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Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250517, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355859


Abstract Lactobacilli are probiotics with Aflatoxin (AF) detoxification ability, found in fermented products, GIT of animals and environment. Purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of broiler isolates of Lactobacillus against Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). For this purpose, 5 isolates of Lactobacillus from broiler gut were incubated with 100 ppb AFB1 in aqueous environment and effect of different parameters (cell fractions, time, temperature, pH) on detoxification was determined by HPLC. The ameliorative effect of Lactobacillus salivarius (LS) against AFB1 was studied in broiler. The results revealed that LS (CR. 4) showed the best results (in vitro) as compared to other isolates (L. salivarius (CR. 3, CR, 4), L. agilis (CE. 2.1, CE. 3.1) and L. crispatus (CE. 28). Cell debris of CR. 4 showed significantly higher detoxification (P<0.05). Maximum amount of AFB1 was detoxified at 30°C (97%), pH 4.0 (99%) and 6 h (99.97%). In vivo study showed that AFB1 decreased weight gain (1,269 ± 0.04 gm/ bird), feed consumed (2,161 ± 0.08 gm/ bird), serum total protein (2.42 ± 0.34 gm/ dl), serum albumin (0.5 ± 0.2 2 gm/dl) and antibody titer (4.2 ± 0.83). Liver function enzymes were found (alanine transaminase (ALT): 32 ± 10.7 U/L) and aspartate transaminase (AST): 314.8 ± 27 U/L) elevated in AFB1 fed broilers. Treatment with 1% LS not only decreased the toxic effects of AFB1 (group D) but also improved the overall health of broilers due to its probiotic effects (p<0.05) as compared to control negative (group A). The detoxification ability of LS was better than commercial binder (CB) (0.2% Protmyc). It was concluded that detoxification of AFB1 by Lactobacillus was strain, temperature, pH and time dependent. LS has detoxification ability against AFB1 in vivo.

Resumo Os lactobacilos são probióticos com capacidade de desintoxicação da Aflatoxina (AF), encontrados em produtos fermentados, TGI de animais e meio ambiente. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a capacidade de isolados de frango de corte de Lactobacillus contra a Aflatoxina B1 (AFB1). Para tanto, 5 isolados de Lactobacillus de intestino de frango foram incubados com 100 ppb AFB1 em meio aquoso, e o efeito de diferentes parâmetros (frações celulares, tempo, temperatura, pH) na desintoxicação foi determinado por CLAE. O efeito melhorador de Lactobacillus salivarius (LS) contra AFB1 foi estudado em frangos de corte. Os resultados revelaram que LS (CR. 4) apresentou os melhores resultados (in vitro) em comparação com outros isolados [L. salivarius (CR. 3, CR. 4), L. agilis (CE. 2.1, CE. 3.1) e L. crispatus (CE. 28)]. Detritos celulares de CR. 4 mostraram desintoxicação significativamente maior (P < 0.05). A quantidade máxima de AFB1 foi desintoxicada a 30 °C (97%), pH 4.0 (99%) e 6 h (99,97%). O estudo in vivo mostrou que AFB1 diminuiu o ganho de peso (1,269 ± 0.04 g / ave), alimento consumido (2,161 ± 0.08 g / ave), proteína total sérica (2.42 ± 0.34 g / dl), albumina sérica (0.5 ± 0.22 gm / dl) e título de anticorpo (4.2 ± 0.83). As enzimas da função hepática foram encontradas (alanina transaminase (ALT): 32 ± 10.7 U / L) e aspartato transaminase (AST): 314.8 ± 27 U / L) elevadas em AFB1 alimentados com frangos. O tratamento com 1% LS não só diminuiu os efeitos tóxicos de AFB1 (grupo D), mas também melhorou a saúde geral dos frangos devido aos seus efeitos probióticos (p < 0.05) em comparação com o controle negativo (grupo A). A capacidade de desintoxicação do LS foi melhor do que o aglutinante comercial (CB) (0.2% Protmyc). Concluiu-se que a desintoxicação de AFB1 por Lactobacillus foi dependente da cepa, temperatura, pH e tempo. LS tem capacidade de desintoxicação contra AFB1 in vivo.

Animais , Aflatoxina B1/análise , Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Probióticos , Galinhas , Lactobacillus , Ração Animal/análise
Food Chem ; 398: 133913, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964560


This experiment investigated the underlying mechanism of ultrasonic-assisted stewing to enhance the aroma intensity of chicken broth by measuring fat content, oil droplet sizes, zeta potential, viscosity, surface protein loading, lipid oxidation, and aroma compound concentrations. As the thermo-ultrasound time increased, the fat content increased from 0.3 % to 1.2 %, resulting in a milky white appearance. After 1 h of thermo-ultrasound, the broth had the smallest particle size and the highest surface protein load, viscosity, and emulsion stability, as well as the highest total amount of aroma-active compounds of 314.70 ng/mg. With the further extension of thermo-ultrasound time, lipid oxidation increased, but the stability of chicken broth decreased, lowering the content of aroma-active compounds. These outcomes suggested that thermo-ultrasound could enhance the aroma intensity of chicken broth by increasing the fat content and the emulsion stability of the broth.

