Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 8.960
Filtrar
1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 190: 110127, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896471

RESUMO

The environmental hazards of arsenic (As) and copper (Cu) contamination have swept through quite a few districts worldwide. Whereas, molecular mechanisms involved in As- and Cu-induced immunotoxicity in Gallus gallus bursa of Fabricius (BF) are complex and elusive. Male Hy-line chickens were exposed to arsenic trioxide (As2O3; 30 mg/kg) and copper sulfate (CuSO4; 300 mg/kg) alone or in combination, respectively, to examine the potential ecotoxicity of them. The ions homeostasis and BF index of chicken had distinct changes after As or/and Cu exposure. Moreover, As or/and Cu treatment significantly increased the MDA content and NOS activity, and simultaneously resulted in reductions in CAT and AHR activities. Subsequently, it was further exhibited up-regulations of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), inflammatory mediators and pro-inflammation cytokines accompanied by depletion of anti-inflammatory cytokines and severe pathological conditions. Moreover, decreased ratio of IFN-γ/IL-4 and increased level of IL-17 illustrated an imbalance of the immune response. Meanwhile, incremental mRNA transcription and protein levels of heat shock proteins (HSPs) alleviated toxicity caused by As or/and Cu. Importantly, exposure to both contaminants significantly soared the BF injury in comparison with exposure to As or Cu alone. All these results illustrated that exposure to As2O3 or/and CuSO4 elicited BF tissue damage and ions changes, and its severity was associated with prolonged persistence of oxidative damage, accompanied by a dysregulated immune response which played a vital role in inflammatory injury. Additionally, combined management of As2O3 and CuSO4 could exacerbate BF injury.


Assuntos
Arsênico/toxicidade , Bolsa de Fabricius/fisiologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Cobre/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/imunologia , Animais , Trióxido de Arsênio , Bolsa de Fabricius/imunologia , Galinhas/metabolismo , Sulfato de Cobre/toxicidade , Citocinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , NF-kappa B/metabolismo
2.
Food Microbiol ; 87: 103384, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948625

RESUMO

Single-aged caged layer hen flocks were monitored for Salmonella over the course of their lifetime. Chicks from both flocks were Salmonella negative at hatch and remained negative during rearing. Pullets were transported to production farms at 15 weeks of age. Pre-population dust swabs collected from both production sheds had a high percentage of Salmonella positive samples (80 and 90%). Flocks were sampled at regular intervals until 70-72 weeks of age. The proportion of Salmonella positive samples and mean load detected on eggs was low on both farms. Analysis of dust samples revealed that Salmonella persisted in dust over 8 weeks. Dust total moisture content and water activity appears to influence bacterial persistence. On egg grading equipment, only suction cups prior to egg washing were Salmonella positive (mean proportion Salmonella positive samples 0.13 ± 0.07; mean load of 18.6 ± 12.31 MPN/ml). An egg washing experiment demonstrated that while washing reduced the total Salmonella load from eggshell surfaces, no effect was observed for shell pores. These results demonstrate that despite environmental contamination on farm, Salmonella contamination of eggs is low and is further minimized by washing.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Ovos/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Animais , Austrália , Galinhas/microbiologia , Ovos/análise , Fazendas , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Manipulação de Alimentos
3.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 755-763, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ß-Hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) is the metabolite of leucine that plays an important role in muscle protein metabolism. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) of HMB at 7 days of incubation (DOI) via air cell or 18 DOI via amnion on hatchability, muscle growth and performance in prenatal and posthatch broilers. RESULTS: IOF of HMB via air cell at 7 DOI increased hatchability by 4.34% compared with the control (89.67% versus 85.33%). Birds in IOF groups exhibited higher body weight, average daily body weight gain and pectoral muscle percentage. Furthermore, IOF of HMB significantly increased the level of plasma growth hormone, insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1. Chicks hatched from IOF treatment had larger diameters of muscle fiber and higher mitotic activity of satellite cells at early posthatch age. IOF of HMB activated satellite cells by upregulation of mRNA expression of myogenic transcription factors, myogenic differentiation one (MyoD) and myogenin. Chicks hatched from air cell injection group had higher pectoral muscle percentage at 5 d posthatch and greater satellite cell mitotic activity at 7 d posthatch than counterparts from amnion injection group. CONCLUSIONS: IOF of HMB via amnion at 18 DOI or especially via air cell at 7 DOI could be used as an effective approach to enhance hatchability, productive performance and breast muscle yield in broilers. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Músculos Peitorais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Valeratos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/sangue , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Hormônio do Crescimento/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Mitose , Proteína MyoD/genética , Proteína MyoD/metabolismo , Mioblastos/citologia , Mioblastos/metabolismo , Miogenina/genética , Miogenina/metabolismo , Músculos Peitorais/metabolismo
4.
J Appl Microbiol ; 128(1): 54-64, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562827

