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1.
J Appl Microbiol ; 135(4)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573833

RESUMO

In the 1940s and 1950s, researchers seeking safe and novel ways to eliminate airborne pathogens from enclosed spaces, investigated glycol vapours as a method of disinfection. More recently, the COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the need for a non-toxic aerial disinfectant that can be used in the presence of people. This scoping review is intended to analyse the early and more recent literature on glycol disinfection, scrutinizing the methodologies used, and to determine if the use of glycols as modern-day disinfectants is justified PRISMA-ScR guidelines were used to assess the 749 articles retrieved from the Web of Science platform, with 46 articles retained after the search strategy was applied. Early studies generally demonstrated good disinfection capabilities against airborne bacteria and viruses, particularly with propylene glycol (PG) vapour. Vapour pressure, relative humidity, and glycol concentration were found to be important factors affecting the efficacy of glycol vapours. Contact times depended mainly on the glycol application method (i.e. aerosolization or liquid formulation), although information on how glycol efficacy is impacted by contact time is limited. Triethylene glycol (TEG) is deemed to have low toxicity, carcinogenicity, and mutagenicity and is registered for use in air sanitization and deodorization by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Glycols are also used in liquid formulations for their antimicrobial activity against a wide range of microorganisms, although when used as a non-active excipient in products, their contribution to antimicrobial efficacy is rarely assessed. The appropriate use of liquid glycol-containing formulations was found to positively impact the antimicrobial capabilities of disinfectants when used at temperatures <0, food preservatives, and dental medicaments. Providing modern delivery technology can accurately control environmental conditions, the use of aerosolized glycol formulations should lead to successful disinfection, aiding infection prevention, and control regimens.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Desinfetantes , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Desinfecção/métodos , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Propilenoglicol/farmacologia , Gases
2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(15): 6704-6715, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574268

RESUMO

The transformation of toxic arsine (AsH3) gas into valuable elemental arsenic (As0) from industrial exhaust gases is important for achieving sustainable development goals. Although advanced arsenic removal catalysts can improve the removal efficiency of AsH3, toxic arsenic oxides generated during this process have not received adequate attention. In light of this, a novel approach for obtaining stable As0 products was proposed by performing controlled moderate oxidation. We designed a tailored Ni-based catalyst through an acid etching approach to alter interactions between Ni and NaY. As a result, the 1Ni/NaY-H catalyst yielded an unprecedented proportion of As0 as the major product (65%), which is superior to those of other reported catalysts that only produced arsenic oxides. Density functional theory calculations clarified that Ni species changed the electronic structure of oxygen atoms, and the formed [NiIII-OH (µ-O)] active centers facilitated the adsorption of AsH2*, AsH*, and As* reaction intermediates for As-H bond cleavage, thereby decreasing the direct reactivity of oxygen with the arsenic intermediates. This work presents pioneering insights into inhibiting excessive oxidation during AsH3 removal, demonstrating potential environmental applications for recovery of As0 from toxic AsH3.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Zeolitas , Níquel/química , Elétrons , Oxigênio , Gases
3.
J Environ Manage ; 357: 120809, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583382

RESUMO

Aerobic composting has been considered as a pragmatic technique to convert food waste digestate into high-quality biofertiliser. Nevertheless, massive gaseous emission and immature product remain the primary challenges in food waste digestate composting. Thus, the performance of multi-stage aeration regimes to improve gaseous emissions and organic humification during food waste digestate composting was investigated in this study. In addition to continuous aeration with a constant intensity of 0.3 L kg·dry mass (DM)-1·min-1, two multi-stage decreased aeration regimes were designed as "0.3-0.2-0.1" and "0.3-0.1-0.1" L·kg·DM-1·min-1 from the thermophilic to cooling and then mature stages, respectively. Results showed that the decreased aeration regimes could alleviate nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammonia (NH3) emission and slightly enhance humification during composting. The alleviated N2O and NH3 emission were mainly contributed by abiotically reducing gaseous release potential as well as biotically inactivating denitrifers (Pusillimonas and Pseudidiomarina) and proliferating Atopobium to reduce nitrate availability under lower aeration supply. The "0.3-0.2-0.1 L kg·DM-1·min-1" regime exhibited a more excellent performance to alleviate N2O and NH3 emission by 27.5% and 16.3%, respectively. Moreover, the decreased aeration regimes also favored the enrichment of functional bacteria (Caldicoprobacter and Syntrophomonas) to accelerate lignocellulosic biodegradation and thus humic acid synthesis by 6.5%-11.2%. Given its better performance to improve gaseous emissions and humification, the aeration regime of "0.3-0.2-0.1 L kg·DM-1·min-1" are recommended in food waste digestate composting in practice.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Eliminação de Resíduos , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , 60659 , Alimentos , Solo , Gases
4.
J Environ Manage ; 357: 120830, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583383

RESUMO

Greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions due to increasing energy demand have raised the need to identify effective solutions to produce clean and renewable energy. Biotechnologies are an effective platform to attain green transition objectives, especially when synergically integrated to promote health and environmental protection. In this context, microalgae-based biotechnologies are considered among the most effective tools for treating gaseous effluents and simultaneously capturing carbon sources for further biomass valorisation. The production of biodiesel is regarded as a promising avenue for harnessing value from residual algal biomass. Nonetheless, the existing techniques for extracting lipids still face certain limitations, primarily centred around the cost-effectiveness of the process.This study is dedicated to developing and optimising an innovative and cost-efficient technique for extracting lipids from algal biomass produced during gaseous emissions treatment based on algal-bacterial biotechnology. This integrated treatment technology combines a bio-scrubber for degrading gaseous contaminants and a photobioreactor for capturing the produced CO2 within valuable algal biomass. The cultivated biomass is then processed with the process newly designed to extract lipids simultaneously transesterificated in fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) via In Situ Transesterification (IST) with a Kumagawa-type extractor. The results of this study demonstrated the potential application of the optimised method to overcome the gap to green transition. Energy production was obtained from residuals produced during the necessary treatment of gaseous emissions. Using hexane-methanol (v/v = 19:1) mixture in the presence KOH in Kumagawa extractor lipids were extracted with extraction yield higher than 12% and converted in fatty acid methyl esters. The process showed the enhanced extraction of lipids converted in bio-sourced fuels with circular economy approach, broadening the applicability of biotechnologies as sustainable tools for energy source diversification.


Assuntos
Lipídeos , Microalgas , Biocombustíveis , Promoção da Saúde , Ácidos Graxos , Gases , Biomassa , Ésteres
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8756, 2024 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627517

RESUMO

Although several occupational exposures have been linked to the risk of COPD; limited data exists on sex-specific differences. This study aimed to identify at-risk occupations and sex differences for COPD risk. Cases were identified in a large surveillance system established through the linkage of former compensation claimants' data (non-COPD claims) to physician visits, ambulatory care data, and hospital inpatient data (1983-2020). Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for occupation groups (occupation at time of claim), stratified by sex. HRs were indirectly adjusted for cigarette smoking using another population dataset. A total of 29,445 male and 14,693 female incident cases of COPD were identified. Increased risks were observed in both sexes for construction (HRmale 1.15, 95% CI 1.12-1.19; HRfemale 1.54, 95% CI 1.29-1.83) transport/equipment operating (HRmale 1.32, 95% CI 1.28-1.37; HRfemale 1.53, 95% CI 1.40-1.68) farming (HRmale 1.23, 95% CI 1.15-1.32; HRfemale 1.19, 95% CI 1.04-1.37) and janitors/cleaners (HRmale 1.31, 95% CI 1.24-1.37; HRfemale 1.40, 95% CI 1.31-1.49). Increased risks were observed for females employed as chefs and cooks (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.31-1.58), bartenders (HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.05-1.81), and those working in food/beverage preparation (HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.24-1.45) among other occupations. This study demonstrates elevated risk of COPD among both male and female workers potentially exposed to vapours, gases, dusts, and fumes, highlighting the need for occupational surveillance of COPD.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Ontário/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Ocupações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Gases , Fatores de Risco
6.
Sci Data ; 11(1): 329, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570477

RESUMO

To achieve resource efficiency, and carbon neutrality, it is vital to evaluate nutrient supply and gaseous pollutant emissions associated with field management of bio-straw resources. Previous straw yield estimates have typically relied on a constant grain-to-straw yield ratio without accounting for grain yield levels in a given region. Addressing this high-resolution data gap, our study introduces a novel empirical model for quantifying grain-to-straw yield, which has been used to gauge wheat straw field management practices at the city level during 2011-2015. Utilizing both statistical review and GIS-based methods, average nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) supplies from straw field management stood at 1510, 1229, and 61700 tons, respectively. Average emissions of PM2.5, SO2, NOx, NH3, CH4, and CO2 due to straw burning were 367, 41, 160, 18, 165, and 70,644 tons, respectively. We also reported uncertainty from Monte Carlo model as the 5th-95th percentiles of estimated nutrient supply and gaseous pollutant. These insights will provide foundational support for the sustainable and environmentally friendly management of wheat straw in China.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluentes Ambientais , Agricultura/métodos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Gases/análise , Solo , Triticum
7.
Molecules ; 29(7)2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38611786

RESUMO

Membrane-based sensors (MePSs) exhibit remarkable precision and sensitivity in detecting pressure changes. MePSs are commonly used to monitor catalytic reactions in solution, generating gas products crucial for signal amplification in bioassays. They also allow for catalyst quantification by indirectly measuring the pressure generated by the gaseous products. This is particularly interesting for detecting enzymes in biofluids associated with disease onset. To enhance the performance of a MePS, various structural factors influence membrane flexibility and response time, ultimately dictating the device's pressure sensitivity. In this study, we fabricated MePSs using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and investigated how structural modifications affect the Young's modulus (E) and residual stress (σ0) of the membranes. These modifications have a direct impact on the sensors' sensitivity to pressure variations, observed as a function of the volume of the chamber (Σ) or of the mechanical properties of the membrane itself (S). MePSs exhibiting the highest sensitivities were then employed to detect catalyst quantities inducing the dismutation of hydrogen peroxide, producing dioxygen as a gaseous product. As a result, a catalase enzyme was successfully detected using these optimized MePSs, achieving a remarkable sensitivity of (22.7 ± 1.2) µm/nM and a limit of detection (LoD) of 396 pM.


Assuntos
Bioensaio , Gases , Catalase , Membranas , Catálise , Módulo de Elasticidade
8.
Luminescence ; 39(4): e4731, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566570

RESUMO

Nerve agents are becoming serious issues for the healthy and sustainable environment of modern civilization. Therefore, its detection and degradation are of paramount importance to the scientific community. In the present contribution, we have introduced a chromo-fluorogenic pyrene-based  probe, (E)-2-methoxy-3-(pyren-1-ylimino)-3,8a-dihydro-2H-chromen-4-ol (PMCO) to detect sarin stimulant diethylchlorophosphate (DCP) in solution and gaseous phases. On inserting DCP in PMCO solution, a visual colorimetric change from yellow to clear colourless in daylight and highly intensified blue fluorescence was observed instantly under a 365 nm portable UV lamp light. PMCO has outstanding selectivity and high sensitivity with a limit of detection of 1.32 µM in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) medium and 77.5 nM in 20% H2O-DMSO. A handy strained paper strip-based experiment was demonstrated to recognize DCP in a mixture of similar toxic analytes. A dip-stick experiment was performed to identify DCP vapour, and may be used as an effective photonic tool. We also demonstrated real sample analysis utilizing different DCP-spiked water samples and validating DCP detection even in various types of soils such as sand, field, and mud. Therefore, this present study provides an effective chemosensor for instant and on-site detection of toxic nerve agents in dangerous circumstances.


Assuntos
Agentes Neurotóxicos , Compostos Organofosforados , Sarina , Sarina/análise , Agentes Neurotóxicos/análise , Corantes Fluorescentes , Dimetil Sulfóxido , Gases
9.
Plant Mol Biol ; 114(2): 35, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587705

RESUMO

Fixing atmospheric nitrogen for use as fertilizer is a crucial process in promoting plant growth and enhancing crop yields in agricultural production. Currently, the chemical production of nitrogen fertilizer from atmospheric N2 relies on the energy-intensive Haber-Bosch process. Therefore, developing a low-cost and easily applicable method for fixing nitrogen from the air would provide a beneficial alternative. In this study, we tested the utilization of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) gas, generated from oxygen and nitrogen present in ambient air with the help of a portable plasma device, as a nitrogen source for the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Nitrogen-deficient plants supplied with medium treated with N2O5, were able to overcome nitrogen deficiency, similar to those provided with medium containing a conventional nitrogen source. However, prolonged direct exposure of plants to N2O5 gas adversely affected their growth. Short-time exposure of plants to N2O5 gas mitigated its toxicity and was able to support growth. Moreover, when the exposure of N2O5 and the contact with plants were physically separated, plants cultured under nitrogen deficiency were able to grow. This study shows that N2O5 gas generated from atmospheric nitrogen can be used as an effective nutrient for plants, indicating its potential to serve as an alternative nitrogen fertilization method for promoting plant growth.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Gases , Nitrogênio , Fertilizantes , Oxigênio , Agricultura
10.
Int. microbiol ; 27(2): 607-614, Abr. 2024. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-ADZ-171

RESUMO

Wetlands are the main natural sources of methane emissions, which make up a significant portion of greenhouse gas emissions. Such wetland patches serve as rich habitats for aerobic methanotrophs. Limited knowledge of methanotrophs from tropical wetlands widens the scope of study from these habitats. In the present study, a freshwater wetland in a tropical region in India was sampled and serially diluted to obtain methanotrophs in culture. This was followed by the isolation of methanotrophs on agarose-containing plates, incubated under methane: air atmosphere. Methanotrophs are difficult to cultivate, and very few cultures of methanotrophs are available from tropical wetlands. Our current study reports the cultivation of a diverse community of methanotrophs from six genera, namely, Methylomonas, Methylococcus, Methylomagnum, Methylocucumis (type I methanotrophs) along with Methylocystis, Methylosinus (type II methanotrophs). A high abundance of methanotrophs (106–1010 methanotrophs/g fresh weight) was observed in the samples. A Methylococcus strain could represent a putative novel species that was also isolated. Cultures of Methylomagnum and Methylocucumis, two newly described type I methanotrophs exclusively found in rice fields, were obtained. A large number of Methylomonas koyamae strains were cultured. Our study is pioneering in the documentation of culturable methanotrophs from a typical tropical wetland patch. The isolated methanotrophs can act as models for studying methanotroph-based methane mitigation from wetland habitats and can be used for various mitigation and valorization applications. (AU)


Assuntos
Áreas Alagadas , Metano , Efeito Estufa , Gases , Ecossistema , Água Doce
11.
J Extra Corpor Technol ; 56(1): 20-29, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38488715

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The optimal timing for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) circuit change-out is crucial for the successful management of patients with severe cardiopulmonary failure. This comprehensive review examines the various factors that influence the timing of oxygenator replacement in the ECMO circuit. By considering these factors, clinicians can make informed decisions to ensure timely and effective change-out, enhancing patient outcomes and optimizing the delivery of ECMO therapy. METHODOLOGY: A thorough search of relevant studies on ECMO circuits and oxygenator change-out was conducted using multiple scholarly databases and relevant keywords. Studies published between 2017 and 2023 were included, resulting in 40 studies that met the inclusion criteria. DISCUSSION: Thrombosis within the membrane oxygenator and its impact on dysfunction were identified as significant contributors, highlighting the importance of monitoring coagulation parameters and gas exchange. Several factors, including fibrinogen levels, pre and post-membrane blood gases, plasma-free hemoglobin, D-dimers, platelet function, flows and pressures, and anticoagulation strategy, were found to be important considerations when determining the need for an oxygenator or circuit change-out. The involvement of a multidisciplinary team and thorough preparation were also highlighted as crucial aspects of this process. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, managing circuit change-outs in ECMO therapy requires considering factors such as fibrinogen levels, blood gases, plasma-free hemoglobin, D-dimers, platelet function, flows, pressures, and anticoagulation strategy. Monitoring these parameters allows for early detection of issues, timely interventions, and optimized ECMO therapy. Standardized protocols, personalized anticoagulation approaches, and non-invasive monitoring techniques can improve the safety and effectiveness of circuit change-outs. Further research and collaboration are needed to advance ECMO management and enhance patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Humanos , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Oxigenadores de Membrana , Anticoagulantes , Hemoglobinas , Gases
12.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299451, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38489331

RESUMO

Blood gas analysis reflects the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs. This test provides important information, since the relationship between these gases has a direct impact on the acid-basic balance in the body. Given the significance of blood gas analysis in Brazilian reptiles, this study set out to establish temperature-corrected and uncorrected reference intervals for venous blood gas measurements in Chelonoidis carbonarius, and to compare values between females and males. In this study, 19 animals were used, 8 males and 11 females. Blood samples were collected from the dorsal coccygeal vein, and the analyses were performed immediately after blood sample collection. The following parameters were measured: pH, PO2, HCO3-, TCO2, BEecf, Na, K, ICa, and Glu, and were compared between females and males. Additionally, pH, pCO2, and pO2 values were compared with and without temperature correction. Oxygen saturation and Na levels were significantly higher (p<0.05) in males. Furthermore, it was possible to infer that the lower the body temperature relative to the environmental temperature, the larger the difference in pH following temperature correction.


Assuntos
Gases , Tartarugas , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Gasometria , Eletrólitos , Equilíbrio Ácido-Base , Dióxido de Carbono , Oxigênio , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
13.
Bioresour Technol ; 398: 130528, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38437968

RESUMO

The threat of global climate change presents a significant challenge for humanity. Microalgae-based carbon capture and utilization (CCU) technology has emerged as a promising solution to this global issue. This review aims to comprehensively evaluate the current advancements in scale-up of microalgae cultivation and its applications, specifically focusing on decarbonization from flue gases, organic wastewater remediation, and biogas upgrading. The study identifies critical challenges that need to be addressed during the scale-up process and evaluates the economic viability of microalgal CCU within the carbon market. Additionally, it analyzes the commercial status of microalgae-derived products and highlights those with high market demand. This review serves as a crucial resource for researchers, industry professionals, and policymakers to develop and implement innovative approaches to enhance the efficiency of microalgae-based CO2 utilization while addressing the challenges associated with the scale-up of microalgae technologies.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Gases , Águas Residuárias , Tecnologia , Carbono
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 922: 171243, 2024 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431164

RESUMO

In addition to fertilisers, plant protection products are essential in today's agricultural production. The increase in the human population leads to the need to optimise agricultural production, with an increasing demand for plant protection products. Historically, there have been serious fires at plant protection product storage facilities with devastating consequences for the environment. For this reason, it is worth investigating what risks arise for people and the environment during a fire at storage sites for these substances. In this article, tests were carried out for three plant protection products containing azoxystrobin as the active substance, in order to investigate the effects of the additives on combustion processes. Tests of combustion parameters were performed using a cone calorimeter. A tube furnace with asphyxiating and irritant gas analysers and gas chromatography with a mass spectrometer were used to analyse the resulting gas products. The Plant Protection Products tested achieved high values for combustion parameters. Analysis of the substances produced during their combustion showed that large amounts of asphyxiating and irritating gases (CO, N2O, NO, SO2, NH3, HCl, CH2O, HCN) were generated.


Assuntos
Incêndios , Gases , Humanos
15.
Waste Manag ; 178: 371-384, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38432182

RESUMO

As an important source of malodor, the odor gases emitted from public toilet significantly interfered the air quality of living surroundings, resulting in environmental problem which received little attention before. Thus, this paper explored the odor release pattern of latrine feces and deodorization effect with composited microbial agent in Chengdu, China. The odor release rules were investigated in sealed installations with a working volume of 9 L for 20 days. The odor units (OU), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) were selected to assess the release of malodorous gases under different temperature and humidity, while the highest malodor release was observed under 45℃, with OU and TVOC concentration was 643.91 ± 2.49 and 7767.33 ± 33.50 mg/m3, respectively. Microbes with deodorization ability were screened and mixed into an agent, which composited of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus faecalis and Pichia fermentans. The addition of microbial deodorant could significantly suppress the release of malodor gas during a 20-day trial, and the removal efficiency of NH3, H2S, TVOC and OU was 81.50 %, 38.31 %, 64.38 %, and 76.86 %, respectively. The analysis of microbial community structure showed that temperature was the main environmental factor driving the microbial variations in latrine feces, while Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the main bacteria phyla involved in the formation and emission of malodorous gases. However, after adding the deodorant, the abundance of Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were decreased, while the abundance of Firmicutes was increased. Furthermore, P. fermentans successfully colonized in fecal substrates and became the dominant fungus after deodorization. These results expanded the understanding of the odor release from latrine feces, and the composited microbial deodorant provided a valuable basis to the management of odor pollution.


Assuntos
Desodorantes , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Odorantes , Toaletes , Gases
16.
Waste Manag ; 178: 385-394, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442668

RESUMO

The standing pouch, a packaging material made of multiple layers of plastic and metal, presents a significant challenge for full recycling. Gasification shows promise as a method to recover aluminum from this type of waste and convert it into energy. This study aims to evaluate the efficiency of gasification in treating aluminum-containing plastic packages, and recovering aluminum while identifying the optimal combinations of temperature and equivalence ratio (ER) to achieve the best outcomes. The study achieved a conversion rate of 43.06 wt% to 69.42 wt% of the original waste mass into syngas, with aluminum recovery rates ranging from 35.2 % to 65.3 %. Temperature and ER alterations affected the product distribution, aluminum recovery rate, and aluminum partitioning in the products. The results indicated that the combination of 700 °C, ER = 0.4 would provide the largest amount of syngas about 69.42 %, which is the main product of the gasification process, and therefore, this combination is the most optimal for syngas-yielding purposes. Under the reclaiming aluminum is more prioritized, the combination of 800 °C, ER = 0.6 would be the most optimal condition, the majority of Al in fuel was found in char and fly ash were 67.5 % and 4.81 %, respectively. The study focused on the partitioning of aluminum during the gasification process, which was observed to mainly exist in the form of Al2O3(s), with gaseous species including AlCl3(g), AlH(g), and Al2O(g) due to their medium volatility. As the ER increased, the amount of O2 also increased, leading to more Al2O3(s) formation. In conclusion, this research provides a foundation for further exploration of gasification as a means of energy conversion and metal recovery.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Alumínio , Gases , Temperatura , Metais
17.
J Microorg Control ; 29(1): 39-44, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38508761

RESUMO

During the disinfection of indoor spaces using gaseous hypochlorous acid (HOCl(g)), inhalation is the most common route of exposure for humans. In this study, an artificial human respiratory tract model was exposed to 12-140 ppb HOCl(g) at an aspiration flow rate of 800 mL/s for 15 h in a 1 m3 chamber. The respiratory tract model was equipped with 5th order bronchi and all gas-contact parts were made of silicone rubber with no other chlorine-consuming substances. The concentration of HOCl(g) reaching the lung pseudo-space was approximately 47.4% of the HOCl(g) concentrations in the chamber and was calculated to be very close to zero when the chamber concentration was less than 20.5 ppb. The disappearance of HOCl(g) during inhalation is likely due to the adsorption of HOCl(g) on the gas-contact silicone rubber surfaces. The cytotoxicity of HOCl(g) on respiratory epithelial cells was also examined using human air-liquid-interface airway tissue models. Human nasal epithelium and bronchiolar epithelium were exposed to 100 ppb and 500 ppb HOCl(g) for 8 h and 5 d, respectively. No significant effects of HOCl(g) on cell viability and ciliary activity were observed in any cell type, indicating that low concentrations of HOCl(g), less than 500 ppb, had no cytotoxic effect.


Assuntos
Gases , Ácido Hipocloroso , Humanos , Ácido Hipocloroso/farmacologia , Elastômeros de Silicone , Células Epiteliais , Pulmão
18.
ACS Sens ; 9(3): 1575-1583, 2024 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38483350

RESUMO

Monitoring of isoprene in exhaled breath is expected to provide a noninvasive and painless method for dynamic monitoring of physiological and metabolic states during exercise. However, for real-time and portable detection of isoprene, gas sensors have become the best choice for gas detection technology, which are crucial to achieving the goal of anytime, anywhere, human-centered healthcare in the future. Here, we first report a mixed potential type isoprene sensor based on a Gd2Zr2O7 solid electrolyte and a CdSb2O6 sensing electrode, which enables sensitive detection for isoprene with sensitivities of -21.2 mV/ppm and -65.8 mV/decade in the range of 0.05-1 and 1-100 ppm. The sensing behavior of the sensor follows the mixed potential sensing mechanism and was further verified by the electrochemical polarization curves. The significant differentiation between the sensor response to exhaled breath of healthy individuals and simulated breath containing different concentrations of isoprene demonstrates the potential of the sensor for the detection of isoprene in exhaled breath. Simultaneously, monitoring of isoprene during exercise signifies the feasibility of the sensor in dynamic monitoring of physiological indicators, which is not only of great significance for optimizing training and guiding therapeutic exercise intervention in sporting scenarios but also expected to help further reveal the interaction between exercise, muscle, and organ metabolism in medicine.


Assuntos
Testes Respiratórios , Gases , Hemiterpenos , Humanos , Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Butadienos , Biomarcadores
19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(14): 6071-6076, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38551192

RESUMO

The atmospheric oxidizing capacity is the most important driving force for the chemical transformation of pollutants in the atmosphere. Traditionally, the atmospheric oxidizing capacity mainly depends on the concentration of O3 and other gaseous oxidants. However, the atmospheric oxidizing capacity based on gas-phase oxidation cannot accurately describe the explosive growth of secondary particulate matter under complex air pollution. From the chemical perspective, the atmospheric oxidizing capacity mainly comes from the activation of O2, which can be achieved in both gas-phase and interfacial processes. In the heterogeneous or multiphase formation pathways of secondary particulate matter, the enhancement of oxidizing capacity ascribed to the O2/H2O-involved interfacial oxidation and hydrolysis processes is an unrecognized source of atmospheric oxidizing capacity. Revealing the enhanced oxidizing capacity due to interfacial processes in high-concentration particulate matter environments and its contribution to the formation of secondary pollution are critical in understanding haze chemistry. The accurate evaluation of atmospheric oxidizing capacity ascribed to interfacial processes is also an important scientific basis for the implementation of PM2.5 and O3 collaborative control in China and around the world.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Aerossóis/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Estações do Ano , Gases
20.
Chemosphere ; 354: 141740, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38508460

RESUMO

The contribution of excavated waste to waste management is multifaceted, including minimization, non-hazardous disposal, access to useable land resources, improved waste management techniques and public environmental awareness, consistent with recent circular economy initiatives. Pyrolysis can be converted into tar, pyrolysis gas and char with recyclable utilization, enriching the application of pyrolysis technology in the field of excavation waste. In this study, the pyrolysis system includes horizontal tube furnace, gas collection device and Micro GC. The excavated waste was pyrolyzed at a temperature of 500∼900 °C with a heating rate of 10 °C/min. Pyrolysis gases include H2, CO, CO2, CH4, C2H4, C2H6 and C3H8. Pyrolysis was divided into four stages, the main decomposition range is 230∼500 °C, with a weight loss rate of 68.49% and a co-pyrolysis behavior. As the temperature increases, the tar and char decreased and the gas production increased significantly, and the pyrolysis gas reached 47.02% at 900 °C. According to Pearson correlation coefficient analysis, the generation of H2 and CO is positively correlated with temperature. Therefore, the target products can be influenced by changing the parameters, when considering the practical utilization of the excavated waste pyrolysis products. On this basis, the prediction models were built by polynomial fitting method. This model can reduce the experimental exploration cycle, reduce the cost, and accurately predict the pyrolysis gas, which has practical guidance for the application of pyrolysis industry, and provides a theoretical basis for the resource recycling and energy recovery of landfill.


Assuntos
Pirólise , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Gases/análise , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Reciclagem , Resíduos/análise
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