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1.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(3): 385, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212245

RESUMO

Newcastle disease and heat stress reduce the productivity of local chickens of Nigeria (LCN). This study compared the antibody response to Newcastle disease and heat tolerance among different LCN genotypes in hot humid tropics using multivariate discriminant analysis. A total of 299 birds were used for the study. Geometric mean titre against Newcastle disease before vaccination (GMTB), geometric mean titre against Newcastle disease after vaccination (GMTA), rectal temperature at week 4 (RT4), pulse rate at week 4 (PR4), respiratory rate at week 4 (RR4), heat stress index at week 4 (H4), rectal temperature at week 13 (RT13), pulse rate at week 13 (PR13), respiratory rate at week 13 (RR13) and heat stress index at week 13 (H13) were measured. All the traits were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by the genotype while sex differences were only observed in GMTB, GMTA and RR13. The stepwise discriminant analysis revealed RR4, PR13, RT13, H4, GMTA, GMTB, H13 and RT4 to be effective in differentiating the three chicken genotypes. Two canonical variables that accounted for 60.21% and 39.79% of the total variation were revealed. Linear discriminant functions for differentiation of the three chicken genotypes were also developed. 87.39% of normal feather, 76.58% of naked neck and 100% of frizzle feather chickens were correctly assigned into their genotypes. The longest Mahalanobis distance was observed between normal feather and frizzle feather chickens. The discriminant functions developed in this study could be used to differentiate the three genotypes of LCN using antibody response to Newcastle disease and heat tolerance.


Assuntos
Doença de Newcastle , Termotolerância , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Análise Discriminante , Feminino , Genótipo , Masculino , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/genética , Nigéria
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1332: 107-128, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251641

RESUMO

L-glutamine (Gln) is the most abundant amino acid (AA) in the plasma and skeletal muscle of poultry, and L-glutamate (Glu) is among the most abundant AAs in the whole bodies of all avian tissues. During the first-pass through the small intestine into the portal circulation, dietary Glu is extensively oxidized to CO2, but dietary Gln undergoes limited catabolism in birds. Their extra-intestinal tissues (e.g., skeletal muscle, kidneys, and lymphoid organs) have a high capacity to degrade Gln. To maintain Glu and Gln homeostasis in the body, they are actively synthesized from branched-chain AAs (abundant AAs in both plant and animal proteins) and glucose via interorgan metabolism involving primarily the skeletal muscle, heart, adipose tissue, and brain. In addition, ammonia (produced from the general catabolism of AAs) and α-ketoglutarate (α-KG, derived primarily from glucose) serve as substrates for the synthesis of Glu and Gln in avian tissues, particularly the liver. Over the past 20 years, there has been growing interest in Glu and Gln metabolism in the chicken, which is an agriculturally important species and also a useful model for studying some aspects of human physiology and diseases. Increasing evidence shows that the adequate supply of dietary Glu and Gln is crucial for the optimum growth, anti-oxidative responses, productivity, and health of chickens, ducklings, turkeys, and laying fowl, particularly under stress conditions. Like mammals, poultry have dietary requirements for both Glu and Gln. Based on feed intake, tissue integrity, growth performance, and health status, birds can tolerate up to 12% Glu and 3.5% Gln in diets (on the dry matter basis). Glu and Gln are quantitatively major nutrients for chickens and other avian species to support their maximum growth, production, and feed efficiency, as well as their optimum health and well-being.


Assuntos
Ácido Glutâmico , Glutamina , Animais , Galinhas , Dieta , Humanos , Aves Domésticas
3.
Parasite ; 28: 58, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283022

RESUMO

Biting midges of the genus Culicoides are vectors of important pathogens affecting domestic and wild animals and have played a major role in the re-emergence of new outbreaks of bluetongue (BTV) and Schmallenberg (SBV) viruses in Europe. To determine vector-host specificity, trophic preference from blood meal analysis is of major importance in the surveillance of arthropod-borne diseases. Of 28,752 specimens collected, we identified 17 Culicoides species and investigated a total of 48 host sequences from the blood meals. Culicoides obsoletus/C. scoticus, C. dewulfi, C. pulicaris, C. lupicaris, C. punctatus, C. newsteadi, C. riethi, and C. furcillatus were found to feed on mammals (cattle, horses, and humans), birds (domestic chickens), small rodents (Apodemus flavicollis), and hares (Lepus europaeus). To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating trophic preferences of Culicoides spp. in Slovakia. This study demonstrated that Culicoides species are able to feed on domesticated host vertebrates as well as birds, rodents, and humans.


Assuntos
Ceratopogonidae , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas , Europa (Continente) , Comportamento Alimentar , Cavalos , Refeições , Eslováquia/epidemiologia
4.
Yi Chuan ; 43(7): 654-664, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284981

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is a class of non-coding RNAs with a length greater than 200 nucleotides. Although lncRNAs do not have any protein coding capability, they can affect the phenotypes of traits by influencing gene expression through transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional regulation, and epigenetic modification. In modern animal husbandry production, besides increasing growth and yield traits, investigations on the regulation mechanisms of immune factors, cytokines and other disease resistance-related indicators and traits are particularly important for improving the health and welfare of domesticated animals as well as public health. In recent years, researchers have made significant progress in understanding the regulatory mechanisms of lncRNA on the disease resistance traits of chickens (Gallus gallus), pigs (Sus scrofa), cattle (Bos taurus) and other important domesticated animals, thereby laying the basic foundation for the translational application of epigenetic markers in breeding of animals with disease resistance. In this review, we briefly introduce the biological functions and the origins of lncRNAs, then focus on the research progress on the regulatory effects of lncRNAs on disease resistance traits of domesticated animals, and thus providing the scientific basis for the research of lncRNA and its application in the breeding of disease-resistant animals.


Assuntos
RNA Longo não Codificante , Animais , Animais Domésticos/genética , Bovinos , Galinhas/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Fenótipo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Suínos/genética
5.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199656

RESUMO

The use of growth-promoting antibiotics in livestock faces increasing scrutiny and opposition due to concerns about the increased occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Alternative solutions are being sought, and plants of Lamiaceae may provide an alternative to synthetic antibiotics in animal nutrition. In this study, we extracted essential oil from Monarda didyma, a member of the Lamiaceae family. We examined the chemical composition of the essential oil and then evaluated the antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of M. didyma essential oil and its main compounds in vitro. We then evaluated the effectiveness of M. didyma essential oil in regard to growth performance, feed efficiency, and mortality in both mice and broilers. Carvacrol (49.03%) was the dominant compound in the essential oil extracts. M. didyma essential oil demonstrated antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli (MIC = 87 µg·mL-1), Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 47 µg·mL-1), and Clostridium perfringens (MIC = 35 µg·mL-1). Supplementing the diet of mice with essential oil at a concentration of 0.1% significantly increased body weight (+5.4%) and feed efficiency (+18.85%). In broilers, M. didyma essential oil significantly improved body weight gain (2.64%). Our results suggest that adding M. didyma essential oil to the diet of broilers offers a potential substitute for antibiotic growth promoters.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Monarda/química , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas , Clostridium perfringens/efeitos dos fármacos , Cimenos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200590

RESUMO

The aim of the presented research was to obtain reconstituted atelocollagen fibers after extraction from poultry cartilage using the pepsin-acidic method in order to remove telopeptides from the tropocollagen. Firstly, we examined the extraction of collagen from the cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) after proteoglycans (PG) had been removed by the action of salts, i.e., NaCl or chaotropic MgCl2. Additionally, the effects of the salt type used for PG and hyaluronic acid removal on the properties of self-assembled fibers in solutions at pH 7.4 and freeze-dried matrices were investigated. The basic features of the obtained fibers were characterized, including thermal properties using scanning calorimetry, rheological properties using dynamic oscillatory rheometry, and the structure by scanning electron microscopy. The fibers obtained after PG removal with both analyzed types of salts had similar thermal denaturation characteristics. However, the fibers after PG removal with NaCl, in contrast to those obtained after MgCl2 treatment, showed different rheological properties during gelatinization and smaller diameter size. Moreover, the degree of fibrillogenesis of collagens after NaCl treatment was complete compared to that with MgCl2, which was only partial (70%). The structures of fibers after lyophilization were fundamentally different. The matrices obtained after NaCl pretreatment form regular scaffolds in contrast to the thin, surface structures of the cartilage matrix after proteoglycans removal using MgCl2.


Assuntos
Cartilagem/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Colágeno/metabolismo , Proteoglicanas/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Animais , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Ácido Hialurônico/metabolismo , Pepsina A/metabolismo
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207474

RESUMO

Chicken meat is often a major component of a modern diet. Allergy to chicken meat is relatively rare and occurs independently or in subjects allergic to ovalbumin (OVA). We examined the effect of adoptive transfer of OVA-CD4+ T cells on the immune response to OVA in mice fed chicken meat. Donor mice were injected intraperitoneally with 100 µg of OVA with Freund's adjuvant two times over a week, and CD4+ T cells were isolated from them and transferred to naïve mice (CD4+/OVA/ChM group), which were then provoked with OVA with FA and fed freeze-dried chicken meat for 14 days. The mice injected with OVA and fed chicken meat (OVA/ChM group), and sensitized (OVA group) and healthy (PBS group) mice served as controls. Humoral and cellular response to OVA was monitored over the study. The CD4+/OVA/ChM group had lowered levels of anti-OVA IgG and IgA, and total IgE. There were significant differences in CD4+, CD4+CD25+, and CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells between groups. OVA stimulation decreased the splenocyte proliferation index and IFN-γ secretion in the CD4+/OVA/ChM group compared to the OVA group. IL-4 was increased in the OVA/ChM mice, which confirms allergenic potential of the egg-meat protein combination. Transfer of OVA-experienced CD4+ T cells ameliorated the negative immune response to OVA.


Assuntos
Transferência Adotiva , Alérgenos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Produtos Avícolas , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Galinhas , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Interferon gama/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
8.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(3): 407, 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291320

RESUMO

Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is considered as menace as it affects poultry industry globally causing immunosuppression, high mortality and heavy economic loss. Outbreaks of IBD were reported in many states of India including Kerala. VP1 gene acts as an important factor in the process of virus encapsidation and its involvement in viral virulence and viral replication indicates its importance in infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). The present study was conducted to carry out the molecular characterization of VP1 gene of virulent IBDV in Kerala. A total of 42 samples were processed for the detection and analysis of VP1 gene of IBDV. Out of 42 samples, 21 samples were positive for VP1 gene of IBD. The phylogenetic analysis of the partial VP1 gene sequences reveals the clustering of IBDV isolates into very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) and non-virulent IBDV (vIBDV). Eighteen isolates (11 isolates from vaccinated flock and 7 from non-vaccinated flocks) clustered with very virulent strains. Three isolates (2 isolates were from vaccinated flock and 1 from non-vaccinated flock) clustered with non-virulent IBDV strains, showing more evolutionarily similarity to south Indian strain VCN14/ABT/MVC/India. It is observed that vvIBDV isolates from this study have common ancestor with the south Indian strain PY12 but showed 9-10% divergence from this strains. The amino acid analysis of these 21 isolates revealed that 17 isolates possessed the characteristic vvIBDV TDN amino acid triplet, while the three isolates had non-vIBDV NEG amino acid triplet at 145/146/147 position. The remaining isolate 1/CVASP/IBDV/VP1 shows unique PDN triplet instead of TDN. Two vvIBDV isolates (15/CVASP/IBDV/VP1 and 18/CVASP/IBDV/VP1) showed 100% nucleotide and amino acid similarity with intermediate plus vaccine strain. Four vvIBDV isolates showed neutral amino acid substitution K251R which was earlier reported in Indian strains but first time in south Indian isolates. The most common unique amino acid substitution observed in our study was neutral E269D amino acid substitution in 12 isolates, neutral amino acid substitution T329S in five isolates, neutral T174N and non-polar to polar amino acid substitution A178T in isolate 10/CVASP/IBDV/VP1, non-polar to polar amino acid substitution P360R in isolate 17/CVASP/IBDV/VP1 and non-polar to polar amino acid substitution P188S in isolate 1/CVASP/IBDV/VP1. These novel mutations in our study reveal the role of genetic drift in the evolution of vvIBDV strains. The isolate 2/CVASP/IBDV/VP1 from non-vaccinated flock shows VP1 gene of non-vIBDV, but possessing VP2 of vvIBDV type indicates this is evolved by genetic shift of segments A and B. This is the first genetic characterization study of field VP1 gene of IBDV isolates in Kerala, India.


Assuntos
Infecções por Birnaviridae , Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da Bursa , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Infecções por Birnaviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Birnaviridae/veterinária , Galinhas , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Índia/epidemiologia , Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da Bursa/genética , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/genética
9.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(4): 409, 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292417

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to assess the effect of feeding the same diet to different breeds of chickens and at different ages on fatty acid (FA) composition of the breast and thigh muscles. A total of 150 chickens comprising 50 each of red jungle fowl (RJ) and village chicken (VC), the slow-growing birds, and the commercial broiler (CB), fast-growing birds, were used for this study. Ten chickens from each breed were serially euthanized at days 1, 10, 20, 56, and 120 post hatch, and pectoralis major and bicep femoris were harvested to represent the breast and thigh muscles respectively. It was revealed that the breast muscle concentrations of saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are significantly different (p<0.05) among the breeds. Also, the FA composition of breast and thigh muscles among RJ, VC, and CB at various ages studied varied significantly (p<0.05) but without a definite pattern. The composition of MUFA was lower, but that of PUFA was higher in the RJ and VC than in the CB breast muscles. Within the breeds, the composition of total MUFA decreased, while that of PUFA increased with age. The total MUFA and PUFA showed no significant difference (p>0.05) between the breast and thigh muscles at different ages evaluated. This study suggests that slow-growing birds (RJ and VC) might be better sources of desirable FA than the fast-growing birds, CB.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Coxa da Perna , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Carne/análise , Músculos Peitorais
10.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(3): 404, 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278537

RESUMO

One of the factors affecting the hatching results and chick quality is the implementation of an appropriate disinfection program with effective disinfectants. This study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of oregano juice as a disinfection of hatching layer eggs as an alternative to formaldehyde. In the study, 1800 eggs collected from 48-week old Akbay white layer breeders were used. Eggs were divided into 3 equal disinfection groups (fumigation with formaldehyde, 50% oregano juice, and 100% oregano juice). In the study, the characteristics of the eggshell, microbial load, embryo development, egg weight loss, hatching results, chick weight and quality, and performance in the first 2 weeks were determined. No differences were observed among the disinfection groups in egg shell characteristics, microbial load in the shell, hatchability of fertile and set eggs, embryonic deaths, and body weight, body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio in female chicks. Egg weight loss was higher (P < 0.001) in the 50% oregano juice group (13.75%) compared to the formaldehyde fumigation group (12.11%). Chick quality score was found to be lower in the formaldehyde fumigation group (96.44) compared to the other two oregano juice groups (P < 0.001). The chicks hatched from the eggs in the formaldehyde fumigation group consumed more feed (119 g/week) in the first 2 weeks (P < 0.001). The use of 50% oregano juice in the disinfection of hatching eggs did not have any negative effects compared to the fumigation process with formaldehyde. Therefore, it is concluded that disinfection with 50% oregano juice was effective in reducing the microbial load in the egg shell as much as formaldehyde fumigation, and even it was superior in chick quality score.


Assuntos
Casca de Ovo , Origanum , Animais , Galinhas , Desinfecção , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Feminino , Óvulo
11.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(4): 412, 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308515

RESUMO

Recently, inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) outbreaks have been increasingly reported in different regions of India, particularly in broiler flocks. The present study was undertaken to characterize fowl adenovirus associated with IBH in chicken and assessment of its pathogenicity. Liver samples were collected from fowl adenovirus (FAdV) suspected 100 commercial broiler and six broiler breeder flocks from eleven different States of India from 2016 to 2019. All the samples were subjected to 897-bp FAdV hexon gene-specific PCR for confirmation and primary chicken liver cells were used to isolate the field FAdVs. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 897-bp FAdV hexon gene revealed that all the isolates have showed close evolutionary relationship with fowl adenovirus serotype 11 of species D. For pathogenicity assessment, 0.5 ml of 106.5 TCID50/ml of field FAdV serotype 11 isolate was orally inoculated in 1-day-old SPF chicks and observed for 21 days. This experimental study revealed that there was no mortality in infected chicks and showed clinical signs of dullness, depression and diarrhoea between third and fifth day of oral inoculation. The FAdV was reisolated and confirmed by PCR from experimentally infected chicken. Based on this study, among all serotypes, FAdV serotype 11 is involved in pathogenesis of inclusion body hepatitis in broiler-type chickens in India.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae , Aviadenovirus , Hepatite , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Infecções por Adenoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Animais , Aviadenovirus/genética , Galinhas , Corpos de Inclusão , Índia/epidemiologia , Tipagem Molecular/veterinária , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Virulência
12.
Poult Sci ; 100(8): 101277, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198089

RESUMO

The study of adipogenesis is one of the most important areas for not only regulating meat quality, but production efficiency associated with fat accretion in the poultry species. Current in vitro models for avian adipogenesis require adipogenic inducers including dexamethasone, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), fatty acids, or insulin. However, problems still remain in these models for testing/screening potential nutritional, hormonal, and pharmaceutical factors because of interfering/overriding effects of the inducing factors. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a simple in vitro method for avian adipogenesis. In this study, chicken serum (CS) and fetal bovine serum (FBS) were compared for adipogenic potential using chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF). Oil-red O staining at 4 d in culture of CEF under CS revealed that lipid droplet formation was increased by CS in a dose-dependent manner (0 to 10%). On the contrary, all concentrations of FBS (0 to 10%) alone did not show lipid droplet formation. In accordance with the morphological data of CEF, mRNA expression of genes involved in adipocyte differentiation/determination, fatty acid uptake, and triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis, were most significantly up-regulated by 10% CS at d 4 compared to 1 or 5% CS. In addition, embryonic cells isolated from quail (QEF) at E5, duck (DEF) at E6, and turkey (TEF) at E6, were tested for adipogenic differentiation by media containing the same concentrations of CS. Similar to the morphological data from CEF, quantitative data of the Oil-red O staining showed that lipid droplet formation in QEF, DEF, and TEF was increased by CS in a dose-dependent manner (0 to 10%). The current study demonstrates that CS alone can induce adipogenesis on embryonic fibroblasts of various poultry species. By providing a new simple in vitro method of avian adipogenesis, diverse nutritional, hormonal, and pharmaceutical factors can be broadly and easily tested for scientific and industrial purposes.


Assuntos
Adipogenia , Galinhas , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Embrião de Galinha , Patos , Fibroblastos , Codorniz
13.
Poult Sci ; 100(8): 101260, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198090

RESUMO

The present study compared the histochemical and meat quality characteristics of broiler pectoralis major (PM) muscle among the groups categorized according to muscle abnormalities, including pale, soft, and exudative (PSE)-like condition and white-striping (WS) feature. Additionally, this study investigated the associations between muscular abnormalities and expression levels of heat shock proteins (HSPs), including αß-crystallin, HSP70, and HSP90, at the early postmortem period. The WS breasts with normal quality condition showed greater PM muscle weight and were more associated with fiber hypertrophy, compared to the no WS breasts with PSE-like condition (P < 0.05). The PSE-like group exhibited paler surface color and tougher meat, causing more fluid loss after cooking, compared to the normal quality group (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in the quality traits between the WS groups (P > 0.05), except for lightness and cooking loss. Higher αß-crystallin and HSP90 expression levels were observed in PSE-like breast compared to normal quality breast (P < 0.05), whereas WS pattern was not related with HSPs levels (P > 0.05). Therefore, HSP levels at the early postmortem period, especially those of αß-crystallin and HSP90, were associated with the breast quality characteristics of PSE-like condition broilers.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Músculos Peitorais , Animais , Culinária , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Carne/análise
14.
Poult Sci ; 100(8): 101158, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198091

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to compare the testicular development, semen quality, and spermatogenic cell apoptosis of roosters reared in colony, single, and large cages. Rohman parental layers (n = 540) were randomly allocated into cages of rearing system groups (135 males and 405 females). The experimental period was 70 to 210 d of age. We compared testicular development and plasma main reproductive hormones (Follicle-stimulating hormone; Luteinizing hormone; Testosterone; Estrogen2;) from d 70 to 210 of roosters among the three systems. In addition, routine semen quality indexes, apoptosis of testicular spermatogenic cells and sperm apoptosis of breeding roosters under three rearing systems on d 175 and d 210 were evaluated. Roosters during the growing period (from d 70 to 140) have rapid testis growth and increasing main reproductive hormones in plasma. At the peak of sexual maturity (d 210), in colony cage, the females have a positive effect and promote the testis development of males. However, the stocking density in colony cage has no effect on testicular development; compared with the single and large cage. Roosters reared in the natural mating system had better semen quality, particularly in semen volume, density, and viability; the hatching % of fertilized eggs and healthy chicks were higher for the colony than single and large cages. Furthermore, the sperm density was higher for colony than single and large cages, which was related to the apoptosis of spermatogonia and spermatocyte, not the apoptosis of mature sperm. This study provided the basic data for the reproductive performance research of chicken reared in the colony cages.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Análise do Sêmen , Animais , Apoptose , Feminino , Hormônio Luteinizante , Masculino , Sêmen , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Testículo , Testosterona
15.
Poult Sci ; 100(8): 101255, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198092

RESUMO

The antiviral mechanism of sulfated polysaccharides is supposed to prevent virus entry, which is mediated by the interactions of anionic charges on sulfated polysaccharides with positively charged domains of viral envelope glycoproteins, leading to shielding of the functional domain involved in virus attachment to cell surface receptors. But, few direct evidences were reported. In the previous study, we found that sulfated Chuanmingshen violaceum polysaccharides (sCVPS) possessed remarkable inhibitory effect against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) through inhibition of NDV attachment to host cells. Whether sCVPS bound to hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) leading to inhibition of NDV attachment needs to be further clarified. The present study conducted site-directed mutagenesis of possible positively charged residues of HN, and found that mutants R197G, H199G, R363G, and R523G could significantly decrease the inhibitory effects of sCVPS on receptor binding ability through hemadsorption assay, especially R363G which suggested that binding to R363 is more effective to shield the sialic acid binding sites. Dual mutants (R363G/R197G, R363G/H199G and R363G/R523G) induced more decreased inhibitory effect of sCVPS than single mutants. The immunofluorescence study using FITC-labeled sCVPS found that the fluorescence intensity of mutants R363G and R363G/H199G were significantly decreased. The binding kinetics of sCVPS to HN measured by surface plasmon resonance indicated that sCVPS had a higher binding affinity for wild-type HN than mutants R363G and R363G/H199G. Plaque reduction study was performed using recombinant NDV with mutant HNR363G and HNR363G/H199G, which showed significantly decreased inhibitory effects of sCVPS against mutant NDV adsorption to BHK-21 cells. These results suggested that the residues R197, H199, R363, and R523 were the binding sites for sCVPS, especially R363 act as the main interaction site. The present study provided direct evidence for the theory that antiviral mechanism of sulfated polysaccharides attributed to anionic groups binding to the positively charged residues of viral proteins which led to the shielding of receptor binding sites.


Assuntos
Doença de Newcastle , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle , Aminoácidos , Animais , Galinhas , Hemaglutininas , Neuraminidase , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/genética , Polissacarídeos , Sulfatos , Proteínas do Envelope Viral
16.
Poult Sci ; 100(8): 101182, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198093

RESUMO

An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of organic and inorganic Fe sources on Fe absorption and expression of related transporters in the small intestine of broilers. Iron-deficient intact broilers (7-day-old) were fed an Fe-unsupplemented corn-soybean meal basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 60 mg Fe/kg as Fe sulfate (FeSO4•7H2O), Fe-Met with weak chelation strength (Fe-Met W), Fe-proteinate with moderate chelation strength (Fe-Prot M) or Fe-proteinate with extremely strong chelation strength (Fe-Prot ES) for 14 d. The plasma Fe contents were enhanced (P < 0.02) by Fe addition, and greater (P < 0.0002) in Fe-Prot M and Fe-Prot ES groups than in Fe-Met W and FeSO4 groups. Supplemental Fe decreased (P < 0.03) the divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) mRNA levels in the duodenum and jejunum, and ferroportin 1 (FPN1) mRNA levels in the duodenum on d 21, but no differences (P > 0.20) were detected among different Fe sources. Regardless of Fe source, the mRNA levels of DMT1 and FPN1 were higher (P < 0.02) in the duodenum than in the jejunum and ileum, and in the jejunum than in the ileum (P < 0.05). However, Fe addition did not affect (P > 0.10) the mRNA levels of amino acid transporters and protein levels of DMT1 and FPN1 in the small intestine of broilers. These results indicate that organic Fe sources with stronger chelation strength showed higher Fe absorption in broilers in vivo; the mRNA expression of Fe and amino acid transporters varied along with the extension of the small intestine; the absorption of Fe as organic Fe chelates was not mediated by the amino acid transporters in intact chicks in this study.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Intestino Delgado , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ferro
17.
Poult Sci ; 100(8): 101245, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198094

RESUMO

The scarcity and high cost of conventional ingredients are major factors limiting the growth of the poultry industry globally. This has driven research into alternative ingredients for poultry feeding. Senna obtusifolia or cassia, a widely distributed shrub, is invasive in many regions of the world. The seeds and leaves of the plant are moderate protein sources with the protein having an acceptable amino acid profile, especially essential amino acids. This nutritional profile of Senna obtusifolia products (seeds and leaves), coupled with their availability make them potential protein supplements for poultry feeding; however, the presence of several antinutritional factors (ANFs) (Oxalate, phytate, saponins, tannins and haemagglutinins) hinders their fullest use in the diet. In recent years, there has been increasing research interest into processing techniques to reduce the ANFs content and make these products safe for poultry feeding. Depending on birds age, fermented Senna seed meal may be included in the diet of broilers and cockerels up to 200 g/kg without compromising birds' performance but raw meal as low as 50 g/kg exerts antinutritional effects. More research is needed into maximum utilization of Senna products to reduce cost of production on smallholder to medium scale poultry farms. Newer processing methods will need to be developed in response to the increasing market price of conventional protein sources.


Assuntos
Aves Domésticas , Senna (Planta) , Ração Animal , Animais , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Masculino , Sementes
18.
Poult Sci ; 100(8): 101246, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198095

RESUMO

Unlike mammals, studies on mechanisms that regulate waterfowl ovulation have been rarely reported. To advance our understanding of the ovulation differences in Muscovy duck, we utilized the Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) to generate transcriptome data from 3 groups of female duck ovaries with ovulation differences (i.e., preovulation [PO], consecutive ovulation [CO], and inconsecutive ovulation [IO]). In this study, the full-length transcriptome data qualitative analysis showed that a total of 24,504 nonredundant full-length transcripts were generated, 19,060 new transcripts were discovered and 14,848 novel transcripts were successfully annotated. For the quantitative analysis, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the 3 groups were identified and functional properties were characterized. CTNNB1, IGF1, FOXO3, HSPA2, PTEN and SMC4 may be potential hub genes that regulate ovulation. Adhesion-related pathway, mTOR pathway, TGF-ß signaling pathway and FoxO signaling pathway have been considered as important pathways that affect follicular development and ovulation. These results provide a more complete data source of full-length transcriptome for the further study of gene expression and genetics in Muscovy duck. The hub genes and potential mechanisms that affect the ovulation of Muscovy duck have been screened out to provide a scientific basis for breeding work to improve the reproduction performance of Muscovy duck.


Assuntos
Patos , Nanoporos , Animais , Galinhas , Patos/genética , Feminino , Ovário , Transcriptoma
19.
Poult Sci ; 100(8): 101183, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198096

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of considering dietary soluble non-starch polysaccharides (sNSP) when formulating broiler diets, due to their impact on the gastrointestinal tract environment. Cobb 500 broilers (n = 480, 80 birds per treatment) were fed either wheat- or corn-soybean meal-based diets formulated to contain either a high, medium or low sNSP content, resulting in 6 dietary treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. On d14 and d 35 of age, pH of the gizzard, ileum and caeca, ileum viscosity, caecal short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration, and ileal and caecal microbiota profile were determined. Ileal viscosity at d 35 was greater in birds fed high sNSP compared to low sNSP (P = 0.022). At both d 14 and d 35, birds fed the wheat-based diet presented higher ileal viscosity (P < 0.001) and lower ileal pH (P = 0.027 and P < 0.001, respectively) compared to those fed the corn-based diet. At d 14, birds fed low sNSP exhibited higher caecal pH (P = 0.010) and propionic, isobutyric and valeric acid concentrations (P = 0.035, P = 0.007 and P = 0.011, respectively), and lower ileal Lactobacillus content (P = 0.043), compared to birds fed high sNSP. This effect was also seen for total SCFA (P = 0.017) and acetic acid (P = 0.005) concentrations in the caeca at d 14, but only in birds fed wheat-, not corn-, based diets. At d 35, total caecal SCFA concentration was greater in birds fed the wheat-based diet with high sNSP level compared to those fed the corn-based diet with high or low sNSP level (P = 0.028). In comparison to birds fed corn, birds fed wheat presented greater caecal concentrations of acetic, butyric, lactic, and succinic acids (P = 0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.003 and P = 0.007, respectively) and Bifidobacteria at d 35 (P = 0.003) and succinic acid at d14 (P = 0.041). However, caecal populations of Ruminococcus and concentrations of valeric acid at d14 and isobutyric acid at d 35 were greater in birds fed the corn- compared to wheat-based diets (P = 0.043, P = 0.019 and P < 0.001, respectively). These results illustrate that dietary sNSP concentration, as well as its composition, have a direct impact on gastrointestinal viscosity and pH, and fuel beneficial microbial species, resulting in production of SCFA. It appears to be particularly important to consider sNSP level when formulating wheat-based diets for broilers.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Digestão , Trato Gastrointestinal , Polissacarídeos
20.
Poult Sci ; 100(8): 101218, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198097

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate the variability in nutrient digestibility associated with corn genetic background and its influence on the feeding value for broiler chickens. A total of 960 1-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were distributed in eight treatments, with 12 pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen in a 42-day study. Eight corn samples (Variety 1 to Variety 8) were selected based on their nutrient composition. A fixed amount of each corn (577 g/kg in the starter diets and 662 g/kg in the finisher diets) was used to formulate feeds. Diets were offered ad libitum in pellet form. Performance parameters were determined at d 21 and d 42, and excreta samples collected at d 21 to determine energy, organic matter and dry matter (DM) whole-tract digestibility. The results revealed a decrease (P < 0.05) in body weight (BW) and feed intake in birds fed variety 8 compared to other varieties at d 21. The lowest whole tract DM and energy apparent digestibility were also observed for the variety 8 diet (P < 0.05), together with varieties 3 and 5. Energy digestibility was higher in varieties 2, 4 and 7 (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that corn protein concentration was positively correlated with vitreousness (r = 0.60, P = 0.054) and the arabinose:xylose ratio (r = 0.67, P < 0.05) and negatively correlated with starch (r = -0.62, P < 0.05). Soluble non-starch polysaccharide content was negatively correlated with the protein solubility index (r = -0.88, P < 0.05). In addition, corn protein concentration was negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with 21-d BW (r = -0.71) and weight gain (r = -0.62). In conclusion, the corn genetic background influenced the nutrient digestibility and growth performance of broiler chickens. The content and nature of the non-starch polysaccharides were found to be two of the main factors affecting the solubility and availability of nutrients in corn, and could be the reason for the negative effects on the performance of broiler chickens as shown in the present study.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Zea mays , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Masculino
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