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1.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 84, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411054

RESUMO

A 49-day fully randomized trial was conducted to investigate the dietary effects of clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) essential oil (CEO) on growth performance and oxidative/nitrosative stress biomarkers in broilers under heat stress. A total of 288 male broilers (Ross 308) were randomly divided into 6 dietary groups (4 replicates and 12 birds/replicate) and supplemented as follows: (I) Normal control (NC) received only basal diet under normal condition. The rest of the animals were challenged with heat and assigned to the following groups: (II) Heat stress control (HSC) received only basal diet; (III) Standard treatment (ST) received basal diet + vit E (100 ppm); (IV-VI) Herbal treatments (HT) received basal diet + 250, 350, and 450 ppm CEO. Heat stress could significantly decrease the animals' performance and induce severe oxidative/nitrosative stress. The HT at the middle dose could significantly improve body weight, body weight gain, and feed intake compared to HSC; however, none of the treatments had a significant effect on feed conversion ratio after inducing heat stress. Moreover, both ST and HT with a trend towards concentration-dependent fashion significantly contributed to normalization of oxidative/nitrosative biomarkers. It appears that CEO is a potential replacement for synthetic antioxidants in broiler diets.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Óleo de Cravo/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óleo de Cravo/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória
2.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 83, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411117

RESUMO

This experiment examines the effects of bamboo charcoal (BC) powder, bamboo vinegar (BV), and their combination (BCV) in the diet of laying hens on performance, egg quality, relative organ weights, and intestinal bacterial populations. A total of 320 laying hens (36 weeks of age) were divided into 4 treatment groups, with 10 replicates per treatment and 8 hens per replicate. They were fed on a control diet, the control diet supplemented with 0.8% BC, the control diet supplemented with 0.4% BV, or the control diet supplemented with a combination of BC (0.8%) and BV (0.4%) from 36 to 51 weeks of age. Egg production increased in the hens fed the BV and BCV diets during 48 to 51 weeks of age (P < 0.05). Damaged egg rate decreased in the hens fed the BV and BCV diets for the whole experiment (P < 0.05). Shell thickness was highest in the BCV-fed group at week 43, and shell strength was higher in the BV-fed group at week 51 (P < 0.05). Supplementation of BC or BCV in the diet resulted in a decreased abdominal fat pad (P < 0.05). In the ileal content, the population of Salmonella spp. decreased in the BV and BCV groups and the population of Lactobacillus spp. increased in the BV group (P < 0.05). The present results indicate that feeding BV or BCV alleviates damaged egg rate and decreases intestinal pathogenic bacteria, while feeding BC benefits by reducing abdominal fat. These results suggest that the effect of BCV seems to be induced by the synergistic effect of BC and BV, and that the BCV contributes to the effective use of bamboo on the laying hen's production.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Carvão Vegetal/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poaceae/química , Ácido Acético/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Carvão Vegetal/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Pós/administração & dosagem , Pós/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória
3.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 81, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411235

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to compare the appropriate models used to estimate the value of genetic parameters in fertility traits: fertility (FER), hatchability of fertile eggs (HOF), and hatchability of eggs set (HOS) in Thai native (Pradu Hang Dam) chickens. Data were collected for each fertility trait from 3435 test-week records from 715 hens, 158 mate sires, and 972 pedigree animals. Three random regression models were analyzed: model 1 (M1: A + PE) was adjusted by using additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. Model 2 (M2: A + PE + D) was adjusted by using the dominance effect. Finally, model 3 (M3: A + MS + PE + D) was adjusted by using the mate sire effect. The results found the low heritability of FER (M1 to M3), HOF (M1 to M3), and HOS (M1 to M3) ranged from 0.031-0.040, 0.037-0.066, and 0.040-0.059, respectively. Adjustment for the dominance and mate sire effects in M3 reduced the upward bias in heritability and improved the accuracy of variance component estimates compared to M1 and M2. In conclusion, the genetic evaluation for FER, HOF, and HOS can include the dominance and MS effects to increase the accuracy of evaluation of breeding values and plan for mate selection in breeding programs.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Fertilidade/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Óvulo/fisiologia , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Tailândia
4.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 95, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415443

RESUMO

Chicken is a homeothermic animal; consequently, regardless of fluctuation in weather conditions, it maintains constant body temperature. However, in hot regions and seasons, chickens suffer from heat stress. To dissipate excess heat, besides modifying the environment, which is costly, however, chickens with efficient heat dissipation capacity might be utilized. Naked neck chickens have a higher capacity for heat loss attributable to reduced feather mass. The naked neck mutation (Na) was originated from a large insertion (~ 180 bp) integrated ~ 260-kb downstream of a protein-coding gene-GDF7 (Growth Differentiation Factor 7). Na possesses a cis-regulatory function and upregulates the expression of GDF7-a gene that exhibits a tissue-specific effect by the sensitizing action of retinoic acid. Na suppresses the development of feathers in the neck and vent. Na shows autosomal incomplete dominance and regulates several developmental processes. Na usually segregates at low frequency, which might be attributed to limited socio-cultural preferences. Specifically, in hot and humid regions, although to a varying extent, Na enhances performance, immunocompetence, and resilience to disease both in the homozygous and heterozygous state. Occasionally, naked neck chickens (especially the homozygous ones) lose comparative advantage in cool environments. Homozygous Na also results in high embryo death and reduced hatchability and diminishes floating and flying capacity. Nevertheless, selective breeding of naked neck chickens for fertility traits enhances the performance and welfare of chickens in hot and humid regions. The comparative advantage of Na needs to be studied not only from a temperature perspective and under controlled experiment but also from humidity, body weight, feed intake (absolute and relative to body weight), age, agroecology insights, and under field condition. Due to the incomplete dominant expression pattern of Na, studies need to separately report their findings for homozygous and heterozygous naked neck chicken.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Plumas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/genética , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Masculino , Mutação
5.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 96, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415523

RESUMO

Three experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of different molting methods on the growth performance, detection of estrogen receptors (ERs), and immunohistochemical properties of some tissues in pre-, during, and post-molting of layers. In experiment 1, 302 Hy-line W-36 were reared from 75 to 76 weeks. In experiment 2, a total of 252 Hy-line W-36 were randomly allocated to 7 groups, with 6 replications and 6 birds in each. Hens fed in the E and D groups reached 30% of loss weight sooner (P < 0.05). Egg production was also sooner stopped in the FW group than in other ones (P < 0.05). In experiment 3, after inducing molting, each group in experiment 2 was divided into 2 groups with and without Humulus lupulus (Hop). The E group feed intake was increased, as compared to groups F and C (P < 0.05). A significant increase in egg weight was found by applying Hop and molting methods (P < 0.05). Days for return to the initial egg production and 10% egg laying were significantly decreased in the birds fed by Hop in the E and D groups (P < 0.05). The W-D, N-D, W-E, and N-E groups sooner returned to 50% egg laying, in comparison to other treatments (P < 0.05). Plasma estrogen and ERs were decreased by the molting programs, as compared with pre-molting; however, Hop increased their post-molting. After the molting period, egg production and ERs were increased significantly, as compared with the pre-molting period. To conclude, the white button mushroom residual, through decreasing ERs, could be used successfully for forced molting, and Hop could lead to a good performance by increasing ERs in the second laying cycle.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Galinhas/fisiologia , Humulus/química , Muda/efeitos dos fármacos , Portulaca/química , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Distribuição Aleatória
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111774, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396089

RESUMO

Aflatoxins (AFs) are metabolised in two main phases in the liver. Cytochrome p450 enzyme (CYP) 1A1 and CYP2A6 are expressed through AhR, CAR and PXR nuclear receptors in phase-1 biotransformation of AFs. This study is the first to examine phase-1 biotransformation mechanisms of AF and the activity of Nigella sativa seed (NS) and its active ingredient thymoquinone (TQ) on these enzymes and receptors at the molecular level in broilers. Six groups of one day old broiler chicken (20 animals per group) were fed either control feed or a diet containing Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999 culture material (total AFs 2 mg/kg), TQ (300 mg/kg), and NS (5%), either alone or as AF + TQ and AF + NS. Randomly selected from each group, 10 chicks were necropsied, and the livers were removed. Histopathological examination and serum biochemistry results revealed that AF caused hydropic and fatty degenerations, periportal inflammatory infiltrations, acinar arrangement, and biliary duct proliferation in livers and a significant increase at AST, ALT, ALP and GGT levels while significant decreases at serum cholesterol and total protein levels. These aflatoxicosis lesions and deteriorations in biochemistry levels were significantly ameliorated by NS or TQ (p < 0.05). AF was immunohistochemically found to increase strongly the nuclear receptors of AhR, PXR, CAR, and the enzyme activity of CYP1A1 and CYP2A6 responsible for its metabolism, leading to the emergence of toxic effects. Addition of TQ or NS to AF-containing diets improved the negative effects of AF on these receptors and enzymes significantly (p < 0.05). It was concluded that TQ and NS successfully alleviated liver injury by inhibiting or reducing the bioactivation of AF through phase-1 nuclear receptors and CYP-450 enzymes modulation.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/toxicidade , Galinhas/fisiologia , Nigella sativa/fisiologia , Aflatoxinas/metabolismo , Animais , Aspergillus , Benzoquinonas , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Dieta , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Nigella sativa/química , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , Sementes
7.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 105, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417011

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of poor plumage conditions on production performance, antioxidant status and gene expression in laying hens. Two hundred ten 54-week-old laying hens with similar body weights were assigned into two groups based on plumage conditions (the poor plumage conditions (PPC) group and the control group). All the birds had free access to water and crumbled feed, and received the same management in step cages. Compared with hens in the control group, the hens in the PPC group consumed more feed and produced lighter eggs (P < 0.05). Hens in the PPC group showed lower serum concentrations of glutathione peroxidase and total antioxidant capacity and higher malondialdehyde content than those in the control group. The eggshell breaking strength was lower in the PPC group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The eggshell shape index and yolk colour in the PPC group were significantly higher than those in the control group. The mRNA expression level of HTR2C in the neck skin and that of IL-2 in the liver and breast muscle were higher in the PPC group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The results indicated that PPC may increase feed consumption and influence egg quality, antioxidant status and gene expression in laying hens.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Plumas/fisiologia , Expressão Gênica , Óvulo , Reprodução , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Feminino , Óvulo/fisiologia
8.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 104, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Under smallholder management conditions, where weighing scale is not readily available, body weight (BW) can be predicted from morphometric measurements using multiple regression. However, the statistical interpretation of the regression parameters estimated by least squares is difficult due to multicollinearity problems. Thus, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to predict BW from body measurements, including body length (BL), chest circumference (CC), shank length (SL), and shank circumference (SC) of Ethiopian indigenous chicken populations reared by smallholder farmers. The effectiveness of this technique was also compared with the traditional multiple regression analysis (MRA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Measurements were taken from 134 male and 487 female chickens. The whole dataset was partitioned into two portions, namely, training and testing datasets, for model comparison and validation purposes. The training dataset, which consisted of 75% of the dataset, was used to develop the model, and the testing dataset, which consisted of 25% of the dataset, was used to validate the model. RESULTS: The PCA results revealed that the variables for body measurements were represented by PC1 and PC2 in male birds and PC1, PC2, and PC3 in female birds. Regression models developed using scores derived from these PCs explained 88 and 69% of total variation in BW in male and female birds, respectively. Compared with traditional MRA, regression models generated using the PCA procedure were more accurate in predicting BW. CONCLUSION: Thus, the results of the present study could not only be used for predicting BW of Ethiopian indigenous chickens but also in their genetic selection programs.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Galinhas/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Componente Principal
9.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 80, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33409605

RESUMO

We investigated the effect of in-feed and/or in-litter supplemental humate against footpad dermatitis (FPD) in broilers fed diets based on barley. Three hundred and sixty 1-day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly distributed to 24 floor pens (4 treatments, each consisting of 6 replicate pens; 15 chickens per pen) as a completely randomized design with 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of two levels of supplemental humate in feed (0 and 1 g/kg feed) and litter (0 and 5 g/kg litter). Growth performance, intestinal viscosity, litter quality, and incidence and severity of FPD in broilers were measured. In addition, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were determined in blood and footpad tissues of broilers with different FPD scores. The results revealed that there was no interaction between humate supplementation to feed and litter. Neither dietary nor litter supplementation of humate had a significant effect on growth performance, intestinal viscosity, litter quality, and occurrence of FPD. And also, MDA and SOD levels in serum and footpad tissue did not affect by either dietary or litter supplementation of humate. The presence of FPD (score 1) had no effect on MDA and SOD levels in serum, however, increased the MDA and SOD levels (P < 0.001, P = 0.001, respectively) in footpad tissue of broilers. The intestinal viscosity did not differ between FPD scores 0 and 1. In conclusion, findings of this experiment suggest that humate supplementation to feed and litter did not alleviate FPD development in broilers fed diets based on barley. In addition, the presence of FPD lesions increases the MDA and SOD levels in the footpad tissues.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dermatite/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Hordeum , Análise de Variância , Ração Animal/análise , Ração Animal/normas , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dermatite/etiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos/normas , Abrigo para Animais , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Intestinos , Masculino , Malondialdeído/análise , Malondialdeído/sangue , Distribuição Aleatória , Superóxido Dismutase/análise , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue , Viscosidade
10.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2206: 103-127, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754814

RESUMO

For more than 2000 years, the avian embryo has helped scientists understand questions of developmental and cell biology. As early as 350 BC Aristotle described embryonic development inside a chicken egg (Aristotle, Generation of animals. Loeb Classical Library (translated), vol. 8, 1943). In the seventeenth century, Marcello Malpighi, referred to as the father of embryology, first diagramed the microscopic morphogenesis of the chick embryo, including extensive characterization of the cardiovascular system (Pearce Eur Neurol 58(4):253-255, 2007; West, Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 304(6):L383-L390, 2016). The ease of accessibility to the embryo and similarity to mammalian development have made avians a powerful system among model organisms. Currently, a unique combination of classical and modern techniques is employed for investigation of the vascular system in the avian embryo. Here, we will introduce the essential techniques of embryonic manipulation for experimental study in vascular biology.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica/fisiologia , Codorniz/fisiologia , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Embrião de Mamíferos/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/fisiologia , Modelos Animais
11.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239156, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970742

RESUMO

A study evaluating apparent digestibilities of protein and amino acids and their corresponding digestion rates in four small intestinal sites in broiler chickens was completed to further investigate dietary optimisation via synchronised nutrient digestion and absorption. A total of 288 male Ross 308 broiler chickens were offered semi-purified diets with eight protein-rich feedstuffs, including; blood meal (BM), plasma protein meal (PPM), cold pressed (CCM) and expeller-pressed (ECM) canola meal, high (SBM HCP) and low (SBM LCP) crude protein soybean meals, lupins and peas. Diets were iso-caloric, iso-nitrogenous and the test ingredient was the sole source of dietary nitrogen. Each diet was offered to 6 bioassay cages with 6 birds per cage from day 21 to 28 post hatch. On day 28, all birds were euthanized and digesta samples were collected from the proximal jejunum, distal jejunum, proximal ileum and distal ileum to determine apparent protein and amino acids digestibility coefficients, digestion rates and potential digestible protein and amino acids. Dietary protein source significantly influenced energy utilisation, nitrogen retention, apparent protein (N) digestibilities, digestion rates and potential digestible protein along the small intestine. Diets containing BM and SBM LCP exhibited the highest protein digestion rate and potential digestible protein, respectively. Digestibility coefficients and disappearance rates of the majority of amino acids in four sections of the small intestine were influenced by dietary protein source (P < 0.01) and blood meal had the fastest protein digestion rate. In general, jejunal amino acid and protein digestibilities were more variable in comparison to ileal digestibilities, and the differences in protein and amino acid disappearance rates were more pronounced between types of feedstuffs than sources of similar feedstuffs.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Galinhas/fisiologia , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/administração & dosagem , Aminoácidos/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Íleo/metabolismo , Jejuno/metabolismo , Masculino
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111049, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758698

RESUMO

Recent studies identified a novel programmed and regulated cell death that was characterized by a necrotic cell death morphology, termed necroptosis. Lead (Pb) is known as a persistent inorganic environmental pollutant that affects the health of humans and animals worldwide. However, there are no detailed reports of Pb-induced necroptosis of immune tissue. Selenium (Se) is a trace element that antagonizes the toxicity of heavy metals. Here, chickens were randomly divided into four groups, treated with Pb ((CH3OO)2Pb, 150 mg/kg) and/or Se (Na2SeO3, 2 mg/kg), aim to study the effect and mechanism of necroptosis in Pb-induced spleen injury and the antagonistic effects of Se on Pb toxicity. Our results showed that Pb exposure evidently increased the accumulation of Pb in spleen and caused necroptosis by upregulating the expression of RIP1, RIP3 and MLKL, and decreasing Caspase8 expression. Meanwhile, Pb treatment inhibited the activities of SOD, GPX, and CAT, caused the accumulation of NO and MDA, and induced oxidative stress, which promoted the expression of MAPK/NF-κB pathway genes (ERK, JNK, P38, NF-κB and TNF-α) and activated HSPs (HSP27, HSP40, HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90). However, the increased content of Pb in spleen and Pb-caused necroptosis were inhibited by Se cotreatment. Overall, we conclude that Se can prevent Pb-induced necroptosis by restoring antioxidant functions and blocking the MAPK/NF-κB pathway and HSPs activation in chicken spleen.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Chumbo/toxicidade , Necroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Selênio/farmacologia , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/fisiologia
13.
J Anim Sci ; 98(7)2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667675

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to compare the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in 3 poultry by-products including hydrolyzed feather meal (HFM), flash dried poultry protein (FDPP), and poultry meal (PM) and also a meat and bone meal (MBM) between broiler chickens and pigs. Experimental diets consisted of 4 diets containing each test ingredient as a sole source of nitrogen and a nitrogen-free diet. In experiment 1, 416 male broiler chickens with a mean initial body weight (BW) of 705 ± 100 g were allotted to 5 diets with 8 replicate cages per diet in a randomized complete block design with BW as a blocking factor at day 18 posthatching. After 5 d of feeding experimental diets, birds were euthanized by CO2 asphyxiation, and ileal digesta samples were collected from distal two-thirds of the ileum. In experiment 2, 10 barrows with a mean initial BW of 22.1 ± 1.59 kg were surgically fitted with T-cannulas at the distal ileum and allotted to a duplicate 5 × 4 incomplete Latin Square design with 5 diets and 4 periods. Each period lasted for 7 d including 5 d of adaptation and 2 d of ileal digesta collection. Data from experiments 1 and 2 were pooled together and analyzed as a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement with the effects of species (broiler chickens or pigs) and 4 experimental diets (HFM, FDPP, PM, or MBM). There were interactions (P < 0.05) between experimental diets and species in the SID of His, Lys, Thr, Trp, Val, and all dispensable AA except Tyr. In broiler chickens, the SID of Lys in FDPP (73.3%) was greater (P < 0.05) than in HFM (55.7%) but was lower (P < 0.05) than in MBM (86.5%), which was not different from PM (78.7%). In pigs, however, the SID of Lys in FDPP and PM (70.0 and 70.1%, respectively) were greater (P < 0.05) than in HFM (39.0%) but were lower (P < 0.05) than in MBM (79.2%). Broiler chickens fed FDPP and PM had lower (P < 0.05) SID of His, Thr, and Trp than those fed MBM; however, there was no difference in the SID of His, Thr, or Trp among pigs fed FDPP, PM, or MBM. The SID of Val in MBM was greater (P < 0.05) than in the other test ingredients for broiler chickens, but there was no difference in the SID of Val among test ingredients for pigs. Pigs had greater (P < 0.05) SID of Ile and Met than broiler chickens. In conclusion, the pattern of differences in the SID of His, Lys, Thr, Trp, and Val, but not the other indispensable AA, among poultry by-products and MBM were different between broiler chickens and pigs.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Minerais , Produtos Avícolas , Suínos/fisiologia , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Produtos Biológicos , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleo/metabolismo , Masculino , Carne/análise , Especificidade da Espécie
14.
C R Biol ; 343(1): 89-99, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720491

RESUMO

In the present study we hypothesize that aquaporin 4 (AQP4) expression in the chicken oviduct would change during a pause in egg laying that was induced by fasting. Accordingly, the aim of this investigation was to examine the AQP4 mRNA and protein expression, and immunolocalization in the chicken oviduct during the course of regression. The experiment was carried out on laying hens subjected to a pause in laying that was induced by food deprivation for 5 days. Control hens were fed ad libitum. The birds were sacrificed on day 6 of the experiment and all segments of the oviduct were isolated, including the infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, shell gland, and vagina. Subsequently, the gene and protein expressions of AQP4 in the tissues were tested by real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. The relative mRNA expression of AQP4 was the highest in the infundibulum and vagina and the lowest, and least detectable, in the magnum. The level of AQP4 protein was the highest in the infundibulum and the lowest in the magnum. Fasting resulted in a decrease of the AQP4 mRNA expression (P<0.001) in the infundibulum, a decrease in protein abundance (P<0.01) in the shell gland, and an increase in protein level (P<0.001) in the vagina. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated tissue- and cell-dependent localization of AQP4 protein in the oviductal wall. The intensity of staining was as follows: the infundibulum > shell gland > vagina ≥ isthmus ≫ magnum. In the control hens, the immunoreactivity for AQP4 in the vagina was similar, whereas in other oviductal segments, the immunoreactivity was stronger when compared with the chickens subjected to a pause in laying. In summary, these findings suggest that the AQP4 is an essential protein involved in the regulation of water transport required to create a proper microenvironment for fertilization and egg formation in the hen oviduct.


Assuntos
Aquaporina 4/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Privação de Alimentos , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Oviductos/fisiologia , Oviposição , RNA Mensageiro/genética
15.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235600, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628711

RESUMO

Here we aimed for the first time to analyse whether opposite hatching patterns associated or not to high incubation temperature from day 13 to hatching interferes with the thermal preference and response of broilers to heat stress throughout the rearing period. Fertile eggs from 56-week-old broiler breeders (Cobb-500®) were used in a completely randomized trial with a 2x2 factorial arrangement (Short-Long and Long-Short hatching patterns: short time interval between internal and external pipping followed by long time interval between external pipping and hatching, and long time interval between internal and external pipping followed by short time interval between external pipping and hatching, respectively; and control and high incubation temperatures: 37.5°C and 39°C from the 13rd day, respectively). Thermal manipulation from day 13 was chosen because it is known endocrine axes are already established at this time. At hatching, male chicks were reared in climatical chamber with 16 boxes, maintained at the temperature recommended for this strain, with 4 replicates of 18 chicks per treatment. Broilers with Long-Short hatching pattern and from eggs incubation at 37.5°C preferred the lowest ambient temperature at all analyzed ages, whereas broilers with Short-Long hatching pattern and from eggs incubated at 39°C preferred the highest temperatures from 21 days of age. Heat-exposed broilers showed increased respiratory frequency in all ages analyzed, which should have to contributed to maintainance of their rectal (body) temperature. The hatching patterns did not influence the feed intake, but broilers with Short-Long hatching pattern had better feed conversion, weight gain, and body weight. High incubation temperature reduced the feed consumption, as well as the weight gain and body weight by worsening the feed conversion. The results of this study reveal that hatching patterns associated or not to high incubation temperature influence the broiler thermal preference and heat response throughout the rearing period. Chicks with Long-Short and Short-Long hatching patterns should be reared separately, although this is not practical within a hatcher.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Animais , Reprodução , Respiração
16.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13419, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602235

RESUMO

The main objective of this work was to study the effects of banana flour as energy sources on broiler performance. Seventy-five broilers were randomly distributed into five groups each with 15 broilers (n = 15 broilers/group). The broilers were grouped to maize-soybean meal diet as control, T1 : (5% of banana flour), T2 : (10% of banana flour), T3 : (15% of banana flour), and T4 : (20% of banana flour). The parameters analyzed in this research were body weight, daily weight gain, and daily feed intake at days 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40. The results showed no significant effects on body weight during the time of assessment, showing healthy values (>1,400 g) in all treatments (p > .05). Daily Weight gain was affected significantly during the days of assessment (p < .05). In all treatments and at different days of assessment, T3 showed the highest daily weight gain at day 10 (37.56 ± 4.52 g) compared to the other experimental treatments. Regarding daily feed intake, significant differences were observed at day 10 in the control and treatments T1 , T2 , T3 , and T4 compared to days 20, 30, and 40 (p < .05), being the highest value for T1 (35.14 ± 2.77).


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Peso Corporal , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Musa , Animais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Soja , Ganho de Peso , Zea mays
17.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13405, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613715

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of beak trimming on a local broiler breed. A total of 648 one-day-old birds were randomly allocated into three treatments: no trimming (NBT), infrared beak trimming (IRBT), and hot-blade beak trimming (HBBT). The performance, beak length, behavior, carcass traits, organ percentages, and meat quality were inspected. The body weight (BW) from 7 to 35 days in the IRBT group was significantly lower than that in the NBT group, and the BW from 7 to 49 days was lower than that in the HBBT group (p < .05). Compared with untrimmed birds, birds in the IRBT group had lower average daily feed intake (ADFI) from 15 to 21 days, and higher heart percentage and L* value in the breast muscle. The upper beak length at 28 and 49 days of age were longest in untrimmed birds, intermediate in birds in the HBBT group, and shortest in the IRBT groups (p <.05). No evidence was found that HBBT caused changes in performance, behavior, carcass traits, organ percentages, and meat quality except for lower change in spleen percentage. Taken together, IRBT had more influence at inhibiting early BW, ADFI, and upper beak length than HBBT in the local broiler breed.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Bico , Comportamento Animal , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Abrigo para Animais , Carne , Animais , Bico/anatomia & histologia , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Masculino , Baço/anatomia & histologia
18.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13400, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512640

RESUMO

Biochemical and hematological examination of blood and individual assessment of the birds were performed in Lohman Brown laying hens at 45 weeks of age housed in different systems. The biochemical examination revealed higher (p < .01) corticosterone levels, creatine kinase, and aspartate aminotransferase activity and lower (p < .01) levels of lactate, triglycerides, albumin, calcium, and phosphorus in aviary hens compared to hens housed in furnished cages. Hematological examination of hens housed in aviaries revealed higher (p < .05) hematocrit, leukocytes, heterophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, and H/L ratio. Furthermore, hens housed in aviaries had lower (p < .01) body weight than hens in furnished cages, they were worse feathered (p < .001), had more damaged combs (p < .05), and poorer physical condition (p < .01). In contrast, caged hens showed worse (p < .01) feather condition of the wings due to abrasion and claws due to overgrowth. The results have shown that the housing system has a significant impact on the internal environment and condition of birds and that housing in aviaries without taking into account the specifics of such housing may lead to significant stress and disturbance to the welfare of laying hens.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Galinhas/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Meio Ambiente , Abrigo para Animais , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Peso Corporal , Corticosterona/sangue , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Plumas/patologia , Feminino , Oviposição
19.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13409, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524726

RESUMO

This study was aimed to explore the comparative acidifying properties of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMTBA) and a combination of DL-methionine (DLM) and acidifier in male broiler production. A total of 480 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into four treatments: A (low HMTBA, 0.057% HMTBA); B (low acidifier, 0.05% DLM + 0.057% acidifier); C (high HMTBA, 0.284% HMTBA); and D (high acidifier, 0.25% DLM + 0.284% acidifier). At 21 d, growth performance, chyme pH, digestive enzyme activities, and intestinal microflora were measured. The pH of crop, gizzard, and ileum contents was higher in the HMTBA treatment group than in DLM + acidifier treatment group. Furthermore, acidifier supplementation promoted growth of butyrate-producing bacteria such as Faecalibacterium, whereas high HMTBA (0.284%) inhibited the proliferation of acid-producing bacteria including Roseburia and Collinsella. The chymotrypsin activity was lower in the HMTBA group than in the DLM + acidifier group. In contrast, high-level HMTBA group showed higher average daily gain and average daily feed intake than the DLM + acidifier group. These results suggested that HMTBA work through different pathways with DLM plus acidifier.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/microbiologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Metionina/análogos & derivados , Metionina/farmacologia , Animais , Quimotripsina/metabolismo , Papo das Aves , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Moela das Aves , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Íleo , Masculino , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234983, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574224

RESUMO

The reduction and simplification of grasslands has led to the decline of numerous species of grassland fauna, particularly grassland-obligate birds. Prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus spp.) are an example of obligate grassland birds that have declined throughout most of their distribution and are species of conservation concern. Pyric herbivory has been suggested as a land management strategy for enhancing prairie-chicken habitat and stabilizing declining population trends. We assessed differences in vegetation structure created by pyric herbivory compared to fire-only treatments to determine whether pyric herbivory increased habitat heterogeneity for prairie-chickens, spatially or temporally. Our study was performed at four sites in the southern Great Plains, all within the current or historic distribution of either lesser (T. pallidicinctus), greater (T. cupido), or Attwater's (T. cupido attwateri) prairie-chickens. Key vegetation characteristics of grass cover and vegetation height in pyric herbivory and fire-only treatments were within the recommended range of values for prairie-chickens during their distinct life history stages. However, patches managed via pyric herbivory provided approximately 5% more forb cover than fire-only treatments for almost 30 months post-fire. Additionally, pyric herbivory extended the length of time bare ground was present after fires. Pyric herbivory also reduced vegetation height and biomass, with mean vegetation height in pyric herbivory treatments lagging behind fire-only treatments by approximately 15 months. Canopy cover in fire-only treatments exceeded levels recommended for prairie-chicken young within 12 months post-fire. However, canopy cover in pyric herbivory treatments never exceeded the maximum recommended levels. Overall, it appears that pyric herbivory improves vegetation characteristics reported as critical to prairie-chicken reproduction. Based on our results, we suggest pyric herbivory as a viable management technique to promote prairie-chicken habitat in the southern Great Plains, while still accommodating livestock production.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Fogo , Pradaria , Herbivoria , Animais , Biomassa
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