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1.
Gene ; 764: 145094, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860898

RESUMO

Long chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSLs), which drive the conversion of long chain fatty acid into acyl-CoA, an ingredient of lipid synthesis, have been well-acknowledged to exert an indispensable role in many metabolic processes in mammals, especially lipid metabolism. However, in chicken, the evolutionary characteristics, expression profiles and regulatory mechanisms of ACSL gene family are rarely understood. Here, we analyzed the genomic synteny, gene structure, evolutionary event and functional domains of the ACSL gene family members using bioinformatics methods. The spatiotemporal expression profiles of ACSL gene family, and their regulatory mechanism were investigated via bioinformatics analysis incorporated with in vivo and in vitro estrogen-treated experiments. Our results indicated that ACSL2 gene was indeed evolutionarily lost in the genome of chicken. Chicken ACSLs shared an AMP-binding functional domain, as well as highly conversed ATP/AMP and FACS signature motifs, and were clustered into two clades, ACSL1/5/6 and ACSL3/4, based on high sequence similarity, similar gene features and conversed motifs. Chicken ACSLs showed differential tissue expression distributions, wherein the significantly decreased expression level of ACSL1 and the significantly increased expression level of ACSL5 were found, respectively, the expression levels of the other ACSL members remained unchanged in the liver of peak-laying hens versus pre-laying hens. Moreover, the transcription activity of ACSL1, ACSL3 and ACSL4 was silenced and ACSL6 was activated by estrogen, but no response to ACSL5. In conclusion, though having highly conversed functional domains, chicken ACSL gene family is organized into two separate groups, ACSL1/5/6 and ACSL3/4, and exhibits varying expression profiles and estrogen effects. These results not only pave the way for better understanding the specific functions of ACSL genes in avian lipid metabolism, but also provide a valuable evidence for gene family characteristics.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Coenzima A Ligases/genética , Evolução Molecular , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Família Multigênica/genética , Acil Coenzima A/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/metabolismo , Coenzima A Ligases/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Hepatócitos , Cultura Primária de Células , Domínios Proteicos/genética , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Sintenia
2.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(3): e20180826, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053100

RESUMO

The trial was conducted to evaluate the supplementation of E. coli phytase on performance, weight and ash of bones, as well as to determine the bioavailability of P and cost/benefit of its use in diets. A total 1,890 Cobb male day old chicks were assigned to six treatments and seven replicates with 45 birds each, distributed in a completely randomized design. The treatments were: Positive Control; Negative Control (NC1) - reduction of 0.06% avP; Negative Control 2 (NC2) - reduction of 0.12% avP; NC2 + Phytase (120 OTU); NC2 + Phytase (180 OTU); NC2 + Phytase (240 OTU), being 1 OTU equivalent to approximately 2 FTU. With different phytase inclusions, it was possible to verify a gradual increase on body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, viability and even the bone characteristics of broilers fed diets containing reduction of P. The closest levels to the highest studied (240 OTU) showed the best results. The replacement of dicalcium phosphate by phytase supplementation is economically viable when the cost per OTU does not exceed US$ 1.4 × 10-5, US$1.2 × 10-5 and US$ 1.0 × 10-5 for the concentrations of 120, 180 and 240 OTU, respectively.


Assuntos
6-Fitase , Ração Animal , Galinhas , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Calcificação Fisiológica , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Escherichia coli , Masculino
3.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13448, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815239

