Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 9.613
Filtrar
1.
Poult Sci ; 101(7): 101931, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679667

RESUMO

Due to the demand for modern goose production and the pressure of environmental protection, the rearing systems of geese are changing from traditional waterside rearing to intensive rearing systems such as floor rearing (FR) and cage rearing (CR) systems. However, little is known about the effects of different rearing systems on goose intestinal functions and cecal microbial composition. Therefore, this study aimed to compare intestinal histomorphology and cecal microbial composition differences in geese reared under CR and FR at 270 d of age. Histomorphological analysis showed that the ileal villus height (VH) to crypt depth (CD) ratio was significantly greater in CR than in FR (P < 0.001). Taxonomic analysis showed that the dominant bacteria of cecal microorganisms in both rearing systems were roughly similar, with Bacteroidota, Firmicutes, Fusobacteriota, and Proteobacteria being the dominant phyla while Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, and uncultured_bacterium_o_Bacteroidales being the dominant genera. Differentially abundant taxa between CR and FR were also identified using Linear Discriminant Analysis Effect Size (LEfSe) analysis (P < 0.05, LDA score > 3.5). Megamonas and Anaerobiospirillum were significantly enriched in the CR group at the genus level, while uncultured_bacterium_f_Rikenellaceae and Sutterella were significantly enriched in the FR group. Notably, we found that the relative abundance of uncultured_bacterium_f_Rikenellaceae was significantly negatively correlated with the ileal VH and VH/CD (P < 0.05). The relative abundance of Megamonas and Anaerobiospirillum were significantly negatively correlated with abdominal fat weight and relative abdominal fat weight (P < 0.01), whereas that of Sutterella was significantly positively correlated with abdominal fat weight and relative abdominal fat weight (P < 0.01). Furthermore, PICRUSt2 analysis indicated that the lipid metabolism pathways of cecal microorganisms were lower enriched in CR than in FR. In conclusion, compared with FR, the CR significantly changed goose ileal histomorphological characteristics and cecal microbial composition, thereby affecting goose physiological functions and production performance.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Gansos , Animais , Bactérias , Bacteroidetes , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Gansos/microbiologia , Intestinos
2.
Poult Sci ; 101(7): 101948, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679675

RESUMO

Two experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of age and dietary cellulose levels on the ileal endogenous energy losses (IEEL) in broiler chickens. In experiment 1, a glucose-based purified diet was used to determine the IEEL. Titanium dioxide (5.0 g/kg) was added to the diet as an indigestible marker. Six groups of broiler chickens aged 1 to 7, 8 to 14, 15 to 21, 22 to 28, 29 to 35 or 36 to 42 d posthatch, were utilized. With the exception of 1-7 d, the birds were fed a starter (d 1-21) and/or a finisher (d 22-35) diet before the experimental diet was introduced. The diet was randomly allocated to 6 replicate cages, and the number of birds per cage was 12 (d 1-7), 10 (d 8-14), and 8 (d 15-42). The ileal digesta were collected at the last day of each week (d 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42). Bird age had no effect (P > 0.05) on the IEEL estimates. The IEEL estimates ranged from 263 to 316 kcal/kg dry matter intake (DMI) during weeks 1 to 6. In Experiment 2, 4 glucose-based purified diets were developed using 0, 25, 50 and 75 g/kg cellulose. Titanium dioxide (5.0 g/kg) was added to the diets as an indigestible marker. The diets were randomly allocated to 6 replicate cages (8 birds per cage) and fed from 18 to 21 d posthatch and, ileal digesta were collected on d 21. The IEEL estimates of broiler chickens at 21 d of age showed a quadratic response (P < 0.05) to increasing cellulose contents. The lowest IEEL (88 kcal/kg DMI) was recorded for the diet without cellulose and the highest IEEL (430 kcal/kg DMI) was observed for the diet with 75 g/kg cellulose. Overall, the present findings confirmed that the IEEL in broiler chickens can be quantified by feeding a glucose-based purified diet. Broiler age had no influence on the IEEL estimates. The IEEL increased with increasing dietary cellulose contents and the IEEL determined using a purified diet without cellulose represents a better estimate of IEEL.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Galinhas , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Celulose , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/fisiologia , Glucose , Íleo
3.
Poult Sci ; 101(7): 101952, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35688032

RESUMO

Chronic heat stress can result in oxidative damage from increased reactive oxygen species. One proposed method to alleviate the chronic effects of HS is the supplementation of sulfur amino acids (SAA) which can be metabolized to glutathione, an important antioxidant. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of dietary SAA content on broiler chickens exposed to HS from 28 to 35 d on broiler performance, body temperature, intestinal permeability, and oxidative status. Four experimental treatments were arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial consisting of HS (6 h at 33.3°C followed by 18 h at 27.8°C from 28 to 35 d of age) and Thermoneutral (TN- 22.2°C continuously from 28 to 35 d) and 2 dietary concentrations of SAA formulated at 100% (0.95, 0.87, and 0.80% for starter, grower, and finisher diets) or 130% SAA (1.24, 1.13, and 1.04% for starter, grower, and finisher diets). A total of 648-day-old, male Ross 708 chicks were placed in 36 pens with 18 chicks/pen and 9 replicates per treatment. Data were analyzed as a 2 × 2 factorial in JMP 14 (P ≤ 0.05). No interaction effects were observed on broiler live performance (P > 0.05). As expected, HS reduced BWG by 92 g and increased FCR by 11 points from 28 to 35 d of age compared to TN, respectively (P ≤ 0.05). The supplementation of SAA had no effect on live performance (P > 0.05). Cloacal temperatures were increased by 1.7, 1.4, and 1.2°C with HS at 28, 31, and 35 d compared to TN, respectively (P ≤ 0.05) and dietary SAA did not alter cloacal temperatures. At 28 d of age, supplementation of SAA to birds exposed to HS interacted as serum FITC-dextran (an indicator of intestinal permeability) was reduced to that of the TN group (P ≤ 0.05). The interaction was lost at 31 d, but HS still increased intestinal permeability (P ≤ 0.05). By 35 d, broilers were able to adapt to the HS conditions and intestinal permeability was unaffected (P > 0.05). Potential oxidative damage was reduced by increased SAA supplementation as indicated by an improvement in the reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione ratio of 5 and 45 % at 28 (P = 0.08) and 35 d (P ≤ 0.05). These data suggest that intestinal permeability is compromised initially and to at least three d of heat exposure before the bird can adjust. However, oxidative damage in the liver of broilers exposed to HS is more chronic, building over the entire 7 d HS period and increased dietary SAA might have some protective effects on both broiler intestinal permeability and oxidative stress responses to HS.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos Sulfúricos , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Aminoácidos Sulfúricos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Glutationa/metabolismo , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta , Masculino
4.
Poult Sci ; 101(7): 101932, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35688034

RESUMO

Fasting is typically used to empty the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and assess feed metabolizable energy (ME). However, the effects of fasting on energy and nutrient utilization are not well understood. This study aimed to explore the difference in GIT emptying, energy and nutrient utilization of broilers and adult roosters fed corn-soybean meal-based diet upon fasting. In experiment 1, 7 cages of broilers/adult roosters were selected and fasted for 72 h, and excreta were collected from 12 h of fasting and analyzed every 12 h to explore GIT emptying. Results indicated the GIT emptying time of free-feeding broilers or adult roosters is 12 or 24 h, respectively. In experiment 2, 4 treatments were used that consisted of 2 ages of birds (25 d broilers and 30 wk adult roosters) and 2 feeding forms (fed ad libitum or fasted for 36 h before formal feeding). Excreta was collected during refeeding, and the total collection method (TCM) and the index method (IM) were used for data analysis. Compared to non-fasted group, fasting increased the total tract digestibility of ME, gross energy (GE), and ether extract (EE) (by 1.80, 3.50 and 18.56%, respectively, all P < 0.05) in broilers, but decreased the total tract digestibility of nitrogen by 8.10% (P < 0.05). Conversely, fasting increased total tract digestibility of nitrogen in adult roosters (-0.37% vs. 11.65%, P < 0.05). The comparative analysis found that total tract digestibility of nitrogen obtained by TCM was greater than the result calculated by IM (17.76 % vs. -0.37). Similarly, total tract digestibility of GE calculated by TCM was significantly higher than the value observed by IM (P < 0.05). However, the results of total tract digestibility of GE and nitrogen in broilers calculated by TCM were consistent with those obtained by IM. Overall, fasting increases total tract digestibility in broilers and total tract digestibility of nitrogen in adult roosters, respectively. Additionally, total tract digestibility calculated by TCM may be overestimated.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Jejum , Masculino , Nitrogênio/farmacologia
5.
Theriogenology ; 188: 125-134, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35689942