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa solid-state fermentation product (RSFP) on the laying performance, egg quality and intestinal microbial flora of hens. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, 40-week-old Roman laying hens (n = 216) were randomly assigned to one of the four groups: the control (CON) group, fed 87.5% basal diet +12.5% fermentation substrate; the 0.5% RSFP group, fed 87.5% basal diet +12.0% fermentation substrate +0.5% RSFP; the 2.5% RSFP group, fed 87.5% basal diet +10.0% fermentation substrate +2.5% RSFP; and the 12.5% RSFP group, fed 87.5% basal diet +12.5% RSFP. The effect of each treatment was analysed in six replicates of nine hens. The experimental period was 31 days, which included a 3-day adaptation period. After 31 days of feeding, one hen from each replicate was randomly selected and killed, and the jejunum and digesta in the cecum were collected for the determination of the intestinal morphology and microbial flora respectively. Daily egg mass in the 2.5 and 12.5% RSFP groups and egg production and feed conversion ratio in the 12.5% RSFP group were higher than those in control group (P < 0.05). The yolk colour was improved in hens fed RSFP-supplemented diets (P < 0.05). Hens fed RSFP-supplemented diet showed a decrease in the relative abundances of Proteobacteria, Bacteroides, Helicobacteraceae, Helicobacter and Lachnospiraceae UCG-002, but an increase in the relative abundance of Prevotellaceae UCG-001 in the cecum (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Dietary RSFP supplementation improved the laying performance, egg quality and intestinal microflora of hens. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Dietary supplementing diet with Rhodotorula mucilaginosa solid-state fermentation product, which is rich in carotenoids, improved the yolk colour and increased the carotenoid content, thereby improving the intestinal health of hens.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Rhodotorula/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ovos/análise , Ovos/normas , Feminino , Fermentação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Jejuno/metabolismo
5.
Nat Cell Biol ; 21(12): 1504-1517, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792380

RESUMO

The enteric nervous system (ENS) predominantly originates from vagal neural crest (VNC) cells that emerge from the caudal hindbrain, invade the foregut and populate the gastrointestinal tract. However, the gene regulatory network (GRN) orchestrating the early specification of VNC remains unknown. Using an EdnrB enhancer, we generated a comprehensive temporal map of the chromatin and transcriptional landscape of VNC in the avian model, revealing three VNC cell clusters (neural, neurogenic and mesenchymal), each predetermined epigenetically prior to neural tube delamination. We identify and functionally validate regulatory cores (Sox10/Tfap2B/SoxB/Hbox) mediating each programme and elucidate their combinatorial activities with other spatiotemporally specific transcription factors (bHLH/NR). Our global deconstruction of the VNC-GRN in vivo sheds light on critical early regulatory mechanisms that may influence the divergent neural phenotypes in enteric neuropathies.


Assuntos
Linhagem da Célula/fisiologia , Cromatina/genética , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Crista Neural/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Nervo Vago/fisiologia , Animais , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/fisiologia , Cromatina/fisiologia , Epigênese Genética/genética , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/fisiologia , Neurogênese/genética , Neurogênese/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcrição Genética/genética
6.
J Anim Sci ; 97(11): 4488-4495, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586423

