Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 35.454
Filtrar
1.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 22(3): 164-168, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of investigative esophagogastroduodenoscopies (EGD) in children has increased over several decades, despite their unclear diagnostic yields. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the indications for performing EGD, their diagnostic yields, and consequences on pediatric patient management. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed of consecutive pediatric patients aged 0-18 years, who underwent EGD between January and August 2014. RESULTS: During the study period, 547 EGD were performed on 478 children. The most frequent indications were suspected celiac disease, chronic non-specific abdominal pain, persistent Helicobacter pylori infection, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage. The yield of the diagnostic EGD was 59.2%, and the most common new diagnoses were celiac disease (28%), Helicobacter pylori-positive gastritis (16.5%), and Crohn's disease (5.4%). Of the patients with documented follow-up, 74.1% reported improved symptoms. Procedures performed for chronic unexplained abdominal pain had significantly lower yields (26.2%) and only 39.3% improved at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a general high diagnostic yield for EGD in pediatric patients, stemming mainly from patients in whom a specific condition was suspected a priori. However, the role of the procedure in the diagnosis and management of non-specific gastrointestinal complaints was minor suggesting that EGD may be superfluous for some of these patients.


Assuntos
Endoscopia do Sistema Digestório/métodos , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico , Doença de Crohn/epidemiologia , Endoscopia do Sistema Digestório/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(11): e19509, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176096

RESUMO

Transthyretin amyloid (ATTR) amyloidosis is a rare systemic disorder characterized by amyloid deposits formed by misfolded monomers of the transthyretin. Gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations are common in ATTR amyloidosis; however, their pathogenesis is not fully elucidated. In the present study, we aim to evaluate the diagnostic role of fecal calprotectin (FC) in ATTR amyloidosis patients with GI manifestations.We recruited 21 consecutive ATTR amyloidosis patients and 42 sex and age-matched healthy controls. The presentation of GI symptoms and the severity of peripheral neuropathy were evaluated. Colonoscopy and FC assessment were performed in all subjects.Mean levels of FC in ATTR amyloidosis patients (184 µg/g [30-430]) were significantly higher thаn those of controls (40 µg/g [30-70]), P < .001. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated a FC cut-off level of 71 µg/g, which differentiates ATTR amyloidosis with GI manifestations from healthy subjects with 91% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value, 95% negative predictive value and 97% overall accuracy. FC values were significantly associated with the presence of neutrophilic granulocytic infiltration in the colonic mucosa (P = .002), with the presence of amyloid deposits in rectal mucosa (P = .007) and the presence of diarrhea (P = .046).FC levels are elevated in patients with ATTR amyloidosis with GI manifestations, which suggests an inflammatory component in the pathogenesis of the disease. The presence of elevated FC concentrations could help gastroenterologists to include ATTR amyloidosis in their diagnostic work-up.


Assuntos
Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares/diagnóstico , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colonoscopia , Fezes/química , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
N Engl J Med ; 382(8): 706-716, 2020 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prurigo nodularis is a chronic pruritic skin disease with multiple nodular skin lesions. Nemolizumab is a monoclonal antibody targeting the interleukin-31 receptor, which is involved in the pathogenesis of prurigo nodularis. METHODS: We conducted a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, phase 2 trial of nemolizumab (at a dose of 0.5 mg per kilogram of body weight) administered subcutaneously at baseline, week 4, and week 8, as compared with placebo, in patients with moderate-to-severe prurigo nodularis and severe pruritus. Moderate-to-severe prurigo nodularis was defined as 20 or more nodules, and severe pruritus was defined as a mean score of at least 7 for the worst daily intensity of pruritus on the numerical rating scale (scores range from 0 [no itch] to 10 [worst itch imaginable]). The primary outcome was the percent change from baseline in the mean peak score for pruritus on the numerical rating scale at week 4. Secondary outcomes included additional measures of itching and disease severity. Safety assessments were performed through week 18. RESULTS: A total of 70 patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive nemolizumab (34 patients) or placebo (36). The initial pruritus score on the numerical rating scale was 8.4 in each group. At week 4, the peak pruritus score on the numerical rating scale was reduced from baseline by 4.5 points (change, -53.0%) in the nemolizumab group, as compared with a reduction of 1.7 points (change, -20.2%) in the placebo group (difference, -32.8 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, -46.8 to -18.8; P<0.001). Results for secondary outcomes were in the same direction as for the primary outcome. Nemolizumab was associated with gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal pain and diarrhea) and musculoskeletal symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Nemolizumab resulted in a greater reduction in pruritus and severity of skin lesions than placebo in patients with prurigo nodularis but was associated with adverse events. Larger and longer trials are needed to determine the durability and safety of nemolizumab for the treatment of prurigo nodularis. (Funded by Galderma; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03181503.).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Prurigo/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Musculares/induzido quimicamente , Gravidade do Paciente , Prurigo/complicações , Prurido/tratamento farmacológico , Prurido/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nursing ; 50(3): 41-45, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068705

RESUMO

Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) prevents the pancreas from making enough of the exocrine pancreatic enzymes that help the body digest food. EPI can be challenging to recognize and diagnose because many of its signs and symptoms overlap with other gastrointestinal disorders. This article offers practical advice to nurses for patient assessment and nursing interventions.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/complicações , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/enfermagem , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/epidemiologia , Humanos , Avaliação em Enfermagem , Diagnóstico de Enfermagem , Testes de Função Pancreática/enfermagem
6.
Vet Parasitol ; 277: 109018, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896020

RESUMO

Control of sheep gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections mostly relies on the use of anthelmintics. Refugia-based control strategies as targeted selective treatments (TST) can delay anthelmintic resistance development, but the optimal decision criteria for selecting individuals to be treated in subclinical infection scenarios remain unclear. The present study aimed to evaluate the suitability of body condition score (BCS) and faecal egg counts (FEC) as treatment indicators and to determine their optimized threshold values for treatment in TST by determining the relationships of BCS, FEC and anthelmintic treatment with several productive parameters in pre-mating and pre-partum periods at an individual level. Deworming in pre-mating period increased BCS gain, but its magnitude was directly associated with strongyle FEC before treatment. Deworming also increased fertility in ewes with BCS < 2.75 and the proportion of lambing ewes that got pregnant during the first ovulation cycle. Nevertheless, treatment did not yield productive benefits in ewes with higher BCS values. On the other hand, deworming in the pre-partum lowered lamb peri-partum mortality and increased lamb weight at birth and the growth of lambs during lactation, especially in lambs born from ewes with strongyle FEC > 400 epg before treatment. These results showed that FEC and especially BCS can be potential decision criteria for the implementation of TST in these types of scenarios. The TST scheme derived from the present results on the control of GIN infections should include anthelmintic treatment of ewes with BCS lower than ≈ 3 approximately five weeks before mating and lambing. In the pre-lambing period, treatment may be unnecessary if flock mean strongyle FEC is lower than ≈ 200 epg, as the proportion of ewes with individual FEC > 400 epg would be very low. The results suggest that implementation of this TST scheme would provide benefits, such as the improvement of productivity, a rational management of parasites in refugia, and preservation of future efficacy of anthelmintics, in comparison to traditional deworming schemes.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Infecções Assintomáticas , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Gastroenteropatias/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Ovinos
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(53): 1201-1205, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945036

RESUMO

Control of communicable diseases in children, including respiratory and diarrheal illnesses that affect U.S. school-aged children, might require public health preventive efforts both in the home and at school, a primary setting for transmission. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data on school absenteeism and gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses in the United States during 2010-2016 were analyzed to examine their associations with income. Prevalence of gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses (queried for the 2 weeks preceding the survey) increased as income decreased. The likelihood of missing any school days during the past year decreased with reduced income. However, among children who missed school, those from low-income households missed more days of school than did children from higher income households. Although the reason for absenteeism cannot be ascertained from this analysis, these data underscore the importance of preventive measures (e.g. hand hygiene promotion and education) and the opportunity for both homes and schools to serve as important points for implementation of public health preventive measures, including improved hand hygiene practices.