Galinhas , Odorantes , Animais , Emulsões/química , Lipídeos , Proteínas de Membrana , Odorantes/análise , Ultrassom
Food Chem ; 398: 133869, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964565


This study aims to evaluate the heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) formation inhibited by cyanidin and rutin in chemical modeling systems and smoked chicken drumsticks. In the PhIP and ß-carboline chemical modeling systems, cyanidin inhibited the PhIP, Harman, and Norharman formation while rutin inhibited the PhIP formation but promoted the Harman and Norharman formation compared with control sample (P < 0.05). A mechanistic investigation confirmed that inhibiting the PhIP formation by cyanidin was mainly through trapping phenylalanine, creatine, creatinine, glucose, phenylacetaldehyde, and an aldol condensation product. In the smoked chicken drumsticks, cyanidin inhibited the PhIP, Harman, and Norharman formation dose-dependently compared to the control sample (P < 0.05), with 2.0 % (w/v) cyanidin having the highest inhibitory effect. Moreover, cyanidin inhibited the formation of PhIP precursors and intermediates in the smoked chicken drumsticks. These results provide evidence for using phenolic compounds to reduce HAA formation in smoked meat products.

Galinhas , Compostos Heterocíclicos , Aminas/química , Animais , Antocianinas , Culinária/métodos , Compostos Heterocíclicos/química , Temperatura Alta , Carne/análise , Rutina , Fumaça
Food Chem ; 398: 133874, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964567


The influence of ultrasound-assisted immersion freezing (UF), immersion freezing (IF), and air freezing (AF) on the protein oxidation, structure, and thermal stability of chicken breast during frozen storage was evaluated in this study. Compared to IF and AF samples, the UF samples had a lower carbonyl content, dityrosine content, and surface hydrophobicity of myofibrillar protein (MP) (P < 0.05), as well as a higher free amino group content and total and reactive sulfhydryl content (P < 0.05). Moreover, UF significantly delayed the deterioration of protein secondary and tertiary structures and the decrease in protein thermal stability during frozen storage (P < 0.05). Additionally, the UF samples at 180 days had similar protein structures and quality characteristics to the IF samples at 90 days or the AF samples at 60 days. Overall, UF treatment can effectively retard protein oxidation, protein structure deterioration, and protein thermal stability loss caused by frozen storage.

Galinhas , Proteínas , Animais , Congelamento , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Estabilidade Proteica
Food Chem ; 399: 133977, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35994857


In this work, ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS) was applied to compare the lipidomics profile of chicken breast meat heated to various temperatures. A total of 445 lipids including phospholipids, diacylglycerols, triacylglycerols, glycoglycerolipids, and sphingolipids were detected in chicken muscle. Significant decreases in a list of characteristic unsaturated phospholipid species including phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol were identified after heating, suggesting the occurrence of lipid oxidation, while significant increases in characteristic lysophospholipid species were found with increasing heating temperature, which were mainly derived from hydrolysis of phospholipids. Moreover, ether phospholipid and neutral lipid species exhibited remarkable changes during the heating process, and monoalk(en)yl diacylglycerol was first identified in chicken meat. The findings could contribute to the improved understanding of key lipids and biochemical reactions engaged in the heating of meat products.

Galinhas , Lipidômica , Animais , Carne , Fosfolipídeos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
Food Chem ; 399: 134004, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037691


Intensive systems of raising chickens in barns prevail worldwide for financial reasons. In contrast, free-range chickens are raised in better welfare conditions, and preferred by consumers due to their distinctive taste/flavor, having higher market prices. Thus, free-range chickens have been the target of frauds. In this study, 1H NMR metabolic profiles of breasts of free-range and barn-raised broilers (108 individuals) were compared by two discriminant models, based on t-test ranking and partial least squares (PLS-DA). Both models provided 100 % of correct classification in both training and test sets, being the univariate model based on t-test screening simpler and more robust. Among other differences, barn-raised broilers presented lower carnosine and anserine concentrations, and higher free amino acids contents. Univariate discrimination was based on the ratio of two NMR signals assigned to ß-alanine and carnosine + anserine, respectively. As an additional advantage, this profiling method could be adapted to other measurement platforms.

Anserina , Carnosina , Animais , Anserina/análise , Carnosina/análise , Galinhas/metabolismo , Análise Discriminante , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos
Food Chem ; 399: 134020, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037694


The effect of freeze-thaw (F-T) cycles on the digestive and protein structural properties of chicken breasts during in vitro digestion was investigated. With F-T cycles increased, the hardiness, chewiness, and shear force of chicken breasts increased, whereas the digestibility decreased, and particle size of digestive samples increased was evidenced by laser particle size analyzer and confocal fluorescence microscopy. The digestibility of the fifth F-T cycle samples in pepsin and pepsin/trypsin decreased by 25.99% and 11.82% compared to fresh samples, respectively. During F-T cycles, the disruption of protein structure was confirmed by the α-Helix decrease, ß-sheet increase, the intrinsic tryptophan intensities decrease and a redshift in the maximum value. Therefore, F-T cycles destroyed protein structure and induced the protein aggregation, resulting in chicken that was difficult to digest in the simulated digestion. The phenomenon became more acute as the number of F-T cycles increased.

Galinhas , Pepsina A , Animais , Digestão , Congelamento , Carne/análise
Food Chem ; 399: 133824, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36041335


Innovative pH-colorimetric sensor film was fabricated from agar and methylcellulose matrix (AM) with various concentrations of sunflower wax (SFW) (6%, 9%, 12%, and 15% w/w) combined with purple Chinese cabbage (CPC) anthocyanins for tracking chicken breast freshness. A bio-composition film AM/CPC with (hydrophobic) SFW exhibited significant color variations in acidic pH level of (2-6) and a slight shift in alkaline pH levels ranging from (7-12), as well as marked color change due to ammonia vapor. Microstructure analyses revealed that SFW was fixed effectively into the AM-CPC matrices. The incorporation of varying SFW concentrations enhanced the mechanical, thermal, antioxidant activity, reduced anthocyanin release and physical properties (mainly water vapor permeability), with the best performance at AM/CPC/9% SFW. Interestingly, SFW films demonstrated perfect defense opposing UV-vis and visible light. Finally, it was proved that the efficiency of the pH-colorimetric film as an indicator for evaluating the freshness of chicken breast.