RESUMO

The current experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of different dietary chromium supplementation sources, chromium oxide (Cr2 O3 ), chromium methionine (Cr-Met), or chromium yeast (Cr-yeast), at different levels each (500 or 1,000 ppb) on growth performance, physiological traits, and carcass characteristics of broiler chicks. A total of 490 seven-day-old Arbor Acres chicks were randomly distributed into 7 experimental groups each in 10 replicates of 7 birds each. The groups were control, 500 ppb Cr2 O3 , 1,000 ppb Cr2 O3 , 500 ppb Cr-Met, 1,000 ppb Cr-Met, 500 ppb Cr-yeast, and 1,000 ppb Cr-yeast. The results showed significant superiority of the organic chromium sources (Cr-Met or Cr-yeast) concerning body weight and weight gain, the group supplemented with 1,000 ppb Cr-yeast consumed the lowest feed (3,185 g) and had the best feed conversion ratio (1.60) compared to the control (1.73). The chromium treatments recorded significantly better protein and lipid profile, antioxidant status, and immunological parameters than the control group. Similarly, dietary chromium supplementation increased carcass yield and decreased intestinal pathogenic bacteria. In conclusion, supplementing broiler diets with organic chromium sources at 1,000 ppb promotes growth performance, physiological traits, and carcass characteristics; such chromium treatments enhanced the antioxidant status and immunity levels of broilers.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/imunologia , Compostos de Cromo/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Galinhas/metabolismo , Feminino , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Proteínas/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso
4.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13419, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602235

RESUMO

The main objective of this work was to study the effects of banana flour as energy sources on broiler performance. Seventy-five broilers were randomly distributed into five groups each with 15 broilers (n = 15 broilers/group). The broilers were grouped to maize-soybean meal diet as control, T1 : (5% of banana flour), T2 : (10% of banana flour), T3 : (15% of banana flour), and T4 : (20% of banana flour). The parameters analyzed in this research were body weight, daily weight gain, and daily feed intake at days 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40. The results showed no significant effects on body weight during the time of assessment, showing healthy values (>1,400 g) in all treatments (p > .05). Daily Weight gain was affected significantly during the days of assessment (p < .05). In all treatments and at different days of assessment, T3 showed the highest daily weight gain at day 10 (37.56 ± 4.52 g) compared to the other experimental treatments. Regarding daily feed intake, significant differences were observed at day 10 in the control and treatments T1 , T2 , T3 , and T4 compared to days 20, 30, and 40 (p < .05), being the highest value for T1 (35.14 ± 2.77).


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Peso Corporal , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Musa , Animais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Soja , Ganho de Peso , Zea mays
5.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13405, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613715

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of beak trimming on a local broiler breed. A total of 648 one-day-old birds were randomly allocated into three treatments: no trimming (NBT), infrared beak trimming (IRBT), and hot-blade beak trimming (HBBT). The performance, beak length, behavior, carcass traits, organ percentages, and meat quality were inspected. The body weight (BW) from 7 to 35 days in the IRBT group was significantly lower than that in the NBT group, and the BW from 7 to 49 days was lower than that in the HBBT group (p < .05). Compared with untrimmed birds, birds in the IRBT group had lower average daily feed intake (ADFI) from 15 to 21 days, and higher heart percentage and L* value in the breast muscle. The upper beak length at 28 and 49 days of age were longest in untrimmed birds, intermediate in birds in the HBBT group, and shortest in the IRBT groups (p <.05). No evidence was found that HBBT caused changes in performance, behavior, carcass traits, organ percentages, and meat quality except for lower change in spleen percentage. Taken together, IRBT had more influence at inhibiting early BW, ADFI, and upper beak length than HBBT in the local broiler breed.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Bico , Comportamento Animal , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Abrigo para Animais , Carne , Animais , Bico/anatomia & histologia , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Masculino , Baço/anatomia & histologia
6.
J Vis Exp ; (160)2020 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628163

RESUMO

Studies of the gut microbiota contribution to the host physiology and immunocompetence are facilitated by the availability of germ-free animal models, which are considered the gold standard. Nesting birds are ideal models for the production of germ-free animals since there is no need to raise their relatives under sterile conditions. Germ-free chickens are mainly generated from specific-pathogen-free (SPF) experimental lines, which are poorly representative of commercial chicken lines. The method proposed here allowed the production of germ-free chickens from the fast growing broiler line Ross PM3, commonly used by the poultry industry. Eggs were quickly collected after laying at a broiler breeder farm. They underwent a strict decontamination process from the collection to the introduction in a sterile egg hatching isolator. The chicks have been hatched and kept in these sterile isolators during the period necessary to control their sterility. Originally developed for an experimental SPF white leghorn line, the present protocol has been adapted not only to the Ross PM3 broiler line but also to quails. It therefore represents a robust and readily adaptable procedure to other poultry species and nesting birds of economic, biological or ecological relevance.