Assuntos
Absenteísmo , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 23(1): 33-37, 2020 Jan 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958928

RESUMO

The rapid development of computer technologies brings us great changes in daily life and work. Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science, which is to allow computers to exercise activities that are normally confined to intelligent life. The broad sense of artificial intelligence includes machine learning and robots. This article mainly focuses on machine learning and related medical fields, and deep learning is an artificial neural network in machine learning. Convolutional neural network (CNN) is a type of deep neural network, that is developed on the basis of deep neural network, further imitating the structure of the visual cortex of the brain and the principle of visual activity. The current machine learning method used in medical big data analysis is mainly CNN. In the next few years, it is the developing trend that artificial intelligence as a conventional tool will enter the relevant departments of medical image interpretation. In addition, this article also shares the progress of the integration of artificial intelligence and biomedicine combined with actual cases, and mainly introduces the current status of CNN application research in pathological diagnosis, imaging diagnosis and endoscopic diagnosis for gastrointestinal diseases.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Gastroenteropatias/terapia , Diagnóstico por Computador , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Terapia Assistida por Computador
9.
Life Sci ; 244: 117281, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926249

RESUMO

AIMS: Mast cells play a crucial role in gastrointestinal physiology and pathophysiology. This study was conducted to investigate the role of mast cells (MCs) in the protective effect of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 (L. casei ATCC 393) on intestinal barrier function. MAIN METHODS: The regulatory effect of L. casei ATCC 393 on intestinal barrier dysfunction and MCs activation induced by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 (ETEC K88) were evaluated by porcine mucosal mast cells (PMMCs)-porcine jejunal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2)-L. casei ATCC 393 co-culture experiments in vitro and MCs stabilizer drug experiment in vivo. KEY FINDINGS: Results showed that L. casei ATCC 393 pretreatment effectively alleviated the reduction of cell viability and increase of permeability in ETEC K88-infected IPEC-J2 cells. L. casei ATCC 393 pretreatment inhibited the increase of proinflammatory cytokines and some other MCs mediators, and decrease of anti-inflammatory cytokines in ETEC K88-infected PMMCs. Cromolyn sodium or L. casei ATCC 393 prevented ETEC K88-induced increase of intestinal epithelial cell permeability in IPEC-J2 cells when co-cultivation with PMMCs. Furthermore, cromolyn sodium or L. casei ATCC 393 pretreatment attenuated ETEC K88-induced increase of MCs mediators, mast cell proteases (MCPs) and carboxypeptidase A3 (CPA3) mRNA levels, and down-regulation of tight junction proteins, Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 (TLR2 and TLR4) expression levels in mice challenged by ETEC K88. SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicated that intestinal barrier dysfunction caused by ETEC K88 was mediated by intestinal mast cell activation which can be prevented by L. casei ATCC 393 via TLRs signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Lactobacillus casei/metabolismo , Mastócitos/fisiologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/metabolismo , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/patogenicidade , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Infecções por Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Gastroenteropatias/metabolismo , Enteropatias/metabolismo , Intestinos/fisiologia , Masculino , Mastócitos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Animais , Suínos , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo
10.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 181(1): 31-42, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694023

RESUMO

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disease and the most common cause of prolonged abdominal pain and bowel disturbances in the developed world. While initially thought to be functional or psychosomatic in nature, IBS is now recognized as a heterogeneous group of conditions. A subset of IBS patients and patients with allergic diseases share some characteristic inflammatory features. In fact, atopic children show an increased likelihood of developing IBS as adults. Given these findings, a subset of IBS may be suffering from allergy-related gut diseases. In this review, we present the allergy-related comorbidities of IBS, including genetic, environmental, and immunologic factors. We discuss studies demonstrating an increased sensitization of IBS patients to aeroallergens compared to food allergens. We then postulate potential pathophysiological mechanisms underlying both IBS and aeroallergens in the gut, followed by potential implications in the screening and treatment of allergies in IBS patients.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/imunologia , Poluição do Ar , Alérgenos/imunologia , Animais , Criança , Comorbidade , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/epidemiologia , Risco
11.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 106(2): 282-290, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669564

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our purpose was to compare toxicity and biochemical control in postprostatectomy patients treated with conventional (66 Gy) or dose-intensified (72 Gy) radiation therapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients who had stage pT3-4, positive surgical margins, or rising prostate-specific antigen ≥ 0.2 ng/mL after radical prostatectomy were randomly assigned to receive either 66 Gy in 33 fractions or 72 Gy in 36 fractions. A primary endpoint was to assess the difference in biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS) between these 2 cohorts, and secondary endpoints were to assess differences in genitourinary (GU), gastrointestinal (GI), and hematologic toxicities between these 2 cohorts. bPFS was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and toxicities were compared using the χ2 test. RESULTS: Between September 2011 and November 2016, 144 patients were enrolled: 71 patients to the 66 Gy cohort and 73 patients to the 72 Gy cohort. The median follow-up time was 48.5 months (range, 14-79 months). There was no difference in 4-year bPFS between the 66 Gy and 72 Gy cohorts (75.9% vs 82.6%; P = .299). However, in patients with a higher Gleason score (8-10), the 72 Gy cohort had statistically significant improvement in bPFS compared with the 66 Gy cohort (79.7% vs 55.7%; P = .049). Toxicity analysis showed no difference in ≥2 acute or late GI or GU toxicities between these 2 cohorts. A total of 48 patients were scored as urinary incontinence before radiation therapy, of which 39 (81.3%) reported incontinence recovery or stable at 1-year follow-up, and only 9 (18.8%) patients reported worsening. There was no difference between the 2 cohorts in urinary incontinence either at baseline or at 1-year follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Dose escalation (72 Gy) demonstrated no improvement in 4-year bPFS compared with the 66 Gy regimen. However, the dose escalation was not associated with greater acute or late GU or GI toxicities and did not increase urinary incontinence.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Progressão da Doença , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Seguimentos , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Humanos , Calicreínas/sangue , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucopenia/etiologia , Masculino , Margens de Excisão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Período Pós-Operatório , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Radioterapia Adjuvante/estatística & dados numéricos , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Salvação/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Incontinência Urinária/complicações , Incontinência Urinária/radioterapia , Transtornos Urinários/etiologia
12.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; 19(1): 19-22, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739696

RESUMO

Introduction: The 18th Annual Meeting of the Safety Pharmacology Society included a session dedicated to the assessment of drug safety on the gastrointestinal (GI) system.Areas covered: GI anatomy, physiology, adverse effects (AEs) of chemical and biological therapies, and approaches to mitigate them.Expert opinion: GI AEs, albeit common and generally of minor intensity, may prolong clinical development time and reduce patient compliance.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/induzido quimicamente , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos
13.
Immunology ; 159(2): 167-177, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646612

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibition with monoclonal antibodies is becoming increasingly commonplace in cancer medicine, having contributed to a widening of therapeutic options across oncological indications. Disruption of immune tolerance is the key mechanism of action of checkpoint inhibitors and although immune-related adverse events are a typical class effect of these compounds, the relationship between toxicity and response is not fully understood. Awareness and vigilance are paramount in recognizing potentially life-threatening toxicities and managing them in a timely manner. In this review article, we provide an overview of the clinical features, pathological findings and management principles of common immune-related toxicities, attempting to provide mechanistic insight into an increasingly common complication of cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/induzido quimicamente , Gastroenteropatias/induzido quimicamente , Tolerância Imunológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Pneumopatias/induzido quimicamente , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/imunologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/terapia , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/imunologia , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/metabolismo , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/terapia , Gastroenteropatias/imunologia , Gastroenteropatias/metabolismo , Gastroenteropatias/terapia , Humanos , Pneumopatias/imunologia , Pneumopatias/metabolismo , Pneumopatias/terapia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Evasão Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Gastroenterology ; 158(1): 76-94.e2, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593701

RESUMO

Since 2010, substantial progress has been made in artificial intelligence (AI) and its application to medicine. AI is explored in gastroenterology for endoscopic analysis of lesions, in detection of cancer, and to facilitate the analysis of inflammatory lesions or gastrointestinal bleeding during wireless capsule endoscopy. AI is also tested to assess liver fibrosis and to differentiate patients with pancreatic cancer from those with pancreatitis. AI might also be used to establish prognoses of patients or predict their response to treatments, based on multiple factors. We review the ways in which AI may help physicians make a diagnosis or establish a prognosis and discuss its limitations, knowing that further randomized controlled studies will be required before the approval of AI techniques by the health authorities.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Diagnóstico por Computador/métodos , Gastroenterologia/métodos , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Árvores de Decisões , Gastroenteropatias/mortalidade , Gastroenteropatias/terapia , Humanos , Hepatopatias/mortalidade , Hepatopatias/terapia , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Gastroenterology ; 158(1): 95-110, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626754

RESUMO

Glycans are sequences of carbohydrates that are added to proteins or lipids to modulate their structure and function. Glycans modify proteins required for regulation of immune cells, and alterations have been associated with inflammatory conditions. For example, specific glycans regulate T-cell activation, structures, and functions of immunoglobulins; interactions between microbes and immune and epithelial cells; and malignant transformation in the intestine and liver. We review the effects of protein glycosylation in regulation of gastrointestinal and liver functions, and how alterations in glycosylation serve as diagnostic or prognostic factors, or as targets for therapy.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Gastroenteropatias/mortalidade , Gastroenteropatias/terapia , Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Glicômica , Glicosilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/mortalidade , Hepatopatias/terapia , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Proteômica , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 246: 112184, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465817

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In the pre-antibiotic era, a broad spectrum of medicinal plants was used to treat livestock. This knowledge was neglected in European veterinary medicine for decades but kept alive by farmers. Emergence of multidrug resistant bacterial strains requires a severely restricted use of antibiotics in veterinary medicine. We conducted a survey on the ethnoveterinary knowledge of farmers in the bilingual (French and German speaking) Western region of Switzerland, namely the cantons of Fribourg, Neuchâtel and Jura, and in the French speaking part of the canton of Bern. AIM OF THE STUDY: To find out whether differences exist in plants used by farmers in French speaking and bilingual regions of Switzerland as compared to our earlier studies conducted in Switzerland. Additional focus was on plants that are used in diseases which commonly are treated with antimicrobials, on plants used in skin afflictions, and on plants used in animal species such as horses, for which the range of veterinary medicinal products is limited. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted in 2015 semistructured interviews with 62 dialog partners, mainly cattle keeping farmers but also 18 horse keeping farmers. Of these, 41 were native French (FNS) and 21 native German speakers (GNS). Detailed information about homemade herbal remedies (plant species, plant part, manufacturing process) and the corresponding use reports (target animal species, category of use, route of administration, dosage, source of knowledge, frequency of use, last time of use and farmers satisfaction) were collected. RESULTS: A total of 345 homemade remedies were reported, of which 240 contained only one plant species (Homemade Single Species Herbal Remedy Reports; HSHR). A total of 289 use reports (UR) were mentioned for the 240 HSHR, and they comprised 77 plant species belonging to 41 botanical families. Of these, 35 plant species were solely reported from FNS, 20 from GNS, and 22 from both. Taking into account earlier ethnoveterinary studies conducted in Switzerland only 10 (FNS) and 6 (GNS) plant species connected with 7% of FNS and GNS UR respectively were "unique" to the respective language group. The majority of the UR (219) was for treatment of cattle, while 38 UR were intended to treat horses. The most UR were for treatment of gastrointestinal and skin diseases. The most frequently mentioned plants were Linum usitatissimum L., Coffea L., Matricaria chamomilla L., Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze, and Quercus robur L. for gastrointestinal diseases, and Calendula officinalis L., Hypericum perforatum L. and Sanicula europaea L. for skin afflictions. CONCLUSION: No clear differences were found between the medicinal plants used by French native speakers and German native speakers. Several of the reported plants seem to be justified to widen the spectrum of veterinary therapeutic options in gastrointestinal and dermatological disorders in cattle and horses, and to reduce, at least to a certain degree, the need for antibiotic treatments. Our findings may help to strengthen the role of medicinal plants in veterinary research and practice, and to consider them as a further measure in official strategies for lowering the use of antibiotics.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional , Fitoterapia/veterinária , Dermatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Bovinos , Etnobotânica , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Cavalos , Humanos , Linguagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plantas Medicinais , Dermatopatias/veterinária , Suíça
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA