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1.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 56(4): 146, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722408

RESUMO

This study was planned to evaluate the impact of dichromatic lights during incubation on the hatching and post-hatch performance of broiler chickens. A total of 500 eggs of broiler breeder (Ross 308; Age 44 weeks) were evenly divided according to a completely randomized design into 4 treatments having 5 replicates and 25 eggs each. Treatments consisted of dichromatic lights Blue + Red (BR), Green + Red (GR) and Green + Blue (GB) provided at an intensity of 250 lx for 12 h a day along with a Dark (D) environment. After hatching 200 chicks (50 from each respective light group) were divided into 4 treatments with 5 replicates each having 10 chicks. Results indicated a higher embryo index (13.12%) in the GR group on the 12th day of incubation; while an ideal hatch window was observed in GR and GB (98.18% and 96.00% hatched chicks) lighting groups. In hatching traits, higher hatchability (86.15) and hatch of fertile (93.85) percentages were observed in GR lighting followed by GB, BR and Dark treatment groups; while dead-in shell embryos were lowest in the GR group. In growth performance, higher feed intake (513.20 g) and body weight (479.20 g) were observed in the GB group followed by GR, BR and dark group; and feed conversion ratio (FCR) was better in the GR group (1.06). In welfare parameters, improved physical asymmetry (0.90 mm) and tonic immobility (54.40 s) were measured in the GR group followed by GB, BR and the dark group. It was concluded that under experimental conditions when broiler breeder eggs are provided with GR lighting during incubation, it can help to improve hatchability, growth performance and welfare traits in chicks.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Galinhas , Iluminação , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/fisiologia , Embrião de Galinha/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Distribuição Aleatória , Feminino , Luz
2.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0295109, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38739572