RESUMO

Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) acts as a sensor of cellular energy changes and is involved in the control of food intake. A total of 216 1-d-old broilers were randomly allotted into 3 treatments with 6 replicates per treatment and 12 broilers in each cage. The dietary treatments included 1) high-energy (HE) diet (3,500 kcal/kg), 2) normal-energy (NE) diet (3,200 kcal/kg), and 3) low-energy (LE) diet (2,900 kcal/kg). The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary energy level on appetite and the central AMPK signal pathway. The results showed that a HE diet increased average daily gain (ADG), whereas a LE diet had the opposite effect (P < 0.05, N = 6). The average daily feed intake (ADFI) of the chickens fed the LE diet was significantly higher than that of the control (P < 0.05, N = 6). Overall, the feed conversion rate gradually decreased with increasing dietary energy level (P < 0.05, N = 6). Moreover, the chickens fed the LE and HE diets demonstrated markedly improved urea content compared with the control group (P < 0.0001, N = 8). The triglyceride (TG) content in the LE group was obviously higher than that in the HE group but showed no change compared with the control (P = 0.0678, N = 8). The abdominal fat rate gradually increased with increased dietary energy level (P = 0.0927, N = 8). The HE group showed downregulated gene expression levels of liver kinase B1 (LKB1), neuropeptide Y (NPY), cholecystokinin (CCK), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the hypothalamus compared with the control group (P < 0.05, N = 8). However, LE treatment significantly increased the mRNA level of AMP-activated protein kinase α2 (AMPKα2) compared with other groups (P = 0.0110, N = 8). In conclusion, a HE diet inhibited appetite and central AMPK signaling. In contrast, a LE diet activated central AMPK and appetite. Overall, the central AMPK signal pathway and appetite were modulated in accordance with the energy level in the diet to regulate nutritional status and maintain energy homeostasis in birds.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Galinhas/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Gordura Abdominal/metabolismo , Monofosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Apetite , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Homeostase , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ganho de Peso
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1649-1658, set.-out. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038656

RESUMO

Este estudo teve o objetivo de comparar o perfil bioquímico sérico de machos e fêmeas da linhagem pesada de frango de corte, nas idades de quatro, 12 e 20 semanas, em uma unidade de produção industrial, no município de Uberlândia-MG. Após a pesagem das aves, foram coletadas amostras de sangue de 15 aves de cada sexo de cada faixa etária. Os soros obtidos foram avaliados em analisador automático para os seguintes parâmetros bioquímicos: proteína total, albumina, globulinas, ácido úrico, colesterol, triglicérides, gamaglutamiltransferase, aspartato aminotransferase, alanina aminotransferase, creatina quinase, fosfatase alcalina, cálcio e fósforo. Imediatamente após a coleta de cada amostra, avaliou-se a glicemia no sangue total, utilizando-se um glicosímetro. As alterações fisiológicas e metabólicas que as aves apresentaram na fase de recria refletiram na variação dos níveis bioquímicos séricos na maioria dos constituintes avaliados, os quais exibiram diferenças significativas (P<0,05), comparando-se sexo e idade.(AU)


This study aimed to compare the levels of glucose in the blood and serum´s metabolites enzymes and minerals of poultry of heavy lineage of chicken at the age of four, twelve and twenty weeks in an industrial production unit in the city of Uberlândia-MG. After weighing the birds, blood samples were collected from 15 birds of each gender in the three ages. The serum obtained was evaluated in an automatic biochemical analyzer for the following parameters: total protein, albumin, globulin, uric acid, cholesterol, triglycerides, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, calcium and phosphorus. Immediately after the collection of each sample, we evaluated glucose levels by means of a glycosimeter. The physiological and metabolic changes that birds present in the rearing age reflected in the variation of serum biochemical levels in most constituents evaluated, showing significant differences (P< 0.05) comparing age and gender.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Fenômenos Bioquímicos , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Galinhas/fisiologia , Galinhas/sangue
8.
Anim Sci J ; 90(11): 1468-1474, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502357

RESUMO

This study was conducted to examine the effects of feeding dry-processed sweet potato waste on the growth of broilers. Sweet potato waste was air-dried (A-SPW) or heat-dried (D-SPW). Twenty-four 14-d-old chicks were assigned to the following groups (14-28 days): control, fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet; A-SPW, fed the basal diet with 55% of the corn replaced with A-SPW meal; D-SPW, fed the basal diet with 50% of the corn replaced with D-SPW meal. The feed conversion ratio (feed/gain) of the D-SPW group was greater than that of the A-SPW group. The relative weight of abdominal fat and the muscle lipid content of the D-SPW group were increased compared with those of the A-SPW group. The metabolizabilities of crude protein and gross energy of the D-SPW group were increased compared with those of the A-SPW group. The plasma α-tocopherol concentrations of the A-SPW and D-SPW groups were greater than that of the control group. Plasma malondialdehyde was decreased in the A-SPW and D-SPW groups, and muscle malondialdehyde was decreased in the D-SPW group, compared with the control group. Our results demonstrate that dry-heat processing improves the nutrient metabolizability of sweet potato waste and makes it into available feed for broilers.


Assuntos
Ar , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Temperatura Alta , Ipomoea batatas , Gordura Abdominal/metabolismo , Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Malondialdeído/sangue , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Músculos/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo
9.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 73(6): 431-444, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523998

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a polyphenol product (PP) (Proviox) and vitamin E on the antioxidant status and meat quality of broiler chickens fed diets contaminated with ochratoxin A (OTA). One hundred and twenty ROSS 308 broiler chickens were randomly divided into six groups (10 replications, 2 birds per replication). Group I received an uncontaminated and unsupplemented diet, diets of groups II to VI were contaminated with OTA at 172 µg and 200 µg/kg for the starter and grower period, respectively. Furthermore, diets of groups III, IV and V were supplemented with vitamin E at 100, 200 and 100 mg, respectively, and to diets of groups V and VI additionally 100 and 2200 mg PP was added, respectively. Supplementation with PP and vitamin E had no significant effects on the growth performance, dressing percentage or carcass trait parameters of broiler chickens. In chickens exposed to stress, dietary supplementation with vitamin E and/or PP improved the total antioxidant status (p ≤ 0.05), enhanced the blood activity of antioxidant enzymes (p ≤ 0.01) and increased the concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants (p ≤ 0.01) in the liver and breast muscles. Regardless of the administered antioxidants, chickens fed diets contaminated with OTA were characterised by lower dressing percentage (p ≤ 0.01), a higher proportion of the liver in the carcass (p ≤ 0.01), lower carcass fat content (p ≤ 0.01), and longer small intestines (p ≤ 0.01) and caeca (p ≤ 0.01). Dietary supplementation with PP improved the water-holding capacity of meat (p ≤ 0.01). The breast muscles of chickens fed diets supplemented with PP and vitamin E were characterised by higher (p ≤ 0.05) concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5). It was concluded that PP can be an insufficient component of diets for broiler chickens to improve growth performance and mitigate the negative effects of high dose of OTA in diets.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Carne/análise , Ocratoxinas/efeitos adversos , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Vitamina E/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem
10.
Res Vet Sci ; 126: 178-183, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539794

RESUMO

After oral route of administration, drug absorption is unpredictable and is governed by various factors such as multi drug resistance-1 (MDR1) an efflux transporter and drug metabolizing enzymes (like CYP3A4, CYP3A37, CYP2D6) at intestine and liver. Naturally available phyto chemicals like piperine and quercetin as well as some floroquinolones are known to inhibit MDR1 and CYP3A37 activity and increases bioavailability of co-administered drugs. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of piperine and quercetin alone or in combination with marbofloxacin on CYP3A37 and MDR1 mRNA expression levels in liver and intestine of broiler chicken. After oral administration of piperine and quercetin for 3 consecutive days followed by with or without oral administration of marbofloxacin for 5 days, CYP3A37 and MDR1 mRNA expression levels were determined using quantitative real-time PCR. Total of 36 broiler chickens in seven individual groups were treated with different regimen and the mRNA expression levels at duodenum and liver were analyzed with apt statistical tools. After piperine and quercetin combined treatment with marbofloxacin, CYP3A37 mRNA expression levels were significantly down regulated by 20.57 (p = .034) and 25.95 (p = .003) folds; and MDR1 mRNA expression levels were also significantly down regulated by 11.33 (p = .012) and 33.59 (p = .006) folds in liver and duodenum, respectively. Down regulation of CYP3A37 and MDR1 mRNA in liver and duodenum indicate the combined pretreatment of piperine and quercetin may be useful for improving the pharmacokinetics of orally administered drugs which are substrates for CYP3A37 and MDR1.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Hidrocarboneto de Aril Hidroxilases/genética , Benzodioxóis/farmacologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Família 3 do Citocromo P450/genética , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/farmacologia , Quercetina/farmacologia , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Hidrocarboneto de Aril Hidroxilases/metabolismo , Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Galinhas/genética , Inibidores das Enzimas do Citocromo P-450/farmacologia , Família 3 do Citocromo P450/metabolismo , Duodeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Duodeno/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória
11.
J Anim Sci ; 97(11): 4464-4474, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545381

