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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 855-862, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The starting point of this work is to propose a qualitative approach for authenticity confirmation of the composition of liquid egg products. To this end, it was aimed to detect the liquid egg authenticity and adulteration (with water) by using attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics. RESULTS: Liquid (n = 50) and dry (n = 50) samples of whole egg, egg yolk, egg white, and whole egg containing extra egg white (BXEW) and water (BXW) were prepared. Principal component analysis (PCA) models were formed using the data obtained from ATR-FTIR and NIR measurements of liquid and dry samples. A better classification was achieved with PCA model of ATR-FTIR measurements formed by using dry samples (100%) instead of liquid ones (80%). The best separation was obtained between dry sample groups of BXEW and BXW (adulterated). The presence of water content in liquid samples showed a negative effect on classification of the samples, while a good classification (100%) was obtained for NIR measurements of both liquid and dry sample groups. The developed PCA models achieved classification regardless of the form of egg samples (liquid or dry). CONCLUSION: The results of the study revealed that adulterated egg samples (with water) could be qualitatively detected using ATR-FTIR and NIR spectroscopy techniques in combination with PCA. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ovos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Análise de Componente Principal/métodos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Animais , Galinhas , Água/análise
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 587-594, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The research deals with the addition of microalgae Schizochytrium limacinum as an alternative to fish oil in a feed-mixture for laying-hens and its effect on the deposition of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3-PUFAs) [α-linoleic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] in the lipids of egg yolks. In the study, 240 Tetra SL laying hens housed in enriched cages were used, divided into six groups, each in five repetitions. Groups E1, E3 and E5 were given 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% microalgae and groups E2, E4 and E6 were given feed mixtures with 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% fish oil. The mixtures were modified on the basis of 17% of the crude protein and 11.7 MJ ME kg-1 . RESULTS: The results showed satisfactory disposal of n-3 PUFA in egg yolks of laying-hens fed mixtures with the addition of either fish oil or microalgae. Eggs of E1, E3 and E5 groups contained in 100 g: 321.07 mg, 361.60 mg and 399.34 mg n-3 PUFA, respectively (P < 0.001). Eggs of E2, E4 and E6 groups contained in 100 g: 346.25 mg, 346.17 mg and 369.02 mg n-3 PUFA, respectively (P < 0.001). By increasing the content of fish oil or microalgae in feed-mixtures for laying hens, the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA in egg yolk lipids (P < 0.001) was decreased. CONCLUSION: Our results justified the usage of the microalgae Schizochytrium limacinum in the enrichment of table eggs with n-3 fatty acids as an alternative feed to fish oil. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Galinhas/metabolismo , Ovos/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Óleos de Peixe/análise , Microalgas/metabolismo , Estramenópilas/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Gema de Ovo/química , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Feminino , Óleos de Peixe/metabolismo , Microalgas/química , Estramenópilas/química
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 699: 134296, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683218

RESUMO

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an air pollutant, has toxic effects on respiratory tract. However, the underlying mechanisms of H2S induced respiratory toxicity and the roles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) in this process remain poorly understood. To clear this, we investigated the change of tracheal tissue ultrastructure and the expression profiles of lncRNAs and miRNAs of chicken trachea exposed to H2S for 42 days. Results showed that H2S exposure triggered apoptosis, necroptosis, and differential expression of 16 lncRNAs and 18 miRNAs in broiler tracheas. The results of LMH cells stimulated by NaHS in vitro also showed the occurrence of apoptosis and necroptosis. LncRNA3037 is down-regulated and miR-15a is up-regulated in tracheal tissue and LMH cells under H2S exposure. Bioinformatics analysis and dual luciferase reporter system showed lncRNA3037 bound directly to miR-15a and negatively regulates each other. A20 and BCL2 are the target genes of miR-15a and negatively regulated by it. Overexpression of miR-15a caused apoptosis and necroptosis and its inhibition partially reversed apoptosis and necroptosis of LMH cells caused by NaHS stimulation and lncRNA3037 knockdown. Taken together, we concluded that H2S exposure mediates apoptosis and necroptosis through lncRNA3037/miR-15/A20-BCL2. These results provide new insights for unveiling the biological effects of H2S in vivo and in vitro.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose , Galinhas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2 , Transdução de Sinais , Testes de Toxicidade , Traqueia
4.
Food Chem ; 307: 125544, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654948

