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1.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 101-107, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitochondria are energy-producing organelles, and dysfunction in these organelles causes various types of disease. Although several studies have identified mutations in nuclear DNA that are associated with the etiology of ulcerative colitis (UC), information regarding mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in UC is limited. This study aimed to investigate the mitochondrial DNA polymorphism underlying the etiology of UC and UC-associated colorectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Next-generation sequencing was performed to assess mitochondrial DNA mutations in 12 patients with UC-associated cancer. The mtDNA mutations in the non-neoplastic mucosa, tumor tissues, and healthy controls were compared. RESULTS: The incidence of mutations of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate ubiquinone oxidase subunit, ATP synthetase, and tRNA was higher in non-neoplastic mucosa in those with UC compared with the healthy controls. However, no statistically significant differences were observed in mutations between the tumor tissues and non-neoplastic mucosa in UC. CONCLUSION: Significant mutations in mtDNA were observed in the non-neoplastic mucosa of patients with UC-associated cancer.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/complicações , Colite Ulcerativa/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Genes Mitocondriais , Polimorfismo Genético , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Colite Ulcerativa/metabolismo , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Masculino , Mutação
3.
Zootaxa ; 4695(4): zootaxa.4695.4.1, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719339

RESUMO

We describe a new species of Megophryidae frog, Megophrys shunhuangensis sp. nov., from Hunan Province, Southern China. It can be distinguished from other known species in the subgenus Panophrys by morphological characters, bioacoustic data and a molecular divergence in the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene similar to that found among other species of Panophrys. M. shunhuangensis sp. nov. is characterized by a relatively small body size, with adult females measuring 37.6 mm and adult males measuring 30.3-33.6 mm in snout to vent length; maxillary teeth present, vomerine teeth absent; tongue smooth, not notched behind; hindlimb slender, heels overlapping, tibio-tarsal articulation reaches forward between the nasal and tip of snout. Molecular phylogenetic analyses also show that M. sp. 6 from (Mao'er Shan, China) from Chen et al. (2017) and M. sp. 24 (Anjiangping and Mao'er Shan, China) from Liu et al. (2018) may be the same species as M. shunhuangensis sp. nov., we consequently speculate that the new species also distributed in Anjiangping and Mao'er Shan, China. At present, the genus Megophrys contains 85 species of which 48 species are distributed in China, and 30 belong to the subgenus Panophrys.


Assuntos
Anuros , Genes Mitocondriais , Animais , Anuros/genética , China , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S
4.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 520, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cysticercosis caused by the metacestode larval stage of Taenia hydatigena is a disease of veterinary and economic importance. A considerable level of genetic variation among isolates of different intermediate hosts and locations has been documented. Generally, data on the genetic population structure of T. hydatigena is scanty and lacking in Nigeria. Meanwhile, similar findings in other cestodes like Echinococcus spp. have been found to be of epidemiological importance. Our aim, therefore, was to characterize and compare the genetic diversity of T. hydatigena population in Nigeria based on three mitochondrial DNA markers as well as to assess the phylogenetic relationship with populations from other geographical regions. METHODS: In the present study, we described the genetic variation and diversity of T. hydatigena isolates from Nigerian sheep and goats using three full-length mitochondrial genes: the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1), and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (nad5). RESULTS: The median-joining network of concatenated cox1-nad1-nad5 sequences indicated that T. hydatigena metacestodes of sheep origin were genetically distinct from those obtained in goats and this was supported by high FST values of nad1, cox1, and concatenated cox1-nad1-nad5 sequences. Genetic variation was also found to be higher in isolates from goats than from sheep. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, the present study described the genetic variation of T. hydatigena population for the first time in Nigeria using full-length mitochondrial genes and suggests the existence of host-specific variants. The population indices of the different DNA markers suggest that analysis of long mitochondrial DNA fragments may provide more information on the molecular ecology of T. hydatigena. We recommend that future studies employ long mitochondrial DNA sequence in order to provide reliable data that would explain the extent of genetic variation in different hosts/locations and the biological and epidemiological significance.


