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1.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121886, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377046

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to identify the effect of clay additive to explore the nitrogen cycling related ammonification, denitrifying genes and their relation N2O and ammonia emission during the chicken manure (CM) composting. The consequences indicated that the additive clay could optimize the environment and improve the NH4+-N into NO3--N transformation. Meanwhile, the results observed that 8% clay amendment was significant correlated the abundance of nifH and nosZ genes. Compared with the other treatments, the 6% and 10% clay treatments observed low abundance of nifH. The heat map indicated that clay amendment could enhance the function genes abundance. The redundancy analysis showed that N2O and ammonia emission among all physiochemical parameters had great relationship with functional genes. Therefore, the addition of 10% clay into CM composting system could efficiently enhance the abundance of nirK and narG genes, and improve the composting with its application.


Assuntos
Argila , Compostagem , Esterco , Ciclo do Nitrogênio , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Amônia/metabolismo , Animais , Galinhas , Desnitrificação/genética , Esterco/análise
2.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 60(3): 45-51, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391410

RESUMO

This study aimed to survey the trend of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli obtained from retail meat. We examined the susceptibilities of 1,115 E. coli isolates obtained from chicken, beef, pork, venison, and wild boar meat from 2011 to 2017 in Tokyo to 14 antimicrobials (ampicillin, cefotaxime (CTX), streptomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, tetracycline (TC), chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, fosfomycin, amikacin, imipenem, and meropenem). Of all the tested isolates, 18.7% (135/721) isolates from chicken, 77.0% (117/152) from beef, 46.6% (89/187) from pork, 100% (28/28) from venison, and 92.6% (25/27) from wild boar meat were susceptible to all tested antimicrobials. Furthermore, TC resistance was the most common, with rates as high as 56.7% (409/721) and 40.6% (76/187) in the isolates from chicken and pork, respectively. CTX resistance was detected in 4.9% (25/506) of the isolates from domestic chicken and 23.7% (51/215) of the isolates from imported chicken. Moreover, CTX resistance rate in isolates from domestic chicken was significantly lower in 2016 (0.9%, 1/111) and in 2017 (0.8%, 1/121) than in 2012 (10.6%, 17/161). In conclusion, E. coli isolates from retail meat were most commonly resistant to TC, and CTX resistance was higher in E. coli isolates from imported chicken than in E. coli isolates from domestic chicken.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Carne/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas , Cervos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prevalência , Suínos , Tóquio
3.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 271, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) are associated with many diseases, resulting in huge economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Since 2015, outbreaks of FAdV infections with high mortality rates have been reported in China. A continued surveillance of FAdVs contributes to understand the epidemiology of the viruses. RESULTS: We isolated 155 FAdV strains from diseased chickens from poultry in China between 2015 and 2018. PCR analysis determined that 123 samples were FAdV species C, 27 were FAdV species E, and five contained two different FAdV strains. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that these sequences of hexon regions were clustered into three distinct serotypes: FAdV-4 (79.4%, 123/155), FAdV-8a (13.5%, 21/155) and FAdV-8b (3.9%, 6/155), of which FAdV-4 was the dominant serotype in China. CONCLUSIONS: The characterization of newly prevalent FAdV strains provides valuable information for the development of an effective control strategy for FAdV infections in chickens.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Aviadenovirus/classificação , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Animais , Aviadenovirus/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas , China/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Sorogrupo
4.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 61: e38, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411268