Asteraceae , Brassica , Helianthus , Animais , Antocianinas/química , Biomarcadores , Galinhas , China , Embalagem de Alimentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249756, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345533


Abstract Ri chicken is the most popular backyard chicken breed in Vietnam, but little is known about the growth curve of this breed. This study compared the performances of models with three parameters (Gompertz, Brody, and Logistic) and models containing four parameters (Richards, Bridges, and Janoschek) for describing the growth of Ri chicken. The bodyweight of Ri chicken was recorded weekly from week 1 to week 19. Growth models were fitted using minpack.lm package in R software and Akaike's information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC), and root mean square error (RMSE) were used for model comparison. Based on these criteria, the models having four parameters showed better performance than the ones with three parameters, and the Richards model was the best one for males and females. The lowest and highest value of asymmetric weights (α) were obtained by Bridges and Brody models for each of sexes, respectively. Age and weight estimated by the Richard model were 8.46 and 7.51 weeks and 696.88 and 487.58 g for males and for females, respectively. Differences in the growth curves were observed between males and female chicken. Overall, the results suggested using the Richards model for describing the growth curve of Ri chickens. Further studies on the genetics and genomics of the obtained growth parameters are required before using them for the genetic improvement of Ri chickens.

Resumo O frango Ri é a raça de frango de quintal mais popular do Vietnã, mas pouco se sabe sobre a curva de crescimento dessa raça. Este estudo comparou o desempenho de modelos com três parâmetros (Gompertz, Brody e Logistic) e modelos contendo quatro parâmetros (Richards, Bridges e Janoschek) para descrever o crescimento do frango Ri. O peso corporal do frango Ri foi registrado semanalmente da semana 1 à semana 19. Os modelos de crescimento foram ajustados usando o pacote minpack.lm no software R e o critério de informação de Akaike (AIC); critério de informação bayesiano (BIC) e erro quadrático médio (RMSE) foram usados ​​para comparação de modelos. Com base nesses critérios, os modelos com quatro parâmetros apresentaram melhor desempenho do que os com três parâmetros, sendo o modelo de Richards o melhor para homens e mulheres. O menor e o maior valor dos pesos assimétricos (α) foram obtidos pelos modelos Bridges e Brody para cada um dos sexos, respectivamente. A idade e o peso estimados pelo modelo de Richard foram de 8,46 e 7,51 semanas e 696,88 e 487,58 g para homens e mulheres, respectivamente. Diferenças nas curvas de crescimento foram observadas entre frangos machos e fêmeas. No geral, os resultados sugeriram o uso do modelo de Richards para descrever a curva de crescimento de frangos Ri. Mais estudos sobre a genética e genômica dos parâmetros de crescimento obtidos são necessários antes de usá-los para o melhoramento genético de frangos Ri.

Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Galinhas , Modelos Teóricos , Peso Corporal , Teorema de Bayes , Asiáticos , Modelos Biológicos
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e252594, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339400


Abstract The present trial explained the effect of alternative production systems on growth, morphometric and carcass traits of four different chicken genotypes. The second generation of two genotypes RNN (Rhode Island Red × Naked Neck) and BNN (Black Australorp × Naked Neck) obtained by two self-crosses (RNN × RNN = RR and BNN × BNN = BB) and two reciprocal crosses (RNN × BNN = RB and BNN × RNN = BR) were evaluated in three alternative production systems (conventional cages, enriched cages, and aviary). At the 6th week of age after sexing, a total of 600 birds, comprising 150 from each crossbred with a total of 300 pullets and 300 cockerels were divided into conventional cages, enriched cages, and aviary systems having 200 birds in each.Birds were organized into 3×4 factorial arrangements under Completely Randomized Design (3 production systems × 4 genotypes × 2 sexes × 25 birds = 600 birds). Regarding genotypes, RB and BR males showed higher (p < 0.01) carcass yield, drumstick weight, breast weight, and thigh weight than BB and RR genotypes. Females of BR genotype showed higher (p < 0.01) breast weight, thigh weight and drumstick weight. As far as production systems are concerned, higher (p < 0.01) liver weight, heart weight, breast weight, intestinal weight, drumstick weight, and thigh weight were observed in the males reared in enriched cages compared with conventional cages and aviary system. Females reared in enriched cages showed higher (p < 0.01) heart weight, breast weight, intestinal weight, drumstick weight, and thigh weight when compared with those reared in conventional cages and aviary. It is concluded that chickens (both sexes) of BR and RB genotypes had better morphological measurements and carcass traits than those of RR and BB genotype chickens. Among alternative production systems, chickens reared in enriched cages had better traits than those of reared in conventional cages and aviary during the growing phase.