Assuntos
Genes Mitocondriais , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Taenia/genética , Teníase/veterinária , Animais , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Cabras , NADH Desidrogenase/genética , Nigéria , Filogenia , Ovinos , Taenia/classificação , Taenia/isolamento & purificação , Teníase/parasitologia
5.
Parasitol Res ; 118(12): 3543-3548, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691856

RESUMO

Paranoplocephala omphalodes is a widespread parasite of voles. Low morphological variability within the genus Paranoplocephala has led to erroneous identification of P. omphalodes a wide range of definitive hosts. The use of molecular methods in the earlier investigations has confirmed that P. omphalodes parasitizes four vole species in Europe. We studied the distribution of P. omphalodes in Russia and Kazakhstan using molecular tools. The study of 3248 individuals of 20 arvicoline species confirmed a wide distribution of P. omphalodes. Cestodes of this species were found in Microtus arvalis, M. levis, M. agrestis, Arvicola amphibius, and also in Chionomys gud. Analysis of the mitochondrial gene cox1 variability revealed a low haplotype diversity in P. omphalodes in Eurasia.


Assuntos
Arvicolinae/parasitologia , Cestoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Animais , Arvicolinae/classificação , Cestoides/classificação , Cestoides/genética , Cestoides/fisiologia , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Genes Mitocondriais , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Cazaquistão , Filogenia , Federação Russa
6.
Zootaxa ; 4577(2): zootaxa.4577.2.3, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715722

RESUMO

Two new species of Bent-toed Geckos of the Cyrtodactylus peguensis group are described from foothill areas occurring on opposite sides of the Ayeyarwady Basin. Cyrtodactylus nyinyikyawi sp. nov. from the Shwe Settaw Wildlife Sanctuary, Magway Region in the east and C. pyadalinensis sp. nov. from the Panluang-Pyadalin Wildlife Sanctuary, Shan State in the west bear unique suits of morphological and color pattern character states separating them from all species in the peguensis group. Additionally, a molecular phylogeny based on the mitochondrial gene ND2 indicates that neither species is nested within, nor sister to any known species in the group. This study augments recent and ongoing studies showing that the Ayeyarwady Basin is herpetologically more diverse than previously considered and should be incorporated into ongoing discussions concerning conservation efforts in Myanmar.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Cor , Genes Mitocondriais , Mianmar , Filogenia
7.
Zootaxa ; 4577(2): zootaxa.4577.2.10, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715729

RESUMO

We record Raorchestes parvulus (Boulenger, 1893) for the first time from China based on six specimens collected from southern Yunnan. Phylogenetically these individuals were placed in a clade with R. parvulus from Southeast Asia and pairwise genetic distances in DNA sequences of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene ranged from 0 to 3.1% within the clade. Morphologically these specimens agree with R. parvulus in a series of characters including body size small, a large external vocal sac, vomerine teeth absent, snout slightly shorter than the diameter of the orbit, canthus rostralis indistinct, interorbital space broader than the upper eyelid, tympanum indistinct, fingers free, toes webbed at the base, an inner metatarsal tubercle, tibio-tarsal articulation reaches eye, small warts on the dorsal surfaces of body and limbs, throat smooth, belly granular, a dark triangular blotch between the eyes, a butterfly-like dark band on the back, a dark blotch on each side of lumbar region, and more or less distinct dark bars across limbs. Obvious intraspecific variation in the color pattern occurs within the population. It is possible that previous records of Raorchestes longchuanensis (Yang and Li, 1979) from southern Yunnan might be misidentification of R. parvulus.


Assuntos
Anuros , Genes Mitocondriais , Animais , Anuros/genética , China , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S
8.
Zootaxa ; 4577(1): zootaxa.4577.1.9, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715741

RESUMO

Several house bat specimens superficially resembling the white-bellied house bat Scotophilus leucogaster (Cretzschmar, 1830), were recently captured in southwestern Ethiopia and southern South Sudan. These S. cf. leucogaster differed from typical S. leucogaster by their slightly smaller size and ventral coloration, conforming instead with the original description of S. altilis Allen, 1914. Scotophilus altilis is an overlooked taxon known from the Blue Nile region in Sudan that is currently considered a junior synonym of S. leucogaster. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (cytb) sequences revealed S. cf. leucogaster as a sister clade to S. leucogaster with a genetic distance of ca. 10%. Comparative specimens of questionable S. nigritellus de Winton, 1899 from northwestern Ethiopia and a wing biopsy sample of another S. cf. leucogaster from western Kenya also fell within this clade. Sequence data from two nuclear markers (zfy and fgb7) corroborated the distinction of S. cf. leucogaster from S. leucogaster. Likewise, morphometric analysis of cranial data largely supported this distinction, as well as taxonomic affiliation with S. altilis based on comparison with the only available paratype specimen. The position of this paratype specimen within the new Scotophilus clade, inferred from analysis of a short fragment of cytb, confirmed its taxonomic identity. Based on the presented evidence, the overlooked East African taxon S. altilis should be resurrected as a full species within the genus Scotophilus.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Animais , Etiópia , Genes Mitocondriais , Quênia , Filogenia
9.
Zootaxa ; 4568(1): zootaxa.4568.1.3, 2019 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715870