RESUMO

Colony cages are commonly used in China for the natural mating of layer breeders. However, feather pecking (FP) is a major problem in this system, and feather damage mainly due to FP needs to be alleviated. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of nest boxes provided in colony cages. Each colony cage confined 10 roosters and 90 laying hens. The use of nest boxes as it relates to age, feather damage, sexual behavior, fertility, and fearfulness was evaluated. Thyroid hormones, which are considered to be physiological indicators of various forms of stress in poultry and may be correlated with the quality of feather coverage, were also tested. The control group and the nest box group each had 12 replicates, totaling 24 identical cages. Analyses were conducted using the linear mixed models procedure of SPSS Statistics 22.0. The results showed that the control group had a significantly higher proportion of hens with feather damage to 4 specific body regions (back, rump, tail, and belly) compared to the nest box group (P < 0.05). Increasing the use of the nest boxes took place from weeks 41 to 47 and at 53 wk of age, as seen by the percentage of eggs and number of sitting events in the nests, number of hens using the nests, and frequency of visits. There were no significant differences in fertility, the occurrence of mounting, or full copulation behavior between the 2 groups. Hens in the control group showed a significantly longer duration of tonic immobility at 43, 49, and 55 wk of age (P < 0.05). No significant differences were found between groups for the concentration of triiodothyronine or thyroxine, but a significantly higher concentration of corticosterone was measured in the control group than in the nest box group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, hens with access to nest boxes during the laying period had a decreased FP frequency, fewer damaged feathers, lower plasma corticosterone secretion, and were less fearful. This information contributes to the understanding of the FP behavior and stress sensitivity of layer breeders, which will provide a basis for the development and optimization of the colony cage equipment.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Abrigo para Animais , Comportamento de Nidação , Reprodução , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Cruzamento , China , Corticosterona/sangue , Ovos , Medo , Plumas , Feminino , Modelos Lineares , Distribuição Aleatória
12.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 73(6): 445-456, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553227

RESUMO

To investigate effects of dietary calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) levels and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD3) supplementation on performance and bone properties of broiler starters, 224 male Arbor Acre broilers were used in a 21-d trial. Broilers were allotted to one of four treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement including diets either normal or low in Ca and P, which were further supplemented or not with 69 µg 25OHD3/kg feed. Feeding low Ca and P diets significantly reduced performance of boilers and decreased ash, Ca, P and hydroxyproline contents in tibias and femurs (p < 0.05). Ultimate load, bending moment, stiffness and energy to fail were decreased (p < 0.05) in broilers fed diets deficient in Ca and P. Addition of 25OHD3 did not influence performance but significantly increased serum 25OHD3 levels. Furthermore, the addition of 25OHD3 caused an increased tibial and femoral bone density and femoral hydroxyproline content (p < 0.05), increased bending moment in tibias (p < 0.05), and enhanced ultimate load and bending moment in femurs (p < 0.05). No significant interactions were observed for bone properties. Overall, feeding 25OHD3 at 69 µg/kg feed to broilers had no effect on growth performance but partly improved bone biochemical and biomechanical properties of broiler starters.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Fêmur/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidroxicolecalciferóis/metabolismo , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , Tíbia/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Fêmur/fisiologia , Hidroxicolecalciferóis/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Tíbia/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5820-5830, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392330

