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1.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0297864, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335158

RESUMO

Nosema disease, caused by Nosema ceranae, one of the single-celled fungal microsporidian parasites, is one of the most important and common diseases of adult honey bees. Since fumagillin, which has been used for decades in the control of Nosema disease in honey bees (Apis mellifera), poses a toxic threat and its efficacy against N. ceranae is uncertain, there is an urgent need to develop alternative prophylactic and curative strategies for the treatment of this disease. The main aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic potential of specific egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) on Nosema disease. For this purpose, the presence of N. ceranae was determined by microscopic and PCR methods in honey bees collected from Nosema suspicious colonies by conducting a field survey. Layered Ataks chickens, divided into four groups each containing 20 animals, were vaccinated with live and inactivated vaccines prepared from field isolates of N. ceranae. Eggs were collected weekly for 10 weeks following the last vaccination. IgY extraction was performed using the PEG precipitation method from egg yolks collected from each group, and the purity of the antibodies was determined by SDS-PAGE and Western Blot. The presence of N. ceranae-specific IgYs was investigated by Western Blot and indirect ELISA methods. It was determined that specific IgYs showed high therapeutic efficacy on Nosema disease in naturally infected bee colonies. In addition, honey bees collected from infected colonies were brought to the laboratory and placed in cages with 30 bees each, and the effectiveness of IgYs was investigated under controlled conditions. It was detected that specific IgY reduced the Nosema spore load and the number of infected bees significantly in both the field and experimental study groups treated for seven days. It was concluded that chicken IgYs, an innovative and eco-friendly method, had a significant potential for use as an alternative to antifungal drugs.


Assuntos
Nosema , Animais , Abelhas , Gema de Ovo , Galinhas , Anticorpos
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3360, 2024 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38336837

RESUMO

We hypothesised that resource choice during early life contributes to both current and longer-term beneficial effects on animal welfare. We investigated this hypothesis in a longitudinal cross-over experiment with laying hen pullets (Gallus gallus domesticus) reared in pens with one or four litter and perch types, respectively (n = 8 pens/treatment, all providing ample and identical litter and perch space). After 4 weeks (chick period), half the pens were modified to provide the opposite treatment (juvenile period). After 11 more weeks, all groups were moved to novel, identical laying pens (adult period; Week 16-27). In support of our hypothesis, the opportunity to choose between multiple litter and perch variants was associated with higher levels of positively-valenced behaviours, including play as chicks and dustbathing as juveniles and adults, and lower levels of negatively-valenced behaviours, including feather pecking as chicks and juveniles and aggressive pecking as adults. Resource choice in the juvenile period also led to better juvenile and adult plumage condition, and greater growth as adults. We conclude that the opportunity to choose among different litter and perch types, instead of having only one type of each, had both short- and longer-term positive effects on the birds' affective states and physical condition.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Galinhas , Animais , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais , Agressão , Plumas
3.
Molecules ; 29(3)2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338396

RESUMO

Lysozyme, especially the one obtained from hen's egg white, continues to show new pharmacological properties. The fact that only a few of these properties can be translated into therapeutic applications is due to the lack of suitable clinical studies. However, this lack cannot hide the evidence that is emerging from scientific research. This review for the first time examines, from a pharmacological point of view, all the relevant studies on the antiviral properties of lysozyme, analyzing its possible mechanism of action and its ability to block viral infections and, in some cases, inhibit viral replication. Lysozyme can interact with nucleic acids and alter their function, but this effect is uncoupled from the catalytic activity that determines its antibacterial activity; it is present in intact lysozyme but is equally potent in a heat-degraded lysozyme or in a nonapeptide isolated by proteolytic digestion. An analysis of the literature shows that lysozyme can be used both as a disinfectant for raw and processed foods and as a drug to combat viral infections in animals and humans. To summarize, it can be said that lysozyme has important antiviral properties, as already suspected in the initial studies conducted over 50 years ago, and it should be explored in suitable clinical studies on humans.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Viroses , Humanos , Animais , Feminino , Muramidase/química , Galinhas/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338959