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to extract collagen from chicken sternal cartilage with ultrasound for various times to investigate the effects of ultrasonic waves and, cavitation energy on the yield, functional and physicochemical characteristics of collagen. The highest yield of collagen was 84.14% based on protein weight after ultrasonic treatment for 36 min. Using SDS-PAGE, the extracted protein was identified as collagen-II and its structural integrity was observed using scanning electron microscopy. The triple helical structure remained the same, but some changes in the secondary structure were observed after longer ultrasonication treatments (≥36 min). The amino acid profile exhibited high thermal stability. The rheological and functional characteristics of collagen were also considerably improved after ultrasonication for the optimal period (24 min). The ultrasonication treatment is an effective process for the extraction of collagen-II from land animal co-products, which will further meet the increasing industrial demand.


Assuntos
Colágeno/química , Cartilagem Costal/química , Aminoácidos/química , Animais , Galinhas , Colágeno/ultraestrutura , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Ondas Ultrassônicas
5.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(1): 469-478, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854950

RESUMO

We explore the effects of different passivating agents on livestock manure treatment by using chicken manure and straw as raw materials and thermophilic rapid fermentation. We investigate the effects of sepiolite (SE), calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer (NP), biochar (BI), compounds of sepiolite plus calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer (S+N), sepiolite plus biochar (S+B), calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer plus biochar (N+B), and sepiolite plus calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer and biochar (SNB) on the physical and chemical characteristics, heavy metal fraction and distribution, and organic matter content in chicken manure compost. The results showed that the addition of different passivating agents significantly increased the pH in chicken manure organic fertilizer (P<0.05). The seed germination rate was increased after applying of passivation agents, being>80%, and the germination inhibition rate decreased accordingly, whereas the values of electric conductivity (EC) and organic carbon were inhibited. The total nitrogen content and carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N) were lower than of those before composting, and all of the indicators reached the standard of organic fertilizer maturity. However, differences among the groups after composting were that the pH increase in the compounding treatment was comparatively higher, and that the EC decreased significantly under the treatment of the single sepiolite and calcium magnesium phosphate, whereas the total nitrogen content and C/N ratio of organic carbon were not significantly different in each group. Although the total amount of heavy metals in our organic chicken manure fertilizer increased due to a concentration effect, the proportion of exchangeable heavy metals in the fertilizer decreased, and while the ratio of the residual heavy metals increased. The passivation effect on heavy metals under combined treatments of different materials was better than that of a single agent, and the SNB treatment had the best effect on the passivation of Ni, Zn, As, and Pb. After composting treatment, the concentrations of humic substances (HS) and humic acid (HA) increased significantly (P<0.05), and the highest concentrations increased by 19.8% and 78.9%, respectively. The amount of fulvic acid (FA) decreased by 4.47%-20.11% compared with the initial conditions. Infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that the small molecular substances of polysaccharides increased after composting. In summary, the addition of a passivation agent can promote the heavy metal passivation in chicken manure organic fertilizers to potentially render the compost as harmless.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Esterco , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Animais , Galinhas
6.
Environ Technol ; 41(1): 49-58, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30461343

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of inoculum adaptation on biogas recovery from two identical lab-scale semi-continuous anaerobic digesters (AD) treating chicken waste (i.e. TS and VS contents of ca. 6.2% and 2.9%, respectively) at mesophilic condition (35°C). For the first two months; one of the AD was run with adapted whereas the second AD was run with unadapted granular sludge to chicken manure which was further operated for about 100 more days. In this scope, qPCR analysis and Illumina sequencing were also used to detect microbial community changes inside anaerobic reactors. Molecular analyses revealed that the number of archaea was significantly higher than that of overall archaea compared to the values obtained at the start-up time and methanogens also increased as the operation continued. On the other hand, although average daily biogas production was about 25% higher in adapted AD compared to the unadapted AD (i.e. biogas yields were ca. 0.6 and 0.7 m3/kg VSfeed, respectively), there was not a meaningful change in archaea numbers at the end of the operation. These suggest that changes in the structure of a microbial community lead to changes in biogas production and controlling ultimate methanogenic archaeal community may promote successful methane production in anaerobic reactors.