RESUMO

Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo are relatively unknown in terms of their herpetological diversity. Based on specimens collected in the Congolese region of the Katanga and the northeast of Angola during the first decades of the twentieth century, de Witte and Laurent independently suggested, based on morphological and coloration differences, that populations of T. megalura of these regions could belong a new "race". We compared specimens of T. megalura (including the type specimens of T. megalura and T. massaiana) with Angolan and Katangan museum specimens as well as newly collected specimens from Angola. Coloration pattern and morphological characters, in combination with substantial divergence in the 16S mitochondrial gene, confirm the distinctiveness of the west Central African form, and it is here described as a new species. Data regarding its natural history, ecology and global distribution are presented.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Angola , Animais , República Democrática do Congo , Genes Mitocondriais
10.
Zootaxa ; 4674(2): zootaxa.4674.2.7, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716015

RESUMO

A new species of the Marphysa sanguinea group, M. iloiloensis n. sp. (Annelida: Eunicida: Eunicidae), is described from the Marine Annelids Hatchery of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department (SEAFDEC- AQD), Iloilo Province, Philippines. It represents the first record of this group in the Philippines. The new species is most similar morphologically to M. hongkongensa Wang, Zhang Qiu, 2018, but can be distinguished from it by having fewer branchial filaments, a pair of faint eyes (absent in M. hongkongensa), and in slight differences in jaw morphology and chaetation. The embryos of the new species develop inside a jelly cocoon attached to the entrance of the adult burrow; this is the first time that egg-containing cocoons have been found in any species of the sanguinea-group. Phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) revealed that Marphysa iloiloensis n. sp. is genetically distinct from all other analysed Marphysa species and forms a sister group to M. hongkongensa. A revised identification key to members of the sanguinea-group in Southeast Asia is provided.


Assuntos
Anelídeos , Poliquetos , Animais , Genes Mitocondriais , Filipinas , Filogenia
11.
Zootaxa ; 4624(3): zootaxa.4624.3.1, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716208

RESUMO

An integrative taxonomic analysis of the Cyrtodactylus linnwayensis group of the Shan Plateau recovered two new populations from isolated karst habitats near Pinlaung Town, Shan State as a new species, C. pinlaungensis sp. nov. Cyrtodactylus pinlaungensis sp. nov. is most closely related to a clade comprising C. linnwayensis and C. ywanganensis from the western edge of the Shan Plateau approximately 90 km to the northwest. Cyrtodactylus pinlaungensis sp. nov. can be distinguished from all members of the C. linnwayensis group by a number of statistically different morphological characters, discrete color pattern differences, and its heavy tuberculation. It also bears an uncorrected pairwise sequence divergence of 5.0-7.6% from all other species combined based on the mitochondrial gene ND2 and its flanking tRNAs. The discovery of this new species on the Shan Plateau continues to underscore the fact that this region is rapidly emerging as a herpetological diversity hot-spot for Myanmar.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Ecossistema , Genes Mitocondriais , Mianmar , Filogenia
12.
Parasitol Res ; 118(12): 3491-3496, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728723