RESUMO

Hydropericardium hepatitis syndrome (HHS) is primarily caused by fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4), causing high mortality in chickens. Although vaccination strategies against FAdV-4 have been adopted, HHS still occurs sporadically. Furthermore, no effective drugs are available for controlling FAdV-4 infection. However, type I and III interferon (IFN) are crucial therapeutic agents against viral infection. The following experiments were conducted to investigate the inhibitory effect of chicken IFN against FadV-4. We expressed recombinant chicken type I IFN-α (ChIFN-α) and type III IFN-λ (ChIFN-λ) in Escherichia coli and systemically investigated their antiviral activity against FAdV-4 infection in Leghorn male hepatocellular (LMH) cells. ChIFN-α and ChIFN-λ dose dependently inhibited FAdV-4 replication in LMH cells. Compared with ChIFN-λ, ChIFN-α more significantly inhibited viral genome transcription but less significantly suppressed FAdV-4 release. ChIFN-α- and ChIFN-λ-induced IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression, such as PKR, ZAP, IRF7, MX1, Viperin, IFIT5, OASL, and IFI6, in LMH cells; however, ChIFN-α induced a stronger expression level than ChIFN-λ. Thus, our data revealed that ChIFN-α and ChIFN-λ might trigger different ISG expression levels, inhibiting FAdV-4 replication via different steps of the FAdV-4 lifecycle, which furthers the potential applications of IFN antiviral drugs in chickens.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Masculino , Galinhas , Interferon-alfa/farmacologia , Interferon-alfa/genética , Sorogrupo , Adenoviridae/genética , Antivirais/farmacologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3635, 2024 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351134

RESUMO

Highly pathogenic avian Influenza virus (HPAIV) has spread in an unprecedented extent globally in recent years. Despite the large reports of cases in Asia, Europe, and North America, little is known about its circulation in South America. Here, we describe the isolation, and whole genome characterization of HPAIV obtained from sampling 26 wild bird species in Peru, representing one of the largest studies in our region following the latest HPAIV introduction in South America. Out of 147 samples analyzed, 22 were positive for detection of avian influenza virus using a qRT-PCR-based assay. Following inoculation into embryonated chicken eggs, fourteen viral isolates were obtained from which nine isolates were selected for genome characterization, based on their host relevance. Our results identified the presence of HPAIV H5N1 subtype in a highly diverse wild bird species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these isolates correspond to the clade 2.3.4.4b, sharing a common ancestor with North American isolates and forming a monophyletic group along with isolates from Chile. Altogether, changes at the amino acid levels compared to their closest relatives indicates the virus is evolving locally, highlighting the need for constant genomic surveillance. This data evidence the chances for spillover events increases as the virus spreads into large populations of immunologically naïve avian species and adding conditions for cross species transmission.


Assuntos
Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1 , Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Aviária , Animais , Chile , Peru/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Animais Selvagens , Galinhas
6.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 56(2): 80, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38358592

RESUMO

This study investigated the potential of insect-based diets to mitigate heat stress impact on broiler chickens, focusing on growth performance and antioxidant stability. Four dietary groups were examined, including a control and three treated groups with Tenebrio molitor (TM), Hermetia illucens (HI), and Zophobas morio (ZM) larvae, respectively, at a 5% replacement ratio. Temperature and relative humidity of the poultry house were monitored. Under heat stress conditions, the HI-fed group consistently exhibited the highest body weight, demonstrating their remarkable growth-promoting potential. TM-fed broilers also displayed commendable growth compared to the control. Insect larvae inclusion in the diet improved feed intake during early growth stages, indicating their positive influence on nutrient utilization. Regarding antioxidant stability, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the liver, an oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation marker, were significantly lower in the TM-fed group, suggesting reduced oxidative stress. While the specific insect-based diet did not significantly affect MDA levels in thigh and breast tissues, variations in the total phenolic content (TPC) were observed across tissues, with HI larvae significantly increasing it in the breast. However, the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) levels did not differ significantly among dietary groups in the examined tissues. Results suggest that insect-based diets enhance broiler growth and potentially reduce oxidative stress, particularly in the liver. Dietary presence of bioactive compounds may contribute to these benefits. Further research is required to fully elucidate the mechanisms underlying these findings. Insect-based diets seem to offer promise as feed additives in addressing the multifaceted challenges of oxidative stress and enhancing broiler health and resilience under heat stress conditions.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Coxa da Perna , Animais , Antioxidantes , Galinhas , Insetos , Fígado , Larva , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária
7.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1325346, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38375362