Assuntos
Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/microbiologia , Microbiota , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Animais , Óvulo/fisiologia
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(31): 38607-38616, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623680

RESUMO

A 42-day comparative study was conducted to assess the impact of nanoselenium to other selenium sources on performance, antioxidant activity, immunity, and carcass traits in broilers. Ross 308 (n = 156) 1-day-old broiler chicks, with average initial body weight of 45.80 ± 0.35, were randomly allocated to 4 groups. The first group (G1) fed the basal diet without selenium supplementation. The second group (G2), the third group (G3), and the fourth group (G4) were supplemented with dietary selenium at the level of 0.3 mg kg-1 diet in the form of sodium selenite, seleno-methionine, and nanoselenium, respectively. The results revealed significant improvement on most of the performance parameters of nanoselenium at the level of 0.3 mg kg-1 diet (P < 0.05). Nanoselenium and seleno-methionine achieved the best dressing %, spleen index %, and thymus index %. Concerning to internal organ indices, none of these indices was significantly affected by any selenium sources (P < 0.05). Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were not significantly affected by different selenium sources among all experimental groups. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) showed significant (P < 0.05) decrease in nanoselenium supplemented group compared with other groups. In case of serum IL-10 level, a significant (P < 0.05) increase was reported in nanoselenium supplemented group followed by G3 then G2. There were no statistical differences in the serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, total protein, albumin concentration, serum creatinine level, and uric acid concentration levels among all experimental groups. It is concluded that nano selenium can be a useful and better source of selenium for broilers.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Selênio/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Glutationa Peroxidase
8.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13399, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512648

RESUMO

Probiotics have been defined as live microorganisms that are administered in an appropriate amount to provide health benefits to the host animal. In this study, we investigated the effect of L. salivarius DJ-sa-01 secreting the 3D8 single-chain variable fragment (3D8 scFv) on the growth performance, cytokine secretion, and intestinal microbial flora of chickens. The experiment was divided into the control group and L. salivarius expressing 3D8 scFv experimental group. Chicken was fed 109 colony-forming units (CFUs) of wild-type (WT) L. salivarius or 3D8 scFv-secreting L. salivarius daily for 35 days. The administration of L. salivarius expressing 3D8 scFv significantly improved the body weight of chickens compared with the administration of WT L. salivarius. A 16S ribosomal RNA metagenomic analysis showed that Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla in both experimental groups. At the genus level, Lactobacillus was more abundant (22.82%) in the L. salivarius/3D8 group compared with the WT L. salivarius group. The serum levels of cytokines, such as IL-8, TNF-α, IL-1ß, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IGF1, were significantly reduced in the L. salivarius/3D8-treated chickens. In summary, our results suggest that L. salivarius expressing 3D8 scFv could be considered a feed additive for improving the growth performance, immune function, and disease resistance of poultry.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/imunologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Homeostase , Lactobacillus salivarius , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/administração & dosagem , Animais , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino
9.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13409, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524726

RESUMO

This study was aimed to explore the comparative acidifying properties of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMTBA) and a combination of DL-methionine (DLM) and acidifier in male broiler production. A total of 480 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into four treatments: A (low HMTBA, 0.057% HMTBA); B (low acidifier, 0.05% DLM + 0.057% acidifier); C (high HMTBA, 0.284% HMTBA); and D (high acidifier, 0.25% DLM + 0.284% acidifier). At 21 d, growth performance, chyme pH, digestive enzyme activities, and intestinal microflora were measured. The pH of crop, gizzard, and ileum contents was higher in the HMTBA treatment group than in DLM + acidifier treatment group. Furthermore, acidifier supplementation promoted growth of butyrate-producing bacteria such as Faecalibacterium, whereas high HMTBA (0.284%) inhibited the proliferation of acid-producing bacteria including Roseburia and Collinsella. The chymotrypsin activity was lower in the HMTBA group than in the DLM + acidifier group. In contrast, high-level HMTBA group showed higher average daily gain and average daily feed intake than the DLM + acidifier group. These results suggested that HMTBA work through different pathways with DLM plus acidifier.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/microbiologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Metionina/análogos & derivados , Metionina/farmacologia , Animais , Quimotripsina/metabolismo , Papo das Aves , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Moela das Aves , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Íleo , Masculino , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234920, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559224