Assuntos
Esterco , Microbiota , Aclimatação , Anaerobiose , Animais , Archaea , Biocombustíveis , Reatores Biológicos , Galinhas , Metano
7.
Food Chem ; 305: 125450, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499291

RESUMO

A round robin comparison was performed in order to test the performance of a recently developed LC-MS/MS method for quantification of 6 folate forms. Eighty-nine samples representing the food groups of fruits, vegetables, legumes, cereals, dairy products, meat, and offal were analyzed by two LC-MS/MS methods and a microbiological assay (MA). A plant-origin deconjugase enzyme (Arabidopsis thaliana) for deconjugation of folates (PE-LC-MS/MS), or animal-origin deconjugase (rat serum and chicken pancreas) (AE-LC-MS/MS) was used in the LC-MS/MS methods, each in a single enzymatic step. In contrast, the MA involved tri-enzyme extraction including human plasma as a deconjugase. A significant bias of 17% lower and 25% higher results was found when PE-LC-MS/MS was compared to MA and AE-LC-MS/MS, respectively. The PE-LC-MS/MS provides fast quantification of various folate vitamers and total folate content, which could be a proper substitute to the currently standardized but imprecise and time-consuming microbiological assay in the future.


Assuntos
Ácido Fólico/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Animais , Galinhas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise de Alimentos , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ratos , Verduras/metabolismo , gama-Glutamil Hidrolase/metabolismo
8.
Food Chem ; 306: 125560, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590002

RESUMO

To control the oxidation in chicken fat by immobilized lipoxygenase (LOX), Maillard reaction products (MRPs) with chicken flavor were prepared and analyzed for flavor mechanism. >50% activity of immobilized LOX was retained after repeated use for five times or five weeks. The oxidized chicken fats were prepared by thermal, free LOX, and immobilized LOX treatments. After addition of chicken fats, Maillard reaction produced more aliphatic aldehydes and alcohols (126.0-839.5 ng/g and 493.5-2332.4 ng/g, respectively) which resulted in noticeable enhanced reaction, but the content of sulfur compounds such as thiols and thiophenes decreased significantly (870.8-1233.9 ng/g and 1125.0-2880.3 ng/g, respectively), and the structure of sulfur compounds could easily form alkyl side chains. However, there was no significant difference in sensory and flavors between oxidized chicken after treatments, which may be related to oxidized degree. The mechanism was proposed or aromatic effects of oxidized chicken fat on flaxseed derived MRPs.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Gorduras/metabolismo , Aromatizantes/química , Linho/química , Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Animais , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Gorduras/química , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/análise , Reação de Maillard , Oxirredução , Soja/enzimologia , Paladar
9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 421-430, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Of the 18 043 bird species, the eggs of only hen and quail are generally available to consumers. Thus people are deprived of the opportunity to benefit from the huge diversity of eggs offered by nature. Poultry eggs can vary in their color of albumen and yolk, smell, taste and texture. In this study, sighted and blind people were employed for sensory evaluation with the aim of determining the preferences of consumers toward hard-boiled and scrambled eggs of different species of birds, and whether the appearance of these eggs has an effect on the perception of other sensory impressions. RESULTS: Sighted people differently evaluated the texture of both boiled and scrambled eggs as compared with blind people. This was mainly because blind people largely used their sense of touch for evaluation. All other attributes of boiled eggs were evaluated similarly by both groups of panelists, whereas those of scrambled eggs were evaluated differently. CONCLUSION: The obtained results unequivocally demonstrated that differences in taste of scrambled eggs when served hot are easier to evaluate than those of boiled eggs. On the basis of ranking by the sensory panel, it was established that eggs of birds belonging to the order Galliformes are more preferred by consumers than those of duck and goose. By contrast, eggs of ostrich and emu are characterized by unfavorable sensory profiles; moreover, the albumen of boiled ostrich eggs has an unsightly appearance. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ovos/análise , Preferências Alimentares , Adulto , Animais , Cegueira , Galinhas , Comportamento do Consumidor , Culinária , Patos , Ovos/classificação , Feminino , Gansos , Humanos , Masculino , Olfato , Struthioniformes , Paladar , Adulto Jovem
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 296: 122342, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711908