RESUMO

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a positive-sense, single-stranded, enveloped RNA virus responsible for substantial economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide by causing a highly contagious respiratory disease. The virus can spread quickly through contact, contaminated equipment, aerosols, and personal-to-person contact. We highlight the prevalence and geographic distribution of all nine genotypes, as well as the relevant symptoms and economic impact, by extensively analyzing the current literature. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis was performed using Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA-6), which provided insights into the global molecular diversity and evolution of IBV strains. This review highlights that IBV genotype I (GI) is prevalent worldwide because sporadic cases have been found on many continents. Conversely, GII was identified as a European strain that subsequently dispersed throughout Europe and South America. GIII and GV are predominant in Australia, with very few reports from Asia. GIV, GVIII, and GIX originate from North America. GIV was found to circulate in Asia, and GVII was identified in Europe and China. Geographically, the GVI-1 lineage is thought to be restricted to Asia. This review highlights that IBV still often arises in commercial chicken flocks despite immunization and biosecurity measures because of the ongoing introduction of novel IBV variants and inadequate cross-protection provided by the presently available vaccines. Consequently, IB consistently jeopardizes the ability of the poultry industry to grow and prosper. Identifying these domains will aid in discerning the pathogenicity and prevalence of IBV genotypes, potentially enhancing disease prevention and management tactics.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Humanos , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/genética , Filogenia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Galinhas , Aves Domésticas
8.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1327166, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38375472

RESUMO

As the largest peripheral lymphoid organ in poultry, the spleen plays an essential role in regulating the body's immune capacity. However, compared with chickens and ducks, information about the age- and breed-related changes in the goose spleen remains scarce. In this study, we systematically analyzed and compared the age-dependent changes in the morphological, histological, and transcriptomic characteristics between Landes goose (LG; Anser anser) and Sichuan White goose (SWG; Anser cygnoides). The results showed a gradual increase in the splenic weights for both LG and SWG until week 10, while their splenic organ indexes reached the peak at week 6. Meanwhile, the splenic histological indexes of both goose breeds continuously increased with age, reaching the highest levels at week 30. The red pulp (RP) area was significantly higher in SWG than in LG at week 0, while the splenic corpuscle (AL) diameter was significantly larger in LG than in SWG at week 30. At the transcriptomic level, a total of 1710 and 1266 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between week 0 and week 30 were identified in spleens of LG and SWG, respectively. Meanwhile, a total of 911 and 808 DEGs in spleens between LG and SWG were identified at weeks 0 and 30, respectively. Both GO and KEGG enrichment analysis showed that the age-related DEGs of LG or SWG were dominantly enriched in the Cell cycle, TGF-beta signaling, and Wnt signaling pathways, while most of the breed-related DEGs were enriched in the Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, ECM-receptor interaction, and metabolic pathways. Furthermore, through construction of protein-protein interaction networks using significant DEGs, it was inferred that three hub genes including BUB1, BUB1B, and TTK could play crucial roles in regulating age-dependent goose spleen development while GRIA2, GRIA4, and RYR2 could be crucial for the breed-specific goose spleen development. These data provide novel insights into the splenic developmental differences between Chinese and European domestic geese, and the identified crucial pathways and genes are helpful for a better understanding of the mechanisms regulating goose immune functions.


Assuntos
Gansos , Baço , Animais , Gansos/genética , Galinhas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Transcriptoma
9.
J Gen Virol ; 105(2)2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38376490

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation inside the cells instigates oxidative stress, activating stress-responsive genes. The viral strategies for promoting stressful conditions and utilizing the induced host proteins to enhance their replication remain elusive. The present work investigates the impact of oxidative stress responses on Newcastle disease virus (NDV) pathogenesis. Here, we show that the progression of NDV infection varies with intracellular ROS levels. Additionally, the results demonstrate that NDV infection modulates the expression of oxidative stress-responsive genes, majorly sirtuin 7 (SIRT7), a NAD+-dependent deacetylase. The modulation of SIRT7 protein, both through overexpression and knockdown, significantly impacts the replication dynamics of NDV in DF-1 cells. The activation of SIRT7 is found to be associated with the positive regulation of cellular protein deacetylation. Lastly, the results suggested that NDV-driven SIRT7 alters NAD+ metabolism in vitro and in ovo. We concluded that the elevated expression of NDV-mediated SIRT7 protein with enhanced activity metabolizes the NAD+ to deacetylase the host proteins, thus contributing to high virus replication.