RESUMO

Sanguinarine is a bioactive compound as a quaternary benzophenanthridine alkaloid from plant of the Macleaya cordata, Papaveraceae family. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary sanguinarine supplementation on growth performance, serum biochemistry parameters, intestinal mucosal morphology and gut microbiome in yellow feathered broilers. Two hundred and seventy 1-d-old female broilers were randomly assigned to 3 treatments ① Basal diet (NG); ② Basal diet containing bacitracin methylene disalicylate (50mg/Kg diet) (ANT); ③ Basal diet containing sanguinarine (0.7 mg/ kg of feed) (SAG). The statistical results showed that dietary sanguinarine supplementation enhanced growth performance and decreased glucose, uric acid as well as urea nitrogen levels of broilers at 28d of age (P<0.05). The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that sanguinarine significantly decreased the species from the phyla Bacteroidetes, and increased the species from phyla Firmicutes. Moreover, dietary sanguinarine supplementation improved mucosal morphology to achieve higher ratio of intestinal villus height to crypt depth (P < 0.05), and decreased the concentrations of TNF-α and IL-4 in jejunum mucosal. This study demonstrated that sanguinarine supplementation in the diet of yellow feathered broilers improved intestinal morphology and microbiota community structure to promote growth performance on 1-28d.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Benzofenantridinas/farmacologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Isoquinolinas/farmacologia , Jejuno/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Bacteroidetes/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacteroidetes/patogenicidade , Benzofenantridinas/administração & dosagem , Glicemia/metabolismo , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Firmicutes/efeitos dos fármacos , Firmicutes/patogenicidade , Interleucina-4/genética , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Isoquinolinas/administração & dosagem , Jejuno/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Jejuno/metabolismo , Jejuno/microbiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Ácido Úrico/sangue
11.
Anim Genet ; 51(4): 568-578, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32400914

RESUMO

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a crucial regulator of calcium homeostasis and bone remodeling, and the parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (PTH1R) belongs to a class II G-protein-coupled receptor. PTH activates PTH1R, which mediates catabolic and anabolic processes in the skeleton. However, the functional mechanism of PTH1R has not been thoroughly elucidated in organisms. This study identified a 51 bp indel mutation in the first intron of the PTH1R gene and elucidated the effect of this gene mutation on the growth and carcass traits in chickens. The results indicated that the 51 bp indel was significantly associated with subcutaneous fat thickness, abdominal fat weight, body weight and daily gain over 4-8 weeks. Furthermore, we found that PTH1R gene expression was highest in the kidney and liver tissues, and it showed a trend of decreasing in leg and breast muscle tissues at different embryonic stages. In addition, we examined the expression of the three genotypes of the PTH1R gene in the liver, breast muscle and abdominal fat and found that the II genotype was significantly higher than the DD and ID genotypes. In summary, these findings suggest that the PTH1R gene can serve as a potential molecular marker for chicken breeding.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Galinhas/fisiologia , Mutação INDEL , Polimorfismo Genético , Receptor Tipo 1 de Hormônio Paratireóideo/genética , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Carne/análise , Receptor Tipo 1 de Hormônio Paratireóideo/metabolismo
12.
Poult Sci ; 99(5): 2519-2532, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359588