RESUMO

Connexins (Cxs) are a group of gap junction proteins involved in the direct exchange of small molecules between neighboring cells. Information concerning the expression and regulation of Cxs in the chicken oviduct is lacking, but likely has potential implications for functioning of the oviduct and the quality of the egg laid by commercially used hens. The present study was designed to examine whether selected Cxs are present in the chicken oviduct and, if so, whether expression of the most abundant Cx changes following tamoxifen (TMX; estrogen receptor modulator) treatment. Hy-Line Brown laying hens were injected (s.c.) daily with a vehicle (n = 6) or with TMX (n = 6), at a dose of 6 mg/kg of body weight for 7 days until complete cessation of egg laying by TMX-treated hens. All oviductal segments (infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, shell gland, and vagina) were collected from hens on day 8 of the experiment. First, the gene expression of GJA1 (i.e. Cx43 protein), GJA4 (Cx39), GJB1 (Cx32), and GJD2 (Cx36) was investigated by real-time PCR in tissues of control birds. The results demonstrated gene- and oviductal segment-dependent expression of GJB1, GJD2, GJA4, and GJA1 mRNA. Since the GJA1 transcript was the most abundant in all oviductal parts, subsequently, the Cx43 expression and localization were examined in the oviduct of all hens. The relative expression of GJA1 mRNA in control hens was highest in the infundibulum and vagina and lowest in the magnum. The pattern of Cx43 protein abundance evaluated by Western blot was similar to that of mRNA. Treatment of hens with TMX decreased the GJA1 mRNA levels in the magnum and isthmus, and Cx43 protein abundances were reduced in the isthmus and vagina. Immunofluorescence demonstrated cell- and segment-dependent localization of Cx43 protein in the oviductal wall; the most intense immunoreactivity was observed in the muscle cells of the shell gland and vagina. In TMX-treated hens, the immunoreactivity for Cx43 in all oviductal segments was slightly reduced and had a different signal pattern compared with control chickens. These results suggest that Cx43 likely takes part in the regulation of oviduct functioning, especially in the coordination of muscle contraction required for egg transport and oviposition. In addition, the results suggest a contribution of estrogen in the regulation of Cx43 expression and/or fates in the chicken oviduct. New insights into the expression and regulation of Cxs in the hen oviduct, indicating their potential involvement in the mechanisms of egg formation and transport that may affect poultry production, were obtained in this study.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Tamoxifeno , Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Conexina 43/genética , Conexina 43/metabolismo , Feminino , Oviductos/metabolismo , Oviposição/fisiologia , Proteínas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Tamoxifeno/farmacologia
6.
Poult Sci ; 101(7): 101946, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35671619

RESUMO

Egg characteristics have an impact on embryonic development and post-hatch performance of broilers. The impact of growth curve (GC) and dietary energy-to-protein ratio of broiler breeder hens on egg characteristics was investigated. At hatch, 1,536 pullets were randomly allotted to 24 pens in a 2 × 4 factorial dose-response design with 2 GC (standard growth curve = SGC or elevated growth curve = EGC (+ 15%)) and 4 diets, differing in energy-to-protein ratio (defined as 96%, 100%, 104% and 108% AMEn diet). Feed allocation per treatment was adapted weekly to achieve the targeted GC and to achieve pair-gain of breeders within each GC. Breeders on an EGC produced larger eggs (∆ = 2.3 g; P < 0.001) compared to breeders on a SGC. An exponential regression curve, with age (wk) of the breeders, was fitted to describe the impact of GC and dietary energy-to-protein ratio on egg composition. Yolk weight was 0.8 g higher for eggs from EGC breeders than from SGC breeders (a-108.1*0.907Age, where a was 22.1 and 22.9 for SGC and EGC, respectively; R2 = 0.97; P<0.001). An interaction between GC and dietary energy-to-protein ratio on albumen weight was observed (P = 0.04). Dietary energy-to-protein ratio did not affect albumen weight in SGC breeders (42.7-56.2*0.934Age; R2 = 0.89), but for EGC breeders, a higher dietary energy-to-protein ratio resulted in a 0.9 g lower albumen weight from 96% AMEn to 108% AMEn (a-62.9*0.926Age, where a was 43.4, 43.2, 42.8, and 42.5 for 96% AMEn, 100% AMEn, 104% AMEn, and 108% AMEn, respectively; R2 = 0.86). Albumen DM content decreased linearly with an increased dietary energy-to-protein ratio, but this was more profound in EGC breeders (ß = -0.03 %/% AMEn) than in SGC breeders (ß = -0.01 %/% AMEn; P = 0.03). Overall, it can be concluded that an EGC for breeders led to larger eggs with a more yolk and albumen, whereas dietary energy-to-protein ratio had minor effects on egg composition.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta , Feminino , Óvulo , Reprodução
7.
Peptides ; 153: 170803, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35490830

RESUMO

There are some differences between mammals and birds in terms of central food intake regulation. In avian species, the hypophagic role of nesfatin-1 has not been investigated with other neurotransmitters. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the alteration of feeding behavior following intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of nesfatin-1 and its possible interaction with central noradrenergic, serotoninergic, and oxytocin systems in newborn broiler chicks. In experiment 1, birds received ICV injection of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), prazosin (α1 receptors antagonist, 10 nmol), nesfatin-1 (40 ng), and co-administration of prazosin and nesfatin-1. Experiments 2-10 were similar to experiment 1, except that yohimbine (α2 receptors antagonist, 13 nmol), metoprolol (ß1 receptors antagonist, 24 nmol), IC1118,551 (ß2 receptors antagonist for, 5nmol), SR59230R (ß3 receptors antagonist, 20 nmol), fluoxetine (serotonin reuptake inhibitor, 10 µg), PCPA (serotonin synthesis inhibitor, 1.5 µg), 8-OH-DPAT (5-HT1A receptors agonist, 15.25 nmol), SB242084 (5-HT2C receptors antagonist,1.5 µg) and tocinoic acid (oxytocin receptors antagonist, 2 µg) were injected instead of prazosin. Immediately after the injection, food consumption and behavioral traits were recorded. Nesfatin-1 decreased food consumption (P < 0.05). Nesfatin-1 along with ICI118551 decreased food consumption (P < 0.05). The nesfatin-1- induced hypophagia were reduced by the simultaneous injection of PCPA and nesfatin-1 (P < 0.05). Nesfatin-1induced hypophagia were decreased by the simultaneous injection of SB242084 (P < 0.05). The nesfatin-1 -induced hypophagia were abolished by the simultaneous injection of the tocinoic acid and nesfatin-1 (P < 0.05). ICV injection of the nesfatin-1 decreased the number of steps, jumps, exploratory food, and pecks (P < 0.05) with no effect on drink pecks (P > 0.05). Nesfatin-1 significantly decreased standing time and increased both sitting time and rest time (P < 0.05). Nesfatin-1 could play an important role in feeding behavior, and its hypophagic effects were mediated by ß2 adrenergic, 5-HT2C serotoninergic, and oxytocin receptors in neonatal chickens.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Ingestão de Alimentos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Galinhas/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Mamíferos , Ocitocina/farmacologia , Prazosina/farmacologia , Receptores de Ocitocina , Serotonina
8.
Poult Sci ; 101(6): 101913, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35525153

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to assess the effects of dietary supplementation of keratinase on the production of broilers fed a diet containing feather meal. A total of 162 1-d-old Cobb 500 male broiler (n = 9 cages/diet with 6 chicks/cage) were randomly allocated to 3 dietary treatments. The broilers were fed a corn-soybean-feather meal based diet (BD), or BD supplemented with keratinase at 100,000 or 200,000 U/kg for 6 weeks. Compared to the control, dietary supplementation with 200,000 U/kg keratinase increased (P < 0.05) body weight gain (3.6-4.3%) and reduced feed conversion ratio (2.4-5.6%) during the various experimental periods, and also improved (P < 0.05) apparent total tract digestibility of ash and calcium by 45.0% and 8.8%, respectively. Meanwhile, dietary supplementation of keratinase at 100,000 U/kg reduced (P < 0.05) the drip loss (29.2%), while 200,000 U/kg keratinase supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the pH value (1.6%) at 45 min and decreased (P < 0.05) the lightness (L* value; 13.6%) and drip loss (22.1%) of pectoral muscle. Moreover, dietary supplementation of keratinase at both levels of 100,000 and 200,000 U/kg increased (P < 0.05) Glutathione peroxidase activity (82.5-87.5%) and decreased the Malondialdehyde concentration (14.5-18.3%) in the pectoral muscle. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of keratinase at 200,000 U/kg can improve the performance, meat quality, apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients, and redox status of broiler chickens fed a diet containing feather meal.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Galinhas , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Plumas , Masculino , Carne/análise , Oxirredução , Peptídeo Hidrolases
9.
Poult Sci ; 101(6): 101886, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35526444

