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1.
Vet Med Sci ; 10(2): e31367, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38356455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alternatives to antibiotics have been suggested by banning their use in the poultry industry. Garlic and mushroom are two important phytobiotic compounds in poultry nutrition. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing diets with garlic and mushroom powder (MP) on growth performance, humoural and cellular immunity, and white blood cell counts of broiler chickens. METHODS: Five hundred and seventy-six 1-day-old male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were assigned to 8 treatments with 6 replications (12 birds per replication) based on a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement of 4 × 2 with 4 levels of garlic powder (GP; 0.00%, 0.50%, 1.00%, and 1.50%) and two levels of MP (0.00% and 1.00%). RESULTS: No significant effects of GP and MP on the growth performance and cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity were observed (p > 0.05). According to the regression equation, with increasing levels of GP in the diets, the relative weight of the bursa of Fabricius and thymus increased (p < 0.05). The effect of increasing levels of GP on the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) titre was greater in the absence of MP (p < 0.05). With increasing levels of GP in the diets, the percentages of lymphocytes and heterophils to lymphocytes ratio increased and reduced, respectively (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This experiment has revealed that increasing the level of GP improved the immune response of broilers without affecting performance. The effect of increasing the level of GP on the NDV titre was more significant in the absence of MP.


Assuntos
Agaricus , Alho , Animais , Masculino , Galinhas/fisiologia , Pós , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle , Imunidade Celular
2.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 96(1): e20191322, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359285

RESUMO

Dry residue of cassava was studied on the digestibility, performance, intestinal measurements, with or without inclusion of carbohydrases, of slow-growing broilers. 160 Label Rouge broiler chickens, 21-d-old, were distributed in a randomized, 2x5 factorial arrangement (male and female x 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% residue) (metabolism trial). 1,100 male chicks were distributed in a 2x5 factorial arrangement (with/without carbohydrases x 0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; and 10.0% residue), with five replicates (performance trial). Increasing residue levels led to increases in energetic values. Feed intake from 1-21-d-old and 1-63-d-old decreased linearly. At 42 d-old, feed intake and weight gain levels exhibited a quadratic response, which predicted a highest value at 3.32% and 4.77%, respectively, for diets without carbohydrases. For 21- and 42-d-old chickens, the inclusion of carbohydrases reduced the weight and length of the small intestine. The energetic values of the diets were positively influenced by the residue and had similar digestibility values for both sexes. Inclusion of up to 10% of residue in slow-growing broiler diets does not impaired performance and intestinal morphology. The addition of carbohydrases reduced the viscosity of the digesta but it was not enough to improve the performance of the birds.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Manihot , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Galinhas/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Manihot/química , Dieta/veterinária , Verduras , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Digestão
3.
Poult Sci ; 103(2): 103335, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38176364

RESUMO

Alternative methods to alleviate coccidiosis in broilers are of interest to producers, including dietary strategies to minimize disruptions in growth rate and efficiency when faced with health challenges. Our objective was to determine optimal combinations of dietary starch, amino acids (AA), and oil to benefit productivity of broilers experiencing Eimeria-induced immune activation. Two trials were conducted using 1,536 male Ross 308 broiler chicks in floor pens randomly assigned to 1 of 17 experimental treatments. All birds received common starter (d 0-10) and finisher (d 24-35) diets, and only differed based on their assigned experimental grower diet (d 10-24). Trial 1 experimental grower diets ranged from 2,700 to 3,300 kcal/kg AME. Trial 2 included 10 experimental grower diets following a simplex lattice design consisting of 3 basal lots formulated to have the highest starch (45.4%), oil (10.2%), or AA density (120, 1.33% digestible Lys) and mixed in 4 equally spaced levels for each component (0, 0.33, 0.67, 1). These mixtures enabled varying densities of AA (80-120% of recommendation), starch:oil (4:1-20:1), and AME (2,940-3,450 kcal/kg). Bird and feeder weights were collected on d 0, 10, 24, and 35, and birds were exposed to an Eimeria challenge on d 11 or 12. In trial 2, excreta samples were collected for AME determination and carcasses were processed on d 36. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, t test, or regression. In Trial 1, BW gain and feed conversion were improved (P < 0.05) by increasing dietary AME. In Trial 2, birds receiving diets containing AA at 93 to 107% of recommendations and higher oil exhibited improved (P < 0.05) performance, but increased starch at the expense of oil reduced performance (P < 0.05). Relative breast and fat pad weights were not influenced by diet in Trial 2. We determined that broilers mildly challenged with Eimeria would exhibit highest BW gain when receiving diets containing 35.8% starch, 8.9% oil, and 101.3% of AA recommendations, which can be utilized by producers to maintain productivity under health-challenged conditions.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Eimeria , Animais , Masculino , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Distribuição Aleatória , Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiose/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Eimeria/fisiologia , Carboidratos da Dieta , Amido , Suplementos Nutricionais
4.
Poult Sci ; 103(2): 103337, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38215503

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Dunaliella salina and Spirulina (D + S) mixture on performance, carcass yield, kidney and liver markers, lipid profile, and immune responses of fattening chicks. Two hundred broiler chicks at 7 days old were distributed into 5 experimental groups, 5 replicates each with 8 chicks each. Group 1 was fed on only basal diet; group 2 was fed with basal diet and 0.50 g/kg (D + S); group 3 was fed with basal diet and 1.00 g/kg (D + S); group 4 was fed with basal diet and 1.50 g/kg (D + S); and group 5 was fed with basal diet supplemented with 2.00 g/kg (D + S). The additive mixture (D + S) consisted of (1 D. salina: 1 Spirulina). The experiment lasted for 6 wk. The results demonstrated significantly improved better live body weight, body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio (P<0.01) for groups that received (D + S) at levels of 1.0 and 1.5 g/kg diet compared to other groups at 6 wk of age. There was no significant influence of different levels of dietary feed additives on feed intake or carcass traits. The lipid profile was improved through a reduction of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) values and increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) values, as well as the immune response, which was improved through increasing values of complement 3, immunoglobulin M (IgM), and immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the birds treated with (D + S) compared to the control group. The inclusion of all levels of (D + S)/kg decreased triglyceride, while total protein, albumen, and globulin values (P<0.05 or P<0.01) were higher compared to other groups. The inclusion of the different levels of (D + S)/kg improved liver function, whereas aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values were lower than in other groups (P<0.001). The lowest values of creatinine, urea, and uric acid were noted in birds fed a diet supplemented with 1.50 g (D + S)/kg. Antioxidant levels were improved through increasing values of catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) enzymes in the treated birds with (D + S) compared with the control chicks. Furthermore, digestive enzymes and microbial content were improved in broiler checks fed on diet supplemented with (D + S) compared to the control group. In conclusion, supplementing broiler chicks with a dietary D. salina and Spirulina combination increased their productive performance, immunity, kidney and liver function, lipid profile, and digestive enzymes.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Spirulina , Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Peso Corporal , Lipídeos , Ração Animal/análise
5.
Res Vet Sci ; 168: 105157, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38266350

RESUMO

The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of dietary fish oil and pioglitazone as peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) activating ligands on the reduction of cold-induced ascites in broiler chickens. A total of 480 one-day-old (Ross 308) male chicks were randomly allocated to four treatment groups with eight replicates of 15 birds each. The following treatments were used: 1) ambient temperature (negative control), with basal diet; 2) cold-induced ascites (positive control), with basal diet; 3) cold-induced ascites, with basal diet +10 mg/kg/day pioglitazone and 4) cold-induced ascites, with basal diet +1% of fish oil. When compared with the positive control, body weight gain was higher (P ≤ 0.05) for broilers fed diets containing fish oil and pioglitazone at 28, 42, and 0-42 d. Broilers under cold-induced ascites had the highest blood pressure at 21 and 42 d, while fish oil and pioglitazone treatment reduced the blood pressure (P ≤ 0.05). Red blood cells, white blood cells, hematocrit, erythrocyte osmotic fragility, bursa of Fabricius and spleen weights were improved (P ≤ 0.05) for chickens fed fish oil diets and pioglitazone compared to the cold-induced ascites (positive control). Exposure to cold temperature resulted in an increase in plasma T3 and T3/T4 ratio and decline in plasma T4 (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, PPARγ agonist pioglitazone and fish oil as source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid could be used as a strategy to reduce the negative effects of pulmonary arterial hypertension and ascites in broiler chickens.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar , Animais , Masculino , Galinhas/fisiologia , PPAR gama , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/veterinária , Pioglitazona/uso terapêutico , Ascite/veterinária , Resposta ao Choque Frio , Dieta/veterinária , Óleos de Peixe , Ração Animal/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais
6.
J Anim Sci ; 1022024 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38233345

RESUMO

This study was aimed to explore the elevating energy utilization efficiency mechanism for the potentially ameliorative effect of guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) addition on growth performance of broilers fed a low metabolizable energy (LME) diet. A total of 576 d old broilers were randomly allocated to one of the six treatments: a basal diet (normal ME, positive control, PC), or an LME diet (50 kcal/kg reduction in ME, negative control, NC) supplemented with 0.02%, 0.04%, 0.06%, and 0.08% GAA from 1 to 42 d of age, respectively. The GAA fortification in LME diet linearly or quadratically dropped (P < 0.05) the feed conversion ratio (FCR) from 22 to 42 and 1 to 42 d of age, abdominal fat rate on day 42, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) on day 21, and serum creatinine (CREAN) on days 21 and 42, elevated (P < 0.05) breast muscle rate and leg muscle rate on day 42, serum creatine kinase (CK) on days 21 and 42, as well as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) on day 21. The dietary optimal GAA levels were 0.03%-0.08% based on the best-fitted quadratic models (P < 0.03) of the above parameters. Thus, the PC, LME, and 0.04% GAA-LME groups were selected for further analysis. Serum essential amino acids (EAA) tryptophan, histidine and arginine, non-essential amino acids (NEEA) serine, glutamine and aspartic acid were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), compared to PC diet by LME or 0.04% GAA-LME diet. 0.04% GAA-LME group reversed (P < 0.05) the reduction of arginine, 3-methyhistidine, and 1-methylhistidine by LME diet. Besides, six birds at 28 d of age from LME and 0.04% GAA-LME groups were selected for energy utilization observation in calorimetry chambers. The results demonstrated that 0.04% GAA-LME group significantly improved (P < 0.05) the ME intake (MEI) and net energy (NE) compared to the LME diet. Overall, these findings suggest that 0.04% GAA is the ideal dose of broilers fed the LME diet, which can significantly improve the growth performance and carcass characteristics by modulation of creatine metabolism through elevating serum CK activity and arginine concentration.


Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) has been found to elevate energy utilization efficiency in broilers; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the effects of GAA addition in low metabolizable energy (LME) diet on growth performance, carcass characteristics and serum biochemical indices of broilers, and found that GAA addition linearly or quadratically dropped the feed conversion ratio from 22 to 42 and 1 to 42 d of age, abdominal fat rate on day 42, serum alanine aminotransferase on day 21, and serum creatinine on days 21 and 42, elevated breast muscle and leg muscle rate on day 42, serum creatine kinase, alkaline phosphatase, as well as lactate dehydrogenase on days 21 or 22. The dietary optimal GAA levels were 0.03%-0.08% based on the best-fitted quadratic models of the above parameters. Thus, further analysis was conducted and found that 0.04% GAA reversed the reduction of arginine, 3-methyhistidine, and 1-methylhistidine and improved the ME intake and net energy compared to the LME diet. These findings suggested that 0.04% GAA is the ideal dose for enhancing the energy utilization of broilers fed the LME diet, GAA addition can significantly improve the growth performance by elevating energy utilization efficiency through modulation serum metabolite profile.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Metabolismo Energético , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Arginina/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 94, 2024 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38168551

RESUMO

The short periods of incubation during egg storage (SPIDES) method enhances the quality of chicks and improves hatching rates. Additionally, embryonic thermal conditioning (TC) is a technique used to enhance thermotolerance in birds. Previous studies have evaluated the effects of SPIDES and embryonic TC separately. Yet, our hypothesis postulated that a synergistic effect could be achieved by integrating TC and SPIDES, thereby enhancing the broilers' resilience to thermal stress. We conducted an experiment involving 800 Ross broiler eggs, divided into two groups. The first group, referred to as S0, was maintained under standard storage room conditions and acted as our control group. The second group, known as S1, underwent a process called SPIDES for 5 h at a temperature of 37.8 ± 0.1 °C, on three occasions: days 5, 10, and 15 following egg collection. Upon reaching the 14th day of incubation (DOI), each of these primary groups was randomly subdivided into two equal subgroups. The control subgroup, designated as TC0, remained in the usual incubation conditions. Meanwhile, the other subgroup, TC1, was subjected to prenatal heat conditioning at a temperature of 39.5 ± 0.1 °C for 6 h per day, commencing on the 14th embryonic day (E) and extending until the 18th embryonic day (E). This experimental setup resulted in four distinct experimental subgroups: S0TC0, S1TC0, S0TC1, and S1TC1. The findings indicated that the combined application of SPIDES and TC had a significant positive effect on chick performance after hatching. Specifically, the (S1TC1) group exhibited the heaviest live body weight (LBW) and body weight gain (BWG) at the marketing age in comparison to the other groups. Furthermore, both SPIDES and TC had a positive influence on the relative weights of breast muscles and their histological measurements. The (S1TC1) group displayed significantly higher values in terms of the relative weight of breast muscles and the number of myocytes. In conclusion, SPIDES and TC have beneficial effects on pre- and post-hatch characteristics of broiler chicks up until the marketing age. Additionally, TC techniques improve chick performance, particularly under conditions of heat stress, and enhance the yield of breast muscle in later stages of life.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Termotolerância , Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura , Aumento de Peso
8.
Poult Sci ; 103(2): 103319, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38141274

RESUMO

Poultry meat is a highly esteemed product among consumers. However, the emphasis on increasing body weight has led to a rise in the proportion of rapidly shrinking fibers, adversely affecting the quality and shelf life of poultry meat. With a growing awareness of dietetics among consumers, there is an increasing challenge to produce chicken meat that is not only free of antibiotics but also beneficial for dietary and health reasons. Biogenic amines (BA) can serve as indicators of meat freshness and quality. While they play vital roles in the body, excessive consumption of BA can have toxic and carcinogenic effects. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of supplementing feed with garlic extract and ß-alanine (ß-Ala) on the formation of BA and amino acid (AA) levels in the breast and leg muscles of chickens stored under aerobic chilling conditions. The muscles were obtained from chickens fed with garlic extract and ß-Ala in quantities of 0.5 and 2% for each additive, as well as 0.5 and 2% of their combination. Analyses were conducted on d 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 of storage. ß-Ala supplementation increased the proportion of this AA in breast (P < 0.01) and leg muscles (P < 0.01), along with a rise in the proportion of nonessential AA (NEAA; sum of aspartic, aspartic acid, glutamic, glutamic acid, serine, ß-Ala, and proline) (P < 0.01). The levels of BA changed during storage in breast and leg muscles (P < 0.001). The applied diet significantly influenced the formation of putrescine (P = 0.030), phenylethylamine (P = 0.003), agmatine (P = 0.025), and total BA (P < 0.001) in breast muscles. On the 10 d of storage, the breast muscles exhibited the lowest BA index (BAI) in the group, with a diet supplemented with 0.5% garlic extract and 0.5% ß-Ala (P < 0.05). The leg muscles showed a similar BA trend as the breast muscles. These supplements may be utilized in production to augment the protein content of chicken muscles and potentially decrease the BAI index during meat storage.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Alho , Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Antioxidantes , Aminas Biogênicas , beta-Alanina , Carne/análise , Extratos Vegetais , Ração Animal/análise
9.
Poult Sci ; 103(2): 103307, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38147727

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of pre-slaughter fasting time on the relationship between skeletal muscle protein degradation levels at slaughter and chicken meat quality after 48 h of postmortem aging. Twenty-four broiler chicks at 0 d of age were used in this study until 28 d of age. At 27 d of age, the chickens were assigned to 4 treatment groups: 0 h of fasting (0H), 8 h of fasting (8H), 16 h of fasting (16H), or 24 h of fasting (24H). They were slaughtered at 28 d of age. Blood samples were collected before fasting and immediately before slaughter. Plasma Nτ-methylhistidine concentration, an index of skeletal muscle protein degradation level, and muscle free amino acid concentration were analyzed. Antemortem changes in individual plasma Nτ-methylhistidine concentrations were significantly increased in 8H, 16H, and 24H compared to that in 0H (P < 0.05). After 48 h of postmortem storage, the glutamic acid content in the pectoralis major muscles increased with fasting time (P < 0.05), and the umami taste of chicken soup in the fasting groups (8H, 16H, 24H) was higher than that in the 0H group (P < 0.05). The antemortem changes in plasma Nτ-methylhistidine concentrations were correlated with glutamic acid content in the pectoralis major muscles (r = 0.57, P < 0.05) and umami taste (r = 0.66, P < 0.05). These results suggest that skeletal muscle protein degradation levels at slaughter are related to postmortem chicken meat quality, especially glutamic acid content and umami taste.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Galinhas , Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Proteólise , Ácido Glutâmico/farmacologia , Jejum , Músculo Esquelético , Metilistidinas , Carne/análise
10.
Poult Sci ; 103(2): 103381, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38157786

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) supplementation on intestinal development and functions, inflammatory response, antioxidant capacity and the related signaling pathways in broilers aged d 1 to 14. A total of 240 one-day old male Arbor Acres broilers (40.47 ± 0.30 g) were randomly allotted to 4 groups, and each group consisted of 6 replicate pens with 10 broilers per replicate. Broilers fed a basal diet supplementation with COS at 0 (CON group), 200 (COS200 group), 400 (COS400 group), and 800 mg/kg (COS800 group) for 14 d, respectively. Broilers in the COS supplementation groups had no significant effects on growth performance. Compared to the CON group, dietary COS supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the relative weight of duodenum, jejunal lipase activity, duodenal and ileal villus surface area, and lower (P < 0.05) ileal amylase and alkaline phosphatase activity, and crypt depth. The expression level of duodenal glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), Na+-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1), peptide transporter 1 (PepT1), occludin, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), and interleukin-10 (IL-10), jejunal SGLT1, PepT1, occludin, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and ileal SGLT1, PepT1, and fatty acid binding protein 1 (FABP1) was upregulated by COS. However, the expression level of duodenal FABP1 and TNF-α, jejunal GLUT1, ZO-1, TLR4, MyD88, nuclear factor kappa-B p65 (NF-κB p65), and IL-1ß, and ileal GLUT1, NF-κB p65, and IL-1ß was downregulated by COS. Furthermore, dietary COS supplementation increased duodenal catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity, jejunal CAT and T-SOD activity, upregulated the expression level of duodenal nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), CAT, glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1), and copper and zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD), jejunal CAT, and ileal Nrf2, CAT, and GPX1. These results suggested that COS could promote intestinal development and functions in broilers aged d 1 to 14, which might be mediated by alleviating intestinal inflammatory response and enhancing antioxidant capacity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Quitosana , Masculino , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Quitosana/farmacologia , Quitosana/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ocludina/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1 , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Dieta , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise
11.
Poult Sci ; 103(2): 103326, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38157789

RESUMO

Two experiments were conducted to determine the impact of Ca, phytase, sampling time, and age on the digestibility (AID) of Ca and P and the expression of their transporters. Cobb 500 male chicks (N = 600) were used in each experiment and allocated to cages with 10 (Exp 1, 8-11 d) or 5 (Exp 2, 21-24 d) birds/cage and 10 (Exp 1) or 20 (Exp 2) reps/treatment. Treatments were a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, with low (LOW) or standard (STD) Ca level and 3 phytase (PHY) levels (0, 300, or 3,000 FYT/kg). Ileal digesta were collected at 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h, and jejunum tissues at 12, 48, and 72 h after the start of feeding experimental diets. In Exp 1, there was no effect of Ca or phytase on the AID of Ca at 8, 12, or 24 h. Phytase increased the AID of P (P < 0.05) at all time points, and the magnitude was influenced by Ca. At 12 h, the mRNA level of P (NaPi-IIb) and Ca (CaSR) transporters was greatest in the LOW diets without phytase (Ca × PHY, P ≤ 0.06). In Exp 2, the STD diet decreased the AID of Ca and P (P < 0.05) at 8, 24, 48, or 72 h. Phytase increased the AID of Ca (P < 0.05) at 8, 12, and 24 h, and decreased the AID of Ca (quadratic, P < 0.05) in the STD diet (48 h). The AID of P (P < 0.05) increased with phytase at all sampling times. At 48 h, 3,000 FYT/kg decreased (P < 0.05) mRNA expression of NaPi-IIb and Ca transporter ATP2B1 in the STD diet (Ca × PHY, P < 0.05). In conclusion, to avoid adaptation of broilers to Ca and P deficiencies, the optimal time on experimental diets is ≤ 48 h for young broilers and ≤ 24 h in older birds due to up- or down-regulation of Ca and P transporters in response to dietary Ca, P, and phytase.


Assuntos
6-Fitase , Galinhas , Animais , Masculino , Galinhas/fisiologia , 6-Fitase/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Dieta/veterinária , Minerais , Nutrientes , Suplementos Nutricionais , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Digestão
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(5): 2708-2717, 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38131116

RESUMO

Our previous study screened out dietary 0.1% dimethylglycine (DMG), which had beneficial effects on egg production and fat deposition in laying hens during the late laying period. In this paper, it was further found that dietary DMG alleviated fatty liver disease and enhanced lipid deposited into the yolk while promoting hepatic lipid transport. There are intestinal estrogen-metabolizing bacteria (EBM) having ß-glucuronase (GUS) activity that regulates the content of circulating estrogen (E2) in mammals. There were 39 related bacteria found in laying hens, and DMG increased E2 in blood, Staphylococcus abundance among EBM and GUS activity in cecum chyme. Interfered in situ, Staphylococcus with GUS activity was proved the target bacteria for DMG. Furthermore, E2 could modify hepatic lipid deposition through promoting lipid transport by the steatosis LMH model. These perspectives confirm that DMG, mediated by Staphylococcus, alleviates the restriction of hepatic lipid transport due to reduced levels of E2 in laying hens.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Sarcosina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Feminino , Galinhas/fisiologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Dieta , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Lipídeos , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Mamíferos
13.
Poult Sci ; 103(2): 103347, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38150828

RESUMO

Selenium (i.e., Se) is a trace element that is vital in poultry nutrition, and optimal forms and levels of Se are critical for poultry productivity and health. This study aimed to compare the effects of sodium selenite (SS), yeast selenium (SY), and methionine selenium (SM) at selenium levels of 0.15 mg/kg and 0.30 mg/kg on production performance, egg quality, egg selenium content, antioxidant capacity, immunity and selenoprotein expression in laying hens. The trial was conducted in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, and a total of 576 forty-three-wk-old Hyland Brown laying hens were randomly assigned into 6 treatment groups, with diets supplemented with 0.15 mg Se/kg and 0.3 mg Se/kg of SS, SY and SM for 8 wk, respectively. Results revealed that SM increased the laying rate compared to SS and SY (P < 0.05), whereas different selenium levels had no effect. Organic selenium improved egg quality, preservation performance, and selenium deposition compared to SS (P < 0.05), while SY and SM had different preferences for Se deposition in the yolk and albumen. Also, organic selenium enhanced the antioxidant capacity and immune functions of laying hens at 0.15 mg Se/kg, whereas no obvious improvement was observed at 0.30 mg Se/kg. Moreover, SY and SM increased the mRNA expression of most selenoproteins compared to SS (P < 0.05), with SM exhibiting a more pronounced effect. Correlation analysis revealed a strong positive association between glutathione peroxidase 2 (GPx2), thioredoxin reductases (TrxRs), selenoprotein K (SelK), selenoprotein S (SelS), and antioxidant and immune properties. In conclusion, the use of low-dose organic selenium is recommended as a more effective alternative to inorganic selenium, and a dosage of 0.15 mg Se/kg from SM is recommended based on the trail conditions.


Assuntos
Selênio , Animais , Feminino , Selênio/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Óvulo/química , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Selenito de Sódio , Ração Animal/análise
14.
Poult Sci ; 103(2): 103325, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38096670

RESUMO

Modern broilers are highly susceptible to environmental and pathogenic threats, leading to gut disorders and poor nutrient utilization if not managed properly. Nutritional programming using several feedstuffs and coproducts to manage gut health has been studied. This study used microalgae as a functional compound and xylanase enzyme in broilers' diets as a strategy to manage gut health. A total of 162 one-day-old unsexed Cobb 500 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1 of the 3 dietary treatments: a) corn-soybean meal-based control diet (CON), b) 3% microalgae (MAG), and c) MAG with xylanase enzyme (MAG+XYN). The chicks were reared for 35 days (d) on a floor pen system maintaining standard environment conditions to evaluate the effects of microalgae, with or without xylanase supplementation, on serum immunoglobulins, cecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) production, cecal microbial diversity, and metabolic pathways. No significant differences were found for serum immunoglobulin and cecal SCFA among the treatment groups (P > 0.05). Relative microbial abundance at the genus level showed that MAG and MAG+XYN groups had a diverse microbial community on d 3 and d 35. However, no bacterial genus had a significant difference (P > 0.05) in their relative abundance on d 3, but 16 genera showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in their relative abundance among the dietary treatments on d 35. Most of these bacteria were SCFA-producing bacteria. Moreover, MAG and MAG+XYN-fed broilers had better responses than CON groups for metabolic pathways (D-mannose degradation, pectin degradation I and II, ß-1-4-mannan degradation, tetrahydrofolate biosynthesis, glutathione biosynthesis, glutathione-peroxide redox reactions, lactate fermentation to propionate, acetate, and hydrogen, etc.) both on d 3 and d 35. The results suggest that using microalgae, with or without xylanase, had no statistical impact on serum immunoglobulins and cecal SCFA production in broilers. However, an improvement in the cecal microbial diversity and metabolic pathways, which are essential indicators of gut health and nutrient utilization, was observed. Most of the improved metabolic pathways were related to fiber utilization and oxidative stress reduction.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Microalgas , Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Glutationa/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
15.
Poult Sci ; 103(2): 103336, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38103531

RESUMO

Despite its importance in poultry research, there is lack of standardized and practical techniques to measure intestinal permeability in a noninvasive manner. Therefore, this research sought to standardize a procedure using lactulose (Lac) and mannitol (Man) to measure intestinal barrier function in broilers. Twenty-one-day-old male and female Ross 308 birds were orally gavaged (either 2 mL/kg BW or fixed 3 mL per bird) with a solution containing 5 to 25 g Lac and 1 to 5 g Man dissolved in pure water to reach 100 mL of final solution. Feed withdrawal (FW; 2-24-h duration) prior to dosing with Lac and Man (LacMan) was mainly used to induce graded intestinal permeability. Blood samples were collected at 60-, 90-, or 120-min after LacMan dosing using serum or plasma (K2EDTA and/or Na-Heparin) blood tubes. Lac and Man concentrations were quantified by HPLC. Plasma samples collected 90-min after LacMan dosing elicited the least variable response (22.4% vs. 22.8% or 23.4% CV when compared with 60- and 120-min sampling time-points, respectively), and both markers were detectable after administering a solution containing the lowest concentration of Lac and Man. However, analytical problems arose when using Na-Heparin anticoagulant as high glucose levels interfered with Lac quantification. Upon improving the chromatographic technique, it became evident that a 24-h FW increased (P < 0.01) Lac concentrations. In the last trial, a more severe glucose interference was observed, resulting in no Lac detection within an entire treatment group. Twelve hours of FW increased (P < 0.01) Man concentration in the plasma of birds receiving the solution containing 3 g Man, but had no effect on the birds receiving the solution containing 5 g Man. A 24-h FW did not affect the Man concentrations in birds receiving the solution containing either 3 or 5 g Man. With inconsistency of Lac detection throughout our trials, it was concluded that the combination of Lac and Man is an unreliable marker to predict intestinal barrier function in broilers.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Lactulose , Humanos , Masculino , Animais , Feminino , Galinhas/fisiologia , Permeabilidade , Manitol , Glucose , Heparina
16.
Poult Sci ; 103(2): 103323, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38103530

RESUMO

The current study aimed to determine the effects of different levels of fermented Juncao grass (FG) on growth parameters, blood constituents, immunity, and antioxidative properties of broilers. A total of 240 (21-d-old) broiler chicks were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments of sixty birds, with six replicate pens and ten birds in each. Fermented grass was added to the basal diet at four levels with 0, 5, 10, and 15% FG. The results revealed that broilers fed 5% FG had significantly higher (P < 0.05) final body weight (FBW), average daily gain (WG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI). The best conversion ratio (FCR) was recorded for broilers supplemented with 5% FG compared to the group supplemented with 15% FG (P < 0.05). Increasing FG % decreased (P < 0.05) anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10. However, FG increased (P < 0.05) proinflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, IL-1, IL-2, IL-12, and TNF-α (P < 0.05). Moreover, IgA, IgG, and IgM levels increased (P < 0.05) with increasing FG %. In addition, increasing FG % in broiler rations significantly increased (P < 0.05) serum antioxidant levels of T-AOC, GSH-PX, SOD, CAT, NO and GSH, but decreased (P < 0.05) MDA levels compared to the control group. Conclusively, fermented Juncao grass would be considered a novel herbal feed additive for improving broiler performance, immunity, antioxidant, and health status. Nevertheless, further research at the molecular level is needed to quantify the effects of these herbal components on cellular and humoral immune functions in broiler chickens.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Galinhas , Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta/veterinária , Citocinas , Imunidade , Ração Animal/análise
17.
Poult Sci ; 103(2): 103346, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38128457

RESUMO

It is a common practice to provide fast-growing broilers with high-fat diets in the context of integrated farms in Northeast China. Therefore, fat digestion, absorption, and utilization efficiency are critical for broiler meat production. Bile acids (BA) promote fat digestion and absorption, but whether and how BA affects muscle growth in broilers remains unclear. In this study, 1-day-old broilers were fed diets containing varying levels of crude fat (low, medium, and high) with or without BA supplementation for 42 d. Chickens fed a high-fat diet supplemented with BA exhibited significantly (P < 0.05) higher body weight (BW) at 21 d and average daily gain (ADG) during the first 21 d compared to the other groups. Throughout the entire experiment, feed conversion rate (FCR) was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the high-fat group without the addition of BA, which was further decreased (P < 0.05) with BA supplementation. The improved growth performance in the BA-supplemented high-fat group was associated with significantly (P < 0.05) higher lipase activity in the small intestine chyme, a decreased trend (P = 0.06) in abdominal fat ratio, and significantly (P < 0.05) higher breast muscle mass. Histological analysis revealed significant (P < 0.05) increases in myofiber diameter, cross-sectional area, and RNA and DNA concentrations in the breast muscle of BA-supplemented broilers on the high-fat diet. Additional histological analysis further revealed significant (P < 0.05) enhancements in myofiber diameter, cross-sectional area, and RNA and DNA concentrations within the breast muscles of broilers supplemented with BA and a high-fat diet. The increased insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) in the breast muscle of broilers fed a BA-supplemented high-fat diet correlated with significantly (P < 0.05) increased farnesoid X factor (FXR) protein expression and binding to the IGF2 promoter. These results suggest that dietary BA supplementation improves FCR and breast muscle growth in broilers fed a high-fat diet, potentially through the FXR-mediated IGF2 pathway.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares , Galinhas , Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Músculos Peitorais , DNA , RNA , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
18.
Poult Sci ; 103(2): 103341, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38134459

RESUMO

Carcass traits in broiler chickens are complex traits that are influenced by multiple genes. To gain deeper insights into the genetic mechanisms underlying carcass traits, here we conducted a weighted single-step genome-wide association study (wssGWAS) in a population of Chinese yellow-feathered chicken. The objective was to identify genomic regions and candidate genes associated with carcass weight (CW), eviscerated weight with giblets (EWG), eviscerated weight (EW), breast muscle weight (BMW), drumstick weight (DW), abdominal fat weight (AFW), abdominal fat percentage (AFP), gizzard weight (GW), and intestine length (IL). A total of 1,338 broiler chickens with phenotypic and pedigree information were included in this study. Of these, 435 chickens were genotyped using a 600K single nucleotide polymorphism chip for association analysis. The results indicate that the most significant regions for 9 traits explained 2.38% to 5.09% of the phenotypic variation, from which the region of 194.53 to 194.63Mb on chromosome 1 with the gene RELT and FAM168A identified on it was significantly associated with CW, EWG, EW, BMW, and DW. Meanwhile, the 5 traits have a strong genetic correlation, indicating that the region and the genes can be used for further research. In addition, some candidate genes associated with skeletal muscle development, fat deposition regulation, intestinal repair, and protection were identified. Gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analyses suggested that the genes are involved in processes such as vascular development (CD34, FGF7, FGFR3, ITGB1BP1, SEMA5A, LOXL2), bone formation (FGFR3, MATN1, MEF2D, DHRS3, SKI, STC1, HOXB1, HOXB3, TIPARP), and anatomical size regulation (ADD2, AKT1, CFTR, EDN3, FLII, HCLS1, ITGB1BP1, SEMA5A, SHC1, ULK1, DSTN, GSK3B, BORCS8, GRIP2). In conclusion, the integration of phenotype, genotype, and pedigree information without creating pseudo-phenotype will facilitate the genetic improvement of carcass traits in chickens, providing valuable insights into the genetic architecture and potential candidate genes underlying carcass traits, enriching our understanding and contributing to the breeding of high-quality broiler chickens.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Animais , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Galinhas/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Genótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , China
19.
Poult Sci ; 103(2): 103324, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38141275

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effect of stevia residue (STER) on the production performance, egg quality and nutrition, antioxidant ability, immune responses, gut morphology and microbiota of laying hens during the peak laying period. A total of 270 Yikoujingfen NO. 8 laying hens (35 wk of age) were randomly divided into 5 treatments. The control group fed a basal diet and groups supplemented with 2, 4, 6, and 8% STER. The results showed that STER significantly increased egg production, the content of amino acids (alanine, proline, valine, ornithine, asparagine, aspartic acid, and cysteine) in egg whites, and decreased the yolk color (P < 0.05). Additionally, STER significantly increased acetate, HOMOγ linolenic acid and cis-13, 16-docosadienoic acid levels in egg yolk (P < 0.05). IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10 levels in serum significantly increased by STER (P < 0.05), while IL-1ß significantly decreased (P < 0.05). STER also increased total antioxidant activity (T-AOC) in the liver and estradiol level in the oviduct (P < 0.05), but decreased the cortisol level in the oviduct (P < 0.05). For the intestinal morphology, the jejunal villus height and crypt-to-villus (V:C) significantly increased by STER (P < 0.05). STER increased the relative abundance of Actinobacteriota (P < 0.05), while deceased Proteobacteria, Desulfobacterota, and Synergistota (P < 0.05). In conclusion, STER improved egg production, quality and nutrition, improved the immune responses, antioxidant capabilities, estrogen level, gut morphology, and increased the relative abundance of beneficial bacteria while decreased the harmful bacteria. Among all treatments, 4 and 6% STER supplementation yielded the most favorable results in terms of enhancing production performance, egg nutrition, gut health, and immune capabilities in laying hens.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Stevia , Animais , Feminino , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Stevia/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise
20.
J Anim Sci ; 1012023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37931145

RESUMO

In recent years, more frequent and prolonged periods of high ambient temperature in summer compromised poultry production worldwide. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of compound bioengineering protein (CBP) on the growth performance and intestinal health of broilers under high ambient temperatures. A total of 400 one-day-old Arbor Acres birds were randomly distributed into five treatment groups: control group (CON) with basal diet, or a basal diet supplemented with CBP 250, 500, 750, and 1,000 mg/kg, respectively. The trial lasted 42 d, all birds were raised at normal ambient temperature for the first 21 d and then subjected to the artificial hyperthermal condition with the temperature at 32 ±â€…2 °C and relative humidity at 60 ±â€…5% during 22 to 42 d. Dietary CBP supplementation improved the growth performance and serum antioxidant capacity (total antioxidant capacity and total superoxide dismutase), and decreased serum cortisol, aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase of broilers. Dietary CBP inclusion enhanced intestinal barrier function by promoting intestinal morphology and reducing intestinal permeability (diamine oxidase), increased the intestinal antioxidant capacity by elevating glutathione peroxidase activity in the duodenum, reducing malondialdehyde content in the jejunum. Dietary CBP supplementation also alleviated intestinal inflammation by decreasing interleukin (IL)-6 content in the jejunum and ileum, promoting IL-10 levels in the ileum, down-regulating the mRNA abundance of intestinal inflammatory-related genes interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in the duodenum and up-regulating IL-10 in the jejunum. Additionally, CBP increased the population of total bacteria and Lactobacillus in cecal chyme. Collectively, dietary CBP inclusion exerts beneficial effects on the broilers, which are reflected by enhancing antioxidant capacity, promoting intestinal barrier function, ameliorating intestinal immune response, and regulating intestinal bacteria, thus improving the growth performance of broilers under high-temperature conditions. In general, 750 mg/kg CBP supplementation is more effective.


Extreme high ambient temperature in summer occurs frequently around the world, which causes severe economic losses in the broiler industry, and impairs food safety. Improving the high-temperature resistance of broilers is beneficial to the sustainable development of the broiler industry. Dietary supplementation of anti-stress additives is an effective way to prevent high-temperature stress in broilers. Antimicrobial peptides are excellent anti-stress additives that exhibit multiple biological functions, such as against microbial infection, improving antioxidant capacity and immune function, and perfecting the intestinal health of broilers. In the present study, we added the compound bioengineering protein (CBP) (two bioengineering proteins containing functional fragments of antimicrobial peptides) in diets to investigate the potential protective effects of CBP for broilers under high temperatures. Our present results indicate that dietary CBP supplementation enhances the growth performance of broilers exposed to high temperatures. This improvement is attributed to the increased antioxidant capacity, improved intestinal barrier function, ameliorated intestinal immune function, and improved intestinal bacteria. These results provide a theoretical foundation for CBP utilization in diets to ameliorate growth performance and intestinal health of broilers under high temperatures.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Galinhas , Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Interleucina-10 , Temperatura , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Bioengenharia , Ração Animal/análise
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