Resumo O presente estudo explicou o efeito de sistemas alternativos de produção sobre o crescimento, características morfométricas e carcaças de quatro genótipos de frango diferentes. A segunda geração de dois genótipos RNN (Rhode Island Red × Naked Neck) e BNN (Black Australorp × Naked Neck) obtida por duas autocruzes (RNN × RNN = RR e B ANN × BNN = BB) e duas cruzes recíprocas (RNN × BNN = RB e BNN × RNN = BR) foi avaliada em três sistemas de produção alternativos (gaiolas convencionais, gaiolas enriquecidas e aviário). Na 6ª semana de idade após o sexo, um total de 600 aves, compostas por 150 de cada raça cruzada com um total de 300 pullets e 300 galos, foi dividido em gaiolas convencionais, gaiolas enriquecidas e sistemas aviários com 200 aves em cada. As aves foram organizadas em 3×4 arranjos fatoriais sob projeto completamente randomizado (3 sistemas de produção × 4 genótipos × 2 sexos × 25 aves = 600 aves). Em relação aos genótipos, os machos RB e BR apresentaram maior rendimento de carcaça (p < 0,01), peso da baqueta, peso mamário e peso da coxa do que os genótipos BB e RR. As fêmeas do genótipo BR apresentaram maior (p < 0,01) peso mamário, peso da coxa e peso da baqueta. No que diz respeito aos sistemas de produção, maior (p < 0,01) peso hepático, peso cardíaco, peso mamário, peso intestinal, peso da baqueta e peso da coxa foram observados nos machos criados em gaiolas enriquecidas em comparação com gaiolas convencionais e sistema aviário. As fêmeas criadas em gaiolas enriquecidas apresentaram maior (p < 0,01) peso cardíaco, peso mamário, peso intestinal, peso da baqueta e peso da coxa quando comparadas com as criadas em gaiolas convencionais e aviárias. Conclui-se que as galinhas (ambos os sexos) dos genótipos BR e RB apresentaram melhores medidas morfológicas e traços de carcaça do que os de frangos genótipos RR e BB. Entre os sistemas de produção alternativos, as galinhas criadas em gaiolas enriquecidas tinham características melhores do que as criadas em gaiolas convencionais e aviárias durante a fase de cultivo.

Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Galinhas/genética , Hibridização Genética , Rhode Island , Genótipo
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250296, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339385


Abstract The current study aimed to determine the effects of different levels of Zingiber officinale as a herbal feed additive on growth performance, carcass characteristic, serum biochemistry, total bacterial count (TBC), gut morphology, and immunological parameters of broilers. A total of 1500, day-old broiler chicks (Hubbard) were equally accredited to five treatment groups, each with six replicates (50 birds/replicate). Five experimental diets were prepared using basal diet i.e. with antibiotics positive control (PC), 3 g/kg ginger (group A), 6 g/kg ginger (group B), 9 g/kg ginger (group C) and without antibiotics negative control (NC). Group A and C showed significantly (p<0.05) higher feed intake (FI) as compared to other groups. Group C showed significantly (p<0.05) lower Total bacterial count (TBC) followed by group B as compared to NC. Carcass characteristics showed non-significant effects among different treatments. Mean villi length and width were significantly (p <0.05) higher in all ginger supplemented groups as compared to the control groups. Blood serum parameters including cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) were significantly (p<0.05) lower in groups B and C in comparison with the control groups. Whereas high-density lipoproteins (HDL) was significantly higher in group B as compared to the others. In conclusion, ginger supplementation @0.6% in the basal diet significantly improved growth performance and gut morphometry of broilers. It also showed a positive impact on cholesterol, triglycerides and gut microbes. Therefore, ginger could be a better substitute for antibiotic growth promoters.

Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar os efeitos de diferentes níveis de Zingiber officinale como aditivo à base de plantas medicinais sobre o desempenho de crescimento, características da carcaça, bioquímica sérica, contagem bacteriana total (CBT), morfologia intestinal e parâmetros imunológicos de frangos de corte. Um total de 1.500 pintos de corte de um dia de idade (Hubbard) foram igualmente credenciados em cinco grupos de tratamento, cada um com seis repetições (50 aves/repetição). Cinco dietas experimentais foram preparadas usando dieta basal, ou seja, com controle positivo de antibióticos (PC), 3 g/kg de gengibre (grupo A), 6 g/kg de gengibre (grupo B), 9 g/kg de gengibre (grupo C) e sem controle negativo de antibióticos (NC). Os grupos A e C apresentaram consumo de ração (FI) significativamente (p < 0,05) maior do que os outros grupos. O grupo C apresentou contagem bacteriana total (CBT) significativamente menor (p < 0,05) seguido pelo grupo B em comparação com o NC. As características da carcaça apresentaram efeitos não significativos entre os diferentes tratamentos. O comprimento e largura médios das vilosidades foram significativamente (p < 0,05) maiores em todos os grupos suplementados com gengibre em comparação com os grupos de controle. Os parâmetros séricos do sangue, incluindo colesterol, triglicerídeos e lipoproteínas de baixa densidade (LDL), foram significativamente (p < 0,05) menores nos grupos B e C em comparação com os grupos controle. Enquanto as lipoproteínas de alta densidade (HDL) foram significativamente maiores no grupo B em comparação com os outros. Em conclusão, a suplementação de gengibre a 0,6% na dieta basal melhorou significativamente o desempenho de crescimento e a morfometria intestinal de frangos de corte. Ele também mostrou um impacto positivo sobre o colesterol, triglicerídeos e micróbios intestinais. Portanto, o gengibre pode ser um substituto melhor para os promotores de crescimento com antibióticos.