RESUMO

The genetic complexity of polygenic traits represents a captivating and intricate facet of biological inheritance. Unlike Mendelian traits controlled by a single gene, polygenic traits are influenced by multiple genetic loci, each exerting a modest effect on the trait. This cumulative impact of numerous genes, interactions among them, environmental factors, and epigenetic modifications results in a multifaceted architecture of genetic contributions to complex traits. Given the well-characterized genome, diverse traits, and range of genetic resources, chicken (Gallus gallus) was employed as a model organism to dissect the intricate genetic makeup of a previously identified major Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for body weight on chromosome 1. A multigenerational advanced intercross line (AIL) of 3215 chickens whose genomes had been sequenced to an average of 0.4x was analyzed using genome-wide association study (GWAS) and variance-heterogeneity GWAS (vGWAS) to identify markers associated with 8-week body weight. Additionally, epistatic interactions were studied using the natural and orthogonal interaction (NOIA) model. Six genetic modules, two from GWAS and four from vGWAS, were strongly associated with the studied trait. We found evidence of both additive- and non-additive interactions between these modules and constructed a putative local epistasis network for the region. Our screens for functional alleles revealed a missense variant in the gene ribonuclease H2 subunit B (RNASEH2B), which has previously been associated with growth-related traits in chickens and Darwin's finches. In addition, one of the most strongly associated SNPs identified is located in a non-coding region upstream of the long non-coding RNA, ENSGALG00000053256, previously suggested as a candidate gene for regulating chicken body weight. By studying large numbers of individuals from a family material using approaches to capture both additive and non-additive effects, this study advances our understanding of genetic complexities in a highly polygenic trait and has practical implications for poultry breeding and agriculture.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peso Corporal/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Epistasia Genética , Fenótipo , Feminino , Herança Multifatorial , Masculino
3.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 176, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38711127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This investigation assessed the effects of high dietary inclusion of Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) on broiler chicken growth performance, meat quality and nutritional attributes. For this, 120 male broiler chicks were housed in 40 battery brooders (three birds per brooder). Initially, for 14 days, a standard corn and soybean meal diet was administered. Subsequently, from days 14 to 35, chicks were assigned to one of the four dietary treatments (n = 10 per treatment): (1) control diet (CTR); (2) diet with 15% Spirulina (SP); (3) diet with 15% extruded Spirulina (SPE); and (4) diet with 15% Spirulina plus a super-dosing enzymes supplement (0.20% pancreatin extract and 0.01% lysozyme) (SPM). RESULTS: Throughout the experimental period, both SP and SPM diets resulted in decreased final body weight and body weight gain compared to control (p < 0.001), with the SPE diet showing comparable results to CTR. The SPE diet prompted an increase in average daily feed intake (p = 0.026). However, all microalga treatments increased the feed conversion ratio compared to CTR. Dietary inclusion of Spirulina notably increased intestinal content viscosity (p < 0.010), which was mitigated by the SPM diet. Spirulina supplementation led to lower pH levels in breast meat 24 h post-mortem and heightened the b* colour value in both breast and thigh meats (p < 0.010). Furthermore, Spirulina contributed to an increased accumulation of total carotenoids, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and saturated fatty acids (SFA), while diminishing n-6 PUFA, thus altering the n-6/n-3 and PUFA/SFA ratios favourably (p < 0.001). However, it also reduced zinc concentration in breast meat (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that high Spirulina levels in broiler diets impair growth due to increased intestinal viscosity, and that extrusion pre-treatment mitigates this effect. Despite reducing digesta viscosity, a super-dosing enzyme mix did not improve growth. Data also indicates that Spirulina enriches meat with antioxidants and n-3 PUFA but reduces α-tocopherol and increases saturated fats. Reduced zinc content in meat suggests the need for Spirulina biofortification to maintain its nutritional value.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Carne , Spirulina , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/análise , Spirulina/química , Dieta/veterinária , Masculino , Carne/análise , Carne/normas , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Muramidase/metabolismo
4.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 438, 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutrient availability during early stages of development (embryogenesis and the first week post-hatch) can have long-term effects on physiological functions and bird metabolism. The embryo develops in a closed structure and depends entirely on the nutrients and energy available in the egg. The aim of this study was to describe the ontogeny of pathways governing hepatic metabolism that mediates many physiological functions in the pHu + and pHu- chicken lines, which are divergently selected for the ultimate pH of meat, a proxy for muscle glycogen stores, and which differ in the nutrient content and composition of eggs. RESULTS: We identified eight clusters of genes showing a common pattern of expression between embryonic day 12 (E12) and day 8 (D8) post-hatch. These clusters were not representative of a specific metabolic pathway or function. On E12 and E14, the majority of genes differentially expressed between the pHu + and pHu- lines were overexpressed in the pHu + line. Conversely, the majority of genes differentially expressed from E18 were overexpressed in the pHu- line. During the metabolic shift at E18, there was a decrease in the expression of genes linked to several metabolic functions (e.g. protein synthesis, autophagy and mitochondrial activity). At hatching (D0), there were two distinct groups of pHu + chicks based on hierarchical clustering; these groups also differed in liver weight and serum parameters (e.g. triglyceride content and creatine kinase activity). At D0 and D8, there was a sex effect for several metabolic pathways. Metabolism appeared to be more active and oriented towards protein synthesis (RPS6) and fatty acid ß-oxidation (ACAA2, ACOX1) in males than in females. In comparison, the genes overexpressed in females were related to carbohydrate metabolism (SLC2A1, SLC2A12, FoxO1, PHKA2, PHKB, PRKAB2 and GYS2). CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides the first detailed description of the evolution of different hepatic metabolic pathways during the early development of embryos and post-hatching chicks. We found a metabolic orientation for the pHu + line towards proteolysis, glycogen degradation, ATP synthesis and autophagy, likely in response to a higher energy requirement compared with pHu- embryos. The metabolic orientations specific to the pHu + and pHu- lines are established very early, probably in relation with their different genetic background and available nutrients.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Fígado , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Feminino , Músculos Peitorais/metabolismo , Músculos Peitorais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Embrião de Galinha , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento
5.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 205, 2024 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38760749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gut microbes play a significant role in digestion, developing immunity, and intestinal health. Therefore, direct-fed microbials are used to modify gut microbiota, maintain a healthy digestive system, enhance immunity, and promote the broilers' performance. In addition, it has a role in improving the utilization of unconventional feed ingredients (olive pulp, OP). This study provides the potential role of Aspergillus awamori in enhancing gut microbial content, nutrient utilization, growth performance, and antioxidative status in heat-stressed broiler chickens fed diets containing olive pulp. METHODS: Three hundred chicks (Ross 308; one day old) were divided into four treatment groups (75 chick/ group) randomly, as follows; CON: chicks fed a basal diet based on corn and soybean meal, OP10: chicks fed a diet containing 10% OP, OA1: chicks fed a diet containing OP with A. awamori at 100 mg per kg, OA2: chicks fed a diet containing OP with A. awamori at 200 mg per kg. RESULTS: Adding A. awamori to the broiler diet that contains OP had a positive effect on productive performance via enhancing nutrition digestibility, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and carcass characteristics. A. awamori supplementation had a positive impact on immune responses by increasing serum immunoglobulin G and the relative weight of bursa of Fabricius (P < 0.05) compared to the other groups. Chickens fed A. awamori showed a noticeable improvement in the oxidative status through the increase in the level of serum superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase, and the decrease in the level of malondialdehyde. Feeding A. awamori also modified the intestinal microbial content by increasing the population of Lactobacillus (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicated that adding 200 mg A. awamori reduced the negative effect of heat stress by modifying the microbial content of the intestine, immune response, and enhancing feed utilization, thus improving broiler performance, as well as, improving the nutritional value of the olive pulp. Therefore, adding A. awamori to the OP diet can be effectively used in heat-stressed broiler diets.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Antioxidantes , Aspergillus , Galinhas , Dieta , Digestão , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Olea , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/imunologia , Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Olea/química , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Temperatura Alta , Masculino , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Res Vet Sci ; 172: 105249, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579633