RESUMO

This study assessed the effect of Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis), individually and in combination with exogenous enzymes, on growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality of broiler chickens. One hundred and twenty Ross 308 male chickens were allocated into 40 battery brooders, with 3 birds per cage, and fed ad libitum a corn-based diet during the first 21 D of the trial. The experimental period lasted from day 21 to 35, during which birds were fed 4 different diets: a corn-soybean basal diet, taken as the control group, a basal diet containing 15% Spirulina (MA), a basal diet containing 15% Spirulina plus 0.005% Rovabio Excel AP (MAR), and a basal diet containing 15% Spirulina plus 0.01% lysozyme (MAL). Body weight gain (P < 0.001) and feed conversion rate (P < 0.001) were improved in control chickens, when compared with those fed with Spirulina. In addition, Spirulina increased the length of duodenum plus jejunum in relation to the other treatment (P < 0.01). Chickens on the MAL diet showed a considerable increase in digesta viscosity (P < 0.05) compared with the control group. Breast and thigh meats from chickens fed with Spirulina, with or without the addition of exogenous enzymes, had higher values of yellowness (b*) (P < 0.001), total carotenoids (P < 0.001), and saturated fatty acids (P < 0.001), whereas n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (P < 0.01) and α-tocopherol (P < 0.001) decreased, when compared with the control. In conclusion, the incorporation of 15% Spirulina in broiler diets, individually or combined with exogenous enzymes, reduced birds' performance through a higher digesta viscosity, which is likely associated with the gelation of microalga indigestible proteins. In addition, cell wall of Spirulina was successfully broken by the addition of lysozyme, but not by Rovabio Excel AP. Therefore, we anticipate that the combination of lysozyme with an exogenous specific peptidase could improve the digestibility of proteins from this microalga and avoid their detrimental gelation.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Galinhas/fisiologia , Carne/análise , Muramidase/administração & dosagem , Spirulina/química , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Masculino
13.
Poult Sci ; 99(5): 2566-2572, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359592

RESUMO

Use of local feed ingredients in poultry feed, such as oats, can be limited by their perceived less than ideal nutritional content. Dehulling oats is expensive, and it may be that removing hull is detrimental to the bird in terms of gastrointestinal (GI) development, therefore maintaining some of the high-fiber oat hull (OH) might reduce costs and improve potential for inclusion in poultry diets. Male broilers were fed diets with oats replacing 30% of wheat in diets, either dehulled or with graded inclusions of OH from day of hatch until day 35. Each diet was fed to 8 pens of 8 birds and performance recorded weekly. Samples were collected at day 21 and 35 for analysis of ileal amino acid digestibility, apparent metabolizable energy (AME), and gross gut development measures. No detrimental effect was seen on bird weight with hull inclusion, though higher inclusion levels did deleteriously effect feed intake because of increased gut fill from the fiber. Nitrogen corrected AME was also adversely effected in the highest hull inclusion diets. However, amino acid digestibility was improved with hull addition, which may be because of an increase in GI tract length, improving nutrient absorption. Gizzard development was also significantly improved, and thereby, more efficient grinding of diet may also have improved digestibility. At a lower level of hull inclusion (3% total diet) where digestibility is improved without any detrimental effects on gut fill and intake. Oat hull is well known to improve gut development, especially of the gizzard, with resultant increases in digestibility. This is usually attributed to the mechanical effect of fiber in the gizzard having a grinding effect. However in this study, all fiber was finely ground, so the improvements seen cannot be attributed to a physical cause. Oat including diets with some hull remaining are a cost effective way of using oats as a raw material while maximizing bird performance.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Avena/química , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/economia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Íleo/fisiologia , Masculino , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória
14.
Poult Sci ; 99(5): 2573-2580, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359593