RESUMO

Resveratrol (RV) is associated with protection against oxidative stress to improve health, however the effect of RV in layers under oxidative stress (OS) is limited. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the negative effect of OS and protective effects of RV against OS in laying hens. 40 Lohmann layers (25-wk-old; BW = 1.44±0.10 kg) were allocated to four treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with either RV (0 or 600 mg/kg) or intraperitoneal injection of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) (0 or 800 µmol/kg BW) for 31 days. The results shown that the hens challenged with tBHP presented lower egg-laying rate, feed intake, feed efficiency and higher defective egg rate (P(tBHP)<0.05). The RV were also observed to attenuated egg laying rate and feed intake reduction together with decreased broken egg rate under t-BHP challenge (P(Interaction)≤0.01). The tBHP challenged layer demonstrated lower intestinal morphology (villus height in duodenum and jejunum), lower antioxidant enzymes activities [total superoxidase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC)], and glutathione (GSH) levels and higher malondialdehyde (MDA) level] (P(tBHP)<0.05). Dietary RV increased jejunal SOD, GSH-Px and T-AOC activities, and reduced MDA concentration (P(RV) ≤0.05). Layers under tBHP challenge up-regulated mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine [interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)] and nuclear factor NF-κB (P(tBHP)<0.05) in jejunum. Dietary RV supplementation down-regulated mRNA gene expression of IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α and NF-κB (P(RV) ≤0.05). Dietary RV up-regulated mRNA expression of jejunal barrier-related proteins (claudin-1, claudin-2, mucin-1, and occludin) and ovarian reproductive hormone receptor [steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), and activin a receptor type 1 (ACVR1)] (P(RV) ≤0.05). Overall, the results indicate that tBHP induced oxidative stress to result in reducing production performance, intestinal health and induced ovarian inflammation; whereas dietary RV was able to maintain intestinal health and mitigate the negative impact of tBHP challenge on production performance and ovarian function.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Antioxidantes , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Resveratrol , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
11.
Poult Sci ; 101(7): 101891, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35561460

RESUMO

Oxidative stress is an essential inducement in follicle atresia and ovarian aging, resulting in decline in female fecundity. As a natural and effective antioxidant, naringin was investigated to relieve chicken follicle atresia and ovarian aging. First, the cultured small white follicles (SWFs) from D280 hens were pretreated with 0.5 mM naringin for 24 h and then treated with H2O2 for 72 h to establish the oxidative stress model to evaluate the putative attenuating effects of naringin on follicle atresia. Meanwhile, SWFs of D580 hens were treated with naringin for 72 h to examine the attenuating effect on the physiological aging of SWFs. Finally, each hen was fed with naringin at a dose of 50 mg/kg every day to explore the effect of naringin on follicular development and laying performance in D580 hens. Results showed that naringin could rescue the antioxidant capacity decline by increasing the antioxidant-related indexes and expression of antioxidation-associated genes. It could also maintain the homeostasis of SWFs in both the H2O2-induced group and natural physiological aging group. In addition, naringin increased estrogen levels, capacity of antioxidants, and the laying performance in aged laying chickens. The thickness and strength of the eggshell were increased in the naringin-treated group as well. In conclusion, this study showed that naringin is capable of relieving SWFs atresia that was induced by oxidative stress and maintaining the laying performance of aging low-yielding hens by reducing oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Atresia Folicular , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Feminino , Flavanonas , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Óvulo , Estresse Oxidativo
12.
Poult Sci ; 101(7): 101911, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35584573

RESUMO

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of varying AME concentrations and protease supplementation on broiler performance and jejunal and ileal nutrient digestibility from 1 to 35 d of age. Ross × Ross 308 male broilers (n = 1,008) were equally distributed into 48 floor pens and offered 1 of 6 dietary treatments (8 replicate pens/treatment). Dietary treatments consisted of a factorial arrangement with AME concentration (low-, moderate-, or high-AME) and supplemental protease (without or with) as the main factors. Birds and feed were weighed on 1, 15, 29, and 35 d of age to determine body BW, BW gain (BWG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). At 15 and 29 d of age, jejunal and ileal digesta contents were collected to determine nutrient digestibility. From 1 to 15 d of age, broilers offered moderate-AME diets (P < 0.05) had 6.7, 7.1, 4.8% higher BW, BWG, FI, respectively, and a 2.1% lower FCR compared with those offered low-AME diets. Likewise, protease increased (P < 0.05) BW and BWG by 4.3 and 4.7%, respectively, and decreased (P < 0.05) FCR by 3.4%, compared with those offered the diets without protease. From 1 to 29 d of age, broilers offered high-AME diets had 2.9% lower (P < 0.05) FCR compared with those offered low-AME diets. Protease increased (P < 0.05) BW, BWG, and FI by 3.1, 3.2, and 4.2%, respectively, compared with the unsupplemented diets. From 1 to 35 d of age, broilers receiving high-AME diets had 2.9% lower (P < 0.05) FCR compared with those offered low-AME diets. Protease increased (P < 0.05) FCR by 1.0% compared with those offered unsupplemented diets. Jejunal (15 and 29 d of age) and ileal (29 d of age) starch digestibility and jejunal nitrogen digestibility (29 d of age) were lower (P < 0.05) in broilers offered high-AME diets compared with those offered low-AME diets. Both AME concentration and supplemental protease independently affected broiler performance, with responses being most apparent during early growth phases whereas digestibility measures were mainly influenced by AME concentration.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Galinhas , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Metabolismo Energético , Masculino , Nutrientes , Peptídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia
13.
Poult Sci ; 101(7): 101925, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35613492