Assuntos
Vírus da Doença de Newcastle , Sirtuínas , Animais , NAD , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/genética , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Sirtuínas/genética , Galinhas , Linhagem Celular
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3938, 2024 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38366002

RESUMO

Zeolite, as a natural mineral, could be a good additive for ducks, in line with pro-environmental trends. The study aimed to evaluate zeolite additives in feed for broiler ducks of both sexes on production results, meat quality, and the strength of the jejunum, tibia, and femur. The experiment used 200 Cherry Valley ducks, divided into a control group of males (CM) and females (CF) and an experimental group of males (ZM) and females (ZF). In the control groups, a commercial diet was used. In the experimental groups, 1% zeolite was added. The ZM group demonstrated higher body weight and weight gain than the CM group. Zeolite reduced the feed conversion ratio. A higher liver weight was found in the experimental group (ZM). Notably, zeolite influenced the weight of male pectoral muscles. Higher water loss in the pectoral muscles and higher protein content in the leg muscles were found in the same group. Females had a higher weight of neck and wings with skin. Female pectoral muscles had lower protein and water content. Zeolite in feed at a 1% level for broiler ducks could be recommended as a natural additive that positively affects the ducks' production results concerning good quality meat.


Assuntos
Patos , Zeolitas , Feminino , Animais , Masculino , Patos/metabolismo , Jejuno , Galinhas , Dieta , Ossos da Perna , Carne/análise , Água/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise
11.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 56, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The trend of using probiotic, prebiotic and their mixture as alternative feed additives which works as growth promoters in poultry diets to increase the productive performance and the immunity of the flock still have an importance consideration. So that the aim of this study is to estimate the impact of Bio-plus2B® (probiotic), Techno Mos® (prebiotic) or their mixture (synbiotic) on egg production, egg and shell quality, some blood metabolites and retention of nutrients between 28 and 40 weeks of age. The hens (ISA brown laying) were allocated randomly in 40 cages; 10 cages/treatment with two hens each. The treatments were the control (T1), T2 (Probiotic: 1 g Bio-plus2B® (Bacillus licheniformis plus Bacillus subtilis)/kg feed), T3 (Prebiotic: 1 g Techno Mos® (Mannanoligosaccarides (MOS) and 1,3 B-glucan) /kg feed) and T4 (Synbiotic: 1 g Bio-plus2B® plus 1 g Techno Mos®/ kg feed). RESULTS: Hen-day egg production% and mass were significantly increased (P < 0.05) with T2 and T4 treatments. The experimental treatments recorded an increase in albumen index, Haugh unit (P < 0.01), shell thickness (P < 0.05), the retention of crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF) and ether extract (EE) (P < 0.05), plasma globulin, albumin and total protein (P < 0.001) versus to the untreated group, while egg weight was not affected. Synbiotic treatment showed a significant (P < 0.001) increase in shell calcium content. T3 and T4 treatments were significantly decreased plasma cholesterol (P < 0.001) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) (P < 0.05). Alanine transaminase (ALT) was significantly (P < 0.001) decreased and estradiol hormone was increased (P < 0.001) in the experimental groups versus to the control. CONCLUSIONS: It concluded that adding probiotic and/or prebiotic in the early age laying hens diets had beneficial effects for productivity with improving the egg shell thickness.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Probióticos , Animais , Feminino , Óvulo , Dieta/veterinária , Probióticos/farmacologia , Prebióticos , Nutrientes , Ração Animal/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais
12.
Vet Microbiol ; 290: 109995, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301451

RESUMO

Gallibacterium anatis is a Gram-negative bacterium found in the respiratory and genital tracts of various animals, primarily poultry. Its association with septicemia and high mortality in poultry, along with the rise in multidrug-resistant strains, has amplified concerns. Recent research uncovered significant variability in antibiotic resistance profiles among G. anatis isolates from different Austrian flocks, and even between different organs within the same bird. In response, in the present study 60 of these isolates were sequenced and a combination of comparative genomics and genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis was applied to understand the genetic variability of G. anatis across flocks and organs and to identify genes related to antibiotic resistance. The results showed that each flock harbored one or two strains of G. anatis with only a few strains shared between flocks, demonstrating a great variability among flocks. We identified genes associated with resistance to nalidixic acid, trimethoprim, cefoxitin, tetracycline, ampicillin and sulfamethoxazole. Our findings revealed that G. anatis may develop antibiotic resistance through two mechanisms: single-nucleotide mutations and the presence of specific genes that confer resistance. Unexpectedly, some tetracycline-resistant isolates lacked all known tetracycline-associated genes, suggesting the involvement of novel mechanisms of tetracycline resistance that require additional exploration. Furthermore, our functional annotation of resistance genes highlighted the citric acid cycle pathway as a potential key modulator of antibiotic resistance in G. anatis. In summary, this study describes the first application of GWAS analysis to G. anatis and provides new insights into the acquisition of multidrug resistance in this important avian pathogen.


Assuntos
Pasteurellaceae , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Galinhas/microbiologia , Tetraciclina , Aves Domésticas/genética , Resistência a Tetraciclina/genética , Genômica , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia
13.
Vet Microbiol ; 290: 110010, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306768

RESUMO

To investigate the critical role of the S gene in determining pathogenesis of TW-like avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), we generated two recombinant IBVs (rGDaGD-S1 and rGDaGD-S2) by replacing either the S1 or S2 region of GD strain with the corresponding regions from an attenuated vaccine candidate aGD strain. The virulence and pathogenicity of these recombinant viruses was assessed both in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicated the mutations in the S2 region led to decreased virulence, as evidenced by reduced virus replication in embryonated chicken eggs and chicken embryonic kidney cells as well as observed clinical symptoms, gross lesions, microscopic lesions, tracheal ciliary activity, and viral distribution in SPF chickens challenged with recombinant IBVs. These findings highlight that the S2 subunit is a key determinant of TW-like IBV pathogenicity. Our study established a foundation for future investigations into the molecular mechanisms underlying IBV virulence.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Vacinas Virais , Embrião de Galinha , Animais , Galinhas , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Oligopeptídeos
14.
Vet Microbiol ; 290: 109992, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306769

RESUMO

Brachyspira species are Gram negative, anaerobic bacteria that colonise the gut of many animals, including poultry. In poultry, Brachyspira species can be commensal (B. innocens, B. murdochii, 'B. pulli') or pathogenic (B. pilosicoli, B. intermedia, B. alvinipulli or rarely B. hyodysenteriae), the latter causing avian intestinal spirochaetosis (AIS). Antimicrobial therapy options for treatment is limited, frequently involving administration of the pleuromutilin, tiamulin, in water. In this study 38 Brachyspira isolates from chickens in the UK, representing both commensal and pathogenic species, were whole genome sequenced to identify antimicrobial resistance (AMR) mechanisms and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to a number of antimicrobials was also determined. We identified several new variants of blaOXA in B. pilosicoli and B. pulli isolates, and variations in tva which led to two new tva variants in B.murdochii and B.pulli. A number of isolates also harboured mutations known to encode AMR in the 16S and 23S rRNA genes. The percentage of isolates that were genotypically multi-drug resistance (MDR) was 16%, with the most common resistance profile being: tetracycline, pleuromutilin and beta-lactam, which were found in three 'B. pulli' and one B. pilosicoli. There was good correlation with the genotype and the corresponding antibiotic MIC phenotypes: pleuromutilins (tiamulin and valnemulin), macrolides (tylosin and tylvalosin), lincomycin and doxycycline. The occurrence of resistance determinants identified in this study in pathogenic Brachyspira, especially those which were MDR, is likely to impact treatment of AIS and clearance of infections on farm.


Assuntos
Brachyspira , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Galinhas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Resistência beta-Lactâmica , Reino Unido , Diterpenos
15.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 106: 102139, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38325128

RESUMO

The spread of beta-lactamase-producing bacteria is a global public-health concern. This study aimed to explore the distribution of beta-lactamases reported in three sampling sources (cecal, retail meat, and human) collected as part of integrated surveillance in the United States. We retrieved and analyzed data from the United States National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring Systems (NARMS) from 2002 to 2021. A total of 115 beta-lactamase genes were detected in E. coli, Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter, Shigella and Vibrio: including 35 genes from cecal isolates, 32 genes from the retail meat isolates, and 104 genes from the human isolates. Three genes in E. coli (blaCMY-2,blaTEM-1A, and blaTEM-1B), 6 genes in Salmonella enterica (blaCARB-2, blaCMY-2, blaCTXM-65, blaTEM-1A, blaTEM-1B, and blaHERA-3), and 2 genes in Campylobacter spp. (blaOXA-61 and blaOXA-449) have been detected across food animals (cattle, chicken, swine, and turkey) and humans over the study period. blaCTXM-55 has been detected in E. coli isolates from the four food animal sources while blaCTXM-15 and blaCTXM-27 were found only in cattle and swine. In Salmonella enterica, blaCTXM-2, blaCTXM-9, blaCTXM-14, blaCTXM-15, blaCTXM-27, blaCTXM-55, and blaNDM-1 were only detected among human isolates. blaOXAs and blaCARB were bacteria-specific and the only beta-lactamase genes detected in Campylobacter spp. and Vibrio spp respectively. The proportions of beta-lactamase genes detected varies from bacteria to bacteria. This study provided insights on the beta-lactamase genes detected in bacteria in food animals and humans in the United States. This is necessary for better understanding the molecular epidemiology of clinically important beta-lactamases in one health interface.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , beta-Lactamases , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Suínos , beta-Lactamases/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Carne , Galinhas/microbiologia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359084

RESUMO

Infectious diseases threaten endangered species, particularly in small isolated populations. Seabird populations on the remote Amsterdam Island in the Indian Ocean have been in decline for the past three decades, with avian cholera caused by Pasteurella multocida proposed as the primary driver. However, Erysipelothrix species have also been sporadically detected from albatrosses on Amsterdam Island and may be contributing to some of the observed mortality. In this study, we genomically characterized 16 Erysipelothrix species isolates obtained from three Indian yellow-nosed albatross (Thalassarche carteri) chick carcasses in 2019. Histological analyses suggest that they died of bacterial septicaemia. Two isolates were sequenced using both Illumina short-read and MinION long-read approaches, which - following hybrid assembly - resulted in closed circular genomes. Mapping of Illumina reads from the remaining isolates to one of these new reference genomes revealed that all 16 isolates were closely related, with a maximum of 13 nucleotide differences distinguishing any pair of isolates. The nucleotide diversity of isolates obtained from the same or different carcasses was similar, suggesting all three chicks were likely infected from a common source. These genomes were compared with a global collection of genomes from Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and other species from the same genus. The isolates from albatrosses were phylogenetically distinct, sharing a most recent common ancestor with E. rhusiopathiae. Based on phylogenomic analysis and standard thresholds for average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization, these isolates represent a novel Erysipelothrix species, for which we propose the name Erysipelothrix amsterdamensis sp. nov. The type strain is A18Y020dT (=CIP 112216T=DSM 115297T). The implications of this bacterium for albatross conservation will require further study.


Assuntos
Erysipelothrix , Animais , Análise de Sequência de DNA , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Ácidos Graxos/química , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Composição de Bases , Galinhas , Nucleotídeos
17.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 96(1): e20191322, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359285

RESUMO

Dry residue of cassava was studied on the digestibility, performance, intestinal measurements, with or without inclusion of carbohydrases, of slow-growing broilers. 160 Label Rouge broiler chickens, 21-d-old, were distributed in a randomized, 2x5 factorial arrangement (male and female x 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% residue) (metabolism trial). 1,100 male chicks were distributed in a 2x5 factorial arrangement (with/without carbohydrases x 0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; and 10.0% residue), with five replicates (performance trial). Increasing residue levels led to increases in energetic values. Feed intake from 1-21-d-old and 1-63-d-old decreased linearly. At 42 d-old, feed intake and weight gain levels exhibited a quadratic response, which predicted a highest value at 3.32% and 4.77%, respectively, for diets without carbohydrases. For 21- and 42-d-old chickens, the inclusion of carbohydrases reduced the weight and length of the small intestine. The energetic values of the diets were positively influenced by the residue and had similar digestibility values for both sexes. Inclusion of up to 10% of residue in slow-growing broiler diets does not impaired performance and intestinal morphology. The addition of carbohydrases reduced the viscosity of the digesta but it was not enough to improve the performance of the birds.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Manihot , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Galinhas/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Manihot/química , Dieta/veterinária , Verduras , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Digestão
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(7): 3247-3258, 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38320115

RESUMO

Gizzerosine is responsible for gizzard erosion and black vomit, owing to excessive gastric acid secretion in poultry. It is a biogenic amine that forms during feed processing. Gizzerosine, a derivative of histamine, is a serious threat to animal feed safety and poultry production because it is more potent after ingestion and more harmful to poultry than histamine. The difficulty of obtaining gizzerosine and the lack of simple, rapid, and sensitive in vitro detection techniques have hindered studies on the effects of gizzerosine on gizzard health and poultry production. In this review, we evaluated the natural formation and the chemical synthesis methods of gizzerosine and introduced seven detection methods and their principles for analyzing gizzerosine. This review summarizes the issues of gizzerosine research and suggests methods for the future development of gizzerosine detection methods.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Histamina , Animais , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise
19.
J Med Microbiol ; 73(2)2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38353513

RESUMO

Introduction. Influenza is a global health issue causing substantial health and economic burdens on affected populations. Routine, annual vaccination for influenza virus is recommended for all persons older than 6 months of age. The propagation of the influenza virus for vaccine production is predominantly through embryonated chicken eggs.Hypothesis/Gap Statement. Many challenges face the propagation of the virus, including but not limited to low yields and lengthy production times. The development of a method to increase vaccine production in eggs or cell lines by suppressing cellular gene expression would be helpful to overcome some of the challenges facing influenza vaccine production.Aims. This study aimed to increase influenza virus titres by using a peptide-conjugated phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PPMO), an antisense molecule, to suppress protein expression of the host genes interferon alpha (IFN-α) and interferon beta (IFN-ß) in chicken embryo fibroblast (DF-1) cells.Methods. The toxicity of PPMOs was evaluated by cytotoxicity assays, and their specificity to inhibit IFN-α and IFN-ß proteins was measured by ELISA. We evaluated the potential of anti-IFN-α and anti-IFN-ß PPMOs to reduce the antiviral proteins in influenza virus-infected DF-1 cells and compared the virus titres to untreated controls, nonsense-PPMO and JAK/STAT inhibitors. The effects of complementation and reconstitution of IFN-α and IFN-ß proteins in PPMO-treated-infected cells were evaluated, and the virus titres were compared between treatment groups.Results. Suppression of IFN-α by PPMO resulted in significantly reduced levels of IFN-α protein in treated wells, as measured by ELISA and was shown to not have any cytotoxicity to DF-1 cells at the effective concentrations tested. Treatment of the self-directing PPMOs increased the ability of the influenza virus to replicate in DF-1 cells. Over a 2-log10 increase in viral production was observed in anti-IFN-α and IFN-ß PPMO-treated wells compared to those of untreated controls at the initial viral input of 0.1 multiplicity of infection. The data from complementation and reconstitution of IFN-α and IFN-ß proteins in PPMO-treated-infected cells was about 82 and 97% compared to the combined PPMO-treated but uncomplemented group and untreated group, respectively. There was a 0.5-log10 increase in virus titre when treated with anti-IFN-α and IFN-ß PPMO compared to virus titre when treated with JAK/STAT inhibitors.Conclusions. This study emphasizes the utility of PPMO in allowing cell cultures to produce increased levels of influenza for vaccine production or alternatively, as a screening tool to cheaply test targets prior to the development of permanent knockouts of host gene expression.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Humanos , Morfolinos/farmacologia , Interferon-alfa/farmacologia , Galinhas , Replicação Viral , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Fibroblastos
20.
Sci Data ; 11(1): 169, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38316816

RESUMO

Compared to commercial chickens, local breeds exhibit better in meat quality and flavour, but the productivity (e.g., growth rate, body weight) of local chicken breeds is rather low. Genetic analysis based on whole-genome sequencing contributes to elucidating the genetic markers or putative candidate genes related to some economic traits, facilitating the improvement of production performance, the acceleration of breeding progress, and the conservation of genetic resources. Here, a total of 209 local chickens from 13 breeds were investigated, and the observation of approximately 91.4% high-quality sequences (Q30 > 90%) and a mapping rate over 99% for each individual indicated good results of this study, as confirmed by a genome coverage of 97.6%. Over 19 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 1.98 million insertion-deletions (InDels) were identified using the reference genome (GRCg7b), further contributing to the public database. This dataset provides valuable resources for studying genetic diversity and adaptation and for the cultivation of new chicken breeds/lines.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Genoma , Animais , Galinhas/genética , China , Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
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