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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126764, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358972

RESUMO

The contamination of producer gas with tar due to inefficient removal methods remains a major challenge in the bioenergy industry and a critical barrier, hindering commercial applications of biomass gasification technology. Single syngas treatment through primary and secondary tar removal method is insufficient to produce a tar free syngas. Currently widely applied tar removal methods are catalytic reforming and plasma reforming. Though both methods have hindrances of fast catalyst deactivation due to coke deposition and reduced syngas selectivity with large quantities of undesired liquid products from plasma reforming. Our review paper showed that hybrid plasma catalysis could be a breakthrough in tar reforming methods and overcome major drawbacks. Though, very little work on review articles have reported merging non-thermal plasma and heterogeneous catalyst. Plasma catalysis offers an inexpensive viable future technology of tar reforming through biomass gasification. The article assessed in-depth the synergistic effect created during the interaction of energetic plasma species and catalyst radicals in tar reforming. Review results show that merging plasma with catalysts noticeably Nickel, Non-nickel metal catalyst and zeolites gave pleasant results of tar conversion efficiency, improved gas selectivity and improved catalyst stability.


Assuntos
Gases , Níquel , Biomassa , Catálise , Tecnologia
2.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 605: 674-684, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364007

RESUMO

In this work, rare-earth single atoms (La, Er) were decorated on the surface of 2D-TiO2 nanosheets by an impregnation-calcination strategy. The formation of rare-earth single atoms was certified by AC HAADF-STEM and XAS. TiO2 decorated with rare-earth single atoms (La1-TiO2 and Er1-TiO2) exhibited outstanding photocatalytic activity than pure 2D-TiO2 nanosheets (2D-TiO2) towards gas-phase degradation of O-xylene. Compared with 2D-TiO2, the rare-earth single atoms greatly improved the adsorption capacity of O-xylene without increasing their specific surface area. This is because rare-earth single atoms provide additional adsorption sites and reduce the adsorption energy of O-xylene. In addition, the hybrid orbital formed by the combination of rare-earth single atom and oxygen atom is beneficial to the rapid transmission and separation of photo-induced electrons, thereby improving the performance of photocatalytic degradation. In addition, in-situ DRIFTS and GC-MS were used to reveal the photocatalytic oxidation mechanism. Interestingly, the results showed that the La1-TiO2 and Er1-TiO2 samples can reduce the types of intermediates and simplify the reaction route, implying that the single atoms play an important role in the modulation and thorough mineralization of intermediate products. This work shows that the rare-earth single atom decorated 2D-TiO2 nanosheets have great potential in photocatalytic air pollution control.


Assuntos
Gases , Catálise , Fotólise , Titânio , Xilenos
3.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131774, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365172

RESUMO

This study reports an alternative method for black liquor treatment with potential for energy and process savings in the paper and pulp industry. Gasification of black liquor was carried out under sub- and supercritical conditions, varying the black liquor feed composition (0.10, 2.55 and 5.00 wb%) and temperature (350, 425 and 500 °C). Liquid products were identified by high resolution mass spectrometry (FT-Orbitrap MS) and compounds belonging to classes O3 and O4 were found to be the most representative in the products of reactions performed at 500 °C. The mass spectra results also revealed the overall selectivity of reactions, where decarboxylation and demethoxylation reactions were favored under subcritical and supercritical conditions, respectively. Among the gaseous products, hydrogen and methane were produced with maximum of 69.04 and 28.75 mol%, respectively, at 2.55 wb% and 425 °C. The proposed thermodynamic modelling of the reaction system satisfactorily predicted the gas phase behavior of the system. In the economic analysis, the simulated conditions indicated that the main energy requirements for a scaled-up black liquor gasification process are related to the necessary heat exchangers and pressurizing of the black liquor solution. Furthermore, the cost of the black liquor gasification is around 0.06 US$ per kg of feed stream. Liquid and gaseous products from gasification could be obtained at a cost of 56.64 US$ and 3.35 US$ per tonne of stream, respectively. Therefore, black liquor gasification is an interesting route for obtaining combustible gases and value-added bioproducts.


Assuntos
Gases , Metano , Hidrogênio , Temperatura , Termodinâmica , Água
4.
J Hazard Mater ; 422: 126761, 2022 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418836

RESUMO

Carbon and its analogous nanomaterials are beneficial for toxic gas sensors since they are used to increase the electrochemically active surface region and improve the transmission of electrons. The present article addresses a detailed investigation on the potential of the monolayer PC3 compound as a possible sensor material for environmentally toxic nitrogen-containing gases (NCGs), namely NH3, NO, and NO2. The entire work is carried out under the frameworks of density functional theory, ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations, and non-equilibrium Green's function approaches. The monolayer-gas interactions are studied with the van der Waals dispersion correction. The stability of pristine monolayer PC3 is confirmed through dynamical, mechanical, and thermal analyses. The mobility and relaxation time of 2D PC3 sensor material with NCGs are obtained in the range of 101-104 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 101-103 fs for armchair and zigzag directions, respectively. Out of six possible adsorption sites for toxic gases on the PC3 surface, the most prominent site is identified with the highest adsorption energy for all the NCGs. Considering the most stable configuration site of the NCGs, we have obtained relevant electronic properties by utilizing the band unfolding technique. The considerable adsorption energies are obtained for NO and NO2 compared to NH3. Although physisorption is observed for all the NCGs on the PC3 surface, NO2 is found to convert into NO and O at 5.05 ps (at 300 K) under molecular dynamics simulation. The maximum charge transfer (0.31e) and work function (5.17 eV) are observed for the NO2 gas molecule in the series. Along with the considerable adsorption energies for NO and NO2 gas molecules, their shorter recovery time (0.071 s and 0.037 s, respectively) from the PC3 surface also identifies 2D PC3 as a promising sensor material for those environmentally toxic gases. The experimental viability and actual implications for PC3 monolayer as NCGs sensor material are also confirmed by examining the humidity effect and transport properties with modeled sensor devices. The transport properties (I-V characteristics) reflect the significant sensitivity of PC3 monolayer toward NO and NO2 molecules. These results certainly confirm PC3 monolayer as a promising sensor material for NO and NO2 NCG molecules.


Assuntos
Gases , Nanoestruturas , Adsorção , Elétrons , Nitrogênio
5.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 264: 120302, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461522

RESUMO

This paper describes a new method to obtain NIR spectra of liquid and gas samples by diffuse reflectance, which is especially suitable for handheld spectrophotometers, since most of these instruments are designed to acquire spectrum using this geometry. The core of the method is a diffuse reflectance cell, which consists of a vial containing a mixture of the liquid or gas sample (rare medium) and a powder (dense medium). Using this strategy, no adaptation is required to measure spectra with most portable NIR spectrometers. This new method was used to obtain NIR spectra of several liquids and gases, which were compared with traditional transmittance spectra. As a proof of concept, measurements of biodiesel/vegetable oil/diesel blends were used to build multivariate calibrations to predict the contents of biodiesel and vegetable oil in diesel blends using benchtop and handheld FT-NIR spectrophotometers. This low-cost method was demonstrated to be suitable for overcoming problems related to the handling of viscous samples and expand the applications with portable NIR instruments.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Calibragem , Gases , Óleos Vegetais
6.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 199: 113887, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34922319

RESUMO

In recent few years, researchers utilized cell expressing olfactory receptor for vapor detection under various sensing mechanisms. Those olfactory systems, however, have relatively short lifetime due to the dry out of aqueous solution covering the cell. In this paper, we came up with a feedback control structure composed of an impedance measurement circuit, a microcontroller and two syringe pumps for maintaining thin liquid layer above cell. Cell lifetime was improved from less than 40 min to longer than 75 min when liquid film control was introduced. However, the biosensor lifetime remained similar between with or without liquid thickness control. Then, we added liquid exchange to further extend the lifetime of our odor biosensor. Minimal liquid exchange speed was able to significantly extend the biosensor lifetime. Meanwhile, faster liquid exchange speed resulted in better sensor responses. Furthermore, the enhancement acquired from intermittent liquid exchange was compared with continuous one. In this study, the lifetime of odor biosensor was extended to more than 3 h whereas it was less than half an hour without liquid thickness control. We believe the methodology we established in this paper will facilitate gas phase odor biosensor in continuous monitoring of target substances.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Neurônios Receptores Olfatórios , Receptores Odorantes , Gases , Odorantes
7.
Environ Res ; 203: 111768, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339693

RESUMO

Air pollution has been identified as one of the main environmental risks to health. Since exercise training seems to act as an anti-inflammatory modulator, our hypothesis is that exercise training prevents damage to respiratory and cardiovascular function caused by diesel exhaust particle (DEP) exposure. This study aimed to evaluate whether aerobic exercise training prior to DEP exposure prevents inflammatory processes in the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems. Therefore, BALB/C male mice were or were not submitted to a 10-week exercise training protocol (5×/week, 1 h/d), and after four weeks, they were exposed to DEP in a chamber with 24 µg/m3 PM2.5 or filtered air. Heart rate variability, lung mechanics and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, cytokines and polymorphonuclear cells in the lung parenchyma were evaluated. Exposure to DEPs reduced heart rate variability and the elastance of the respiratory system and increased the number of cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, as well as macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes, the density of polymorphonuclear cells and the proportion of collagen fibres in the lung parenchyma. Additionally, DEP-exposed animals showed increased expression of IL-23 and IL-12p40 (proinflammatory cytokines) and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Exercise training avoided the increases in all these inflammatory parameters, except the elastance of the respiratory system, the amount of collagen fibres and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Additionally, trained animals showed increased expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-1ra. Although our data showed a reduction in proinflammatory markers and an increase in markers of the anti-inflammatory pathway, these changes were not sufficient to prevent damage to the lung and cardiovascular function induced by DEPs. Based on these data, we propose that aerobic exercise training prevents the lung inflammatory process induced by DEPs, although it was not sufficient to avoid chronic damage, such as a loss of lung function or cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Pneumonia , Emissões de Veículos , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Gases , Pulmão , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade
8.
J Hazard Mater ; 422: 126882, 2022 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403939

RESUMO

As a novel eco-friendly gas insulation medium, perfluoroisobutyronitrile (C4F7N) has been utilized in various gas insulated equipment. Considering the biological toxicity of C4F7N, it is of great engineering significance to develop highly sensitive sensors for leakage detection scenarios. Herein, we fabricated the first SnO2 nanoparticles based highly sensitive C4F7N gas sensor that realized a superior response of 65.01% within 21 s for 50 ppm C4F7N exposure and a detection limit of 0.25 ppm. Meanwhile, successive response-recovery tests were performed to confirm its durability and stability. We also explored the sensing mechanism of SnO2 nanoparticles towards C4F7N and explained the superior sensing performance compared with other gases based on the density functional theory. It was found that the O vacancy demonstrates strong interaction with the -CN group in C4F7N that promotes the detection response, which was also confirmed by sensing experiments for SnO2 with different O vacancy density. We believe this paper provides convincing support for lowering the potential operation risk brought by C4F7N in electrical engineering and the application scenarios of SnO2 based gas sensors.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Compostos de Estanho , Gases
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 807(Pt 1): 150589, 2022 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597570

RESUMO

In this study, effects of two quorum sensing (QS) enhancement methods on the performance and biofilm of biofilters treating chlorobenzene were investigated. Three biofilters were set up with BF1 as a control, BF2 added exogenous N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) and BF3 inoculated AHLs-producing bacterium identified as Acinetobacter. The average chlorobenzene elimination capacities were 73 and 77 g/m3/h for BF2 and BF3 respectively, which were significantly higher than 50 g/m3/h for BF1. The wet biomass of BF2 and BF3 with QS enhancement eventually increased to 60 and 39 kg/m3 respectively, and it was 29 kg/m3 for BF1. Analysis on biofilms in three biofilters showed that distribution uniformity, extracellular polymeric substances production, adhesive strengths, viability, and metabolic capacity of biofilms were all prompted by the two QS enhancement methods. Comparisons between the two QS enhancement methods showed that adding exogenous AHLs had more significant enhancing effect on biofilm due to its higher AHLs level in start-up period, while AHLs-producing bacteria had an advantage in enhancing bacterial community diversity. These results demonstrate that QS enhancement methods have the potential to optimize the biofilm and thus improve the performance of biofilters treating recalcitrant VOCs.


Assuntos
Gases , Percepção de Quorum , Acil-Butirolactonas , Biofilmes , Clorobenzenos
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 4): 150958, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656565

RESUMO

This review article provides a state-of-art insight into the removal of NO, SO2 and elemental mercury (Hg0) from flue gas by using advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) method. Firstly, the main flue gas purification strategies based on AOPs would be classified as gas-gas, gas-liquid and gas-solid systems preliminarily, and the primary chemistry/mechanism of the above homogeneous/heterogeneous reaction systems were presented as the oxidation of NO, SO2 and Hg0 by the oxidative free radicals (OH, O2 and SO4-etc.). Secondly, the research progress and reaction pathways for separately or simultaneously removing NO, SO2 and Hg0 from flue gas by AOPs has been reviewed elaborated and analyzed in more details. Notably, the wet/dry oxidation coupled with efficient absorption process would be a promising method of efficient removal of above gaseous pollutants. Subsequently, four types of assumed layout modes were described graphically. The application prospects of AOPs for the purification of flue gas from coal-fired boiler or industrial furnace were evaluated and found that the operation cost and utilization of oxidants must be reduced and improved respectively. Finally, the limitations in the current removal technologies based on AOPs are highlighted, meanwhile the future research directions are suggested, such as cut down the cost of oxidants and catalysts, improve the yield and valid utilization of highly reactive radicals and enhance the reactivity, resistance and stability of catalysts. Significantly, it is also envisaged that the review could enrich the knowledge repository to function as a scientific reference for the sustainable development of economical, effective and environment-friendly technologies for the abatement of a wide variety of emissions from flue gas, and further improve the feasibility and reliability of the strategies for moving from laboratory studies to large-scale development and industrial application.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Mercúrio , Carvão Mineral , Gases , Oxirredução , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 2): 131995, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509016

RESUMO

To achieve carbon neutrality, it is necessary to control carbon-based gas emissions to the atmosphere. Among the various carbon-based gas removal technologies reported to date, adsorption is considered one of the most promising because of its economic efficiency, reusability, and low energy consumption. Activated carbon is widely used to treat different types of carbon-based gases owing to its large specific surface area, abundant functional groups, and strong adsorption capacity. This paper reviews the recent research progress into activated carbon as an adsorbent for carbon-based gases. The key factors (i.e., specific surface area, pore structure, and surface functional groups) affecting the adsorption of carbon-based gases by activated carbon were analyzed. The main methods employed to modify activated carbon (i.e., surface oxidation, surface reduction, loading materials, and plasma modification methods) to improve its adsorption capacity are also discussed herein, along with the targeted applications of such material in the adsorption of different types of carbon-based gases (such as aldehydes, ketones, aromatic hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, and carbon-based greenhouse gases). Finally, the future development directions and challenges of activated carbon are discussed. Our work will be expected to benefit the development of activated carbon exhibiting selective adsorption properties, and reduce the production costs of adsorbents.


Assuntos
Gases , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal
12.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 2): 131980, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509018

RESUMO

In the current research, an innovative biomass-based energy system is proposed for power and desalinated water production. The plant's primary components consist of a gasifier, a compressor, a heat exchanger, a gas turbine, a combustion chamber, and a Multi-effect desalination with thermal vapor compression (MED-TVC) unit. A comprehensive thermodynamic and thermoeconomic assessment is conducted on the proposed system. Besides, a parametric study is conducted to determine the effect of primary decision variables on the system performance. Multiple objective optimization using the multi-objective grey wolf optimizer (MOGWO) algorithm is applied to obtain the optimal solution with the highest exergy efficiency and the minimum amount of total cost rate. The artificial neural network (ANN) has an intermediary role in the optimization process to decrease computational time and enhance optimization speed. The relation between the objective function and decision variables is investigated, employing ANN to determine the energy system's optimum point. The generation rate for power and freshwater at the optimal point is equal to 5127 kW and 38.6 kg/s, respectively. Besides, the optimum value of the exergy efficiency and total cost rate are computed as 15.61% and 206.78 $/h, respectively. The results also revealed that the number of effects of the desalination unit does not affect the carbon dioxide emissions. Moreover, the scatter distribution of the key decision variable indicates that the air compressor pressure ratio is not a sensible variable, and their optimum points are distributed across the entire domain.


Assuntos
Eletricidade , Água , Biomassa , Gases , Redes Neurais de Computação
13.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 2): 132178, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509024

RESUMO

The rapid increases in environmental hazardous gases have laid dangerous effects on human health. The detection of such pollutants gases is mandatory using various optimal techniques. In this paper, porous multifaceted Co3O4/ZnO nanostructures are synthesized by pyrolyzing sacrificial template of core-shell double zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) for gas sensing applications. The fabricated exhibit superior gas sensor response, high selectivity, fast response/recovery times, and remarkable stability and sensitivity to H2S gas. In particular, the multifaceted Co3O4/ZnO nanostructures show a maximum response of 147 at 100 ppm of H2S under optimum conditions. The remarkable gas sensing performances are mainly ascribed to high porosity, wide surface area multifaceted nanostructures, presence of heterojunctions and catalytic activity of ZnO and Co3O4, which are beneficial for H2S gas sensors industry.


Assuntos
Nanoestruturas , Zeolitas , Óxido de Zinco , Gases , Humanos , Porosidade
14.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 607(Pt 1): 357-366, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509110

RESUMO

Gas sensors have become increasingly significant because of the rapid development in electronic devices that are applied in detecting noxious gases. Adjusting the crystal phase structure of sensing materials can optimize the band gap and oxygen-adsorptive capacity, which influences the gas sensing characteristics. Therefore, titanium dioxide (TiO2) materials with different crystal phase structures including rutile TiO2 nanorods (R-TiO2 NRs), anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (A-TiO2 NRs) and brookite TiO2 nanorods (B-TiO2 NRs) were synthesized successfully via one-step hydrothermal process, respectively. The gas sensing characteristics were also investigated systematically. The sensors based on R-TiO2 NRs displayed the higher response value (12.3) to 100 ppm acetone vapor at 320 °C compared to A-TiO2 NRs (4.1) and B-TiO2 NRs (2.3). Furthermore, gas sensors based on R-TiO2 NRs exhibited excellent repeatability under six cycles and good selectivity to acetone. The outstanding sensing properties of gas sensors based on R-TiO2 NRs can be ascribed to relatively narrow band gap and more oxygen vacancies of rutile phase, which showed a probable way for design gas sensors based on metal oxide semiconductors with remarkable gas sensing performances by the crystal phase adjustment engineering in the future.


Assuntos
Acetona , Nanoestruturas , Gases , Titânio
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150457, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560456

RESUMO

In-vitro incubation of environmental samples is a common approach to estimate CH4 oxidation potential. Here we developed and verified an in-situ method utilizing passive diffusion chambers (PDC, silicone tubes) to deliver 13C-labeled CH4 into peat for the determination of the CH4 oxidation potential based on 13C excess of CO2. To target CH4 oxidation under semi-aerobic and anaerobic conditions, we installed 20 PDCs (30 ml volume) below the water table in profiles from 35-cm to 2-m depths of a peatland in north-eastern Sweden in July 2017 using a peat auger. 13C-labeled CH4 was injected into PDCs through tubing twice during 12 days (day 0 and 6) and samples were collected at days 1, 3, 6, 8 and 11. Background (non-labeled) δ13C of CO2 ranged from -7.3 (35 cm) to +5.7‰ (200 cm) with depth. These δ13C values rose to +110 and + 204‰ after the CH4 injection. The estimated CH4-derived C in CO2 was the lowest at the bottom of the profile (0.3 µmol L-1), whereas the maximum was at 100 cm (6.1 µmol L-1) at five days after the second labeling. This corresponded to 1.5-7.2% of the total CH4 pool to be oxidized, depending on depth. This novel approach with belowground in-situ 13C labeling of gases demonstrated the suitability of tracing the transformations of these gases in soil depth by PDCs and for the first time verified the in-situ occurrence of a deep-peat CH4 oxidation.


Assuntos
Metano , Solo , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Gases , Oxirredução
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150370, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562760

RESUMO

Predicting the migration behavior of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) vapor is essential for the remediation of subsurface contamination such as soil vapor extraction. Previous analytical prediction models of VOCs migration are mostly limited to constant-concentration nonpoint sources in homogeneous soil. Thus, this study presents a novel analytical model for two-dimensional transport of VOCs vapor subjected to multiple time-dependent point sources involving transient diffusion, sorption and degradation in layered unsaturated soils. Two representative time-dependent sources, i.e., an instantaneous source and a finite pulse source, are used to describe the short-term and long-term leakage. Results reveal that soil heterogeneity can cause pollution accumulation, especially in low-diffusivity capillary fringe. The assumption of an equivalent plane source from multiple point sources would significantly overestimate the vapor concentration and the contaminated range. The previous single point source model is no longer inapplicable when the relative distance and/or the release interval between sources is small, giving a strong interaction between multiple sources. Moreover, a faster vapor degradation rate or a higher groundwater level will reduce the area of vapor plume linearly. Hence, close attention should be paid to the time-variation characteristics of multiple sources, the vapor degradation and the groundwater level fluctuation in practice to facilitate soil remediation. The proposed model is a promising tool for addressing the above issue.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes do Solo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Poluição Ambiental , Gases , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
17.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 607(Pt 2): 1300-1312, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583035

RESUMO

Flexible polyurethane foam (FPUF) is the most used polyurethane, but the highly flammable characteristic limits its widespread usage. In this work, ZIF-8@Ti3C2Txwas synthesized to reduce the heat and toxic gases of FPUF. Flame-retardant FPUF was characterized by cone calorimeter (Cone), thermogravimetric analysis/fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR), tensileand compression tests. Compared with pure FPUF, these results showed that the peak of heat release rate (PHRR), total heat release (THR), CO and HCN of FPUF6 decreased by 46%, 69%, 27% and 43.5%, respectively. Moreover, the tensile and compression strength of FPUF6 demonstrated a 52% and 130% increment, respectively. The superior dual metal catalytical charring-forming effect and physical barrier effect of ZIF-8@Ti3C2Tx were achieved. In summary, a simple and reliable strategy for preparing flame-retardant FPUF with reinforced mechanical and fire safety properties was provided.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Poliuretanos , Gases , Poliuretanos/toxicidade , Titânio
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150127, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583076

RESUMO

The four-year continuous measurements of CO, NOx, NH3, SO2, and O3 were carried at a high altitude site (32.12°N, 76.56°E at 1347 m AMSL) of the Indian Western Himalayan area to study the mixing ratios of these gases for understanding the changing trends of these trace gases over the region. Each of these trace gases showed significant daily and monthly variabilities. The highest variability was recorded in the monthly mean values of O3 as it varied from 10 to 63 ppb during the study period. All the trace gases except CO showed maximum variability in the pre-monsoon seasons due to the strong advection and vertical circulation of air masses at the site. The seasonal mean maxima of CO were recorded during the monsoon season, while the mean maxima of NH3 were recorded during the post-monsoon seasons. The meteorological parameters have been found to influence the mixing ratios of trace gases. The least variability in the mean seasonal mixing ratios of SO2 during the study period indicated the constant point source of SO2 near the site. The trajectories analysis revealed that the area receives maximum air masses from the southeast to the west directions where a number of the coal-based thermal power plants, industries, cement plants, and agricultural fields are also located. The influence of valley-to-mountain circulations was also observed at the site, resulting in the transport of pollutant-rich air masses from local and distant sources to the site. A comparison of the mixing ratios of different trace gases obtained in the present study is also made with the values reported for other high altitude stations in the world.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Gases , Meteorologia , Ozônio/análise , Estações do Ano
19.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113791, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592670

RESUMO

The conversion of low-value plastic waste into high-value products such as carbon nanomaterial is of recent interest. In the current study, the non-condensable pyrolysis gases, produced from Polypropylene Copolymer (PPC) feedstock, was converted into bamboo-type carbon nanotubes (BCNTs) through catalytic chemical vapour deposition using biochar. Experiments were conducted in a three-zone furnace fixed bed reactor, where PPC was pyrolysed in the second zone and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) growth was eventuated in the third zone. The effects of different growth temperatures (500, 700, 900 °C) and biochar particle sizes (nanoparticle as well as 0-100 and 100-300 µm) were investigated to optimise the production of hydrogen and the yield of carbon nanotubes on the biochar surface. Biochar samples used in the synthesis of CNTs were obtained from the pyrolysis of saw dust at 700 °C in a muffle furnace. Analyses performed by using Scanning electron microscopy, Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy techniques suggested that the best crystalline structure of CNTs were obtained at 900 °C with nano-sized biochar as a catalyst. The strong gas-solid contact and void fraction of nano-sized particles enhances the diffusion-precipitation mechanism, leading to the growth of CNTs. The nano-sized biochar increased hydrogen production at 900 °C and reduced the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons content in oil to only 1%, which is advantageous for further utilisation. Therefore, the production of high-value CNTs from waste plastic using low-cost biochar catalyst can be a sustainable approach in the management of waste plastic while participating in the circular economy.


Assuntos
Nanotubos de Carbono , Pirólise , Carvão Vegetal , Gases , Polímeros , Polipropilenos
20.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113792, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607137

RESUMO

Jaggery is a kind of unrefined non-centrifugal sugar (NCS) used mainly in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Traditionally, jaggery is produced by concentrating sugarcane juice in open pans with the help of bagasse combustion. However, due to thermal energy loss with flue gases and an unscientific approach in plant construction, jaggery plants have a poor thermal efficiency of less than 25%, poor emission characteristics, and a high bagasse consumption rate. Advanced jaggery-making techniques use solar energy and heat pumps for jaggery production. However, these techniques are in the early stage of development, and the literature indicates that these techniques should be used in conjuction with traditional ones to improve the performance of jaggery making plants. This literature review describes advances in jaggery-making methods, critically analyzed them, and provides a qualitative comparison of these methods. Further, gaps in the existing literature are identified and reported for future research direction. In addition, efforts have been made to quantify and estimate the emissions reduction and bagasse consumption potentials from the traditional jaggery industry to make this rural industry a sustainable and profitable business for rural entrepreneurs. The comparison with the recently developed clean combustion device exhibits that the harmful emissions from the jaggery industry could be reduced drastically viz. 95%-98% of PM2.5; 92%-95% of CO, and 52-60% of CO2, while saving more than 35% of bagasse consumption. Implemented at a national scale, it may reduce nearly 3% of all harmful emissions in the country, which is equally applicable elsewhere.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais , Saccharum , Gases , Temperatura Alta
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