RESUMO

The addition of fiber in chick feeds is known to dilute nutrients; as a result, this may reduce nutrient digestibility and performance. However, recent studies suggest that moderate inclusion of insoluble fibers (2 to 3%) may stimulate gizzard development, which could result in better nutrient utilization and chick growth. The previous fiber sources evaluated were subject to wide fluctuation in their nutritional and chemical composition due to variation in processing. Miscanthus giganteus is a C4 grass purposefully grown for its fiber content which has a consistent fiber composition compared to food process residues. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of dietary fiber source and particle size on day-old chick performance and nutrient digestibility. Day-old chicks (8 chicks per cage, 5 cages per treatment) were fed diets containing 3% of either sepiolite (SEP), cellulose (CEL), coarse beet pulp (BP), fine BP, coarse Miscanthus grass (MG), and fine MG. At the end of days 7, 14, and 21, chicks and experimental diets were weighed to compute average daily gain and feed intake. In addition, excreta from the previous 48 h of each data capture point was collected to determine nutrient digestibility. In general, chicks fed diets containing fiber consumed more feed, gained more weight, and had better feed conversion rate than birds fed the SEP diet. Particle size of the fiber had no effect on chick performance; however, nutrient utilization was higher (P < 0.05) for chicks fed coarse fiber particles compared to these fed fine fiber particles. Birds fed diets containing MG performed similar to chicks fed CEL (P > 0.05), but digestibility coefficients of birds fed BP diets were generally higher than chicks fed MG diets. In conclusion, chicks performed better with fiber in their diet and MG was comparable to CEL.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Nutrientes/fisiologia , Tamanho da Partícula , Poaceae/química , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Beta vulgaris/química , Celulose/administração & dosagem , Celulose/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/classificação , Silicatos de Magnésio/administração & dosagem , Silicatos de Magnésio/metabolismo , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória
14.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 208: 106114, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405454

RESUMO

Egg production is determined by the function of ovary and is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovary axis. The mechanism by which the ovary regulates egg production, however, is still poorly understood. The purpose of this study is to compare the transcriptome difference in ovary of relatively greater and lesser egg producing chickens, and to screen candidate genes related to egg production. A RNA sequencing was performed to analyze and compare the mRNA in ovarian tissues of relatively greater and lesser egg producing chickens. A total of 4 431 new genes expressed in the chicken ovary were mined. There were 305 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) identified between the relatively greater and lesser egg producing hens. Gene ontology analysis identified five candidate genes related to egg production, including ZP2, WNT4, AMH, IGF1, and CYP17A1 genes. Tissue expression profiles indicated these five candidate genes were highly expressed in chicken ovarian tissues, indicating a potential role in regulating chicken ovarian function and egg production. The KEGG analysis indicated the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathway might have an important function in regulation of egg production. In addition, four known pathways related to reproduction were detected, including the calcium signaling, wnt signaling pathway, focal adhesion, and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathways. Results of the present study indicate gene expression differences in the ovarian tissues of relatively greater and lesser egg producing chickens, and identified five important candidate genes related to egg production, which provided a theoretical basis for improving egg production of Jinghai Yellow Chickens.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Ovário/metabolismo , Oviposição/fisiologia , Transcriptoma , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Oviposição/genética
15.
J Therm Biol ; 84: 164-175, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466750

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary GABA supplementation on blood biochemical parameters, the overall growth performance, and the relative mRNA expression of some FI- regulating genes in broiler chickens. A total of 192, three-day old chicks of mixed sex from two commercial broiler strains (Ross 308 and Cobb 500) were distributed into 2 groups; a control group and GABA-supplemented group (100 mg/kg diet). When the chicks reached 21 days of age, each group of each strain was randomly subdivided into two subgroups: one was exposed to HS (33 ±â€¯2 °C for 5 h/day for 2 weeks), while the other remained at thermoneutral temperature (24 °C). GABA significantly improved bird growth performance under normal and HS conditions, by increasing body weight (BW), weight gain (WG), and FI and significantly reduced the elevated body temperature of birds under HS. GABA supplementation increased FI by reducing the mRNA expression levels of FI-inhibiting neuropeptides, such as POMC, leptin, Ghrelin, and CCK, during HS and by increasing the expression of FI-stimulating neuropeptides such as AgRP and NPY. Moreover, GABA significantly altered FAS and ACC gene expression, resulting in significant increases in abdominal fat content in birds reared normally. In contrast, GABA lowered fat content in Cobb birds and increased it in Ross birds under HS. Therefore, GABA (100 mg/kg diet) is a strong FI-stimulating neurotransmitter and its regulatory effects depend on broiler strain and housing temperature.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/farmacologia , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/metabolismo , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Hormônios/genética , Abrigo para Animais , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente
16.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 103(5): 1427-1436, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298444