RESUMO

The effect of salinomycin sodium alone and in combination with functional oils on performance and microbiota of broiler infected Eimeria were evaluated. 512 broilers were randomly assigned to 4 treatments (8 replicates, 16 birds/pen): a Control group (any additives); Ionophore group: salinomycin supplementation at 66 ppm (SS66); Ionophore +0.075% Functional oil (FO) group (SS66 + FO supplementation at 750 ppm); and Ionophore +0.10% FO group (SS66 + FO supplementation at 1000 ppm). At 14 days of age, birds were gavaged with 1 mL of a saline solution containing sporulated oocysts of E. tenella, E. acervulina and E. maxima. Performance indices were measured weekly. At 28 days, intestinal content was collected for microbiota analysis. Broilers of Control group presented the worst performance indices. Broilers of Ionophore + FO (0.075% and 0.10%) groups exhibited a higher BW at 28 days of age. The supplementation of Ionophore +0.075% FO resulted in a higher relative proportion of Firmicutes and a lower proportion of Actinobacteria in the ileum-jejunum. Lactobacillaceae was the dominant family in the jejunal, and ileal microbiotas of broilers fed diets supplemented with Ionophore, Ionophore +0.075% FO and Ionophore +0.10% FO. The supplementation of ionophore yielded higher numbers of Lactobacillaceae, Enterobactereaceae and Cloritridiaceae in the cecal. Ionophore associated with FO controlled the Lactobacillaceae, Enterobactereaceae and Cloritridiaceae families present in the cecum. Therefore, the combination of salinomycin with functional oil showed synergistic effect on performance and modulation of intestinal microbiota of broilers challenged with Eimeria.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Coccidiose , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Eimeria , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Policetídeos de Poliéter , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Piranos , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Piranos/farmacologia , Piranos/administração & dosagem , Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Eimeria/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Distribuição Aleatória , Ionóforos/farmacologia , Ionóforos/administração & dosagem , Coccidiostáticos/farmacologia , Coccidiostáticos/administração & dosagem , Masculino
7.
Res Vet Sci ; 173: 105275, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38678847

RESUMO

Inosine monophosphate (IMP) is widely regarded as an important indicator for evaluating the flavour of poultry meat. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms affecting the specific deposition of IMP. In this study, we functionally verified PKM2 (Pyruvate kinase M2), a candidate gene related to IMP synthesis, in order to reveal the important role of PKM2 in meat flavour and muscle development of Jingyuan chickens. The results showed that the IMP content in breast muscle of Jingyuan chickens was negatively correlated with PKM2 mRNA expression (r = -0.1710), while the IMP content in leg muscle was significantly positively correlated with PKM2 mRNA expression (r = 0.7350) (P < 0.05). During myogenesis, PKM2 promoted the proliferation rate of myoblasts and the expression of proliferation marker genes, inhibited the apoptosis rate and the expression of apoptosis marker genes, and decreased the expression of differentiation marker genes. Up-regulation of PKM2 enhanced the expression of key genes in the purine metabolic pathway and the de novo synthesis pathway of IMP, and suppressed the expression of key genes in the salvage pathway. ELISA assays showed that PKM2 decreased IMP and hypoxanthine (HX) contents, while adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and uric acid (UA) contents were clearly elevated. In summary, these studies revealed that PKM2 regulates myogenesis and specific deposition of IMP, which can be used to improve the quality of Jingyuan chicken meat.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Inosina Monofosfato , Mioblastos , Animais , Galinhas/metabolismo , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Inosina Monofosfato/metabolismo , Mioblastos/metabolismo , Piruvato Quinase/metabolismo , Piruvato Quinase/genética , Carne/análise , Desenvolvimento Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proliferação de Células
8.
Vet Med Sci ; 10(3): e1460, 2024 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38654672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the broiler's diets based on corn-soya bean meal, methionine (Met) and cystine (Cys), known as sulphur amino acids (SAAs), are the first limiting indispensable amino acids because of their limited presence, which are supplemented with different synthetic sources. Evaluation of the biological effectiveness of these sources can be important in their correct replacement, especially in the starter and growth diets. OBJECTIVES: The current study was done to assess the relative biological efficacy (RBE) of liquid Met hydroxy analogue-free acid (MHA-FA) in comparison with dl-Met (dl-Met) based on broiler performance traits at different levels of digestible SAA in the 1-11 (starter) and 11-25 (grower) days of age periods. METHODS: Two experiments were developed with treatments consisting of a basal diet without Met addition that met the nutrient and energy requirements of broilers with the exception of SAAs (Met + Cys) and five increasing Met doses for both sources (dl-Met and/or MHA-FA), resulting in digestible SAA concentrations from 0.62% to 1.02% of diet in the starter period (Trial 1) and 0.59% to 0.94% of diet in the grower period (Trial 2). The multi-linear regression model and slope ratio method were employed to calculate the RBE of MHA-FA compared with dl-Met for measured variables. RESULTS: In both experiments, the results obtained during the starter and grower periods with the different Met supplementations show significant growth responses to digestible SAAs levels. By increasing dietary dl-Met and/or MHA-FA levels, the growth performance traits and immune responses were improved (quadratic; p < 0.05). The RBE of MHA-FA compared to dl-Met on an equimolar basis was estimated 66%-89% (59%-79% on a weight-to-weight basis). CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that the RBE of MHA-FA in comparison with dl-Met depends on broiler chicken age and what attribute is being evaluated.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Galinhas , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Metionina , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Metionina/análogos & derivados , Metionina/administração & dosagem , Metionina/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Masculino , Racemetionina/metabolismo , Racemetionina/efeitos dos fármacos , Racemetionina/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória
9.
Animal ; 18(5): 101144, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38642412