Animais , Gengibre , Galinhas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251004, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339339


Abstract The supplementation of Selenium-enriched probiotics is effective in reducing oxidative stress and maintaining meat quality stability in broiler chicken especially under heat stress. An experimental study was conducted to perform Comparative analysis of Selenium yeast with inorganic Se in broilers under heat stress. A total of 120 broilers chicks of one day were assigned to 4 groups each consisting 30 chicks fed on same basal diet but different selenium sources. The basal diet of group D1 was not supplemented with Se source (Negative control), group D2 basal diet was supplemented with inorganic selenium (Sodium selenite 0.22mg/Kg starter phase and 0.15mg/Kg finisher phase), group D3 basal diet was supplemented with commercially available organic selenium (Seleno-methionine 0.22mg/Kg starter phase and 0.15mg/Kg finisher phase) and group D4 basal diet was supplemented with self-developed organic selenium (Se-enriched yeast 0.22mg/Kg starter phase and 0.15mg/Kg finisher phase). The performance parameters i.e. feed intake (FI), live body weight (BW) and FCR were not significantly (p>0.05) effected by selenium supplementation in the starter phase but were significantly (p<0.05) effected in the finisher phase. Selenium supplementation significantly (p<0.05) effected serum Se level in different supplemented groups. Higher serum Se value (58.20±0.06) was recorded in D4 group. Similarly significantly lower selenium value was recorded for D4 and higher was recorded for D1 (11.36±0.08). However lower serum Paraoxonase (PON) value was recorded for D4 (13.24±0.01) and higher for D1 (13.33±0.03). Comparatively self-developed Se enriched yeast increased the Se accumulation and improved antioxidant system. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was found higher in D4 (12.333±0.03) followed by D3, D2 and D1 respectively. Whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly lower (p<0.05) in D4 (0.1437±0.003) followed by D3 (0.1457±0.002). Selenium supplementation increased the bird's survival rate. Birds fed on Se enriched yeast showed higher Se deposition and better antioxidant capacity as compared to other sources of selenium. Se-enriched yeast displayed an improved result on Se deposition in tissues, and oxidative capacity, meat tenderness and immune response level as compared to other sources of selenium.

Resumo A suplementação de probióticos enriquecidos com selênio é eficaz na redução do estresse oxidativo e na manutenção da estabilidade da qualidade da carne em frangos de corte, especialmente sob estresse por calor. Um estudo experimental foi conduzido para realizar uma análise comparativa da levedura selênio com o Se inorgânico em frangos de corte sob estresse térmico. Um total de 120 pintos de um dia foi dividido em 4 grupos, cada um consistindo de 30 pintos alimentados com a mesma dieta basal, mas com diferentes fontes de selênio. A dieta basal do grupo D1 não foi suplementada com fonte de Se (controle negativo), a dieta basal do grupo D2 foi suplementada com selênio inorgânico (selenito de sódio 0,22 mg / kg fase inicial e 0,15 mg / kg fase finalizadora), a dieta basal do grupo D3 foi suplementada com selênio orgânico disponível comercialmente (fase inicial de seleno-metionina 0,22 mg / kg e fase finalizadora de 0,15 mg / kg) e a dieta basal do grupo D4 foi suplementada com selênio orgânico autodesenvolvido (fermento enriquecido com Se 0,22 mg / kg fase inicial e 0,15 mg / kg fase finalizadora). Os parâmetros de desempenho, ou seja, consumo de ração (FI), peso corporal vivo (PC) e FCR não foram significativamente (p > 0,05) afetados pela suplementação de selênio na fase inicial, mas foram significativamente (p < 0,05) afetados na fase final. A suplementação de selênio afetou significativamente (p < 0,05) o nível de Se sérico em diferentes grupos suplementados. O maior valor de Se sérico (58,20 ± 0,06) foi registrado no grupo D4. Da mesma forma, valor de selênio significativamente menor foi registrado para D4 e maior foi registrado para D1 (11,36 ± 0,08). No entanto, um valor mais baixo de Paraoxonase (PON) sérica foi registrado para D4 (13,24 ± 0,01) e mais alto para D1 (13,33 ± 0,03). A levedura enriquecida com Se comparativamente autodesenvolvida aumentou o acúmulo de Se e melhorou o sistema antioxidante. A glutationa peroxidase (GPx) foi encontrada maior em D4 (12,333 ± 0,03) seguido por D3, D2 e ​​D1 respectivamente. Enquanto a superóxido dismutase (SOD) foi significativamente menor (p < 0,05) em D4 (0,1437 ± 0,003) seguido por D3 (0,1457 ± 0,002). A suplementação de selênio aumentou a taxa de sobrevivência da ave. Aves alimentadas com levedura enriquecida com Se apresentaram maior deposição de Se e melhor capacidade antioxidante em comparação com outras fontes de selênio. A levedura enriquecida com Se apresentou um resultado melhorado na deposição de Se nos tecidos, capacidade oxidativa, maciez da carne e nível de resposta imune em comparação com outras fontes de selênio.

Animais , Selênio , Galinhas , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Antioxidantes
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246514, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285640


Abstract The poultry sector in Pakistan is contributing mainly in bridging gap between demand and supply for protein. Mycoplasma gallisepticum is an emerging bacterium causing serious problems in poultry industry of Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the M. gallisepticum load in poultry populated regions of Pakistan. Total 600 serum and 600 swab samples were collected, 200 from each broiler, layers and breeders poultry in Rawalpindi and Abbottabad districts. Serum samples were analyzed through ELISA for seroprevalence. Swabs were cultured on Frey's medium followed by PCR and partial mgc2 gene sequencing. Results of seroprevalence of M. gallisepticum showed that layers (75%, n=150) are more positive as compared to breeders (70%, n=140) and broilers (50%, n=100). Typical colonies of the M. gallisepticum were observed in breeder (26.5%), followed by layer (21%) and broilers (9%). A total of 37.1% (n=42) samples were identified positive through PCR out of total 113 cultured based positive samples. A total of six M. gallisepticum isolates of current study showed 98-99 percent similarity with previously reported isolates on the basis of mgc2 gene partial sequencing. The M. gallisepticum was found highly prevalent in different poultry breads. Results of this study would add into basic data and provide a direction for livestock sector to strengthen a control strategy for mycoplasmosis in poultry farms.

Resumo O setor avícola do Paquistão está contribuindo principalmente para preencher a lacuna entre a demanda e a oferta de proteína. Mycoplasma gallisepticum é uma bactéria emergente que causa sérios problemas na indústria avícola do Paquistão. Um estudo transversal foi conduzido para avaliar a carga de M. gallisepticum em regiões de avicultura do Paquistão. Um total de 600 amostras de soro e 600 amostras de esfregaço foi coletado, 200 de cada frango de corte, poedeiras e aves reprodutoras nos distritos de Rawalpindi e Abbottabad. Amostras de soro foram analisadas por ELISA para soroprevalência. As zaragatoas foram cultivadas em meio Frey, seguido de PCR e sequenciação parcial do gene mgc2. Os resultados da soroprevalência de M. gallisepticum mostraram que as poedeiras (75%, n = 150) são mais positivas em comparação com matrizes (70%, n = 140) e frangos de corte (50%, n = 100). Colônias típicas de M. gallisepticum foram observadas em reprodutoras (26,5%), seguidas de poedeiras (21%) e frangos de corte (9%). Um total de 37,1% (n = 42) das amostras foi identificado como positivas por PCR de um total de 113 amostras positivas baseadas em cultura. Um total de seis isolados de M. gallisepticum do estudo atual mostrou 98-99% de similaridade com isolados relatados anteriormente com base no sequenciamento parcial do gene mgc2. O M. gallisepticum foi encontrado com alta prevalência em diferentes pães de aves. Os resultados deste estudo acrescentariam dados básicos e forneceriam orientação para o setor pecuário fortalecer uma estratégia de controle da micoplasmose em granjas avícolas.

Animais , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/genética , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Aves Domésticas , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Galinhas , Estudos Transversais
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246389, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285638


Abstract Poultry industry is expanding rapidly and producing million tons of feather waste annually. Massive production of keratinaceous byproducts in the form of industrial wastes throughout the world necessitates its justified utilization. Chemical treatment of keratin waste is proclaimed as an eco-destructive approach by various researchers since it generates secondary pollutants. Keratinase released by a variety of microbes (bacteria and fungi) can be used for the effective treatment of keratin waste. Microbial degradation of keratin waste is an emerging and eco-friendly approach and offers dual benefits, i.e., treatment of recalcitrant pollutant (keratin) and procurement of a commercially important enzyme (keratinase). This study involves the isolation, characterization, and potential utility of fungal species for the degradation of chicken-feather waste through submerged and solid-state fermentation. The isolated fungus was identified and characterized as Aspergillus (A.) flavus. In a trial of 30 days, it was appeared that 74 and 8% feather weight was reduced through sub-merged and solid-state fermentation, respectively by A. flavus. The pH of the growth media in submerged fermentation was changed from 4.8 to 8.35. The exploited application of keratinolytic microbes is, therefore, recommended for the treatment of keratinaceous wastes to achieve dual benefits of remediation.

Resumo A indústria avícola está se expandindo rapidamente e produzindo milhões de toneladas de resíduos de penas anualmente. A produção massiva de subprodutos queratinosos na forma de resíduos agrícolas e industriais em todo o mundo exige sua utilização justificada. O tratamento químico de resíduos de queratina é proclamado como uma abordagem ecodestrutiva por vários pesquisadores, uma vez que gera poluentes secundários. A queratinase liberada por uma variedade de micróbios (bactérias e fungos) pode ser usada para o tratamento eficaz de resíduos de queratina. A degradação microbiana de resíduos de queratina é uma abordagem emergente e ecológica e oferece benefícios duplos, ou seja, tratamento de poluente recalcitrante (queratina) e obtenção de uma enzima comercialmente importante (queratinase). Este estudo envolve o isolamento, caracterização e utilidade potencial de espécies de fungos para a degradação de resíduos de penas de frango por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O fungo isolado foi identificado e caracterizado como Aspergillus (A.) flavus. Em um ensaio de 30 dias, constatou-se que 74% e 8% do peso das penas foram reduzidos por A. flavus, respectivamente, por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O pH do meio de crescimento em fermentação submersa foi alterado de 4,8 para 8,35. A aplicação explorada de micróbios queratinolíticos é, portanto, recomendada para o tratamento de resíduos ceratinosos para obter benefícios duplos de remediação.

Animais , Galinhas , Plumas , Fermentação , Fungos , Resíduos Industriais , Queratinas/metabolismo
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246568, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278537


Abstract Fishmeal; being a limited and costly feed ingredient is continuously been substituted with locally available plant proteins. However, the occurrence of anti-nutritional factors in plant meal suppresses its potential to be fully replaced. Therefore, in this study we aimed to study the synergistic effects of dietary additives like citric acid and phytase enzyme supplementation on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings. Canola meal (CM) was used as a test ingredient to replace fishmeal (FM) as; 0%, 25%, 50% and 75%. These four diets were further supplemented by varying levels of phytase (0 and 750 FTU kg-1) and citric acid (0% and 2.5%) to formulate total sixteen test diets as T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 and T16. Each treatment contained three replicates; applied to fish groups having 15 fingerlings each; following 3×3 factorial arrangement. 1% of chromic oxide was added as an inert marker. Maximum weight gain% (288%) and the lowest value of FCR (1.07) were recorded when fish was fed on diet T12 as compared to fish fed control diet (T1). Similarly, optimum nutrient digestibility values such as crude protein (77%), crude fat (84%) and gross energy (70%) were noted on same level. It was concluded that 50% canola meal can optimally replace fishmeal when supplemented with phytase and citric acid at the levels of 750 FTU kg-1 and 2.5%, respectively.

Resumo A farinha de peixe, por ser um ingrediente alimentar limitado e caro, é continuamente substituída por proteínas vegetais disponíveis localmente. No entanto, a ocorrência de fatores antinutricionais na farinha de plantas suprime seu potencial de ser totalmente substituída. Portanto, neste estudo objetivamos estudar os efeitos sinérgicos de aditivos dietéticos como ácido cítrico e suplementação com enzima fitase sobre o desempenho de crescimento e digestibilidade de nutrientes de alevinos de Cirrhinus mrigala. A farinha de canola (CM) foi usada como ingrediente de teste para substituir a farinha de peixe (FM) como: 0%, 25%, 50% e 75%. Essas quatro dietas foram suplementadas por níveis variados de fitase (0 e 750 FTU kg-1) e ácido cítrico (0% e 2,5%) para formular um total de 16 dietas de teste como T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 e T16. Cada tratamento continha três repetições; aplicado a grupos de peixes com 15 alevinos cada; seguindo o arranjo fatorial 3 × 3. 1% de óxido crômico foi adicionado como um marcador inerte. % de ganho de peso máximo (288%) e o valor mais baixo de FCR (1,07) foram registrados quando os peixes foram alimentados com dieta T12 em comparação com peixes alimentados com dieta controle (T1). Da mesma forma, valores ótimos de digestibilidade de nutrientes, como proteína bruta (77%), gordura bruta (84%) e energia bruta (70%) foram anotados no mesmo nível. Concluiu-se que 50% da farinha de canola pode substituir de forma ideal a farinha de peixe quando suplementada com fitase e ácido cítrico nos níveis de 750 FTU kg-1 e 2,5%, respectivamente.

Animais , 6-Fitase , Nutrientes , Galinhas , Ácido Cítrico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
Vet Res ; 53(1): 69, 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064470


Chicken cathelicidin-2 (CATH-2) as a host defense peptide has been identified to have potent antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities. Here, we reported the mechanism by which CATH-2 modulates NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Our results show that CATH-2 and ATP as a positive control induced secretion of IL-1ß and IL-1α in LPS-primed macrophages but did not affect secretion of IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α. Furthermore, CATH-2 induced caspase-1 activation and oligomerization of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a carboxy- terminal caspase recruitment domain (ASC), which is essential for NLRP3 inflammasome activation. However, CATH-2 failed to induce IL-1ß secretion in Nlrp3-/-, Asc-/- and Casp1-/- macrophages. Notably, IL-1ß and NLRP3 mRNA expression were not affected by CATH-2. In addition, CATH-2-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation was mediated by K+ efflux but independent of the P2X7 receptor that is required for ATP-mediated K+ efflux. Gene interference of NEK7 kinase which has been identified to directly interact with NLRP3, significantly reduced IL-1ß secretion and caspase-1 activation induced by CATH-2. Furthermore, confocal microscopy shows that CATH-2 significantly induced lysosomal leakage with the diffusion of dextran fluorescent signal. Cathepsin B inhibitors completely abrogated IL-1ß secretion and caspase-1 activation as well as attenuating the formation of ASC specks induced by CATH-2. These results all indicate that CATH-2-induced activation of NLRP3 inflammasome is mediated by K+ efflux, and involves the NEK7 protein and cathepsin B. In conclusion, our study shows that CATH-2 acts as a second signal to activate NLRP3 inflammasome. Our study provides new insight into CATH-2 modulating immune response.

Inflamassomos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Trifosfato de Adenosina , Animais , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Caspase 1 , Catepsina B/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Macrófagos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15110, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068282


Ambient temperature-associated stress has been shown to affect the normal physiological functions of birds. The recent literature indicated that both, embryonic thermal manipulation (ETM) and in ovo feeding (IOF) of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) can mitigate the deleterious effects of heat stress (HS) in young broiler chicks. Therefore, this study intended to assess the effects of cyclic HS (32 ± 1 °C, 4 h/day from day 29 to 35) on rectal temperatures (RTs) and survival in broiler chickens after ETM and in IOF of GABA. A total of 275 RT data points and survival data were collected from chicks assigned to the following five treatments: chicks hatched from control eggs (CON); chicks hatched from control eggs but exposed to HS (CON + HS); chicks hatched from eggs injected at 17.5 days of incubation with 0.6 mL of 10% GABA and exposed to HS (G10 + HS); chicks hatched from thermally manipulated eggs (39.6 °C, 6 h/day from embryonic days 10 to 18) and exposed to HS (TM + HS); chicks hatched from eggs that received both previous treatments during incubation and exposed to HS (G10 + TM + HS). Under thermoneutral conditions, RTs increased quadratically from 39.9 ± 0.2 °C at hatching to 41.4 ± 0.1 °C at 8 days of age. When exposed to cyclic HS during the last week of rearing, the birds' RTs tended to decrease at the end of the heat stress challenge (from 43.0 ± 0.2 °C on day 29 to 42.4 ± 0.1 °C on day 35). A stepwise Cox regression indicated that treatment was predictive of birds' survival. Hazard ratios (HR) and their confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to assess the likelihood of death during the trial. The birds, belonging to the G10 + TM + HS group, were less likely to die under HS (HR 0.11, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.91, P = 0.041) compared to the CON + HS birds. Taken together, the combination of ETM and GABA IOF may help mitigate the drawbacks of cyclic HS by improving the survival of broilers.