RESUMO

The anaerobic digestion (AD) of chicken manure as a solo substrate has been challenging due to the ammonium inhibition effects when adopting a high organic loading rate (OLR). In this study, through increasing both the total solid in the feeding materials from 5% to 20%, and the OLR from 1.7 to 7.1 g-volatile solids (VS)/(L·d), the AD of chicken manure under wet, high solid, and dry conditions, with a fixed hydraulic retention time of 20 days, was investigated. The results obtained indicated that the wet AD system could achieve a methane yield of 0.28 L/g-VS and a low volatile fatty acid level. However, the process deteriorated under dry conditions, and methane formed mainly through acetate oxidation and methanogenesis. Methanosarcina and Methanoplasma were found to be more tolerant But, whether the dry AD of chicken manure can survive an ammonia-stressed environment when the OLR is lowered, still needs investigation.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Esterco , Anaerobiose , Animais , Biocombustíveis , Reatores Biológicos , Metano
11.
Food Microbiol ; 85: 103285, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500704

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the kinetic parameters and apply Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation to predict the growth of Clostridium perfringens from spores in cooked ground chicken meat during dynamic cooling. Inoculated samples were exposed to various cooling conditions to observe dynamic growth. A combination of 4 cooling profiles was used in one-step inverse analysis with the Baranyi model as the primary model and the cardinal parameters model as the secondary model. Six kinetic parameters of the Baranyi model and the cardinal parameters model, including Q0, Ymax, µopt, Tmin, Topt, and Tmax, were estimated. The estimated Tmin, Topt, and Tmax were 14.8, 42.9, and 50.5 °C, respectively, with a µopt of 5.25 h-1 and maximum cell density of 8.4 log CFU/g. Correlation analysis showed that both Q0 and Ymax are weakly correlated to other parameters, while the remaining parameters are mostly mildly to strongly correlated with each other. Although it may be difficult to estimate highly correlated parameters using a single temperature profile, one-step analysis with multiple different temperature profiles helped estimate them successfully. The estimated parameters were used as the prior information to construct the posterior distribution for Bayesian analysis. MCMC simulation was used to predict the bacterial growth using different dynamic temperature profiles for validation of the accuracy of the predictive models. The MCMC simulation results showed that the Bayesian analysis produced more accurate predictions of bacterial growth during cooling than the deterministic method. With Bayesian analysis, the root-mean-square-error (RMSE) of prediction was only 0.1 log CFU/g with all residual errors within ±0.25 log CFU/g. Therefore, Bayesian analysis is recommended for predicting the growth of C. perfringens in cooked meat during cooling.


Assuntos
Clostridium perfringens/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Culinária , Manipulação de Alimentos , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Temperatura Ambiente , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Galinhas , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Simulação por Computador , Cinética , Cadeias de Markov , Modelos Biológicos , Método de Monte Carlo , Esporos Bacterianos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 700: 134446, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648121

RESUMO

Bacteriophage may play an important role in antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) transmission. However, the contribution of bacteriophage to the spread of ARGs in environment, especially in poultry farm environment, is rarely known. In this study, the prevalence of ARGs in bacteriophage DNA was investigated in chicken feces from 30 different poultry farms in China. Then the abundance of the aac(6')-Ib-cr, blaCTX-M, ermB, floR, mcr-1, sul1, tetM and intI1 genes was determined by qPCR in bacteriophage and compared with certain representative plasmid DNA samples. The results showed that 12 ARGs (aac(6')-Ib-cr, aph(3')-IIIa, blaCTX-M, ermB, ermF, floR, mcr-1, qnrS, sul1, sul2, vanA, tetM genes) and class 1 integron gene intI1 were detected in bacteriophage DNA fraction. The sul1, tetM and aac(6')-Ib-cr genes were most prevalent with high detection rates of 77%, 61% and 55%, respectively. To our best knowledge, this study firstly reported the presence of the mcr-1 gene in bacteriophage DNA derived from farms environments. We found that the gene copy (GC) numbers of the aac(6')-Ib-cr, ermB and sul1 genes were as high as 5.47, 5.22 and 5.54 log10 GC/g, respectively. Both the prevalence and abundance of ARGs in broiler fecal wastes were also generally higher than in laying hens. In addition, although the GC numbers of the aac(6')-Ib-cr, floR and tetM genes in plasmid DNA was higher than that in phage DNA fraction by 4.68, 3.59 and 3.9 orders of magnitude, respectively, the absolute abundances of the blaCTX-M and mcr-1 genes in phage DNA were close to or even higher than that in plasmid DNA at farm SIL2, SIL4 and SIB1. As potential vessels for ARGs, bacteriophage could not be ignored due to their unique extracellular persistence in environments. Overall, this is the first comprehensive survey about bacteriophage carried ARGs from farms in different regions in China.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Fezes/virologia , Genes Bacterianos , Animais , Bacteriófagos/genética , Galinhas , China , Fazendas , Integrons , Plasmídeos
13.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 665-671, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Muscle fat content and fatty acid composition play an important role in poultry flavor and taste. To investigate the effects of pioglitazone hydrochloride (PGZ) on growth performance and thigh muscle quality in yellow-feathered chickens, 360 female chickens were randomly divided into three groups and treated with three doses of PGZ (0, 7.5, and 15 mg kg-1 ) for 28 days. Each group had six replicates of 20 chickens. RESULTS: The results showed that dietary supplementation with 15 mg kg-1 PGZ increased average daily feed intake (ADFI) and the average daily gain (ADG) from 0 to 14 days. Furthermore, the triglyceride (TG) level was decreased by 15 mg kg-1 PGZ, whereas the eviscerated yield was increased. The relative weight of the heart and kidneys showed a linear increase with dietary PGZ supplementation, and the drip loss of the thigh muscle was significantly decreased by 15 mg kg-1 PGZ supplementation. Moreover, a* value, intramuscular fat (IMF), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) showed a linear increase, and pH24 h and drip loss showed a quadratic influence with the levels of PGZ supplementation. In particular, the PUFA proportion was increased by 7.63% and 9.14% in the 7.5 mg kg-1 PGZ and 15 mg kg-1 PGZ groups, respectively. Additionally, 15 mg kg-1 of PGZ increased the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX ) activity. CONCLUSION: In summary, 15 mg kg-1 PGZ has substantial effects on growth performance and meat quality, particularly by decreasing drip loss and increasing IMF content, PUFA proportions, and antioxidant ability. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/química , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Pioglitazona/administração & dosagem , Coxa da Perna/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Músculo Esquelético/química , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 755-763, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ß-Hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) is the metabolite of leucine that plays an important role in muscle protein metabolism. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) of HMB at 7 days of incubation (DOI) via air cell or 18 DOI via amnion on hatchability, muscle growth and performance in prenatal and posthatch broilers. RESULTS: IOF of HMB via air cell at 7 DOI increased hatchability by 4.34% compared with the control (89.67% versus 85.33%). Birds in IOF groups exhibited higher body weight, average daily body weight gain and pectoral muscle percentage. Furthermore, IOF of HMB significantly increased the level of plasma growth hormone, insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1. Chicks hatched from IOF treatment had larger diameters of muscle fiber and higher mitotic activity of satellite cells at early posthatch age. IOF of HMB activated satellite cells by upregulation of mRNA expression of myogenic transcription factors, myogenic differentiation one (MyoD) and myogenin. Chicks hatched from air cell injection group had higher pectoral muscle percentage at 5 d posthatch and greater satellite cell mitotic activity at 7 d posthatch than counterparts from amnion injection group. CONCLUSIONS: IOF of HMB via amnion at 18 DOI or especially via air cell at 7 DOI could be used as an effective approach to enhance hatchability, productive performance and breast muscle yield in broilers. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Músculos Peitorais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Valeratos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/sangue , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Hormônio do Crescimento/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Mitose , Proteína MyoD/genética , Proteína MyoD/metabolismo , Mioblastos/citologia , Mioblastos/metabolismo , Miogenina/genética , Miogenina/metabolismo , Músculos Peitorais/metabolismo
15.
Food Chem ; 305: 125458, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505416

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the effects of feeding flaxseed meal (FSM) and turmeric rhizome powder (TRP) supplementation on tissue lipid profile, lipid metabolism, health indices, oxidative stability, and physical properties of broiler chicken meat. The 100 g FSM along with 10.0 g TRP supplementation significantly increased the ω-3 PUFA, particularly ALA, EPA, DPA, and DHA of broiler chicken meat due to the corresponding increase ∆9 and Δ5 + Δ6 desaturase activities. The increased activities of the desaturases resulted in significantly better health indices of the broiler chicken meat. The feeding of 100 g FSM along with 10.0 g TRP supplementation reduced the atherogenic and thrombogenic indices of broiler chicken meat. The 100 g FSM feeding reduced the oxidative stability, water holding capacity, extract release volume of broiler chicken meat and increased drip loss, whereas, 10.0 g TRP supplementation reversed these negative effects of FSM.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Curcuma/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Linho/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Galinhas , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Oxirredução , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/metabolismo
16.
Yi Chuan ; 41(12): 1129-1137, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857284

RESUMO

Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is a highly conserved metallopeptidase that functions in the catabolism of bioactive peptides. In our previous study, we identified a putative circular transcript in that chicken insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) gene through analyzing a high throughput sequencing result. Here we set to confirm the circular transcript of IDE (circIDE) and explore its expression regularity in normal barred Plymouth chicken. The circIDE was confirmed by PCR amplification and sequencing. The circular structure of circIDE was determined by RNase R processing and reverse transcription experiments. Then we analyzed the spatiotemporal expression pattern of circIDE and IDE mRNA and compared the differential expression of circIDE and IDE mRNA in the normal barred Plymouth chicken and the dwarf ones. The results showed that the full length of chicken circIDE was 1332 nt, divided form exon 2-11 of the IDE gene. RNase R tolerance analysis showed that chicken circIDE had the general characteristics of circular molecule, and was highly resistant to RNase R. The random primers had higher transcription efficiency than the oligo-d(T)18 primers, confirming that circIDE is a circular structured molecule without poly(A). circIDE was highly expressed in the liver and heart tissues but less in the muscle tissues of leg and breast in normal chickens at the age of 1 and 12 weeks. The expression profile of circIDE in liver tissue showed that circIDE level was lower in1 to 6 weeks and then became higher after 8 weeks of age. The expression of circIDE in liver tissue was significantly higher in normal chicken than that in dwarf barred Plymouth chicken (P<0.05). This study confirmed a circIDE strucutre in chicken IDE gene and uncovered its expression regularity. We demonstrated that the expression level of circIDE in the liver tissue was higher in normal barred Plymouth chicken compared to dwarf species. This study paves the way for further understanding the biological function of chicken circIDE, including its roles in regulating chicken growth and development.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Clonagem Molecular , Insulisina , Animais , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Insulisina/genética , Fígado/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética
17.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(7): 3257-3262, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854726

RESUMO

Given the potential risk posed by antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) to the eco-environment in the hilly purple soil region, which has been intensively utilized by human, surface soil samples were collected from feedlots of pig, chicken, and cattle farms and were analyzed for the diversity and abundance of ARGs using high-throughput QPCR. In total, 79 ARGs and 5 mobile genetic elements (MGEs) were detected across all samples. Among these genes, multidrug resistance genes were the most abundant type of ARGs. More abundant and diverse ARGs were observed in feedlot soil samples from pig and chicken farms than those from cattle feedlot soils, and these samples showed different distribution patterns of ARGs. High abundance of MGEs and their significant correlation with ARGs (P<0.05) implied an important role of MGEs in the dissemination of ARGs in livestock feedlot soils.


Assuntos
Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Sequências Repetitivas Dispersas , Gado , Microbiologia do Solo , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas , Fazendas , Esterco , Suínos
18.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(7): 3276-3284, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854729

RESUMO

Livestock manure is an important pathway by which antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) enter the environment. To reduce the occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes in manures, we studied the variations of ARGs and mobile gene elements (MGEs) during the 46-day co-composting of chicken manure with Chinese medicinal herbal residues. The abundance of 100 ARGs and 5 MGEs were measured by Real-Time Quantitative PCR with 0, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 46 d co-composting. We detected 21 ARGs, 2 integrase genes (intI1 and intI2), and 3 transposase genes (tnpA-01, tnpA-02, and tnpA-03). The abundance of 5 MGEs significantly declined with co-composting time, particularly tnpA-01 and tnpA-02, which were reduced by two orders of magnitude. The abundance of aacA/aphD and aadE were significantly reduced (P<0.05) in aminoglycoside resistance genes. In ß-lactam resistance genes, the strongest relationships were demonstrated between blaOXA1 and compost days (P=0.016), and the removal rate was 78.63%. The average removal rate was 90.39% for amide resistance genes, which decreased significantly with composting time. The removal ratios were different among tetracycline resistance genes. For example, the removal ratios of tetG and tetR were 99.77% and 31.72%, respectively. The highest removal rate of qnrD was 99.89%. The removal rate of sulⅢ was as high as 99.88%, while sulⅠ showed an increasing trend. Correlations between ARGs and MGEs were significant correlation for tnpA-01 and ARGs (P<0.05). The trend of ARGs with composting time indicates that the composting of Chinese medicine residues and chicken manure can significantly reduce the abundance of ARGs, thus reducing the risk of ARGs being distributed via livestock manure application.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Genes Bacterianos , Esterco , Animais , Antibacterianos , Galinhas
19.
Bioresour Technol ; 294: 122199, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586731

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to explore the effects of adding biochar and montmorillonite alone on the correlations between bacteria and bioavailability of heavy metals (HM) during chicken manure composting. Three composting experiments were conducted, containing the without ameliorant, 10% biochar and 10% montmorillonite. The results showed that biochar and montmorillonite ameliorants significantly reduced the bioavailability of Cu by 90.3%, 81.2%, while that of Zn by 11.7%, 15.6%, respectively. Meanwhile, they also significantly changed bacterial community structure and enhanced the correlation between bacterial bands (i.e., 19, 24, 26 and 30) and HM fractions. This correlation was validated in network analysis. Structural equation models further confirmed that bacteria had a complete and effective pathway to influence the bioavailability of HM. In summary, this study suggested that biochar and montmorillonite additions were an effective regulation method to reduce the bioavailability of HM from composting system.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Metais Pesados , Animais , Bentonita , Disponibilidade Biológica , Carvão Vegetal , Galinhas , Esterco , Solo
20.
Yi Chuan ; 41(10): 962-973, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624058

RESUMO

With the improvement of growth traits and feed conversion rate, the abdominal fat rate of Chinese local breeds of broilers has been increasing. Excessive abdominal fat deposition not only reduces the slaughter rate and disease resistance of broiler chickens, but also produces waste due to the difficulty of fat treatment. In order to study the regulatory genes and pathways involved in abdominal fat deposition of broilers, we used high-fat diets to feed the Xinghua Chicken, which is a Chinese local breed. Two weeks after feeding, we found that the abdominal fat weight and rate of broilers in the high-fat diet group increased significantly, and the diameter and area of abdominal fat cells also increased significantly. Transcriptome sequencing of abdominal fat and livers showed that the differentially expressed genes in the abdominal fat were mainly enriched in the cell cycle, peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor (PPAR) and extracellular matrix (ECM) receptor signaling pathways. The differentially expressed genes in livers were also significantly enriched in the cell cycle pathway, as well as in the steroid biosynthesis and PPAR signaling pathway. By analyzing the common differentially expressed genes in abdominal fat and liver tissues, we found that these genes were also enriched in cell cycle. Finally, we used the chicken LMH (chicken hepatoma cell) cell line and chicken ICP (immortalized chicken preadipocytes) cell line to do the in vitro validation assays. We used high-fat and common medium to culture the cells. The results showed that after 48 hours, the high-fat medium could significantly promote cell cycle and increase the number of cells in S phase. Additionally, qRT-PCR results showed that the high-fat medium could significantly promote the expression of genes related to cell cycle. In conclusion, we found that high-fat diets activate the cell cycle progression of chicken hepatocytes and preadipocytes, promote cell proliferation, and then increase abdominal fat deposition.


Assuntos
Gordura Abdominal/fisiologia , Ciclo Celular , Galinhas , Transcriptoma , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Receptores Ativados por Proliferador de Peroxissomo , Receptores de Superfície Celular , Transdução de Sinais
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