RESUMO

The global demand for white chicken meat along with the increase in the occurrence of growth-related breast muscle myopathies (BMMs) [namely white striping (WS), wooden breast (WB), and spaghetti meat (SM)] highlights the need for solutions that will improve meat quality while maintaining the high productivity of modern broilers. Guanidinoacetate (GAA), a precursor of creatine, is used as a feed additive and has previously shown the potential to affect the quality of breast meat. This study investigated growth performance, meat quality and the risk ratio for the development of BMMs in broilers assigned to two dietary treatments: control (CON) group, fed a commercial basal diet, and supplemented GAA (sGAA) group, receiving the control diet supplemented on top with 0.06% GAA. Growth performance indicators such as BW, daily weight gain, daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio and cumulative feed conversion ratio were recorded on a pen basis. As a trait affecting animal welfare, the occurrence of foot pad dermatitis was also evaluated. At day 43, birds were processed, and breasts were scored for the incidence and severity of BMMs (n = 166 and 165 in CON and sGAA groups, respectively). Quality traits (ultimate pH, colour) and technological properties (i.e., drip and cooking losses, marinade uptake, shear force, and oxidation levels of the lipid and the protein fractions) of breast meat were assessed in both treatments on samples not showing any macroscopic sign of BMMs (n = 20 breast fillets per group). Data of myopathy risk ratio were analysed as the risk for each group to develop WS, WB, and SM myopathies. Our results show that while sGAA and control groups did not differ significantly in growth performance, a remarkably beneficial effect of GAA was observed on the incidence of BMMs with significantly reduced risk of sGAA group to develop SM myopathy. The risk of sGAA group to develop SM was 30% lower compared to CON (P = 0.028). Finally, a significantly lower drip loss was observed in sGAA in comparison with CON (1.78 vs 2.48%, P = 0.020). Together, our results show that the inclusion of 0.06% GAA in feed can improve the water-holding capacity of meat and reduce the risk to develop SM myopathy without compromising the performance of broilers.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Glicina , Carne , Doenças Musculares , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças Musculares/veterinária , Doenças Musculares/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Musculares/prevenção & controle , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/administração & dosagem , Carne/análise , Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Músculos Peitorais , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Vet Med Sci ; 10(3): e1455, 2024 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38678574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic selection applied to broilers results in fast growth and an increase in meat yield. However, this situation causes welfare problems in broilers. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to determine the weekly changes in the tibia characteristics in broilers raised on their own commercial diets. METHODS: In the study, 168 (84 female and 84 male) slow-growing (Hubbard-Isa Red JA) and 168 (84 female and 84 male) fast-growing (Ross-308) day-old broiler chicks were used. Six broilers from each genotype and sex group were weighed weekly and slaughtered to determine the tibia properties during the 10-week fattening period. RESULTS: Fast-growing broilers had higher tibia weight and longer length, diaphysis diameter and medullary canal diameter than those of slow-growing broilers at the same age. In fast-growing genotypes, the cortical index was low only in the 2nd week, and Robusticity and Seedor indices were observed to be better throughout the whole fattening. The ash content of the total tibia in the fast-growing broilers was higher in all of the examined weeks except the 4th week and the 9th week of fattening than that in the slow-growing broilers. Although the amount of ash per unit body weight in the 1st week of fattening was higher in fast-growing broilers, this situation reversed after the 4th week. The level of all minerals examined in total tibia weight is high in fast-growing broilers, and they differed according to the fattening period. CONCLUSIONS: When comparing tibia characteristics of two different genotypes fed their own commercial diets, the tibia structure was found to be stronger in fast-growing broilers compared to other genotypes at the same age, but slow-growing broilers were more prominent in terms of body weight. It was observed that the mineral density was higher in male broilers, except in the 1st week.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Dieta , Tíbia , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Tíbia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tíbia/química , Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Fatores Sexuais
11.
Poult Sci ; 103(5): 103574, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564832