RESUMO

Recent studies have revealed that fecal microbiota transplantation exerts beneficial effects on modulating stress-related inflammation and gastrointestinal health of the host. The aim of this study was to examine if cecal microbiota transplantation (CMT) presents similar efficiency in improving the health status of egg-laying strain chickens. Chicken lines 63 and 72 divergently selected for resistance or susceptibility to Marek's disease were used as CMT donors. Eighty-four d-old male recipient chicks (a commercial DeKalb XL layer strain) were randomly assigned into 3 treatments with 7 replicates per treatment and 4 birds per replicate (n = 7): saline (control, CTRL), cecal solution of line 63 (63-CMT), and cecal solution of line 72 (72-CMT) for a 16-wk trial. Cecal transplant gavage was conducted once daily from d 1 to d 10, then boosted once weekly from wk 3 to wk 5. The results indicated that 72-CMT birds had the highest body weight and ileal villus/crypt ratio among the treatments at wk 5 (P ≤ 0.05); and higher heterophil/lymphocyte ratios than that of 63-CMT birds at wk 16 (P < 0.05). 72-CMT birds also had higher levels of plasma natural IgG and Interleukin (IL)-6 at wk 16, while 63-CMT birds had higher concentrations of ileal mucosal secretory IgA at wk 5 and plasma IL-10 at wk 16 (P < 0.05), with a tendency for lower mRNA abundance of splenic IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α at wk 16 (P = 0.08 and 0.07, respectively). In addition, 72-CMT birds tended to have the lowest serotonin concentrations (P = 0.07) with the highest serotonin turnover in the ileum at wk 5 (P < 0.05). There were no treatment effects on the levels of plasma corticosterone and testosterone at wk 16 (P > 0.05). In conclusion, early postnatal CMT from different donors led to different patterns of growth and health status through the regulation of ileal morphological structures, gut-derived serotonergic activities, peripheral cytokines, and antibody production in recipient chickens.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Microbiota , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Ceco , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Masculino , Oviposição , Serotonina
14.
Poult Sci ; 101(7): 101904, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523031

RESUMO

Growth promoters are added with broiler feed to boost the overall feed efficiency and growth rate. The current study investigated the effect of dexamethasone (DEX)-a commonly used growth promoter-on the broiler growth rate, meat quality, and muscle biology. Four homogenous groups (20 chicks/group) of broiler one-day-old chicks were fed commercial broiler feed where the treatment groups received 3, 5, and 7 mg/kg of DEX with their diet for 28 d. Feed consumption and body weight were monitored on a daily basis. Muscle samples were collected on 7, 14, 21, and 28 d of the experiment to investigate meat quality and muscular biology. The residue of DEX in meat was detected using thin-layer chromatography. We observed that DEX had substantially decreased (P < 0.05) feed intake, feed efficiency, and overall weight gain in the broiler. While the weight of breast and thigh meat was decreased, the relative meat weight (meat/body weight) was increased significantly in chicks fed DEX. Simultaneously, body fat decreased while the percentage of fat increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the DEX groups. Contrariwise, DEX improved the investigated meat quality parameters with the potential threat of accumulation of DEX residue in the meat at a high dose (7 mg/kg). We also observed that DEX significantly increased the number of myofibers and decreased the cross-sectional area of myofibers. Based on these findings, we conclude that DEX reduces feed intake, feed efficiency, and growth rate, but might improve meat quality with a potential risk of residual DEX accumulation if fed at a high dose.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Carne/análise , Esteroides
15.
Ecotoxicology ; 31(5): 846-851, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524911

RESUMO

High levels of background γ-radiation exist in the suburbs of Baku, Azerbaijan. We examined the impact of radiation on erythrocyte nuclear pathologies, levels of cytochrome P-450, and serotonin-modulating anticonsolidation protein (SMAP) in the tissues of the hens from three settlements with different levels of background radiation. Higher levels of radiation resulted in increased nuclear pathologies, upregulation of tissue SMAP levels, and downregulation of cytochrome P-450. We also carried out controlled dosage studies on Wistar male rats, which showed significant upregulation of heat shock proteins with molecular mass 70 kDa (HSP70) in the bone marrow 3 and 5 h after SMAP intraperitoneal administration. Administration of SMAP to rats 3 h prior to γ-radiation exposure (8 Gy) provided significant protection to somatic cell nuclei. We conclude that SMAP can provide protection from the genotoxic effects of γ-radiation through upregulation of HSP70 or the transformation of chromatin into a condensed, more protective conformational state.