RESUMO

The triatomine insect Panstrongylus megistus , one of the most important Chagas disease vectors in Brazil, presents salivary molecules pharmacologically active to counteract homeostatic responses from the host, including inhibitors of the human complement system, a major effector of immune responses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of P. megistus salivary gland extract (SGE) on the complement system from different host species and characterize the inhibitory effect of SGE and intestinal contents on human complement. Glands and midguts from fourth instar nymphs were used. Hemolytic assays were performed with sheep erythrocytes as complement activators by using human, rats and chickens sera in the presence or absence of SGE. An ELISA assay was carried out detect deposition of the C3b component on IgG- or agarose-sensitized microplates, in the presence or absence of SGE or midgut contents. P. megistus SGE was able to significantly inhibit the complement of the three studied species (human, rat and chiken). Both, SGE and midgut contents inhibited C3b deposition in either the classical or the alternative pathways. As conclusions, SGE and midgut from P. megistus possess anti-complement activity. The inhibitors are effective against different host species and act on the initial steps of the complement system cascade. These inhibitors may have a role in blood feeding and Trypanosoma cruzi transmission by the vector.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Digestório/química , Insetos Vetores , Panstrongylus , Glândulas Salivares/química , Animais , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Galinhas , Humanos , Ratos , Ovinos
5.
Genet Sel Evol ; 51(1): 44, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experimental intercrosses between outbred founder populations are powerful resources for mapping loci that contribute to complex traits i.e. quantitative trait loci (QTL). Here, we present an approach and its accompanying software for high-resolution reconstruction of founder mosaic genotypes in the intercross offspring from such populations using whole-genome high-coverage sequence data on founder individuals (~ 30×) and very low-coverage sequence data on intercross individuals (< 0.5×). Sets of founder-line informative markers were selected for each full-sib family and used to infer the founder mosaic genotypes of the intercross individuals. The application of this approach and the quality of the estimated genome-wide genotypes are illustrated in a large F2 pedigree between two divergently selected lines of chickens. RESULTS: We describe how we obtained whole-genome genotype data for hundreds of individuals in a cost- and time-efficient manner by using a Tn5-based library preparation protocol and an imputation algorithm that was optimized for this application. In total, 7.6 million markers segregated in this pedigree and, within each full-sib family, between 10.0 and 13.7% of these were fully informative, i.e. fixed for alternative alleles in the founders from the divergent lines, and were used for reconstruction of the offspring mosaic genotypes. The genotypes that were estimated based on the low-coverage sequence data were highly consistent (> 95% agreement) with those obtained using individual single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. The estimated resolution of the inferred recombination breakpoints was relatively high, with 50% of them being defined on regions shorter than 10 kb. CONCLUSIONS: A method and software for inferring founder mosaic genotypes in intercross offspring from low-coverage whole-genome sequencing in pedigrees from heterozygous founders are described. They provide high-quality, high-resolution genotypes in a time- and cost-efficient manner. The software is freely available at https://github.com/CarlborgGenomics/Stripes .


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Animais , Cruzamento , Custos e Análise de Custo , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Efeito Fundador , Técnicas de Genotipagem/economia , Masculino , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Software , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/economia
6.
Vet Parasitol ; 271: 51-53, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303203

RESUMO

The consumption of undercooked infected chicken can be a source of infection for humans and carnivores regarding the zoonotic protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Furthermore, free-range chickens are sentinels for the presence of T. gondii oocysts in the environment because they feed from the ground. By using the modified agglutination test (MAT), we investigated the presence of antibodies to T. gondii in 178 free-range and 170 broiler chickens raised indoors and slaughtered in Portugal. Prevalence of specific antibodies was 5.6% in free-range and 0.0% in broiler chickens raised indoors (p =  0.002).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Galinhas , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/sangue , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
7.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 197: 111540, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276926

RESUMO

Protein aggregation can lead to several incurable amyloidosis diseases. The full aggregation pathway is not fully understood, creating the need for new methods of studying this important biological phenomenon. Lysozyme is an amyloidogenic protein which is often used as a model protein for studying amyloidosis. This work explores the potential of employing Lysozyme encapsulated gold nanoclusters (Ly-AuNCs) to study the protein's aggregation. The fluorescence emission properties of Ly-AuNCs were studied in the presence of increasing concentrations of native lysozyme and as a function of pH, of relevance in macromolecular crowding and inflammation-triggered aggregation. AuNC fluorescence was observed to both redshift and increase in intensity as pH is increased or when native lysozyme is added to a solution of Ly-AuNCs at pH 3. The long (µs) fluorescence lifetime component of AuNC emission was observed to decrease under both conditions. Interestingly it was found via Time-Resolved Emission Spectra (TRES) that both AuNC fluorescence components increase in intensity and redshift with increasing pH while only the long lifetime component of AuNC was observed to change when adding native lysozyme to solution; indicating that the underlying mechanisms for the changes observed are fundamentally different for each case. It is possible that the sensitivity of Ly-AuNCs to native lysozyme concentration could be utilized to study early-stage aggregation.


Assuntos
Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Muramidase/química , Animais , Galinhas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Muramidase/metabolismo , Agregados Proteicos/fisiologia , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(8): 477, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264019

RESUMO

The present study evaluated the concentration of six trace elements in processed meat products and in meat cuts. We also assessed the risk associated with the consumption of these foods based on the estimated daily intake (EDI) of these elements. Fifty-eight processed meat and 148 meat cuts samples were analyzed using ICP-OES. As and Cd were not detected in any sample of processed meat. The highest mean level of lead was observed in frankfurters (0.056 µg g-1), which is half the maximum permissible level. For Cr, the highest mean concentrations were detected in chicken nuggets and beef hamburger (0.121 and 0.105 µg g-1, respectively), which are above the allowed limit. The comparison between the impact of a diet restricted to processed meats with a diet restricted to meats cuts showed that the individuals following the latter are exposed to higher amounts of the trace elements analyzed.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Carne , Oligoelementos/análise , Animais , Brasil , Bovinos , Galinhas , Manipulação de Alimentos , Análise de Perigos e Pontos Críticos de Controle , Humanos , Chumbo/análise , Medição de Risco
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(33): 9399-9410, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304753

RESUMO

This study investigated the feasibility of using hyperspectral imaging (HSI) to characterize the diffusion of acid and water within food structures during gastric digestion. Two different sweet potatoes (steamed and fried) and egg white gel (pH5 and pH9 EWGs) structures were exposed to in vitro gastric digestion before scanning by HSI. Afterward, the moisture or acid present in the digested sample was analyzed for calibration purposes. Calibration models were subsequently built using partial least-squares (PLS). The PLS models indicated that the full-wavelength spectral range (550-1700 nm) had a good ability to predict the spatial distribution of acid (Rcal2 > 0.82) and moisture (Rcal2 > 0.88). The spatiotemporal distributions of moisture and acid were mapped across the digested food, and they were shown to depend on the food composition and structure. The kinetic data revealed that the acid and moisture uptakes are governed by Fickian diffusion or by both diffusion and erosion-controlled mechanisms.


Assuntos
Ácidos/química , Clara de Ovo/química , Suco Gástrico/química , Ipomoea batatas/química , Ácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Galinhas , Difusão , Digestão , Suco Gástrico/metabolismo , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Cinética , Água/análise
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121845, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349175

RESUMO

Present study was focused on to evaluate the effectiveness of increasing bamboo biochar (BB) (0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10%) amendment on volatile fatty acids (VFAs) degradation and humification, as well as correlation with interrelated physicochemical parameters during chicken manure (CM) composting. The results showed that the extended thermophilic period and higher humic acid/fulvic acid ratio as well as richness bacteria community during CM composting. In addition, lower quantities of VFAs and odor generation with elevated biochar concentration. Redundancy analysis also supported that 10% BB has strong correlation with physicochemical parameters than other treatments. Overall, the 10% BB amendment could stimulate microbial activities to accelerate the organic waste degradation, reduced VFAs and odor emission so that improve hygiene and end product quality. It is notably assessed that application of 10% BB additive were optimal feasible and effectively channel for disposal of manure.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/metabolismo , Compostagem , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/biossíntese , Esterco/microbiologia , Sasa/química , Animais , Galinhas
11.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 347, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Live anticoccidial vaccines have been a tremendous success for disease prevention. The establishment of the reverse genetic manipulation platform has enabled the development of Eimeria parasites, the live anticoccidial vaccine strains, as vaccine vectors. In our previous study, recombinant E. tenella expressing a single immunodominant antigen of E. maxima (Et-EmIMP1) was able to protect chickens against challenge infection with E. maxima. This promising result encouraged us to further explore strategies to improve the protection efficacy of recombinant Eimeria and develop it as a vaccine vector. RESULTS: We constructed a novel recombinant Eimeria line expressing apical membrane antigen 1 of E. maxima (Et-EmAMA1) and then immunized chickens with Et-EmAMA1 and/or Et-EmIMP1. We found that the E. maxima soluble antigen-specific cell-mediated immunity was much stronger in the birds that were co-immunized with Et-EmAMA1 and Et-EmIMP1 than in those that were immunized with Et-EmAMA1 or Et-EmIMP1 alone. The oocyst production after E. maxima infection was significantly reduced in the recombinant Eimeria-immunized birds compared with the wild-type-immunized and naïve birds. The oocyst production in the birds co-immunized with Et-EmAMA1 and Et-EmIMP1 was consistently the lowest among the treatment groups after E. maxima infection. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrated that Eimeria is an effective vaccine vector that can carry and deliver heterologous Eimeria antigens to the host immune system and trigger specific immune responses. Our results also suggested that increasing the number of recombinant Eimeria lines is an effective approach to enhance protective immunity against infections with heterologous pathogens.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria tenella/genética , Eimeria/genética , Imunidade Celular , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Protozoárias/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Galinhas , Coccidiose/prevenção & controle , Eimeria/imunologia , Eimeria tenella/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Vacinas Atenuadas , Vacinas Sintéticas
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 345, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae, is one of the most economically deleterious threats to laying-hen industry worldwide. Macrocyclic lactones (MLs) have been widely used in control of mites in mammals, but the effects of MLs on PRMs are not well studied. The main objective of the present study was to systematically evaluate the effects of three MLs, i.e. eprinomectin (EPR), moxidectin (MOX) or ivermectin (IVM), on PRMs fed on chicks following oral administration. METHODS: Chicks in treatment groups were orally administrated with EPR, MOX or IVM at a dose of 5.0 mg/kg bodyweight. Chicks in the control group received the carrier solvent without drug. Chicks in each cage were then infested with 200 starved adult D. gallinae. After infestation and feeding for 12 h, engorged mites were collected to evaluate the acaricidal efficacy of the MLs, and its impacts on the reproduction and blood-meal digestion of D. gallinae. RESULTS: MOX, IVM and EPR demonstrated higher acaricidal efficacies post-treatment compared with the control, i.e. 45.60% for MOX, 71.32% for IVM and 100% for EPR on Day 10. MLs did not have significant effects on the blood-meal ingestion of PRMs, but significantly slowed down blood digestion (P < 0.0001). The oviposition rate, egg hatching rate and fecundity of PRMs in treatment groups were remarkably reduced. Among the three MLs, EPR exhibited the highest performance against PRMs, with an oviposition rate of 1.04%, fecundity of 0.33 eggs per mite and a zero egg hatching rate in EPR treated groups. CONCLUSIONS: EPR, MOX or IVM administrated orally to chicks increased the mortality of D. gallinae, significantly slowed down their blood-meal digestion and significantly reduced their reproductive capability which included the oviposition rate, fecundity and egg hatching rate. The present study highlights the potential of MLs in the control of PRMs.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/uso terapêutico , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Macrocíclicos/uso terapêutico , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Ácaros/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Animais , Galinhas/parasitologia , Feminino , Lactonas/farmacologia , Compostos Macrocíclicos/administração & dosagem , Infestações por Ácaros/tratamento farmacológico , Ácaros/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia
13.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 343, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coccidiosis represents a serious threat to the poultry industry, affecting production and causing high morbidity, mortality and significant costs resulting from treatment and prophylaxis. In-feed anticoccidials have been used for decades for managing avian coccidiosis and were very effective until drug resistance emerged. The use of natural remedies has become a promising alternative in combating coccidiosis in chickens. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to assess the efficiency of a commercial herbal formula (H), as oral liquid preparations, in experimental chicken coccidiosis. METHODS: Two independent controlled battery experiments (BE1 and BE2) were designed and the product was tested in 3 different formulas (H1, H2 and H3): H1 contained a propylene glycol extract of Allium sativum and Thymus serpyllum; H2 contained Origanum vulgare, Satureja hortensis and Chelidonium majus; and H3 contained Allium sativum, Urtica dioica, Inula helenium, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Rosmarinus officinalis, Chelidonium majus, Thymus serpyllum, Tanacetum vulgare and Coriandrum sativum. Chickens were divided into five groups for each BE as follows: (i) uninfected untreated control (UU1, UU2); (ii) infected untreated control (IU1, IU2); (iii) infected treated with amprolium (ITA1, ITA2); and (iv, v) two experimental groups infected treated with H1 (ITH1) and H2 (ITH2) formulas in the BE1 and with H3 (ITH3-5 and ITH3-10) formula in the BE2. The chickens from infected groups were challenged with 5000 (BE1) and 50,000 (BE2) sporulated oocysts of Eimeria spp. (E. acervulina, E. tenella and E. maxima), respectively. The anticoccidial efficacy was assessed by recording the following: oocysts output (OPG), lesion score (LS), weight gain (WG), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and anticoccidial index (ACI). Additionally, polyphenolics and flavonoids (caffeic-chlorogenic acid, apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin, quercitin, quercitrin) from herb extracts found in H3 formula were determined by the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. RESULTS: H1 and H2 reduced the WG, and increased the FCR and OPG compared with controls. H1 reduced the duodenal lesions, whilst H2 reduced the caecal lesions, compared with control. H3 decreased the OPG of Eimeria spp., reduced the total lesion score and improved the zootechnical performance (weight gain and feed conversion ratio). According to ACI value, H1 and H2 had no efficacy on Eimeria spp. infection, but H3 had good to marked anticoccidial effect, the ACI being slightly greater in the group ITH3-5. According to the results of LC-MS/MS, the concentration of polyphenols in H3 formula was the highest, the sum of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid being 914.9 µg/ml. CONCLUSIONS: H3 formula is a promising natural anticoccidial and field trials are recommended in order to validate the obtained data.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiostáticos/uso terapêutico , Eimeria/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Galinhas , Cromatografia Líquida , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiostáticos/química , Fezes/parasitologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 213: 109882, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307672