RESUMO

The present study investigates the effects of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with either cottonseed meal (CSM) or fermented cottonseed meal (FCSM) on the productive performance, egg quality, blood biochemistry parameters, gut bacterial population, and small intestinal morphology of laying hens. A total of 648 Hy-Line W36 laying hens aged 40 weeks were randomly assigned to 9 treatments, with 6 replicates each and 12 birds per replicate. The feeding trial lasted 12 weeks. The treatments consisted of a control diet based on corn and SBM, as well as 8 experimental diets in which 7.5, 15, 22.5, and 30% of the SBM in the control diet was replaced with either CSM or FCSM. Laying hens fed diets with different levels of FCSM had higher egg production and egg mass than those fed with CSM diets at weeks 46 to 51 (P < 0.05). Diets containing FCSM also significantly improved the feed conversion ratio at weeks 40 to 45 and 46 to 51 (P < 0.05). Eggshell strength was significantly greater in birds fed diets containing FCSM than those fed other dietary treatments at 51 weeks of age (P < 0.05). Hens fed diets containing FCSM had higher calcium and lower cholesterol in serum than those on other diets (P < 0.05). Replacing SBM with FCSM decreased the egg yolk cholesterol content (P < 0.05). Additionally, feeding diets containing different levels of FCSM increased villus height and villus height to crypt depth in the jejunum (P < 0.05). Diets containing FCSM also reduced pH and coliform population in the ileum, and ceca and increased lactic acid bacteria count in the crop and ceca (P < 0.05). Overall, the present data showed that including FCSM in the diet of laying hens can positively affect productive performance compared to CSM. Moreover, substituting SBM with FCSM, can improve eggshell quality, promote gut health, and reduce egg yolk cholesterol concentration.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Galinhas , Óleo de Sementes de Algodão , Dieta , Fermentação , Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Óleo de Sementes de Algodão/administração & dosagem , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Óvulo/fisiologia , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
12.
Microbiol Spectr ; 12(5): e0347323, 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38497712

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore alterations in growth performance, glycolipid metabolism disorders, intestinal mucosal barrier, cecal microbiota community, and metabolites in a chronic corticosterone (CORT)-induced stress (CCIS) broiler model. Results showed that compared with control (CON) broilers, in CCIS broilers: (i) the final body weight (BW), BW gain, and average daily gain were significantly reduced. (ii) The glycolipid metabolism disorder and impairement of intestinal immune barrier and physical barrier function were observed. (iii) Diversity and richness of cecal microbiota were obviously increased. From phylum to genus level, the abundances of Firmicutes and Faecalibacterium were significantly decreased, while the abundances of Proteobacteria, RuminococcaceaeUCG-005, and Escherichia coli (Shigella) were significantly increased. Microbial network analysis and function pathways prediction showed that cecal microbiota was mainly concentrated in translation, metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, and endocrine system. (iv) The main differential metabolites identified include steroids and their derivatives, amino acids, fatty acids, and carbohydrates; among which 37 metabolites were significantly upregulated, while 27 metabolites were significantly downregulated. These differential metabolites were mainly enriched in pathways related to steroid hormone biosynthesis and tyrosine metabolism. (v) Correlation between cecal microbiota and glycolipid metabolism indexes showed that BW and total cholesterol (TC) were positively correlated with Christensenellaceae_R.7_group and Escherichia_Shigella, respectively. Furthermore, the downregulated Faecalibacterium and Christensenellaceae were negatively correlated with the upregulated differentially expressed metabolites. These findings suggested that CCIS altered cecal microbiota composition and metabolites, which led to glycolipid metabolism disorder and impaired the nutritional metabolism and immune homeostasis, providing a theoretical basis for efforts to eliminate the harm of chronic stress to human health and animal production. IMPORTANCE: The study aimed to determine the influence of altered intestinal mucosal barrier, cecum flora community, and metabolites on anti-growth performance, glycolipid metabolism disorders of chronic corticosterone (CORT)-induced stress (CCIS) broilers. Compared with control (CON) broilers, in CCIS broilers: (i) anti-growth performance, glycolipid metabolism disorder, and impaired intestinal immune barrier and physical barrier function were observed. (ii) From phylum to genus level, the abundances of Firmicutes and Faecalibacterium were decreased; whereas, the abundances of Proteobacteria, RuminococcaceaeUCG-005, and Escherichia coli (Shigella) were increased. (iii) Differential metabolites in cecum were mainly enriched in steroid hormone biosynthesis and tyrosine metabolism. (iv) Body weight (BW) and total cholesterol (TC) were positively correlated with Christensenellaceae_R.7_group and Escherichia_Shigella, respectively, while downregulated Faecalibacterium and Christensenellaceae were negatively correlated with upregulated metabolites. Our findings suggest that CCIS induces anti-growth performance and glycolipid metabolism disorder by altering cecum flora and metabolites, providing a theoretical basis for efforts to eliminate the effect of chronic stress on human health and animal production.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Ceco , Galinhas , Corticosterona , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Glicolipídeos , Mucosa Intestinal , Estresse Fisiológico , Animais , Galinhas/microbiologia , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Corticosterona/metabolismo , Glicolipídeos/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Ceco/microbiologia , Ceco/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação
13.
Poult Sci ; 103(5): 103550, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38452576

RESUMO

The present investigation aimed to examine the impact of different dietary organic zinc nanoparticle (ZnNP) levels on gut bacteria, meat quality, growth performance, carcass traits, and blood indicators of broilers. A total of 180 unsexed one-wk broiler chicks (Cobb) were allotted to 3 experimental groups and received a basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.2, and 0.4 mg ZnNPs/Kg diet, respectively. The results showed that, after 38 d of age, the supplementary ZnNPs at a level of 0.4 mg/kg raised body weight and weight gain compared to the control and 0.2 mg ZnNPs/kg diet. The addition of ZnNPs improved the daily feed intake. Some of the carcass characteristics in ZnNPs groups excelled that of the control. ZnNPs treatments gave higher dressing % and decreased (P < 0.05) the cholesterol rates, LDL, and uric acid in the blood. In addition, it gave the best concentrations of ALT and AST. The ZnNPs groups exhibited substantially (P < 0.05) improved moisture and fat values in meat samples. The group given ZnNPs at a concentration of 0.4 mg/kg had a substantially (P < 0.05) lower count of TYMC and E. coli. In conclusion, the high level of ZnNPs (0.4 mg/kg) improved the broilers' performance and some of their carcass traits, enhancing their health and meat quality.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Carne , Zinco , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/sangue , Ração Animal/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Carne/análise , Ceco/microbiologia , Masculino , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Poult Sci ; 103(5): 103654, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38537403

RESUMO

Extensive mechanistic evidence to support the beneficial function of dietary phytobiotic applications for broiler performance, gut function and health is highly warranted. In particular, for isoquinoline alkaloids (IQ) the underlying mechanisms related to critical gut homeostasis components such as cytoprotection and gut barrier are scarce, especially for young broilers at the starter growth stage (d1-10). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a standardized blend of IQs on the relative gene expression of critical biomarkers relevant for antioxidant response and barrier function along the intestine of young broilers at the end of starter growth phase. For this purpose, 182 one-day-old Ross 308 broilers were allocated in 2 treatments with 7 replicates of 13 broilers each: control diet-no other additions (NC), and control diet containing a standardized blend of IQs at 200 mg/kg of diet (M) for the starter growth period (1-10d). The results revealed that the IQs blend significantly upregulated (P < 0.05) the expression of genes related to antioxidant response in all intestinal segments. Moreover, the IQs blend enhanced (P < 0.05) gut barrier components primarily at duodenal level. In conclusion, the blend of IQs beneficially affected critical pathway components relevant for the gut antioxidant capacity and barrier along the intestine of young broilers.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Antioxidantes , Galinhas , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Isoquinolinas , Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Isoquinolinas/administração & dosagem , Isoquinolinas/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Alcaloides/administração & dosagem , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Masculino , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Poult Sci ; 103(5): 103655, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38537402

RESUMO

To develop effective antibiotics alternatives is getting more and more important to poultry healthy production. The study investigated the effects of a microencapsulated essential oils and organic acids preparation (EOA) on growth performance, slaughter performance, nutrient digestibility and intestinal microenvironment of broilers. A total of 624 1-day-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly divided into 6 groups including the control group (T1) fed with basal diet, the antibiotic group (T2) supplemented with basal diet with 45 mg/kg bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD), and 4 inclusion levels of EOA-treated groups (T3, T4, T5, T6 groups) chickens given basal diet with 200, 400, 600, and 800 mg EOA/kg of diet, respectively. Results showed that compared with the control, the 200 mg/kg EOA group increased average daily gain (ADG) and average body weight (ABW) during the early stage (P < 0.05). EOA addition decreased crypt depth of the ileum (P < 0.05), but villus height to crypt depth ratio was increased by EOA addition at 200 and 400 mg/kg at d 21 (P < 0.05). Compared with the control, dietary addition EOA at 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg increased the lipase activity in the duodenum at d 21 (P < 0.05). Increased lactic acid bacteria population was found in cecal digesta of the 400 mg/kg EOA group at d 21 (P < 0.05), and higher concentration of butyric acid level was observed in cecal digesta at d 21 and d 42 in the 200 mg/kg EOA group compared with the control (P < 0.05). RT-PCR analysis found that dietary EOA addition decreased the gene expression of IL-1ß, COX-2 and TGF-ß4 in the ileum at d 21 (P < 0.05), while only the 200 mg/kg EOA increased the gene expression of IL-10, TGF-ß4, Claudin-1, ZO-1, CATH-1, CATH-3, AvBD-1, AvBD-9 and AvBD-12 in the ileum at d 42 (P < 0.05) compared with the control. In summary, adding 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of the EOA to the diet could improve the growth performance and intestinal microenvironment through improving intestinal morphology, increasing digestive enzymes activity and cecal lactic acid bacteria abundance and butyric acid content, improving intestinal barrier function as well as maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis. The improving effect induced by EOA addition in the early growth stage was better than that in the later growth stage. Overall, the EOA product might be an effective antibiotic alternative for broiler industry.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Galinhas , Dieta , Digestão , Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Masculino , Dieta/veterinária , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Composição de Medicamentos/veterinária , Nutrientes/metabolismo
16.
Poult Sci ; 103(5): 103662, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547539

RESUMO

Hatchery performance is often evaluated based on descriptors such as hatchability, 7-d mortality, and cost. In addition to these descriptors, it is useful to include in this analysis aspects of chick quality through post-hatch performance. Realizing the bird's complete genetic potential necessitates meeting various criteria, with effective support for the chick's immune system being among the pivotal factors. To be effective, in ovo vaccination systems must deliver the vaccines to specific sites in the egg, a circumstance that directly depends on when the injection is made. We examined production data to evaluate the impact of in ovo vaccination time on performance parameters of male Ross308AP chicks. A comprehensive survey was conducted examining records from 3,722 broiler flocks produced and raised by the same company under standard nutrition and management conditions. The selected data specifically pertained to flocks that underwent slaughter between 41 and 45 d. In our analysis, 4 different linear models were built, one for each response variable: mean weight (MW), body weight gain (BWG), corrected feeding conversion rate (cFCR), and total mortality (TM). The linear models used in the analyses included as main predictor the timing of in ovo vaccination (440, 444, 448, 452, 456, 458, and 460 h of incubation), and as additional predictors: age of the breeding flock (26-35, 36-55 and 56-66 wks old), slaughter age, identity of the hatchery, and the season at which the data was collected. Our results showed that the timing of in ovo vaccination significantly affected BWG and cFCR, with procedures performed at 460 h of incubation showing the best outcomes. Breeding flock age affected all response variables, with older breeding flocks delivering increased MW, BWG and TM, and middle-aged flocks increased cFCR. Increasing slaughter age reduced BWG while MW, cFCR and TM were all increased. These data emphasize the benefits of performing in ovo vaccination as close as possible to 460 h of incubation to extract the best BWG and cFCR from Ross308AP male broiler.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Vacinação , Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Vacinação/veterinária , Óvulo/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Doença de Newcastle/prevenção & controle
17.
Poult Sci ; 103(5): 103546, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38430776

RESUMO

Low crude protein (CP) diets can reduce nitrogen (N) excretion and costs by increasing N utilization efficiency. Exogenous proteases may further improve protein digestibility in low CP diets. This study first evaluated in vitro the efficacy of a multiprotease on amino acid (AA) release from feedstuffs and broiler feed. Later, a broiler study evaluated the effect of feeding corn-soybean meal diets containing 3 CP levels (17, 19, and 21% CP) with supplementation on top of 0 or 2,400 U/kg multiprotease on chicken growth performance, total tract CP, and ileal AA digestibilities, and energy utilization. Ross 708 male chickens were placed in 42 cages and assigned to 6 treatments resulting from a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. Three isocaloric basal diets were formulated to reduce CP, but all diets maintained digestible Lys:CP in 5.47% and the same ideal protein profile. Data were analyzed in a completely randomized design. On average, the multiprotease increased (P < 0.05) in vitro free AA release by 27.81% in most feedstuffs evaluated compared to the control. For broiler feed, 1,200 U/g multiprotease addition improved (P < 0.001) in vitro free AA release by 18.90%. This multiprotease showed interaction effects (P < 0.05) on chicken FCR, energy, and CP digestibility. As expected, BW at 24 d, BW gain, and FCR (8-24 d) worsened (P < 0.001) as dietary CP reduced from 21 to 17%, and multiprotease addition did not improve (P > 0.05) these parameters. BW gain decreased by 12.9% when N intake was reduced from 49.32 to 38.49 g/bird. Multiprotease supplementation improved (P < 0.01) AMEn by 71 kcal/kg, CP digestibility from 59.45 to 63.51%, ileal AA digestibility, and DM digestibility from 67.08 to 73.49%, but only in the 21% CP diet. No differences in ileal AA digestibility due to CP level (P > 0.05) were detected, except for Cys digestibility (P < 0.01). In conclusion, low CP diets reduced growth performance and improved N utilization but negatively affected energy utilization efficiency. Exogenous multiprotease supplementation improved AME, AMEn, protein, ileal AA, and DM digestibility in the 21% CP diet without significantly affecting growth performance.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Galinhas , Dieta , Proteínas Alimentares , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Metabolismo Energético , Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Masculino , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Proteínas Alimentares/metabolismo , Proteínas Alimentares/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
18.
Poult Sci ; 103(5): 103599, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479098

RESUMO

Chickens have undergone genetic improvements in the past few decades to maximize growth efficiency. However, necrotic enteritis (NE), an enteric disease primarily caused by C. perfringens, remains a significant problem in poultry production. A study investigated the differences in intestinal health between the nonselected meat-type chicken Athens Canadian Random Bred (ACRB) and the modern meat-type Cobb 500 broilers (Cobb) when challenged with experimental NE. The study utilized a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, consisting of two main effects of chicken strain and NE challenge model (nonchallenged control, NC; NE challenge with 2,500/12,500 Eimeria maxima oocysts + 1 × 109C. perfringens, NE2.5/NE12.5). A total of 432 fourteen-day-old male ACRB and Cobb were used until 22 d (8 d postinoculation with E. maxima on d 14, dpi), and the chickens were euthanized on 6 and 8 dpi for the analysis. All data were statistically analyzed using a two-way ANOVA, and Student's t-test or Tukey's HSD test was applied when P < 0.05. The NE12.5 group showed significant decreases in growth performance and relative growth performance from d 14 to 20, regardless of chicken strain (P < 0.01). The ACRB group exhibited significant decreases in relative body weight and relative body weight gain compared to the Cobb group from d 14 to 22 (P < 0.01). On 6 and 8 dpi, both NE challenge groups showed significant decreases in intestinal villus height to crypt depth ratio, jejunal goblet cell count, and jejunal MUC2 and LEAP2 expression (P < 0.01). Additionally, the NE12.5 group had significantly higher intestinal NE lesion score, intestinal permeability, fecal E. maxima oocyst count, intestinal C. perfringens count, and jejunal IFNγ and CCL4 expression compared to the NC group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, NE negatively impacts growth performance and intestinal health in broilers, parameters regardless of the strain.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Coccidiose , Eimeria , Enterite , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Enterite/veterinária , Enterite/parasitologia , Enterite/microbiologia , Masculino , Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Eimeria/fisiologia , Clostridium perfringens/fisiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Necrose/veterinária , Intestinos
19.
Poult Sci ; 103(5): 103570, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38484565

RESUMO

The present study investigated the effects of fermented bamboo powder (FPB) on gut odorant receptors (OR), intestinal health, and growth performance of dwarf yellow-feathered broiler chickens. Six hundred (600) healthy 1-day-old chicks were randomly assigned into 2 groups, with 10 replicates consisting of 30 chicks each. The control group was fed a basal diet. In contrast, the experimental group was fed the basal diet supplemented with 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 g/kg FBP for 4 different phases, namely phase I (1-22 d), phase II (23-45 d), phase III (46-60 d), and phase IV (61-77 d), respectively. The first 2 phases were considered pretreatment (0-45 d), and the remaining were experimental (46-77 d) periods. The tissue samples were collected from phase IV. The chickens in the FBP supplementation group exhibited a significant increment in body weight gain, evisceration yield, breast, thigh, and liver weight, while also experiencing a decrease in the FCR (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the villus height, crypt depth, and villus area exhibited significant increases in the FBP group (P < 0.01). Additionally, the secretion levels of gut hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide YY, cholecystokinin, and 5-hydroxytryptamine were significantly elevated in the serum, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum tissues in the FBP group (P < 0.05). The results of qRT-PCR indicated that ORs had responsive expression in the gizzard, proventriculus, and small intestine of chickens when fed with the FBP diet (P < 0.05). Notably, the expression of the COR1, COR2, COR4, COR6, COR8, COR9, OR52R1, OR51M1, OR1F2P, OR5AP2, and OR14J1L112 genes was stronger in the small intestines compared to the gizzard and proventriculus. In conclusion, these results suggest that the FPB plays a crucial role in growth performance, activation of ORs, and gut health and development.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Distribuição Aleatória , Receptores Odorantes , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Receptores Odorantes/metabolismo , Receptores Odorantes/genética , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sasa/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fermentação , Pós/química , Bambusa/química , Masculino
20.
Poult Sci ; 103(5): 103604, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38484563

RESUMO

The poultry industry is evolving towards antibiotic-free production to meet market demands and decelerate the increasing spread of the antimicrobial resistance. The growing need for antibiotic free products has challenged producers to decrease or completely stop using antimicrobials as feed supplements in broiler diet to improve feed efficiency, growth rate, and intestinal health. Natural feed additives (e.g., probiotics and phytobiotics) are promising alternatives to substitute antimicrobial growth promoters. The goal of our study was to characterize the effects of a Probiotic and an Essential Oils blend on broilers' performance and perform a time-series analysis to describe their excreta microbiome. A total of 320 Cobb 500 (1-day-old) chicks were raised for 21 d in 32 randomly allocated cages. Treatments consisted of 4 experimental diets: a basal diet, and a basal diet mixed with an Antibiotic (bacitracin methylene disalicylate), an essential oils blend (oregano oil, rosemary, and red pepper), or a Probiotic (Bacillus subtilis). Body weight (on 1, 10, and 21d), and feed intake (10d and 21d) were recorded and feed conversion ratio was calculated. Droppings were collected daily (1-21d) to characterize broilers' excreta microbiota by targeted sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The Probiotic significantly improved feed conversion ratio for starter phase 1 to 10d (P = 0.03), grower phase 10 to 21d (P = 0.05), and total period 1 to 21d (P = 0.01) compared to the Antibiotic. Feed supplements did not affect alpha diversity but did impact microbial beta diversity (P < 0.01). Age also impacted microbiome turnover as differences in alpha and beta diversity were detected. Furthermore, when compared to the basal diet, the probiotic and antibiotic significantly impacted relative abundance of Bifidobacterium (log2 fold change -1.44, P = 0.03), Intestinimonas (log2 fold change 0.560, P < 0.01) and Ligilactobacillus (log2 fold change -1.600, P < 0.01). Overall, Probiotic supplementation but not essential oils supplementation positively impacted broilers' growth performance by directly causing directional shifts in broilers' excreta microbiota structure.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Antibacterianos , Galinhas , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Óleos Voláteis , Probióticos , Salicilatos , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/microbiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/farmacologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacitracina/farmacologia , Bacitracina/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Bacillus subtilis/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Óleos de Plantas/farmacologia , Óleos de Plantas/administração & dosagem
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