RESUMO

The titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) marker technique is currently widely practiced as a method to evaluate gastrointestinal (GI) passage rate in poultry. However, this method requires sacrificing the animal to obtain digesta samples, is labour-intensive and eliminates the possibility of follow-up studies with the same individual. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the radiographic methods barium-impregnated polyethylene spheres (BIPS) and barium sulphate (BaSO4 ) suspension are in agreement with the TiO2 technique and can be used as an alternative method for GI passage rate determination in laying hens. Whole-body radiographs were taken at different time points. Hens of group 3 (n = 55) were orally inoculated with 5 g of feed mixed with 0.15 g TiO2 , 5 hens per time point sacrificed, and whole gastrointestinal organs (crop, proventriculus, gizzard, small intestine and large intestine) were collected and analysed for TiO2 content. The average marker passage rate of hens administered BaSO4 was significantly faster than those administered BIPS (gizzard: 15.2 hr vs. 43.2 hr; small intestine: 15.2 hr vs. 38.4 hr, respectively). A greater percentage of BIPS remained in the crop at 0, 0.5, 2, 3 and 8 hr post-inoculation (p.i.) and in the gizzard at 2, 24, 36 and 48 hr p.i. (all p < 0.05) compared to TiO2 . In conclusion, the evaluation of the GI transit time is feasible using BIPS, TiO2 and BaSO4 . The evaluation of the GI transit time using BIPS and BaSO4 needs further investigation.


Assuntos
Sulfato de Bário , Galinhas/fisiologia , Meios de Contraste/farmacologia , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Polietileno , Titânio , Animais , Meios de Contraste/química , Trânsito Gastrointestinal , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Poult Sci ; 98(10): 4516-4521, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287885

RESUMO

Poultry eggs from different species varied significantly, due to their divergent process of evolution. However, the information on egg characteristics has been limited mostly to chicken. The current study compared the egg quality, albumen physical and nutritional property for domesticated chicken, duck, goose, turkey, quail, and pigeon. Egg quality traits among different species differed significantly, such as egg weight (from 11 to 139 g), egg shape (from 1.28 to 1.44), proportion of yolk (from 19.3 to 37.9%), and breaking strength (from 0.91 to 8.04 kg/cm2). For the physical property of albumen gel, pigeon egg was the most special one. The albumen gel of pigeon egg had a transparent appearance (A = 1.23), and it had the highest hardness (121.7 g) and water-holding capacity (96%) but a medium level of total cutting work (440 g⋅s). Hence, it was easy for deformation but was hard to cut off when external force was applied. For nutritional compositions of egg albumen, goose egg had the highest moisture (89.21%) and lowest crude protein (8.5%) contents. Specific to amino acid, glutamic acid was found the most abundant in albumen of all six species. Egg albumen of turkey had the highest quantity of essential amino acids (EAA) and total amino acids (TAA), while duck and goose had relatively higher EAA/TAA ratios. Both PCA and cluster analysis revealed the high similarity of amino acid composition between duck and goose, and among quail, turkey, and chicken. The comparative data will improve the understanding of egg qualities of major poultry species and can be helpful in technological application of egg albumen.


Assuntos
Albuminas/fisiologia , Óvulo/fisiologia , Aves Domésticas/fisiologia , Albuminas/química , Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Columbidae/fisiologia , Patos/fisiologia , Gansos/fisiologia , Óvulo/química , Codorniz/fisiologia , Perus/fisiologia
18.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5767-5777, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287890