RESUMO

Marek's disease virus (MDV), a highly cell-associated oncogenic avian α-herpesvirus, is the causative agent of malignant transformation of T cells in domestic chickens. The latently infected CD4+CD8- T cells carry the virus through the blood stream and establish lymphomas in the skin, visceral organs and peripheral nerves. The feather follicle epithelium (FFE) is the only anatomical site where fully infectious enveloped virions are produced and eventually disseminated into the environment to infect contact birds. Therefore, skin and FFE play a critical role as being the common source of re-infection of birds sharing the same habitat. The molecular mechanism involved in the replication and assembly of MDV in the FFE leading to the production and release of cell-free infectious virus particles is unknown and to date no viral or host gene has been implicated in the process. To examine alterations in the expression pattern of viral genes, we performed RNA-seq on the skin samples of Marek's disease virus-infected susceptible chickens at 10, 20, and 30 days post infection. For comparative analysis of the expression patterns of viral genes between the skin and spleen of the MD-susceptible and resistant lines, Real-Time RT-PCR was employed. In total, RNA-seq based analysis identified 42 viral genes that were differentially expressed in the skin of infected birds. Majority of the identified genes are involved in DNA replication, capsid, tegument, and envelop formation. Comparative analysis between the skin and spleen of MD-susceptible and resistant chicken lines, revealed significantly higher expression of the genes in the skin of either lines than the spleen. Furthermore, much higher expression of the genes was observed in the skin of the susceptible line than the resistant line.


Assuntos
Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Genes Virais , Herpesvirus Galináceo 2/genética , Doença de Marek/imunologia , Pele/virologia , Animais , Galinhas/virologia , Genoma Viral , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Pele/patologia , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Baço/patologia , Baço/virologia
15.
Genet Sel Evol ; 51(1): 38, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pig and poultry breeding programs aim at improving crossbred (CB) performance. Selection response may be suboptimal if only purebred (PB) performance is used to compute genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) because the genetic correlation between PB and CB performance ([Formula: see text]) is often lower than 1. Thus, it may be beneficial to use information on both PB and CB performance. In addition, the accuracy of GEBV of PB animals for CB performance may improve when the breed-of-origin of alleles (BOA) is considered in the genomic relationship matrix (GRM). Thus, our aim was to compare scenarios where GEBV are computed and validated by using (1) either CB offspring averages or individual CB records for validation, (2) either a PB or CB reference population, and (3) a GRM that either accounts for or ignores BOA in the CB individuals. For this purpose, we used data on body weight measured at around 7 (BW7) or 35 (BW35) days in PB and CB broiler chickens and evaluated the accuracy of GEBV based on the correlation GEBV with phenotypes in the validation population (validation correlation). RESULTS: With validation on CB offspring averages, the validation correlation of GEBV of PB animals for CB performance was lower with a CB reference population than with a PB reference population for BW35 ([Formula: see text] = 0.96), and about equal for BW7 ([Formula: see text] = 0.80) when BOA was ignored. However, with validation on individual CB records, the validation correlation was higher with a CB reference population for both traits. The use of a GRM that took BOA into account increased the validation correlation for BW7 but reduced it for BW35. CONCLUSIONS: We argue that the benefit of using a CB reference population for genomic prediction of PB animals for CB performance should be assessed either by validation on CB offspring averages, or by validation on individual CB records while using a GRM that accounts for BOA in the CB individuals. With this recommendation in mind, our results show that the accuracy of GEBV of PB animals for CB performance was equal to or higher with a CB reference population than with a PB reference population for a trait with an [Formula: see text] of 0.8, but lower for a trait with an [Formula: see text] of 0.96. In addition, taking BOA into account was beneficial for a trait with an [Formula: see text] of 0.8 but not for a trait with an [Formula: see text] of 0.96.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/genética , Cruzamento , Galinhas/genética , Genômica/métodos , Alelos , Animais , Feminino , Genótipo , Masculino , Fenótipo , Valores de Referência
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(29): 8268-8278, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283221

RESUMO

Species authentication of meat and fish products is crucial to safeguard public health, economic investment, and religious sanctity. We developed a heptaplex polymerase chain reaction assay targeting short amplicon length (73-198 bp) for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of cow, buffalo, chicken, cat, dog, pig, and fish species in raw and processed food using species-specific primers targeting mitochondrial cytb, ND5, and 16s rRNA genes. Assay validation of adulterated and various heat-treated meatball matrices showed excellent stability and sensitivity under all processing conditions. The detection limit was 0.01-0.001 ng of DNA under pure states and 0.5% meat in meatball products. Buffalo was detected in 86.7% (13 out of 15) of tested commercial beef products, while chicken, pork, and fish products were found to be pure. The developed assay was efficient enough to detect target species simultaneously, even in highly degraded and processed food products at reduced time.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Animais , Búfalos/genética , Gatos/genética , Bovinos/genética , Galinhas/genética , Cães/genética , Peixes/genética , Suínos/genética
17.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(8): 121, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332590

RESUMO

The economics of bioflocculant production is coupled with the use of a low-cost substrate at appropriate culture conditions. The use of a waste substrate for this purpose offers an additional treatment measure to mitigate environmental pollution. We investigated the growth of Aspergillus flavus and its bioflocculant yield using chicken viscera hydrolysate as the sole media. The effects of culture conditions including time, pH, shaker speed, temperature and inoculum size on bioflocculant production were all investigated and optimised through response surface method based on the central component design (CCD) package of Design Expert. Next, the purified bioflocculant was physically and chemically characterised. Under optimised culture conditions (incubation time 72 h, pH 7, shaker speed 150 rpm, temperature 35 °C and inoculum 4%), 6.75 g/L yield of crude bioflocculant was recorded. The bioflocculant activity was mostly distributed in the cell-free supernatant with optimum efficiency of 91.8% at a dose of 4 mL/100 mL Kaolin suspension. The purified bioflocculant was a glycoprotein consisting of 23.46% protein and 74.5% sugar, including 46% neutral sugar and 2.01% uronic acid. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy fundamental analysis of the purified bioflocculant indicated that the mass proportion of C, O and N, were 63.46%, 27.87% and 8.86%, respectively. The bioflocculant is mainly composed of carbonyl, amino, hydroxyl, and amide functional groups. This study for the first time indicates a high potential of bioflocculant yield from chicken viscera at the appropriate culture conditions.


Assuntos
Aspergillus flavus/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura/química , Animais , Galinhas , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Temperatura Ambiente , Vísceras
18.
Onderstepoort J Vet Res ; 86(1): e1-e6, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291734

RESUMO

Between July and September 2017, samples collected from six unvaccinated chickens in Namibia were shown to be positive for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) by RT-PCR. Partial sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 and VP2 genes from six viruses revealed that they all belong to the very virulent pathotype (Genogroup 3) and are genetically very similar to IBDVs identified in neighbouring Zambia. This is the first molecular characterisation of IBDV in Namibia and has implications on the control and management of the disease in the country.


Assuntos
Infecções por Birnaviridae/veterinária , Galinhas , Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da Bursa/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Animais , Infecções por Birnaviridae/epidemiologia , Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da Bursa/genética , Namíbia/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária
19.
Virol J ; 16(1): 87, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human infection with avian influenza H7N9 virus was first reported in 2013. Since the fifth epidemic, a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 virus has emerged and caused 33 human infections. Several potential NAI resistance sites have been found in human cases. However, the drug susceptibility and replication ability of HPAI H7N9 virus with such substitutions have not yet been studied. METHODS: Thirty-three HPAI H7N9 virus strains were isolated from human cases in China, and then sequences were analyzed to identify potential NAI resistance sites. Recombinant influenza viruses were generated to evaluate the effect of NA amino acid substitutions on NAI (oseltamivir or zanamivir) susceptibility and viral replication efficiency in MDCK cells. RESULTS: Four potential NAI resistance sites, R292 K, E119V, A246T or H274Y, were screened. All four substitutions conferred either reduced or highly reduced susceptibility to oseltamivir or zanamivir. 292 K not only highly reduced the susceptibility of HPAI H7N9 to oseltamivir but also induced an increase in the IC50 of zanamivir. 119 V or 274Y conferred reduced susceptibility of HPAI H7N9 to oseltamivir. Additionally, 246 T conferred reduced susceptibility to zanamivir. All tested NAI-resistant viruses were capable of replication in MDCK cells. The virus yields of rg006-NA292K were lower than those of rg006-NA292R at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h postinfection (P<0.05). Rg006-NA119V, rg006-NA246T or rg006-NA274Y showed comparable replication capacity to wild-type virus (except for rg006-NA274Y at 96 h, P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: All 4 amino acid substitutions (R292 K, E119V, A246T or H274Y) in NA reduced the susceptibility of HPAI H7N9 to NAIs. The NAI-resistant mutations in HPAI H7N9, in most cases, did not reduce the replication ability of the virus in mammalian cells. Special attention needs to be paid to these mutations, and the development of new anti-H7N9 drugs is of great importance.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/efeitos dos fármacos , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Humana/virologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Galinhas , Cães , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Humanos , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Influenza Aviária , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Neuraminidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Oseltamivir/farmacologia , Zanamivir/farmacologia
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 9002-9008, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322885

RESUMO

The diphenylurea 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) is the residue of concern left in edible tissues of broilers fed diets containing the anticoccidial nicarbazin. When chicken meat is submitted to thermal processing, p-nitroaniline (p-NA) is expected from DNC degradation. This work aimed at evaluating whether thermal processing of DNC-containing chicken meat induces p-NA appearance. First, a hydrolysis assay was performed in aqueous solutions at 100 °C in different pH, confirming that DNC cleavage yields p-NA. Then a novel LC-MS/MS method was used to detect traces of this aromatic amine in DNC-containing chicken breast fillets subjected to cooking methods. Our evidence showed p-NA occurrence in such chicken meat samples, which corroborated results from hydrolysis assay. The p-NA appearance in fillets was rather discrete during boiling treatment, but its concentration became pronounced over time for grilling, frying, and roasting, achieving respectively 326.3, 640.0, and 456.9 µg/kg. As far as we are concerned, no other research identified degradation products from DNC residue in heat-processed chicken fillets. Therefore, this study leads to additional approaches to assess impacts on food safety.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina/química , Carbanilidas/química , Coccidiostáticos/química , Resíduos de Drogas/química , Carne/análise , Nicarbazina/química , Compostos de Anilina/metabolismo , Animais , Carbanilidas/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Coccidiostáticos/metabolismo , Culinária , Resíduos de Drogas/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Nicarbazina/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
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