RESUMO

In this study, 36.8% (28/76) of tissue samples collected from domestic pigs (Sus scrofa) contained sarcocysts, as determined by light microscopy. The organisms were identified as Sarcocystis miescheriana and Sarcocystis suihominis based on their morphological and molecular characteristics. Four genetic markers, i.e., 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, ITS-1 region (ITS-1), and the mitochondrial COX1 gene (COX1), of the two parasites were sequenced and analyzed, and the 28S rDNA and ITS-1 of S. suihominis obtained from pigs constituted the first records of these markers in GenBank. The sequences of the four loci (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, ITS-1, and COX1) of S. miescheriana shared high identities with those of S. miescheriana obtained from domestic and/or wild pigs in GenBank, with similarities of 99.6%, 99.6%, 95.9%, and 95.4%, respectively. The 18S rDNA sequences of S. suihominis exhibited 99.4% identity with those of S. suihominis from domestic and wild pigs. The comparison of the newly obtained sequences of the four genetic markers between the two parasites revealed that the interspecific similarities of 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, ITS-1, and COX1 were 97.7%, 96.6%, 80.3%, and 81.2%, respectively. Therefore, the two species could be better discriminated with ITS-1 and mitochondrial COX1 compared with 18S rDNA or 28S rDNA. The phylogenetic analysis using 28S rDNA indicated that the two Sarcocystis species in domestic pigs had a close relationship.


Assuntos
Sarcocystis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sarcocystis/genética , Sarcocistose/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Animais , China , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Genes Mitocondriais , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Sarcocystis/classificação , Sarcocystis/isolamento & purificação , Sarcocistose/parasitologia , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Suínos
13.
Zootaxa ; 4623(1): zootaxa.4623.1.7, 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716277

RESUMO

The Hirtodrosophila melanderi species group is currently known for thirteen described species, most of which were thought to be fungivorous. More than half known species of this species group were recorded exclusively from high altitude zone to the southeast of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China. In our recent field survey in the Huanglong National Nature Reserve (located to the east of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau) in Sichuan Province, China, we collected dozens of specimens of the H. melanderi group there. In the present study, these specimens are subjected to species delimitation based on data of not only morphology, but also DNA barcodes (nucleotide sequences of a 658-bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene). The five new species thus recognized are described: Hirtodrosophila minshanensis sp. nov., H. lambda sp. nov., H. zhangae sp. nov., H. zouae sp. nov., and H. nigrispina sp. nov. In addition, an updated key to all species of the H. melanderi species group is provided.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Drosophilidae , Animais , China , Genes Mitocondriais , Filogenia , Tibet
14.
Zootaxa ; 4565(1): zootaxa.4565.1.8, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716494

RESUMO

The butterfly tribe Baorini Doherty, 1886 is a large group of skippers. In this study, a total of 8 genera and 41 species of putative members of this tribe, which represent most of the generic diversity and nearly all the species diversity of the group in China, were sequenced for two mitochondrial genes and three nuclear genes (2084 bp). Phylogenetic relationships and subdivision of this tribe were investigated and the status of the genera are discussed. Partitioned maximum likelihood analyses were performed based on the combined dataset. Our results suggest that the data are split into two well-supported clades in the phylogeny tree. This analysis also represents the most complete phylogenetic analysis of the tribe Baorini in China to date, and includes several genera and species that have been previously excluded from published phylogenies of this group.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Animais , Núcleo Celular , China , Evolução Molecular , Genes Mitocondriais , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
15.
Zootaxa ; 4668(4): zootaxa.4668.4.4, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716607

RESUMO

A new species of rupicolous girdled lizard is described from Serra da Neve Inselberg, Namibe Province, southwestern Angola. We sequenced two mitochondrial gene regions (16S and ND2) for the new species and compared these data with those previously published for other Cordylus species. The new species is genetically divergent from the closely related Cordylus machadoi and C. namakuiyus and morphologically distinguished by head scale arrangement, coloration, and osteological characters. Serra da Neve is the second highest peak in Angola and one of the most understudied areas of the country. The discovery of this new species highlights the importance of this inselberg for regional endemism and emphasizes the high conservation importance of the area.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Angola , Animais , Genes Mitocondriais , Osteologia , Filogenia
16.
Zootaxa ; 4668(1): zootaxa.4668.1.3, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716638

RESUMO

A new species of limestone karst-adapted gecko of the Cyrtodactylus pulchellus complex, C. dayangbuntingensis sp. nov., is described from Dayang Bunting Island of the Langkawi Archipelago off the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia. It is the third species of the group to be described from the archipelago after C. langkawiensis and C. macrotuberculatus. The new species can be distinguished from all other species of Cyrtodactylus based on molecular evidence from the mitochondrial gene ND2 and its flanking tRNAs as well as having unique combinations of morphological and color pattern characteristics. This discovery underscores the need for continued surveys of the many islands in the archipelago to properly ascertain its true herpetological diversity.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Ecossistema , Genes Mitocondriais , Ilhas , Malásia , Filogenia
17.
Zootaxa ; 4664(3): zootaxa.4664.3.10, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716672