Galinhas , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Animais , Temperatura Corporal , Galinhas/fisiologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(5): 277, 2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36070006


This study aims to determine the effects of blue and green monochromatic, blue-green combination, and blue-green mixed led lighting systems on growth, fear, and carcass characteristics of broilers reared in an extensive indoor system. Experimental groups were formed as follows; 1-conventional (incandescent), 2-blue, 3-green, 4-blue-green combined (blue for the first 10 days, then green), 5-green-blue combined (green for the first 10 days, then blue), and 6-blue-green intermittent (alternating every 5 min) monochromatic lightings. It was detected that the average values of the body weight of chickens at 42 and 56 days of age in the green-blue group were higher than those of the other treatment groups (both P < 0.05). It was determined that the broilers in the green and green-blue groups had higher means of the ß0 parameter of Gompertz model. The tonic immobility, emergence test, home cage avoidance test, a looming human test, and box plus experimenter test were applied to determine the fear responses. It was determined that the worst results for fear responses of broilers were in the intermittent lighting group and green-blue combined group. As a result, it was determined that the application of green monochromatic lighting in the first 10 days of the fattening period and blue monochromatic lighting in the following period positively affected growth and slaughter-carcass characteristics. However, it was found that broilers reared under green-blue combined lighting had high fear levels.

Galinhas , Luz , Animais , Peso Corporal , Medo , Humanos , Iluminação
Microb Cell Fact ; 21(1): 181, 2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071433


BACKGROUND: Worldwide, an estimated 70.7 billion broilers were produced in 2020. With the reduction in use of prophylactic antibiotics as a result of consumer pressure and regulatory oversight alternative approaches, such as vaccination, are required to control bacterial infections. A potential way to produce a multivalent vaccine is via the generation of a glycoconjugate vaccine which consists of an antigenic protein covalently linked to an immunogenic carbohydrate. Protein-glycan coupling technology (PGCT) is an approach to generate glycoconjugates using enzymes that can couple proteins and glycan when produced in bacterial cells. Previous studies have used PGCT to generate a live-attenuated avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strain capable of N-glycosylation of target proteins using a chromosomally integrated Campylobacter jejuni pgl locus. However, this proved ineffective against C. jejuni challenge. RESULTS: In this study we demonstrate the lack of surface exposure of glycosylated protein in APEC strain χ7122 carrying the pgl locus. Furthermore, we hypothesise that this may be due to the complex cell-surface architecture of E. coli. To this end, we removed the lipopolysaccharide O-antigen of APEC χ7122 pgl+ via deletion of the wecA gene and demonstrate increased surface exposure of glycosylated antigens (NetB and FlpA) in this strain. We hypothesise that increasing the surface expression of the glycosylated protein would increase the chance of host immune cells being exposed to the glycoconjugate, and therefore the generation of an efficacious immune response would be more likely. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate an increase in cell surface exposure and therefore accessibility of glycosylated antigens upon removal of lipopolysaccharide antigen from the APEC cell surface.

Infecções por Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli , Animais , Galinhas , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Glicoconjugados , Lipopolissacarídeos
Vet Res ; 53(1): 66, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056451


Mycoplasma (M.) gallisepticum is the most pathogenic mycoplasma species in poultry. Infections cause mild to severe clinical symptoms associated with respiratory epithelial lesion development. Adherence, biofilm formation, and cell invasion of M. gallisepticum contribute to successful infection, immune evasion, and survival within the host. The important M. gallisepticum membrane-bound proteins, GapA and CrmA, are key factors for host cell interaction and the bacterial life-cycle, including its gliding motility, although their precise role in the individual infection step is not yet fully understood. In this study, we investigated the correlation between the host-pathogen interaction and the GapA/CrmA expression in an environment that represents the natural host's multicellular compartment. We used an in vitro tracheal organ culture (TOC) model, allowing the investigation of the M. gallisepticum variants, Rlow, RCL1, RCL2, and Rhigh, under standardised conditions. In this regard, we examined the bacterial adherence, motility and colonisation pattern, host lesion development and alterations of mucociliary clearance. Compared to low virulent RCL2 and Rhigh, the high virulent Rlow and RCL1 were more efficient in adhering to TOCs and epithelium colonisation, including faster movement from the cilia tips to the apical membrane and subsequent cell invasion. RCL2 and Rhigh showed a more localised invasion pattern, accompanied by significantly fewer lesions than Rlow and RCL1. Unrelated to virulence, comparable mucus production was observed in all M. gallisepticum infected TOCs. Overall, the present study demonstrates the role of GapA/CrmA in virulence factors from adherence to colonisation, as well as the onset and severity of lesion development in the tracheal epithelium.

Infecções por Mycoplasma , Mycoplasma gallisepticum , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Virulência , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo