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1.
J Environ Qual ; 49(4): 869-881, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016484

RESUMO

The success of poultry litter reuse in U.S. poultry production can be attributed to the efficient treatment methods used by producers during downtimes (the time lapse between consecutive flocks, during which the broiler house is empty). During this period, reused litter may be decaked, tilled/windrowed, or treated with acid-based amendments to reduce ammonia and bacteria levels. Competitive exclusion, pH, and temperature are proposed factors that influence the level of pathogens and the overall litter microbiome during downtimes. We previously reported on the bacterial genetic factors associated with the fitness of two strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg (SH) incubated for 14 d in reused litter. Here, we investigated the physicochemical parameters and the microbiome of the litter correlating with SH abundance during this period. We used 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing to determine the litter microbiome and whole genome sequencing to characterize bacteria with competitive exclusion potential against SH. The ß diversity of the litter microbiome was significantly affected by the duration of incubation, microcosm, and microcosm plus Heidelberg strain combinations. In addition, ß diversity was significantly affected by litter parameters, including NH4 , pH, moisture, water activity, and aluminum. The major phyla observed in the reused litter throughout the 14-d incubation experiment were Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, although their abundance differed by microcosm and time. Amplicon-specific variants homologous to the members of the genera Nocardiopsis and Lentibacillus and the family Bacillaceae_2 were found to significantly correlate with the abundance of Salmonella. A consortium of Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from the litter microcosms reduced the growth of SH in vitro.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Salmonella enterica , Animais , Galinhas , Abrigo para Animais , Aves Domésticas , Salmonella
2.
Vet Res ; 51(1): 110, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883344

RESUMO

Canine parvovirus (CPV) can cause acute and highly contagious bloody enteritis in dog. To obtain antibodies against CPV, hens were immunized with virus-like particles (VLP) of CPV-VP2. The IgY single chain fragment variables (scFv) were generated by T7 phage display system and expressed in E. coli system. The titer of the primary scFv library reached to 1.5 × 106 pfu/mL, and 95% of the phages contained the target fragments. The CPV-VLP and CPV-VP2 protein showed similar reaction values to the purified scFv in the ELISA test, and the results of ELISA analysis using IgY-scFv toward CPV clinical samples were consistent with commercial immunochromatographic assay (ICA) and PCR detection, the scFv did not show cross reactivity with canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine coronavirus (CCV). IgY-scFv was successfully expressed in CRFK cells, and in the virus suppression assay, 55% of CPV infections were eliminated within 24 h. Docking results demonstrated that the number of amino acids of the binding sides between scFv and VP2 were AA37 and AA40, respectively. This study revealed the feasibility of a novel functional antibody fragment development strategy by generating diversified avian IgY-scFv libraries towards the pathogenic target of interest for both detection and therapeutic purposes in veterinary medicine.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvovirus Canino/imunologia , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/imunologia , Animais , Galinhas/imunologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Infecções por Parvoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Parvoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/genética
3.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008845, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866210

RESUMO

Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is an approved smallpox vaccine and a promising vaccine vector for other pathogens as well as for cancer therapeutics with more than 200 current or completed clinical trials. MVA was derived by passaging the parental Ankara vaccine virus hundreds of times in chick embryo fibroblasts during which it lost the ability to replicate in human and most other mammalian cells. Although this replication deficiency is an important safety feature, the genetic basis of the host restriction is not understood. Here, an unbiased human genome-wide RNAi screen in human A549 cells revealed that the zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP), previously shown to inhibit certain RNA viruses, is a host restriction factor for MVA, a DNA virus. Additional studies demonstrated enhanced MVA replication in several human cell lines following knockdown of ZAP. Furthermore, CRISPR-Cas9 knockout of ZAP in human A549 cells increased MVA replication and spread by more than one log but had no effect on a non-attenuated strain of vaccinia virus. The intact viral C16 protein, which had been disrupted in MVA, antagonized ZAP by binding and sequestering the protein in cytoplasmic punctate structures. Studies aimed at exploring the mechanism by which ZAP restricts MVA replication in the absence of C16 showed that knockout of ZAP had no discernible effect on viral DNA or individual mRNA or protein species as determined by droplet digital polymerase chain reaction, deep RNA sequencing and mass spectrometry, respectively. Instead, inactivation of ZAP reduced the number of aberrant, dense, spherical particles that typically form in MVA-infected human cells, suggesting that ZAP has a novel role in interfering with a late step in the assembly of infectious MVA virions in the absence of the C16 protein.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Vírus Vaccinia/fisiologia , Replicação Viral/fisiologia , Células A549 , Animais , Galinhas , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Citoplasma/virologia , DNA Viral/genética , DNA Viral/metabolismo , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Camundongos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , RNA-Seq , Proteínas Repressoras/genética
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899803

RESUMO

The COVID-19 infection, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is inequitably distributed and more lethal among populations with lower socioeconomic status. Direct contact with contaminated surfaces has been among the virus sources, as it remains infective up to days. Several disinfectants have been shown to inactivate SARS-CoV-2, but they rapidly evaporate, are flammable or toxic and may be scarce or inexistent for vulnerable populations. Therefore, we are proposing simple, easy to prepare, low-cost and efficient antiviral films, made with a widely available dishwashing detergent, which can be spread on hands and inanimate surfaces and is expected to maintain virucidal activity for longer periods than the current sanitizers. Avian coronavirus (ACoV) was used as model of the challenge to test the antivirus efficacy of the proposed films. Polystyrene petri dishes were covered with a thin layer of detergent formula. After drying, the films were exposed to different virus doses for 10 min and virus infectivity was determined using embryonated chicken eggs, and RNA virus quantification in allantoic fluids by RT-qPCR. The films inactivated the ACoV (ranging from 103.7 to 106.7 EID50), which is chemically and morphologically similar to SARS-CoV-2, and may constitute an excellent alternative to minimize the spread of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Gammacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Inativação de Vírus , Animais , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Óvulo/virologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
5.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 44, sept. 2020
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52326

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Detectar la presencia del gen ermB asociado a la resistencia a macrólidos en cepas de Campylobacter spp. aisladas de pollos comercializados en Lima, Perú. Métodos. Se analizaron 120 muestras de piel de pollo provenientes de tres mercados de los distritos de San Martín de Porres (n = 30), Santa Anita (n = 20) e Independencia (n = 70), ubicados en la Provincia de Lima, Perú. Se realizó el análisis microbiológico de las muestras según las recomendaciones de la norma ISO 10272-1:2017. Para la confirmación por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR, por sus siglas en inglés) de género y especie, se utilizaron los cebadores (primers) 16-rARN y GlyA e hipO, respectivamente. Para evaluar la sensibilidad antibiótica, se utilizó el agar Müller-Hinton sangre al 5% con sensidiscos de azitromicina (15 μg) y eritromicina (15 μg). La detección del gen ermB en cepas con fenotipos resistentes se realizó mediante PCR convencional. Resultados. Se obtuvo un total de 117 muestras positivas (97,5%), de las cuales 100% fueron compatibles con Campylobacter coli (prueba de hipurato negativa) y confirmadas por PCR. La evaluación de resistencia antibiótica en placa para azitromicina y eritromicina dio como resultado 100% de cepas con fenotipo de resistencia a estos macrólidos, mientras que la PCR para la detección del gen ermB indicó un total de 62 positivas (53%), que fueron confirmadas por secuenciamiento. Conclusiones. Estos resultados demuestran que las carcasas de pollo comercializadas en mercados de Lima presentan contaminación por C. coli con una alta resistencia a macrólidos, lo cual puede ser atribuido a la presencia del gen ermB.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To detect the presence of the ermB gene associated with macrolide resistance in Campylobacter spp. strains isolated from chickens marketed in Lima, Peru. Methods. 120 samples of chicken skin from three markets in the districts of San Martin de Porres (n = 30), Santa Anita (n = 20), and Independencia (n = 70), located in the Province of Lima, Peru, were analyzed. Microbiological analysis of the samples was carried out according to ISO standard 10272-1:2017. For the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmation of genus and species, 16-rRNA and GlyA and hipO primers, respectively, were used. For the evaluation of antibiotic sensitivity, the Müller-Hinton agar with 5% blood, with sensi-discs for azithromycin (15 μg) and erythromycin (15 μg), was used. For detection of the ermB gene in strains with resistant phenotypes, conventional PCR was used. Results. A total of 117 positive samples (97.5%) were obtained; of these, 100% were compatible with Campylobacter coli (negative hippurate test) and confirmed by PCR. The plate-based assessment of antibiotic resistance to azithromycin and erythromycin resulted in 100% of strains with a phenotype that is resistant to these macrolides, while the PCR to detect the ermB gene indicated a total of 62 positives (53%), which were confirmed through sequencing. Conclusions. These results demonstrate that the chicken carcasses sold in markets in Lima present contamination by C. coli with high resistance to macrolides, which can be attributed to the presence of the ermB gene.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Detectar a presença do gene ermB associado à resistência a macrolídeos em cepas de Campylobacter spp. isoladas de frangos comercializados em Lima, no Peru. Métodos. Analisamos 120 amostras de pele de frango provenientes de três mercados nos distritos de San Martín de Porres (n=30), Santa Anita (n=20) e Independencia (n=70), situados na Província de Lima, no Peru. Realizamos uma análise microbiológica das amostras de acordo com as recomendações da norma ISO 10272-1:2017. Para a confirmação do gênero e espécie por reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR), utilizamos os primers 16-rRNA, GlyA e hypO. Para avaliar a sensibilidade antimicrobiana, utilizamos ágar de Müller-Hinton-sangue a 5% com discos de sensibilidade de azitromicina (15 μg) e eritromicina (15 μg). A detecção do gene ermB em cepas com fenótipos resistentes foi feita por PCR convencional. Resultados. Obtivemos um total de 117 amostras positivas (97,5%), das quais 100% foram compatíveis com Campylobacter coli (teste do hipurato negativo) e confirmadas por PCR. Na avaliação da resistência antimicrobiana em placa para azitromicina e eritromicina, 100% das cepas apresentaram fenótipo de resistência a estes macrolídeos, enquanto a PCR para a detecção do gene ermB indicou um total de 62 cepas positivas (53%), que foram confirmadas por sequenciamento. Conclusões. Estes resultados demonstram que as carcaças de frango comercializadas nos mercados de Lima apresentam contaminação por C. coli com alta resistência a macrolídeos, o que pode ser atribuído à presença do gene ermB.


Assuntos
Campylobacter , Macrolídeos , Galinhas , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Peru , Galinhas , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Macrolídeos , Peru , Galinhas , Macrolídeos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos
6.
Poult Sci ; 99(9): 4351-4359, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867979

RESUMO

The vaccines currently available to control infectious bursal disease (IBD) include live-attenuated and inactivated vaccines, immune-complex vaccines, and vaccines consisting of viral constructs of herpesvirus of turkeys genetically engineered to express VP2 surface protein. To evaluate the impact of vaccines on the chicken immune system, 2 animal trials were performed in specific pathogen-free broiler chickens. In trial 1, birds were either vaccinated when they are one-day old with a dual recombinant herpes virus of turkey construct vaccine, expressing VP2 protein of (IBDV) and F protein of Newcastle disease virus, or an immune-complex IBDV vaccine or birds were not vaccinated. At 14, 28, and 35 D, the bursa of Fabricius was collected for bursa:body weight (B:BW) ratio calculation. In trial 2, birds were vaccinated when they were 1-day old according to the same protocol as trial 1, but at day 14, all groups also received a live infectious bronchitis (IB) vaccine. At 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after IB vaccination, birds were tested by ELISA for IB serology and, soon after the last blood sampling, they were euthanized for collection of Harderian glands, trachea, and spleen and testing by flow cytometry for characterization of mononuclear cells. The immune-complex vaccine groups showed significantly lower B:BW ratio, lower IBV antibody titers, and higher mean percentage of CD8+ T cells in the spleen, trachea, and Harderian glands than those in the other experimental groups. The results of the in vivo trials coupled with a depth analysis of the repertoire of parameters involved in the immune response to IBD and IB vaccinations show one vaccine may influence the immune response of other vaccines included in the vaccination program.


Assuntos
Infecções por Birnaviridae/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Infecções por Birnaviridae/imunologia , Bolsa de Fabricius/patologia , Galinhas , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/imunologia , Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da Bursa/imunologia , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110974, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888622

RESUMO

Ammonia (NH3), an environmental pollutant, poses a serious threat to human and avian health. Although previous studies have showed that NH3 caused kidney injury, the molecular mechanisms of nephrotoxicity induced by NH3 remain unclear. To explore the mechanisms of NH3 nephrotoxicity, a total of 36 broiler chicks at one day of age were exposed to NH3. After 42 days of exposure, blood samples were collected to determine creatinine and uric acid; and kidney samples were weighted and then collected to detect ultrastructural changes, oxidative stress parameters, ATPases, necroptosis- and mitochondrial dynamics-related genes. The results showed that chickens exposed to NH3 showed lower relative kidney weight and an increase concentration in serum creatinine and uric acid. NH3 exposure caused nephrocyte necrosis and increased the expression of necroptosis-related genes (TNF-α, RIPK1, RIPK3, MLKL, and JNK). Besides, the activities of antioxidant systems (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, and T-AOC) were reduced, whereas the concentrations of H2O2 and MDA were elevated. Lower activities of ATPases were obtained in NH3 treatment groups. Furthermore, the mitochondrial fission-related genes drp1 and mff were activated, and mitochondrial fusion-related genes opa1, mfn1 and mfn2 were suppressed after NH3 exposure. Based on the above results, we conclude that NH3 caused-oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction mediated nephrocyte necroptosis in chickens. This study may provide new insight into NH3 nephrotoxicity.


Assuntos
Amônia/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Necroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Galinhas , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Rim/ultraestrutura , Testes de Função Renal , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/genética , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/genética
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 737: 140234, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783845

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) loss from livestock and poultry industry causes serious threat to agro-ecological environments. Anaerobic digestion (AD), through recycling of P-containing resources and biogas production, prevails as a promising solution to the resource, energy, and environment trilemma. In this study, the dynamic transformation of P in batch AD processes fed with chicken, pig and dairy manures was investigated. Results showed that the Labile-P of total phosphorus (TP) in pig, chicken and dairy manure digestates decreased from 37.35% to 23.79%, 36.79% to 17.29%, and 60.47% to 20.39%, respectively, and was associated with an increase of NaOH-P during the AD process. However, the Labile-P in raw manures ranging from 64.67% to 81.10%, indicated that AD could reduce the pollution risk caused by the overuse of high Labile-P animal manure as fertilizer. Metal ions had a significant influence on P transformation because of their ability to combine with PO43-/HPO42-. During AD, the species of phosphates increased: AlPO4, FePO4, Mg3(PO4)2, CaHPO4, Mg(NH4)PO4·6H2O and Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 were the main phosphates qualified by X-ray diffraction (XRD). AD produced a satisfactory fertilizer for plants that were able to activate the precipitated P, which could provide readily available N and slow-release P. This study provides a meaningful theoretical guide for recycling P from animal manure resources.


Assuntos
Esterco , Fósforo , Anaerobiose , Animais , Biocombustíveis , Galinhas , Suínos
9.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt A): 114202, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806409

RESUMO

Poultry manure is a reservoir for antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes and composting is an effective biological treatment for manure. This study explored the effect of using two methods of adding a complex microbial agent to the composting of laying-hen manure on doxycycline degradation and tetracycline resistance genes elimination. The results showed that incorporating a complex microbial agent at 0.8% (w/w) on the 0th and 11th day (group MT2) effectively degraded doxycycline with a final degradation rate of 46.83 ±â€¯0.55%. The half-life of doxycycline in this group was 21.90 ±â€¯0.00 days and was significantly lower than that of group MT1 (1.6% (w/w) complex microbial agent added on the 0th day) and group DT (compost without complex microbial agent). But there was no significant difference in the final degradation rate of doxycycline between group DT and group MT1. The addictive with the complex microbial agent changed the microbial community structure. Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the dominant phyla during composting. Aerococcus, Desemzia, Facklamia, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, and Trichococcus were the bacteria related to the degradation of doxycycline. Moreover, the incorporation of a complex microbial agent could decrease the risk on spreading tetracycline resistance genes. The single addition promoted the elimination of tetM, whose possible hosts were Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus, and Trichococcus. Adding the complex microbial agent twice promoted the elimination of tetX, which was related to the low abundance of Chryseobacterium, Flavobacterium and Neptunomonas in group MT2. Redundancy analysis showed that the bacterial community, residual doxycycline and physiochemical properties have a potential effect on the variation in tetracycline resistance genes levels. Overall, adding the complex microbial agent twice is an effective measure to degrade doxycycline.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas , Doxiciclina , Feminino , Esterco , Resistência a Tetraciclina
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(9): 590, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820434

RESUMO

Organoarsenic compounds are widely used in chicken feed for control of coccidial parasite, quick weight gain, and for imparting attractive color to the chicken flesh. A study was conducted to assess the level of arsenic in both chicken feed and flesh. Chicken feed was collected from 10 farm houses and total arsenic was estimated. The quantitative estimation suggests that the four levels of chicken feed contain different quantities of arsenic load. The results demonstrated that feed at stages III and IV levels contain 0.01 mg/g and 0.018 mg/g of arsenic respectively. However, at stages I and II levels, the feed contains 0.005 mg/g and 0.0052 mg/g of arsenic respectively. Proceeding similarly, chicken flesh was collected from ten vendors in the local markets of Burdwan. The experimental results revealed that deposition of arsenic in different parts of chicken body is not same. The highest accumulation was recorded in the flesh of chest followed by stomach, whereas flesh of the legs and heart showed lower levels of arsenic accumulation. A comprehensive calculation was thereafter done to assess the total amount of arsenic ingestion through consumption of chicken. If a person takes 60.0 g of chicken flesh (leg, breast, muscles, and stomach) everyday, then the person may consume 0.186-0.372 µg of arsenic per day. This study therefore clearly suggests that excessive consumption of poultry chicken may prove to be fatal. However, further research is necessary to confirm the present findings. To the best of our knowledge, this is probably the first report on the likelihood of arsenic contamination in the flesh of different body parts of poultry chicken from Eastern India.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Índia , Prevalência
11.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13436, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761774

RESUMO

Probiotics are growing alternatives to antibiotics, and can contribute to the prevention and treatment of diseases and enhance livestock production. Lactobacillus (L.) ingluviei is a novel probiotic species with growth-enhancement effects; however, this species remains poorly understood, and there have been (to our knowledge) no studies focusing on its immunological effects. Here, we isolated L. ingluviei C37 (LIC37) from chicken and evaluated the bacterium's immunomodulatory properties to explore its probiotic potential. Real-time quantitative PCR and ELISA showed that in vitro exposure of inflammation-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages to heat-killed LIC37 led to decreases in tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-6 levels and an increase in IL-10. These findings suggested that LIC37 exerts anti-inflammatory effects by modulating cytokine profiles. This species may be an attractive probiotic bacterial strain for use in animal production.


Assuntos
Galinhas/microbiologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Lactobacillus , Lipopolissacarídeos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Animais , Imunomodulação , Camundongos
12.
J Environ Manage ; 273: 111195, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771848

RESUMO

The objective of this study is the characterization of a keratinase from Bacillus sp.RCM-SSR-102 and its application in the preparation of keratin hydrolysate from chicken feather waste. The purified KER102 keratinase was characterized as a serine-metallo protease having a molecular weight of 30 kDa with optimum pH and temperature of 10 and 50 °C respectively. The keratinase could retain 98% activity at pH 10 and above and 55% activity at 20% salt concentration. The KER102 keratinase was found to be stable in the presence of oxidizing agents, surfactants and organic solvents. The keratinase could also hydrolyze both soluble and insoluble complex protein substrates. The KER102 keratinase could hydrolyze up to 5% (w/v) feather releasing 1.7 ± 0.19 mg/mL soluble peptides. The feather keratin hydrolysate (FKH) had both antioxidant and antityrosinase activity. The IC50 value of FKH in 2, 2-diphenyl 1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (1.02 ± 0.01 mg/mL), 2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity (20 ± +00.04 µg/mL) and anti-tyrosinase activity (1.2 ± 0.22 mg/mL) was recorded. The FKH also had DNA protecting ability against oxidative damage. Antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase compounds have potential applications in the pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industry. Hence, the purified keratinase can be a potential candidate for the production of antioxidant and antityrosinase compounds from chicken feather waste.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Queratinas , Animais , Galinhas , Plumas , Peptídeo Hidrolases
13.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008815, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833996

RESUMO

Although therapeutics targeting viral metabolic processes have been considered as promising strategies to treat herpesvirus infection, the metabolic requirements of gallid alphaherpesvirus 1 (ILTV), which is economically important to the poultry industry worldwide, remain largely unknown. Using the ILTV-susceptible but nonpermissive chicken cell line DF-1 and the ILTV-permissive chicken cell line LMH as models, the present study explored the metabolic requirements of ILTV by global transcriptome analysis and metabolome assays of ILTV infected cell lines in combination with a set of functional validations. The extensive metabolic exploration demonstrated that ILTV infection tended to promote a metabolic shift from glycolysis to fatty acid (FA) and nucleotide biosynthesis and utilizes glutamine independently of glutaminolysis, without significant general effect on the TCA cycle. In addition, different metabolic pathways were found to be required for distinct stages of ILTV replication. Glucose and glutamine were required for the transcription of viral immediate early gene ICP4 and subsequent steps of viral replication. However, FA synthesis was essential for assembly but not required for other upstream steps of ILTV replication. Moreover, the metabolic requirements of ILTV infection revealed in chicken cell lines were further validated in chicken primary cells isolated from chicken embryo kidneys and chicken embryo livers. The present study, to the best of our knowledge, provides the first global metabolic profile of animal herpesviruses and illustrates the main characteristics of the metabolic program of ILTV.


Assuntos
Infecções por Herpesviridae/metabolismo , Herpesvirus Galináceo 1/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Replicação Viral , Animais , Galinhas , Glicólise , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia
14.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(8)2020 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785186

RESUMO

The coronaviruses are a large family of enveloped RNA viruses that commonly cause gastrointestinal or respiratory illnesses in the infected host. Avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a highly contagious respiratory pathogen of chickens that can affect the kidneys and reproductive systems resulting in bird mortality and decreased reproductivity. The interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM) proteins are activated in response to viral infections and represent a class of cellular restriction factors that restrict the replication of many viral pathogens. Here, we characterize the relative mRNA expression of the chicken IFITM genes in response to IBV infection, in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro using the pathogenic M41-CK strain, the nephropathogenic QX strain and the nonpathogenic Beaudette strain. In vivo we demonstrate a significant upregulation of chIFITM1, 2, 3 and 5 in M41-CK- and QX-infected trachea two days post-infection. In vitro infection with Beaudette, M41-CK and QX results in a significant upregulation of chIFITM1, 2 and 3 at 24 h post-infection. We confirmed a differential innate response following infection with distinct IBV strains and believe that our data provide new insights into the possible role of chIFITMs in early IBV infection.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/patogenicidade , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/fisiologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/etiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Carga Viral , Tropismo Viral
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 746: 141113, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768779

RESUMO

We examined the ability of composting to remove ARGs and enteric bacteria in litter obtained from broiler chickens fed with a diet supplemented with Bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BDM) (conventional chicken litter), or an antibiotic-free diet (raised without antibiotic (RWA) chicken litter). This was done by evaluating the litter before and after composting for the abundance of ten gene targets associated with antibiotic resistance or horizontal gene transfer, the composition of the bacterial communities, and the abundance of viable enteric bacteria. The abundance of gene targets was determined by qPCR and the microbial community composition of chicken litter determined by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Enteric bacteria were enumerated by viable plate count. A majority of the gene targets were more abundant in conventional than in RWA litter. In both litter types, the absolute abundance of all of the target genes decreased after composting except sul1, intI1, incW and erm(F) that remained stable. Composting significantly reduced the abundance of enteric bacteria, including those carrying antibiotic resistance. The major difference in bacterial community composition between conventional and RWA litter was due to members affiliated to the genus Pseudomonas, which were 28% more abundant in conventional than in RWA litter. Composting favoured the presence of thermophilic bacteria, such as those affiliated with the genus Truepera, but decreased the abundance of those bacterial genera associated with cold-adapted species, such as Carnobacterium, Psychrobacter and Oceanisphaera. The present study shows that chicken litter from broilers fed with a diet supplemented with antibiotic has an increased abundance of some ARGs, even after composting. However, we can conclude that fertilization with composted litter represents a reduced risk of transmission of antibiotic resistance genes and enteric bacteria of poultry origin to soil and crops than will fertilization with raw litter.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Fazendas , Firmicutes , Genes Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Esterco , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
16.
Gene ; 761: 145046, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781192

RESUMO

Many studies have shown that the LDB2 gene plays a regulatory role in retinal development and the cell cycle, but its biological role remains unclear. In this study, a 31-bp indel in the LDB2 gene was found for the first time on the basis of 2797 individuals from 10 different breeds, which led to different genotypes among individuals (II, ID and DD). Among these genotypes, DD was the most dominant. Association analysis of an F2 resource population crossed with the Gushi (GS) chicken and Anka chicken showed that the DD genotype conferred a significantly greater semi-evisceration weight (SEW, 1108.665 g ± 6.263), evisceration weight (EW, 927.455 g ± 5.424), carcass weight (CW, 1197.306 g ± 6.443), breast muscle weight (BMW, 71.05 g ± 0.574), and leg muscle weight (LMW, 100.303 g ± 0.677) than the ID genotype (SEW, 1059.079 g ± 16.86; EW, 879.459 g ± 14.446; CW, 1141.821 g ± 17.176; BMW, 67.164 g ± 1.523; and LMW, 96.163 g ± 1.823). In addition, LDB2 gene expression in different breeds was significantly higher in the breast muscles and leg muscles than in other tissues. The expression level in the breast muscle differed significantly among stages of GS chicken development, with the highest expression observed at 6 weeks. The expression levels in the pectoral muscles differed significantly among Ross 308 genotypes. In summary, we studied the relationships between a 31-bp indel in the LDB2 gene and economic traits in chickens. The indel was significantly correlated with multiple growth and carcass traits in the F2 resource population and affected the expression of the LDB2 gene in muscle tissue. In short, our study revealed that the LDB2 gene 31-bp indel can be used as a potential genetic marker for molecular breeding.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/genética , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Cruzamento/métodos , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Mutação INDEL , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/metabolismo , Carne , Músculos Peitorais , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Produtos Avícolas
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237118, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764795

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation with 100ppm sodium monensin or 0.15% of a blend of functional oils (cashew nut oil + castor oil) on the intestinal microbiota of broilers challenged with three different Eimeria spp. The challenge was accomplished by inoculating broiler chicks with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria tenella, Eimeria acervulina, and Eimeria maxima via oral gavage. A total of 864, day-old male broiler chicks (Cobb) were randomly assigned to six treatments (eight pens/treatment; 18 broilers/pen) in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, composed of three additives (control, monensin or blend), with or without Eimeria challenge. Intestinal contents was collected at 28 days of age for microbiota analysis by sequencing 16s rRNA in V3 and V4 regions using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Taxonomy was assigned through the SILVA database version 132, using the QIIME 2 software version 2019.1. No treatment effects (p > 0.05) were observed in the microbial richness at the family level estimated by Chao1 and the biodiversity assessed by Simpson's index, except for Shannon's index (p < 0.05). The intestinal microbiota was dominated by members of the order Clostridiales and Lactobacillales, followed by the families Ruminococcaceae, Bacteroidaceae, and Lactobacillaceae, regardless of treatment. When the controls were compared, in the challenged control group there was an increase in Erysipelotrichaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Streptococcaceae, and Peptostreptococcaceae, and a decrease in Ruminococcaceae. Similar results were found for a challenged group that received monensin, while the blend partially mitigated this variation. Therefore, the blend alleviated the impact of coccidiosis challenge on the microbiome of broilers compared to monensin.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Monensin/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/dietoterapia , Anacardium/química , Ração Animal , Animais , Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccidiose/dietoterapia , Coccidiose/imunologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Eimeria/genética , Eimeria/imunologia , Eimeria/patogenicidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Masculino , Oocistos/patogenicidade , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ricinus/química
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237541, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32834007

RESUMO

There is growing interest in exploring the chickens' intestinal microbiota and understanding its interactions with the host. The objective is to optimize this parameter in order to increase the productivity of farm animals. With the goal to isolate candidate probiotic strains, specific culturomic methods were used in our study to culture commensal bacteria from 7-days old chicks raised in two farms presenting long history of high performance. A total of 347 isolates were cultured, corresponding to at least 64 species. Among the isolates affiliated to the Firmicutes, 26 had less than 97% identity of their partial 16S sequence with that of the closest described species, while one presented less than 93% identity, thus revealing a significant potential for new species in this ecosystem. In parallel, and in order to better understand the differences between the microbiota of high-performing and low-performing animals, caecal contents of animals collected from these two farms and from a third farm with long history of low performance were collected and sequenced. This compositional analysis revealed an enrichment of Faecalibacterium-and Campylobacter-related sequences in lower-performing animals whereas there was a higher abundance of enterobacteria-related sequences in high-performing animals. We then investigated antibiosis activity against C. jejuni ATCC 700819 and C. jejuni field isolate as a first phenotypic trait to select probiotic candidates. Antibiosis was found to be limited to a few strains, including several lactic acid bacteria, a strain of Bacillus horneckiae and a strain of Escherichia coli. The antagonist activity depended on test conditions that mimicked the evolution of the intestinal environment of the chicken during its lifetime, i.e. temperature (37°C or 42°C) and oxygen levels (aerobic or anaerobic conditions). This should be taken into account according to the stage of development of the animal at which administration of the active strain is envisaged.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Envelhecimento , Animais , Campylobacter/genética , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Fazendas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia
19.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(suppl 1): e20190649, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756847

RESUMO

Evaluated lipid and cholesterol concentration and fatty acid profile of raw breast, thigh and drumstick meat from broilers raised in different rearing systems. Were used 200 male broiler carcasses from four different rearing systems (n=50 from conventional intensive; n=50 from organic; n=50 from free-range; and n=50 from antibiotic-free) distributed in a completely randomized design with four rearing systems and 50 replications (carcasses). Breast meat from conventional broilers showed higher lipid (1.47) and cholesterol (34.13) concentration. Thigh and drumstick meat from free-range broilers had higher lipid (7.53/4.73) and cholesterol (45.55/53.65) concentration. Fat contained in breast, thigh and drumstick meat from free-range broilers showed higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Fat from breast and thigh meat from free-range broilers showed higher total concentration of ω3 and ω6 fatty acids. Fat from thigh meat from organic broilers showed higher levels of EPA (C20:5n3) and DHA (C22:6n3). Fat from drumstick meat from free-range broilers showed higher total concentration of ω3 and ω6 fatty acids. Meat from chickens raised in alternative rearing systems offers less risk to cardiovascular health because it presents lower concentrations of lipids and cholesterol, greater amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are beneficial for human health.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Animais , Colesterol , Ácidos Graxos , Masculino , Carne
20.
Med Klin Intensivmed Notfmed ; 115(6): 449-457, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840636

RESUMO

Human resource development is a key factor for a successful management of Intensive Care Units (ICU) and Emergency Departments (ED). It comprises the processes of recruiting and retaining employees. The present article offers strategies how the optimal manning level in ICUs and EDs can be determined and highlights the importance of active management of well being in acute care units. The manning level can be determined by using the work place method which is the common method for ICUs. For the EDs a method based on the specific times which are needed for patient care in relation to the intensity of care is more appropriate. This method needs to integrate the patient number per hour, the time needed per patient, and the defined service level particularly with respect to the time to be seen by a physician. For detailed staff calculation, complex mathematical models are needed (e.g. Erlang formula). The resulting manning level needs then to be distributed on the various shifts. Additional resources are needed for observation units and additional tasks like management tasks etc. Retainment of employees is only possible when the working field remains attractive over many years. While a structured and competence based education is of utmost importance in the beginning of a carrier, attractive rooster plans and the compatibility between work and private life, becomes more important when the specialisation has been achieved.


Assuntos
Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos , Animais , Galinhas , Cuidados Críticos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal , Recursos Humanos
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