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of fermented-feed diets on growth performance, immune status, and antioxidant responses in laying hen chicks and the underlying molecular mechanism, specifically, the role of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. A total of 80 healthy 14-day-old laying hen chicks were randomly divided into 4 treatments: basal diet (CON); basal diet supplemented with 7.5% fermented feed (FD); FD diet plus the NF-κB inhibitor BAY 11-7082 (FD + BAY); and FD diet plus the NF-κB inhibitor JSH-23 (FD + JSH). The NF-κB inhibitors were administered by intraperitoneal injection. The experiment lasted 21 D. Fermented feed supplementation significantly increased the body weight and average body weight gain of laying hen chicks but significantly decreased the feed conversion ratio. Additionally, fermented feed supplementation significantly increased mitogen-activated T-cell and B-cell proliferation in the peripheral blood, as well as elevated the serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α); however, NF-κB inhibition significantly reduced T-cell proliferation and serum IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α levels. The levels of IgA, IgG, IgM, and Newcastle disease virus antibody in the serum were significantly increased by the addition of fermented feed. Furthermore, fermented feed supplementation significantly improved antioxidant function, as indicated by the increases of total antioxidant capacity, total superoxide dismutase activity, and glutathione peroxidase activity and the decrease of malonaldehyde level. However, NF-κB inhibition reversed these changes. Western blot analysis showed that fermented feed treatment increased splenic IκB kinase ß and NF-κB protein levels, whereas these increases were prevented by NF-κB inhibition. In conclusion, fermented feed improves the growth performance, immune function, and antioxidant capacity of laying hen chicks. Fermented feed-induced modulation of T-cell proliferation, T helper type 1 and T helper type 2 cytokine production, and antioxidation is associated with NF-κB activation.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Galinhas , Imunidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/imunologia , Galinhas/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Fermentação , Distribuição Aleatória
15.
Poult Sci ; 99(5): 2608-2615, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359596

RESUMO

This study was conducted to determine the effects of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3) on performance, egg quality, tibia quality, and serum hormones concentration in laying hens reared under high stocking density. A total of 800 45-week-old Lohmann laying hens were randomly allotted into a 2 × 2 factorial design with 2 levels of dietary 25-OH-D3 levels (0 and 69 µg/kg) and 2 rates of stocking densities [506 (low density) and 338 (high density) cm2/hen]. Laying hens were monitored for 16 wk. High stocking density decreased laying rate, egg weight, and feed intake compared with low stocking density (P < 0.01) during 1 to 8 wk and 1 to 16 wk. Overall, high stocking density increased eggshell lightness value and decreased shell redness and yellowness value, strength, thickness, and relative weight compared with low stocking density (P < 0.05). Dietary supplementation with 25-OH-D3 reduced the value of the eggshell lightness and increased its yellowness and eggshells weight (P ≤ 0.05). The increase in eggshell thickness was more pronounced when 25-OH-D3 was supplemented to layers under high stocking density (interaction, P < 0.05). Layers under high stocking density had lower ash content and calcium content in the tibia than layers under low stocking density (P = 0.04); dietary 25-OH-D3 increased tibia strength compared with no addition (P = 0.05). Layers under high stocking density had higher serum concentrations of 25-OH-D3, corticosterone (CORT), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and osteocalcin (OC; P < 0.05), lower content of parathyroid hormone (PTH) compared with layers under low stocking density (P < 0.01). Dietary 25-OH-D3 increased serum concentration of 25-OH-D3, carbonic anhydrase (CA), and calcitonin (CT) (P < 0.01) and reduced corticosterone, lipopolysaccharide and osteocalcin concentration (P ≤ 0.05). The increase effect in PTH was more pronounced when 25-OH-D3 was supplemented to layers under high stocking density (interaction, P = 0.05). Overall, the results gathered in this study indicate that high stocking density result in reducing production performance, shell color and quality, and tibia health, whereas dietary 25-OH-D3 was able to maintain tibia health and to mitigate the negative impact of high stocking density on productive performance.


Assuntos
Calcifediol/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Óvulo/química , Tíbia/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Calcifediol/administração & dosagem , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Densidade Demográfica , Distribuição Aleatória
16.
Poult Sci ; 99(5): 2645-2649, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359600

RESUMO

Feed additives can be alternatives to antibiotics for routinely encountered pathogens in the poultry production. The objective of this study was to understand effects of organic acid mixture on growth parameters and Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) colonization in broilers. Organic acid mixture is a feed-grade buffered formic acid and sodium formate mixture (Amasil NA). A total of 800 1-day-old Cobb500 males were fed one of the five dietary treatments: a negative control diet without ST challenge (NC), positive control diet with ST challenge (PC), 0.3% organic acid mixture with ST, 0.6% organic acid mixture with ST, and 0.9% organic acid mixture with ST. Treatments were assigned to 20 pens with 40 chicks/pen and 4 replicates of each treatment. Chickens were challenged with 107 CFU/mL of nalidixic acid-resistant ST (STNAR) 4-D posthatch. In the grower phase, feed conversion rate was significantly reduced in the 9% organic acid mixture compared with the PC. The body weight and body weight gain (BWG) were not affected either in the starter or grower phases. However, in the finisher phase, the nonchallenged NC had higher BWG than the PC (P < 0.05), whereas there were no differences in BWG among the NC and organic acid mixture fed groups. In addition, there was a significant effect of organic acid mixture on the colonization of cecal STNAR. At 9 dpi, cecal STNAR was 3.28 log10 in the PC that was reduced to 2.65 log10 at 0.3%, 1.40 log10 at 0.6%, and 0.84 log10 in 0.9% organic acid mixture. At 24 dpi, cecal STNAR recovery was 0.81, 0.99, 0.53, and 0.33 log10 in the PC and 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9% organic acid mixture, respectively. Similarly, at 38 dpi, cecal STNAR was 0.26, 0.11, 0.33, and 0 log10 in the PC, 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9%, respectively. These results show that organic acid mixture can be one dietary strategy to control ST infection and maintain efficient growth performance.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Formiatos/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella typhimurium/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Formiatos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Ácido Nalidíxico/farmacologia , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Poult Sci ; 99(5): 2736-2745, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359611

RESUMO

Florfenicol (FLO) is one of the most popular antibacterial drugs used in veterinary clinics and aquaculture. The drug was found to decrease the hatchability of eggs laid by treated hens in veterinary clinics and research work. However, the pathological changes in developing embryos and their cardiovascular system and the mechanism underlying FLO-induced embryonic death remain unclear. In the present study, fertilized eggs laid by hens treated with a therapeutic dose of FLO were collected and incubated. Results showed that FLO exposure repressed embryonic development and induced early embryonic death. As a result, FLO decreased the hatchability and increased the proportion of weak chicks. Moreover, FLO exposure led to embryonic lethality and inhibited the development of chick embryos as characterized by decreased weights, lagging distribution of Hamburger-Hamilton stages, and dysplastic eyes. Pathological examination indicated that FLO exposure affected the normal development of the heart in 4.5-day-old chick embryos, as characterized by shorter transverse cardiac diameter, disordered arrangement of trabecular muscles in ventricles, and reduced thickness of ventricular walls. Furthermore, FLO decreased blood vascular densities and downregulated the expression levels of key angiogenesis-related genes, including the vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor, in the yolk sac membrane. These findings indicated that FLO exposure restricted vascular development during early embryonic development. In summary, our data suggest that the restricted growth and abnormal cardiovascular development may be responsible for FLO-induced early embryonic death. Thus, these findings can be useful for guiding the proper use of FLO and in laying a foundation for further studies on the mechanism of FLO-induced embryonic toxicity.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião de Galinha/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tianfenicol/análogos & derivados , Animais , Sistema Cardiovascular/embriologia , Embrião de Galinha/patologia , Tianfenicol/toxicidade
18.
Poult Sci ; 99(5): 2775-2784, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359615

RESUMO

Egg yolk is an important source of nutrients for embryo development. In this study, the egg yolk protein composition at 0, 10, and 18 D of incubation was analyzed by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. A significant difference in the abundance of 42 protein spots representing 12 proteins were identified (P < 0.05). The 2-DE gel image analysis exhibited that the molecular weight (MW) of 29 protein spots was lower than their theoretical value, in which 14 vitellogenin (VTG) fragments were lower than the theoretical value. There were 13 protein spots showed a higher MW including 5 ovotransferrins with MW of 87.2 kDa. The gene ontology enrichment analysis suggested that biological process of the differentially expressed proteins were mainly involved in lipid transport and lipid localization at 10 and 18 D of incubation. The molecular function of the differentially expressed proteins was involved in nutrient reservoir activity, lipid transporter activity, and antigen binding at 10 D of incubation. At 18 D of incubation, the differentially expressed proteins mainly participated in nutrient reservoir activity and substrate-specific transporter activity. The high abundance of VTGs at 10 D of incubation might participate in lipid localization and lipid transportation to facilitate the yolk nutrient transport to embryo. The low expression of ovotransferrins at 10 D of incubation indicated the chondrogenesis of embryo.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Embrião de Galinha/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/metabolismo , Proteínas do Ovo/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional/veterinária , Fertilização , Proteômica , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/veterinária , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/veterinária
19.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13390, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468653

RESUMO

This study was carried out to evaluate the nutritional effects of rice feeding and carnitine addition to a diet for broiler chicks. Thirty-six male 10-day-old broiler chicks were assigned to one of the following four treatment groups: corn-based diet (corn group), rice-based diet (rice group), and each diet with added carnitine (100 ppm). The experimental period was 2 weeks. Rice feeding resulted in significantly higher growth performance (body weight gain and feed efficiency) compared to corn feeding. Carnitine addition also resulted in higher growth performance. Breast muscle and thigh muscle weight (g) were significantly higher in broiler chicks fed rice and those fed diets with added carnitine. Liver mRNA expression of IGF-I was significantly higher in broiler chicks fed rice compared to those fed corn. There was no significant difference in mRNA expression of muscle atrogin-1 or liver CPT-I between broiler chicks fed rice and those fed corn, not between broilers chicks fed diets containing carnitine or not. Overall, these results show that rice feeding and carnitine addition improve the growth performance of broiler chicks by increasing mRNA expression of liver IGF-I. In addition, carnitine action is not affected by different cereals (corn and rice).


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/genética , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Carnitina/administração & dosagem , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Expressão Gênica , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Oryza , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Animais , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Zea mays
20.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232853, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374780

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The choice of the most suitable litter treatment should be based on scientific evidence. This systematic review assessed the effectiveness of litter treatments on ammonia concentration, pH, moisture and pathogenic microbiota of the litter and their effects on body weight, feed intake, feed conversion and mortality of broilers. METHODS: The systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed (Medline), Google Scholar, ScienceDirect and Scielo databases to retrieve articles published from January 1998 to august 2019. Means, standard deviations and sample sizes were extracted from each study. The response variables were analyzed using the mean difference (MD) or standardized mean difference (SMD), (litter treatment minus control group). All variables were analyzed using random effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: Subgroup meta-analysis revealed that acidifiers reduce pH (P<0.001), moisture (P = 0.002) ammonia (P = 0.011) and pathogenic microbiota (P <0.001) of the litter and improves the weight gain (P = 0.019) and decreases the mortality rate of broilers (P<0.001) when compared with controls. Gypsum had a positive effect on ammonia reduction (P = 0.012) and improved feed conversion (P = 0.023). Alkalizing agents raise the pH (P = 0.035), worsen feed conversion (P<0.001), increase the mortality rate (P <0.001), decrease the moisture content (P<0.001) and reduce the pathogenic microbiota of the litter (P<0.001) once compared to controls. Superphosphate and adsorbents reduce, respectively, pH (P<0.001) and moisture (P = 0.007) of the litter compared to control groups. CONCLUSION: None of the litter treatments influenced the feed intake of broilers. Meta-analyses of the selected studies showed positive and significant effects of the litter treatments on broiler performance and litter quality when compared with controls. Alkalizing was associated with worse feed conversion and high mortality of broilers.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Galinhas/fisiologia , Abrigo para Animais , Ácidos/análise , Ácidos/farmacologia , Ácidos/toxicidade , Álcalis/análise , Álcalis/farmacologia , Álcalis/toxicidade , Amônia/análise , Ração Animal , Animais , Doenças das Aves/mortalidade , Peso Corporal , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Comportamento Alimentar , Abrigo para Animais/estatística & dados numéricos , Umidade , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Microbiota , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Ganho de Peso
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