose , Imunoglobulina E , Mamíferos , Carne , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Plant Cell Rep ; 43(1): 29, 2024 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38183427

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: OsSWEET1b is a hexose transporter protein, which localized in cell membranes and interacting with itself to form homodimer and knockout of OsSWEET1b resulted in reduced leaves sugar content and accelerating leaf senescence. In the rice genome, the SWEET gene family contains 21 homologous members, but the role of some of them in rice growth and development is still unknown. The function of the sugar transporter OsSWEET1b protein in rice was identified in this research. Expression analysis showed that the expression levels of OsSWEET1b in leaves were higher than that in other tissues. The hexose transport experiment confirmed that OsSWEET1b has glucose and galactose transporter activity in yeast. Subcellular localization indicates that OsSWEET1b protein was targeted to the plasma membrane and BiFC analysis showed that OsSWEET1b interacts with itself to form homodimers. Functional analysis demonstrated that the ossweet1b mutant plants were have reduced the sucrose, glucose, fructose, starch and galactose contents, and induced carbon starvation-related gene expression, which might lead to carbon starvation in leaves at filling stage. The ossweet1b knockout plants showed decreased chlorophyll content and antioxidant enzyme activity, and increased ROS accumulation in leaves, leading to leaf cell death and premature senescence phenotype at filling stage. In ossweet1b mutants, the leaf senescence-related gene expression levels were increased and the abundance of photosynthesis-related proteins was decreased. Loss of OsSWEET1b were affected the starch, sucrose metabolism and carbon fixation in photosynthetic organelles pathway by RNA-seq analysis. The destruction of OsSWEET1b function will cause sugar starvation, decreased photosynthesis and leaf senescence, which leading to reduced rice yield. Collectively, our results suggest that the OsSWEET1b plays a key role in rice leaves carbohydrate metabolism and leaf senescence.


Assuntos
Galactose , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/genética , Senescência Vegetal , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Glucose , Antioxidantes , Carbono , Membrana Celular , Amido , Sacarose
10.
Food Chem ; 441: 138323, 2024 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38199105

RESUMO

The molecular structure and morphologies of complex colloidal particles with modified glycine (S-11S) and d-galactose were studied by multispectral, microscopic imaging and chromatographic techniques at different temperatures, and the self-assembly and aggregation mechanisms were determined. Overall, high-temperature-treated S-11S and d-galactose associate at cysteine and phenylalanine sites and self-assemble into colloidal particles of greater stability than glycinin and S-11S via ionic and disulfide bonds. The structure and subunit content of composite colloidal particles were changed. Assessing the sub-microstructure reveals that temperature can regulate the directional aggregation of complex colloidal particles. The elasticity of the complex colloidal particles is maximum enhanced at 95 ℃ as confirmed by the rheological. Thus, the heat-treated aggregation of the soy protein and its complex was evaluated to provide a new theoretical basis for the application of soy protein in gels and other areas and contribute to the design of new soy protein products.


Assuntos
Globulinas , Proteínas de Soja , Proteínas de Soja/química , Temperatura , Galactose , Globulinas/química
11.
Reprod Biomed Online ; 48(2): 103330, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38163419

RESUMO

RESEARCH QUESTION: Is there a protective effect of the humanin derivative [Gly14]-humanin (HNG) on a D-gal-induced mouse model of primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), and what is the underlying mechanism? DESIGN: D-gal (200 mg/kg/day) was injected subcutaneously for 6 weeks to induce the mouse POI model. Mice treated with HNG were injected intraperitoneally with different concentrations for 6 weeks. Ovarian morphology, function, levels of sex hormones and states of oxidative stress in the ovary and body were evaluated. RESULTS: Compared with the D-gal group, 10 mg/kg HNG improved the abnormal ovarian morphology and oestrous cycle (P = 0.0036), increased the number of ovarian follicles (P = 0.0016) and litters (P = 0.0127), and increased the levels of oestrogen (P = 0.0043) and AMH (P = 0.0147). Antioxidant indicators in the ovaries and serum of mice, including total antioxidant capacity (P = 0.0004 and P = 0.0032, respectively), catalase (P = 0.0173 and P = 0.0103, respectively) and glutathione (both P < 0.0001) were significantly increased. The oxidation indicator malondialdehyde decreased significantly (all P < 0.01). Apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells was significantly reduced (P = 0.0140) as was the expression of senescence-related proteins p53, p21 and p16 (all P < 0.01). The level of autophagy in ovarian tissue of mice treated with high increased (significantly increased LC3 protein [P < 0.0001] and significantly reduced p62 protein [P = 0.0007]). CONCLUSIONS: HNG inhibited D-gal-induced oxidative stress, apoptosis and ovarian damage, promoting ovarian autophagy. HNG may be a potential prophylactic agent against POI.


Assuntos
Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária , Humanos , Feminino , Camundongos , Animais , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/prevenção & controle , Galactose/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia
12.
Med J Malaysia ; 79(1): 95-101, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38287764

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy (IgAN) results from abnormal accumulation of immune complexes containing galactose deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) in the kidneys. About 40% of patients develop end-stage kidney disease within 20 years of renal biopsy. At present, the diagnosis and risk stratification of patients (using the international IgAN risk prediction tool) rely on renal biopsy, which is an invasive procedure. Also, treatment decisions are still dependent on proteinuria, which is not specific for IgA nephropathy. We discussed the role of serum and urine Gd- IgA1 in the diagnosis of IgAN, its association with disease progression and changes with treatment in patients with IgA nephropathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed and Scopus databases was done to identify the articles that are relevant to the topic including systematic reviews and original articles. RESULTS: Several studies showed that both serum and urine Gd-IgA1 differentiate IgA nephropathy patients from healthy people and other glomerulonephropathies. Thus, it is useful as a less invasive diagnostic biomarker, although detection methods varied between studies with different sensitivities. There are various reports of its use as a prognostic parameter. Evidence is emerging for its use as a monitoring parameter for treatment. CONCLUSION: Galactose deficient IgA1 is a promising biomarker in the management of IgA nephropathy, although a more robust and standardised means of estimation is required.


Assuntos
Glomerulonefrite por IGA , Humanos , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/diagnóstico , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/patologia , Galactose , Imunoglobulina A , Biomarcadores
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(1): e2351418, 2024 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38206624

RESUMO

Importance: Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) other than Lyme disease, such as spotted fever group rickettsiosis, ehrlichiosis, and galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal) syndrome, are an emerging public health issue. Long-term sequelae secondary to Ehrlichia or Rickettsia infection are uncommon; however, musculoskeletal symptoms are often attributed to prior tick exposure. Objective: To evaluate the potential associations between prior exposure to TBDs and musculoskeletal symptoms, including radiographic osteoarthritis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study analyzed serum samples from the fourth visit (2017-2018) of the Johnston County Osteoarthritis (JoCo OA) project, an ongoing longitudinal, population-based study in Johnston County, North Carolina. Biospecimen testing and analysis were performed between May 2022 and November 2023. Participants in the JoCo OA project are noninstitutionalized White and Black Johnston County residents 45 years or older. Main Outcome and Measures: The primary outcome was seropositivity with Ehrlichia IgG, Rickettsia IgG, and/or α-gal IgE and musculoskeletal symptoms. Secondary outcomes included risk factors associated with elevated α-gal IgE and weighted population point prevalence rates. Participants completed questionnaires, underwent physical assessments, and provided biospecimens for serological testing. Multivariable models were used to estimate associations of interest. Results: Of the 605 participants who completed the fourth visit of the JoCo OA project, 488 (80.7%) had serum samples available for testing. The 488 participants had a median (IQR) age of 72 (68-78) years and included 336 females (68.9%) and 161 Black (33.0%) and 327 White (67.0%) individuals. The overall weighted point prevalence was 8.6% (95% CI, 5.9%-11.3%) for Ehrlichia IgG, 17.1% (95% CI, 12.6%-21.5%) for Rickettsia IgG, and 19.6% (95% CI, 15.3%-23.8%) for α-gal IgE level greater than 0.1 IU/mL. Only α-gal IgE was associated with knee pain, aching or stiffness (mean ratio, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.09-1.56). Antibodies to Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, and α-gal were not associated with symptomatic radiographic knee osteoarthritis. Male sex (odds ratio [OR], 2.63; 95% CI, 1.55-4.47), current smoker status (OR, 3.55; 95% CI, 1.38-9.18), and an attached tick bite in the past 5 years (OR, 3.99; 95% CI, 2.22-7.15) were all risk factors that were associated with α-gal IgE level greater than 0.1 IU/mL. Despite only 84 individuals (17.2%) recalling a tick bite in the past 5 years, 178 (36.5%) had evidence of prior tick-borne exposure, suggesting frequent human-tick interactions. Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this cross-sectional study indicate no association between Ehrlichia or Rickettsia seropositivity and chronic musculoskeletal symptoms or osteoarthritis. Further investigation is needed into the pathogenesis of α-gal syndrome and interventions to reduce human-tick interactions.


Assuntos
Dor Musculoesquelética , Osteoartrite , Picadas de Carrapatos , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos , Feminino , Masculino , Humanos , Idoso , Dor Musculoesquelética/epidemiologia , Picadas de Carrapatos/complicações , Picadas de Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Galactose , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Imunoglobulina G , Imunoglobulina E
14.
Mycoses ; 67(1): e13695, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38282361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) galactomannan (GM) is commonly used to diagnose Aspergillus-related lung diseases. However, unlike serum GM, which is measured in undiluted blood, BAL-GM is estimated using variable aliquots and cumulative volume of instillates during bronchoscopy. OBJECTIVE: Since different studies have reported varying diagnostic accuracy and cut-offs for BAL-GM in CPA, we hypothesized that the total volume of instillate and 'order/label' of aliquots significantly affects the BAL-GM values, which was evaluated as part of this study. PATIENTS & METHODS: We obtained 250 BAL samples from 50 patients (five from each) with suspected chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. BAL fluid was collected after instilling sequential volumes of 40 mL of normal saline each for the first four labels and a fifth label was prepared by mixing 1 mL from each of the previous labels. The GM level of each label was measured by PLATELIA™ ASPERGILLUS Ag enzyme immunoassay. This study measured the discordance, level of agreement, diagnostic characteristics (sensitivity, specificity and AUROC) and best cut-offs for BAL-GM in the different aliquots of lavage fluid. RESULTS: The study population, classified into CPA (28%) and non-CPA (72%) groups, based on ERS/ESCMID criteria (excluding BAL-GM) were not different with respect to clinico-radiological characteristics. The discordance of BAL-GM positivity (using a cut-off of >1) between the serial labels for the same patient ranged between 10% and 22%, while the discordance between classification using BAL-GM positivity (using a cut-off of ≥1) and clinic-radio-microbiological classification ranged between 18% and 30%. The level of agreement for serial labels was at best fair (<0.6 for all except one 'label'). The AUROC for the serial samples ranged between 0.595 and 0.702, with the '40 mL and the 'mix' samples performing the best. The best BAL-GM cut-off also showed significant variation between serial labels of varying dilutions (Range:1.01 - 4.26). INTERPRETATION: This study highlights the variation in BAL-GM measured and the 'positivity' between different 'labels' of aliquots of BAL, with the first aliquot and the mixed sample showing the best performances for diagnosis of CPA. Future studies should attempt to 'standardise' the instilled volume for BAL-GM estimation to standardise the diagnostic yield.


Assuntos
Galactose/análogos & derivados , Aspergilose Pulmonar Invasiva , Aspergilose Pulmonar , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Aspergilose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/microbiologia , Mananas , Infecção Persistente , Aspergilose Pulmonar Invasiva/diagnóstico , Aspergilose Pulmonar Invasiva/microbiologia
15.
Molecules ; 29(2)2024 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38276581

RESUMO

Aging is a well-known factor that accelerates brain deterioration, resulting in impaired learning and memory functions. This current study evaluated the potential of an extract of Alternanthera philoxeroides (AP), an edible flavonoid-rich plant, to ameliorate D-galactose-induced brain aging in male mice. Chronic administration of D-galactose (150 mg/kg/day) in mice mimicked the characteristics of aging by accelerating senescence via downregulation of the following telomere-regulating factors: mouse telomerase reverse transcriptase (mTERT) and mouse telomeric repeat-binding factors 1 (mTRF1) and 2 (mTRF2). D-galactose also decreased the activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), while increasing expression of neuroinflammatory cytokines in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Daily treatment of D-galactose-induced aging mice with AP at 250 and 500 mg/kg/day or vitamin E (100 mg/kg/day) significantly increased the activities of SOD and CAT, as well as expression of mTERT, mTRF1, and mTRF2, which are involved in telomere stabilization, but decreased the levels of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α. In the behavioral portion of the study, AP improved aging-related cognitive deficits in short-term memory as shown by the Y-maze task and the novel object recognition test (NORT) and long-term memory as shown by the Morris water maze test (MWMT). The flavones kaempferol-O-glucoside (1), quercetin (2), alternanthin B (3), demethyltorosaflavone D (4), and chrysoeriol-7-O-rhamnoside (5), which could be responsible for the observed effects of AP in the D-galactose-induced aging mice, were identified by HPLC analysis.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Galactose , Camundongos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Galactose/metabolismo , Encurtamento do Telômero , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Envelhecimento , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Transtornos da Memória/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Memória/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo
16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 323: 117685, 2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38171467

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Placenta is a kind of traditional Chinese medicine, known as "Ziheche", which has the function of tonifying qi and blood, nourishing liver and kidney. Placenta extract (PE) has been used for delaying organismal aging and treating various liver diseases. Cow placenta is a rich natural resource with large mass. Its composition is similar to that of human placenta, but it has not been effectively utilized. However, little is known about the effect of CPE on the liver of aging mice. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study is to explore the protective effect and mechanism of CPE on the liver of d-galactose (D-gal) induced aging mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Statistical methods were used to calculate mouse body weight and liver index. Hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to detect the morphological structure of the liver. Automatic biochemical analyzer was used to measure serum biochemical indicators. Three special staining methods were used to observe hepatocytes apoptosis, senescence and proliferation respectively. Relative kits were used to detect oxidative, inflammatory, and aging markers in the liver. Finally, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western-blot were used to detect aging related signaling pathways. RESULTS: CPE significantly improved the morphological damage and dysfunction of liver, restored the activities of liver enzymes in serum, and alleviated liver oxidative stress and inflammatory response in D-gal induced aging mice. Furthermore, CPE inhibited hepatocyte apoptosis and senescence, and promoted hepatocyte proliferation by regulating BAX/CASP3 and p53/p21/p16 signaling pathways, ultimately reduced the effects of aging on the liver. CONCLUSION: CPE effectively ameliorated the impact of aging on the liver by inhibiting free radical production or scavenging excessive free radicals, and its mechanism is associated to the regulation of apoptosis and proliferation-related factors.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Hepatopatias , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Bovinos , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo , Galactose , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Envelhecimento
17.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2552, 2024 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38291146

RESUMO

Galactomannan (GM) is a polysaccharide cell wall component released by Aspergillus spp., and an immunoenzymatic GM assay is used for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. We evaluated the cause of strong positivity for GM in patients with no typical signs of aspergillosis. Repeat assays were performed using different instruments and reagent lots, but there were no differences in results among the assays. Patients with strongly positive GM results were investigated. Medication histories revealed that 14 of 23 patients had been administered total parenteral nutrition solution from one manufacturer and 4 patients had been administered dextrose solution from a different manufacturer before being tested. The results of GM assays conducted on samples of dextrose solution and the glucose fraction of the total parenteral nutrition solution were strongly positive, confirming the causes of the false-positive reactions. We hypothesize that a trace amount of GM was introduced into the glucose-containing solutions because glucoamylase, which is necessary for the saccharification step of glucose synthesis, was derived from Aspergillus niger. To enhance patient care and prevent unnecessary antifungal prescriptions, healthcare providers and manufacturers of healthcare products need to be aware of the possibility of false-positive reactions for GM.


Assuntos
Aspergilose , Humanos , Aspergilose/tratamento farmacológico , Mananas , Galactose , Glucose/uso terapêutico , Soluções de Nutrição Parenteral , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Antígenos de Fungos
18.
Parasitol Res ; 123(2): 117, 2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38294565

RESUMO

The free living Acanthamoeba spp. are ubiquitous amoebae associated with potentially blinding disease known as Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) and a fatal central nervous system infection granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE). With the inherent ability of cellular differentiation, it can phenotypically transform to a dormant cyst form from an active trophozoite form. Acanthamoeba cysts are highly resistant to therapeutic agents as well as contact lens cleaning solutions. One way to tackle drug resistance against Acanthamoeba is by inhibiting the formation of cysts from trophozoites. The biochemical analysis showed that the major component of Acanthamoeba cyst wall is composed of carbohydrate moieties such as galactose and glucose. The disaccharide of galactose and glucose is lactose. In this study, we analyzed the potential of lactase enzyme to target carbohydrate moieties of cyst walls. Amoebicidal assessment showed that lactase was ineffective against trophozoite of A. castellanii but enhanced amoebicidal effects of chlorhexidine. The lactase enzyme did not show any toxicity against normal human keratinocyte cells (HaCaT) at the tested range. Hence, lactase can be used for further assessment for development of potential therapeutic agents in the management of Acanthamoeba infection as well as formulation of effective contact lens disinfectants.


Assuntos
Acanthamoeba castellanii , Amebíase , Amebicidas , Cistos , Humanos , Lactase , Galactose , Soluções para Lentes de Contato , Genótipo , Glucose , Diferenciação Celular
19.
Carbohydr Polym ; 327: 121653, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38171675

RESUMO

Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L) galactomannan play an important role in the food and pharmaceutical sectors due to its attractive physicochemical properties. In this study, the changes of structure, properties and biological activity of fenugreek galactomannan (FG) during germination are analyzed by the activity and mechanism of endogenous enzymes (α-D-galactosidase and ß-D-mannanase). The enzymes generally increased during germination and synergistically altered the structure of GM by cutting down the main chains and removing partial side residues. The mannose to galactose ratio (M/G) increased from 1.11 to 1.59, which is accompanied by a drastic decrease in molecular weight from 3.606 × 106 to 0.832 × 106 g/mol, and the drop of viscosity from 0.27 to 0.06 Pa·sn. The degraded macromolecules are attributed to the increase in solubility (from 64.55 % to 88.62 %). In terms of antioxidation and antidiabetic ability, germinated fenugreek galactomannan has the ability to scavenge 67.17 % ABTS free radicals and inhibit 86.89 % α-glucosidase. This galactomannan with low molecular weight and excellent biological activity precisely satisfies the current demands of pharmaceutical reagents and food industry. Seeds germination holds promise as a means of industrial scale production of low molecular weight galactomannans.


Assuntos
Trigonella , Trigonella/química , Sementes/química , Mananas/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Galactose/análise
20.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 108(1): 50, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38183482

RESUMO

Germacrene D, a sesquiterpenoid compound found mainly in plant essential oils at a low level as (+) and/or (-) enantiomeric forms, is an ingredient for the fragrance industry, but a process for the sustainable supply of enantiopure germacrene D is not yet established. Here, we demonstrate metabolic engineering in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) achieving biosynthesis of enantiopure germacrene D at a high titer. To boost farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) flux for high-level germacrene D biosynthesis, a background yeast chassis (CENses5C) was developed by genomic integration of the expression cassettes for eight ergosterol pathway enzymes that sequentially converted acetyl-CoA to FPP and by replacing squalene synthase promoter with a copper-repressible promoter, which restricted FPP flux to the competing pathway. Galactose-induced expression of codon-optimized plant germacrene D synthases led to 13-30 fold higher titers of (+) or (-)-germacrene D in CENses5C than the parent strain CEN.PK2.1C. Furthermore, genomic integration of germacrene D synthases in GAL80, LPP1 and rDNA loci generated CENses8(+D) and CENses8(-D) strains, which produced 41.36 µg/ml and 728.87 µg/ml of (+) and (-)-germacrene D, respectively, without galactose supplementation. Moreover, coupling of mitochondrial citrate pool to the cytosolic acetyl-CoA, by expressing a codon-optimized ATP-citrate lyase of oleaginous yeast, resulted in 137.71 µg/ml and 815.81 µg/ml of (+) or (-)-germacrene D in CENses8(+D)* and CENses8(-D)* strains, which were 67-120 fold higher titers than in CEN.PK2.1C. In fed-batch fermentation, CENses8(+D)* and CENses8(-D)* produced 290.28 µg/ml and 2519.46 µg/ml (+) and (-)-germacrene D, respectively, the highest titers in shake-flask fermentation achieved so far. KEY POINTS: • Engineered S. cerevisiae produced enantiopure (+) and (-)-germacrene D at high titers • Engineered strain produced up to 120-fold higher germacrene D than the parental strain • Highest titers of enantiopure (+) and (-)-germacrene D achieved so far in shake-flask.


Assuntos
Galactose , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Acetilcoenzima A , Códon
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