RESUMO

Polyphena chongzuoensis sp. nov. is described from China, as the twelfth species of Polyphena Solovyev, 2014. This new species is morphologically similar to P. bana (Cai, 1983), but differs in male genitalia from the latter by short spurs of anellus and aedeagus without obvious apical processes. Male adult and its genitalia are illustrated. The new species is supported molecularly by the analysis of pairwise genetic distances from a 658 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene, with the minimum distance value of 6.4% from its allied species P. annae.


Assuntos
Lepidópteros , Mariposas , Animais , China , Genes Mitocondriais , Genitália , Genitália Masculina , Masculino
18.
Zootaxa ; 4658(2): zootaxa.4658.2.10, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716750

RESUMO

After reconstructing the phylogenetic relationships among the closely related genera Carbula Stål, Eysarcoris Hahn, and Stagonomus Gorski (tribe Eysarcorini), using the mitochondrial genes: 16S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI), and incorporating morphological characters to contrast our data, we transfer the species Eysarcoris gibbosus Jakovlev and Eysarcoris venustissimus (Schrank) to the genus Stagonomus, and we propose to place the subgenus Dalleria Mulsant Rey as a synonym under the nominal subgenus Stagonomus. Additionally, Stagonomus is redefined to include diagnostic characters of the male genitalia.


Assuntos
Genes Mitocondriais , Animais , Insetos/genética , Masculino , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S
19.
Zootaxa ; 4648(1): zootaxa.4648.1.1, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716957

RESUMO

Classification and evolutionary relationships among anchialine shrimp from the family Barbouriidae Christoffersen, 1987, has long been a topic of debate amongst crustacean taxonomists. To date, no study has examined morphological or molecular variation among populations of these enigmatic shrimp. The present study documents and analyzes patterns of widespread morphological variation within populations of Barbouria cubensis von Martens, 1872, from anchialine pools on three Bahamian islands. Such extensive morphological variation confounds identification using classic taxonomical methods. Phenotypic variation is by no means a new topic, but studies of decapods are typically limited to isolated individuals or few morphological characters. Moreover, past studies of B. cubensis do not report extensive morphological variation, however we find that upwards of 90% of individuals are affected. Anomalous phenotypes are described in 54 morphological characters with no detectable pattern associated with geographic distribution. The term phenotypic hypervariation (PhyV) is used to describe morphological variation that greatly deviates from any previous taxonomic descriptions.  Analysis of partial sequences of the 16S and COI mitochondrial genes confirm the identity of morphologically variable specimens as B. cubensis without population structure across the tropical western Atlantic. A test for cryptic diversity within B. cubensis suggests PhyV is not correlated with cryptic diversity. Morphological variation at this scale likely depends on recent changes either to their environment or genetic diversity.


Assuntos
Animais , Evolução Biológica , Genes Mitocondriais , Variação Genética , Ilhas , Fenótipo , Filogenia
20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4589, 2019 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597917

RESUMO

The urothelium is an epithelial barrier lining the bladder that protects against infection, fluid exchange and damage from toxins. The nuclear receptor Pparg promotes urothelial differentiation in vitro, and Pparg mutations are associated with bladder cancer. However, the function of Pparg in the healthy urothelium is unknown. Here we show that Pparg is critical in urothelial cells for mitochondrial biogenesis, cellular differentiation and regulation of inflammation in response to urinary tract infection (UTI). Superficial cells, which are critical for maintaining the urothelial barrier, fail to mature in Pparg mutants and basal cells undergo squamous-like differentiation. Pparg mutants display persistent inflammation after UTI, and Nf-KB, which is transiently activated in response to infection in the wild type urothelium, persists for months. Our observations suggest that in addition to its known roles in adipogegnesis and macrophage differentiation, that Pparg-dependent transcription plays a role in the urothelium controlling mitochondrial function development and regeneration.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Genes Mitocondriais/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Urotélio/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/genética , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutação , PPAR gama/genética , Bexiga Urinária/citologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Infecções Urinárias/complicações , Urotélio/citologia
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