Assuntos
Radiação de Fundo , Galinhas , Animais , Azerbaijão , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450 , Eritrócitos , Feminino , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Serotonina/metabolismo
16.
Theriogenology ; 187: 188-194, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35605398

RESUMO

Mercuric chloride (HgCl2) is a well-known toxic heavy metal contaminant, which causes male reproductive function defects. Selenium (Se) has been recognized as an effective antioxidant against heavy metals-induced male reproductive toxicity. The aim of present study was to explore the potentially protective mechanism of Se on HgCl2-induced testis injury in chicken. Firstly, the results showed that Se mitigated HgCl2-induced testicular injury through increasing the blood-testis barrier (BTB) cell-junction proteins expression of occludin, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), connexin 43 (Cx43), and N-cadherin. Secondly, Se alleviated HgCl2-induced oxidative stress through decreasing the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and increasing the superoxidase dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities as well as the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) level. Thirdly, Se inhibited the activation of p38 MAPK signaling through decreasing the proteins expression of phosphorylated-p38 (p-p38) and phosphorylated-ATF2 (p-ATF2), and alleviated inflammation response through decreasing the proteins expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), tissue necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2). Collectively, these results demonstrated that Se effectively alleviated HgCl2-induced testes injury via improving antioxidant capacity to reduce inflammation mediated by p38 MAPK/ATF2/iNOS signaling pathway in chicken. Our data shed a new light on potential mechanisms of Se antagonized HgCl2-induced male reproductive toxicity.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Mercúrio , Selênio , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/veterinária , Masculino , Cloreto de Mercúrio/metabolismo , Cloreto de Mercúrio/toxicidade , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Selênio/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Testículo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
17.
Poult Sci ; 101(6): 101827, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35390570

RESUMO

Commercial broilers have been selected for high growth rate and productivity; however, this has negatively impacted their susceptibility to heat stress (HS). Insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying this vulnerability can help design targeted strategies for improvement of HS tolerance. Red blood cells (RBC) and white blood cells (WBC) were isolated from red jungle fowl and 4 lines of commercial modern broilers. Lines A and B are considered standard-yielding lines, whereas Lines C and D are high-yielding. Cells were cultured at either 37°C or 45°C for 2 h to induce heat stress (HS). Gene expression of cytokines, chemokines, and inflammasome components were measured. Heat shock proteins 27 and 70 (HSPs) in RBC were significantly affected by line (P < 0.05), whereas HSP27 and 60 were affected by temperature (P < 0.05). In WBC, there was a significant line effect on HSP gene expression (P < 0.05), and a significant increase (P < 0.05) in HSP90 in Line D in HS compared to TN conditions. In RBC, there was a main effect of HS on TNFα, CCL4, and CCLL4 (P < 0.05). HS significantly increased IL-8L1 (>30-fold, P < 0.0001) in Line C. Inflammasome genes (NLRP3, NLRC5 and NLRC3) were significantly affected by the line studied (P < 0.05). In WBC, the effect of line was significant for all cytokines, chemokines, and inflammasome components studied (P < 0.05). To examine the mechanical properties of isolated RBC from the 4 commercial lines and jungle fowl, RBC were placed into nematic liquid crystals, where Lines B and D were the most strained, and Line A and the jungle fowl were the least strained. Together, these findings indicate not only the dynamic nature of circulating cells, but the differences in the stress and inflammatory response among commercially available lines and their common ancestor. These profiles have the potential to serve as a future marker for stress responses in broilers, though further study is warranted.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Citocinas/genética , Suplementos Nutricionais , Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta , Inflamassomos/genética , Leucócitos
18.
Poult Sci ; 101(6): 101833, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35421814

RESUMO

The fast growth rate of broiler chickens is a welfare concern that has increased consumer interest in chicken from slower growing (SG) broilers. Replacing conventional (CONV) broilers with SG broilers will reduce chicken supply and SG broilers require different management practices than CONV. This study evaluated the effects of 2 stocking densities on the carcass composition and meat quality of CONV broilers that reach market weight at 42 d and SG broilers that reach market weight at 63 d. Male broilers from each strain were exclusively stocked into 16 pens at a density of either 29 kg/m2 or 37 kg/m2. Live body, carcass without giblets (WOG), and part weights were recorded and used to calculate yield. Initial and 24-hour pH, color (L*, a*, and b*), cooking loss, and Warner Bratzler shear force of the breast and thigh muscles were measured. Birds from both strains reached similar live body and carcass WOG weights. CONV had 3.4%, 13.0%, and 2.8% greater (P ≤ 0.002), carcass WOG, breast, and tenderloin yields, while SG had 2.7%, 5.0%, 7.5%, and 1.2% greater (P < 0.0001) wings, leg quarters, frame, and skin yields, respectively. CONV breast 24-h pH and cooking loss were greater (P ≤ 0.04) than SG. While SG thigh shear force was greater than CONV (P = 0.008), breast shear force was the lowest for CONV stocked at 29 kg/m2 and the greatest for SG stocked at 37 kg/m2 (P = 0.04). SG had a paler breast than CONV, while CONV had a yellower breast than SG (P < 0.0001). While SG had a redder thigh than CONV (P = 0.002), SG stocked at 29 kg/m2 had a redder breast than SG stocked at 37 kg/m2, with both CONV groups intermediate (P = 0.04). These results indicate that differences in male broiler meat quality were affected more by strain than by stocking density. Compared with CONV, SG broiler meat quality was more affected by stocking density in this study.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Carne , Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Culinária , Masculino , Carne/análise , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia
19.
Poult Sci ; 101(6): 101872, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35472741

RESUMO

To prevent broiler breeders from growing too quickly and becoming too large for optimum reproduction, their dietary intake is restricted. While current restricted feeding programs, such as skip-a-day feeding (SAD), improve the economic efficiency of broiler breeder operations, this management practice impacts bird welfare. There is an interest in finding strategies that could reduce the impact of feed restriction during broiler breeder rearing. This research investigated the effects of feeding pullets on an advanced growth curve for early photostimulation at 15 wk (15P) or standard growth curve for photostimulation at 21 wk (21P), using either an every-day-spin feeding program (EDS) or SAD feeding, on the reproductive parameters of broiler breeder hens in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Overall, advancing the growth curve (15P) decreased blood corticosterone levels compared to 21P, but EDS resulted in higher blood corticosterone levels compared to SAD. At the end of rearing in both 15P and 21P, EDS pullets weighed less than SAD pullets. The onset of egg production was 20 and 24 wk of age for the 15P and 21P hens, respectively. Despite an earlier onset, 15P hens did not produce more eggs than 21P hens through 65 wk of age. Egg weight was reduced for 15P compared to 21P until 30 wk of age. The 15P hens had a greater number of double yolk eggs than the 21P hens. Fertility and hatch were not impacted by the advanced growth curve and early photostimulation. Although the current research indicates the potential to reduce feed restriction associated welfare issues by rearing broiler breeder pullets for an earlier photostimulation onset, further research in needed to determine if this management technique can be improved to optimize hen reproductive efficiency.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Galinhas/fisiologia , Corticosterona , Feminino , Óvulo , Reprodução/fisiologia
20.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0267019, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35427383

RESUMO

Spaghetti meat (SM), woody breast (WB), and white striping (WS) are myopathies that affect the pectoral muscle of fast-growing broiler chickens. The prevalence and possible risk factors of these myopathies have been reported in other countries, but not yet in Canada. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors associated with these myopathies in a representative population of Canadian broilers. From May 2019 to March 2020, 250 random breast fillets from each of 37 flocks (total, 9,250) were obtained from two processing plants and assessed for the presence and severity of myopathies. Demographic data (e.g., sex and average live weight), environmental conditions during the grow-out period (e.g., temperature), and husbandry parameters (e.g., vaccination) were collected for each flock. Associations between these factors and the myopathies were tested using logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of SM, severe WB, and mild or moderate WS was 36.3% (95% CI: 35.3-37.3), 11.8% (95% CI: 11.2-12.5), and 96.0% (95% CI: 95.6-96.4), respectively. Most (85.1%) of the fillets showed multiple myopathies. Regression analyses showed that the odds of SM increased with live weight (OR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.01-1.69) and higher environmental temperature during the grow-out period (OR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.31-2.34). The odds of WB increased with live weight (OR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.03-1.47) and when flocks were not vaccinated against coccidia (OR = 1.86, 95% CI 1.51-2.29). This study documents for the first time a high prevalence of myopathies in Ontario broilers, and suggests that these lesions may have a significant economic impact on the Canadian poultry industry. Our results indicate that environmental conditions and husbandry are associated with the development of breast myopathies, in agreement with the current literature. Future studies are needed to determine how risk factors can promote the occurrence of these conditions, in order to implement possible mitigating strategies.


Assuntos
Doenças Musculares , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Carne/análise , Doenças Musculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Musculares/etiologia , Doenças Musculares/veterinária , Ontário , Músculos Peitorais/patologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...