RESUMO

We studied the influence of pre-hatch egg weight (EW) and the inclusion of oat hulls (OH) in the diet on gastrointestinal tract (GIT) traits and growth performance of pullets reared under stress conditions early in life. There were 14 treatments organized as a 7 × 2 factorial with 7 EW groups (47.0 to 54.0 g differing in 1 g between groups) and 2 inclusion levels of OH in the diet (0 vs. 3%). The pullets were reared under a series of stresses early in life (no access to feed for extended time post-hatching, reduced accessibility to feed and water at arrival to the farm, reduced ambient temperature at night, low light intensity, and hot-blade beak trimming at 18 D of age). Feed intake, BW gain, and FCR were measured by period (0 to 5, 5 to 10, and 10 to 16 wk of age) and cumulatively. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design with EW and OH inclusion as main effects. In addition, EW effect was partitioned into linear and quadratic components. The stress conditions applied affected similarly the growth and GIT development of the pullets, independent of EW. An increase in EW increased BW at hatch and at 5 wk of age linearly (P < 0.05), but no effects were detected thereafter. Oat hulls inclusion increased ADFI and impaired FCR (P < 0.05) from 0 to 5 wk of age but did not affect energy efficiency at any age. At 5 wk of age, the relative weight (% BW) of the GIT decreased linearly (P < 0.05) with increases in EW and increased with OH inclusion (P < 0.05). Oat hulls inclusion increased the relative weight of the gizzard at all ages (P < 0.01). In conclusion, egg weight did not affect pullet growth from hatch to 16 wk of age. Independent of the initial BW of the pullets, OH inclusion improved gizzard development at all ages without affecting growth performance.


Assuntos
Avena/química , Galinhas/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Óvulo/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho do Órgão , Sementes/química , Estresse Fisiológico
19.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 6187-6193, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287891

RESUMO

The objective of the study was to evaluate changes during storage time (0, 7, 14, and 21 D) in the weight, albumen quality and its functional properties, and protein content of eggs from enriched cage and free range at 26 and 51 wk of age. Egg weight was affected by a significant interaction between the housing system and the age of hens. Regarding individual factors, heavier eggs (P < 0.001) were obtained with the enriched cage (61.7 g) environment than with free range (59.6 g) environment at 51 wk (P < 0.001) (63.3 g vs. 58.0 g), and freshly laid eggs were heavier compared to eggs stored for 14 and 21 D (P < 0.001). The significant interaction of evaluated factors affecting egg weight loss included the Haugh unit score and pH. Albumen dry matter content was significantly higher in free-range eggs (14.70% vs. 14.0%), in eggs from younger hens (15.0% vs. 13.7%) and in eggs that were stored 21 D. Free-range eggs contained more lysozyme (P < 0.001), and younger hens produced eggs with higher ovotransferrin (P < 0.05) and ovalbumin content (P < 0.01). The data from the study show that the evaluated factors and their interactions significantly affected the physical parameters of the eggs, whereas albumen functional properties and lysozymes, ovalbumin, and ovotransferrin were negligibly affected.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Galinhas/fisiologia , Ovos/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Abrigo para Animais , Fatores Etários , Animais , Feminino , Óvulo/química , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5215-5225, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265108

RESUMO

Broiler chickens have an extreme physiology (rapid growth rates) that challenges the correct bone mineralization, being an interesting animal model for studying the development of bone pathologies. This work studies in detail how the mineralization, chemistry, and structural organization of tibiae bone in broiler chickens change with age during the first 5 wk (37 D) from hatching until acquiring the final weight for slaughter. During the early growth phase (first 2 wk), the rapid addition of bone tissue does not allow for bone organic matrix to fully mineralize and mature, and seems to be a critical period for bone development at which bone mineralization cannot keep pace with the rapid growth of bones. The low degree of bone mineralization and large porosity of cortical bone at this period might be responsible of leg deformation and/or other skeletal abnormalities commonly observed in these birds. Later, cortical bone porosity gradually decreases and the cortical bone became fully mineralized (65%) at 37 D of age. At the same time, bone mineral acquires the composition of mature bone tissue (decreased amount of carbonate, higher crystallinity, Ca/P = 1.68). However, the mineral part was still poorly organized even at 37 D. The oriented fraction was about 0.45 which means that more than half of apatite crystals within the mineral are randomly oriented. Mineral organization (crystal orientation) had an important contribution to bone-breaking strength. Nevertheless, locally determined (at tibia mid-shaft) bone properties (i.e., cortical thickness, crystal orientation) has only a moderate correlation (R2 = 0.33) with bone breaking strength probably due to large and highly heterogeneous porosity of bone that acts as structural defects. On the other hand, the total amount of mineral (a global property) measured by total ash content was the best predictor for breaking strength (R2 = 0.49). Knowledge acquired in this study could help in designing strategies to improve bone quality and reduce the incidence of skeletal problems in broiler chickens that have important welfare and economic implications.


Assuntos
Calcificação Fisiológica , Galinhas/fisiologia , Tíbia/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA