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1.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 816, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34772334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The intimate association between parasitic plants and their hosts favours the exchange of genetic material, potentially leading to horizontal gene transfer (HGT) between plants. With the recent publication of several parasitic plant nuclear genomes, there has been considerable focus on such non-sexual exchange of genes. To enhance the picture on HGT events in a widely distributed parasitic genus, Cuscuta (dodders), we assembled and analyzed the organellar genomes of two recently sequenced species, C. australis and C. campestris, making this the first account of complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) for this genus. RESULTS: The mitogenomes are 265,696 and 275,898 bp in length and contain a typical set of mitochondrial genes, with 10 missing or pseudogenized genes often lost from angiosperm mitogenomes. Each mitogenome also possesses a structurally unusual ccmFC gene, which exhibits splitting of one exon and a shift to trans-splicing of its intron. Based on phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genes from across angiosperms and similarity-based searches, there is little to no indication of HGT into the Cuscuta mitogenomes. A few candidate regions for plastome-to-mitogenome transfer were identified, with one suggestive of possible HGT. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of HGT is surprising given examples from the nuclear genomes, and may be due in part to the relatively small size of the Cuscuta mitogenomes, limiting the capacity to integrate foreign sequences.


Assuntos
Cuscuta , Genoma Mitocondrial , Cuscuta/genética , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Genes Mitocondriais , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Filogenia
2.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 179: 104947, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802532

RESUMO

Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is a promising alternative to chemical fumigants, and mitochondrial dysfunction has been proposed to play a crucial role in its lethal mechanisms; however, the specific lethal mechanisms of AITC remain unknown. Four mitochondrial electron transport chain genes, nd5, nd6, cox1, and cox5, were selected from adult Sitophilus zeamais and processed with RNA interference experiments. Then, the biochemical and biophysical effects were compared between double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated insects and wild-type insects after AITC fumigation at the concentration of LC50 values. The bioactivity of AITC against dsnd6-mediated insects increased, while the bioactivity against dcox1-mediated insects decreased. Compared with the wild-type insects, the increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels by AITC in mitochondria from dsnd6-mediated insects increased by 18.95%, while that of dscox1-mediated insects decreased by 27.45%. The effects of AITC on mRNA expression levels of detoxifying enzymes including CAT (down-regulation effect) and CuZnSOD (overexpression effect) partly recovered in the dsnd5-mediated insects, while a greater effect was observed for dscox1-mediated insects. Molecular docking results indicated that ASN511 at the cox1 subunit was the binding site of AITC by one hydrogen bond, with a bond distance of 2.1 Å. These findings provide insight for further applications of AITC and could provide a novel strategy to investigate lethal mechanisms of insecticides.


Assuntos
Fumigação , Gorgulhos , Animais , Genes Mitocondriais , Isotiocianatos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Gorgulhos/genética
3.
Zootaxa ; 5057(1): 114-126, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811219

RESUMO

A new species of the processid shrimp genus Nikoides Paulson, 1875, N. subdistalis, is described and illustrated on the basis of five specimens collected from Kushimoto, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan, at depths of 712 m. The new species appears most similar to N. maldivensis Borradaile, 1915 among the 10 known congeners, but is notable in the unique dentition of the rostrum and the characteristic shape of the antennular stylocerite. A partial segment of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from one of the paratypes of the new species, and genetic divergence among four congeneric taxa, of which three was downloaded from the GenBank database, is shown. An identification key to 11 species of Nikoides, including the new species, is given.


Assuntos
Decápodes , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Genes Mitocondriais , Japão , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
4.
Zootaxa ; 5002(1): 1-103, 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811339

RESUMO

The genus Tomosvaryella Aczl, 1939 is revised from the Middle East. Fifty-nine species are recorded and 19 of these are new to science: T. acantha Motamedinia Skevington sp. nov., T. ampliasa Motamedinia Skevington sp. nov., T. anahitae Motamedinia Skevington sp. nov., T. bistounensis Motamedinia Skevington sp. nov., T. cyprusensis Motamedinia Skevington sp. nov., T. ellipiensis Motamedinia Skevington sp. nov., T. emaratensis Motamedinia Skevington sp. nov., T. hamounensis Motamedinia Skevington sp. nov., T. kiansiae Motamedinia Skevington sp. nov., T. nimroozensis Motamedinia Skevington sp. nov., T. oshidae Motamedinia Skevington sp. nov., T. osteodes Motamedinia Skevington sp. nov., T. saudiensis Motamedinia Skevington sp. nov., T. soziana Motamedinia Skevington sp. nov., T. spinula Motamedinia Skevington sp. nov., T. subtransvaalensis Motamedinia Skevington sp. nov., T. susa Motamedinia Skevington sp. nov., T. unicorna Motamedinia Skevington sp. nov. and T. yemenensis Motamedinia Skevington sp. nov. are described and illustrated based on sequence information from the mitochondrial COI barcoding gene and morphological parameters. DNA barcodes are provided for 37 of the 59 species. Descriptions of new species, diagnoses, distribution maps and an illustrated key for all species are provided.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Genes Mitocondriais , Oriente Médio
5.
Zootaxa ; 5020(1): 191-196, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810412

RESUMO

Here, the first record of Seira dowlingi from Asia is reported and its newly generated mitogenome is compared with Neotropical specimens. Molecular analyses were performed based on low-coverage whole-genome sequencing and the complete mitogenome was assembled using NovoPlasty. Our results show that the Chinese specimens have the same color pattern, chaetotaxy, and almost identical mitogenomes, differing only on three nucleotides located in protein-coding genes. A maximum-likelihood phylogeny based on 13 mitochondrial genes was made and the specimens similarity was confirmed, as well as its phylogenetic position. Considering the large geographic distance between the American and the Asiatic populations, we believe that the presence of S. dowlingi in China is a result of anthropogenic introduction. The data generated here can be useful for further phylogeographic studies related to Seirinae subfamily or Collembola fauna in general.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Genoma Mitocondrial , Animais , Artrópodes/genética , China , Genes Mitocondriais , Filogenia
6.
Zootaxa ; 5016(4): 451-489, 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810435

RESUMO

The rarely encountered giant burrowing frog, Heleioporus australiacus, is distributed widely in a variety of sclerophyll forest habitats east of the Great Dividing Range in south-eastern Australia. Analyses of variation in nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial ND4 gene and thousands of nuclear gene SNPs revealed the presence of two deeply divergent lineages. Multivariate morphological comparisons show the two lineages differ in body proportions with > 91% of individuals being correctly classified in DFA. The two lineages differ in the number and size of spots on the lateral surfaces and the degree by which the cloaca is surrounded by colour patches. The mating calls are significantly different in number of pulses in the note. The presence of a F2 hybrid in the area where the distribution of the two taxa come into closest proximity leads us to assign subspecies status to the lineages, as we have not been able to assess the extent of potential genetic introgression. In our sampling, the F2 hybrid sample sits within an otherwise unsampled gap of ~90km between the distributions of the two lineages. The nominate northern sub-species is restricted to the Sydney Basin bioregion, while the newly recognised southern subspecies occurs from south of the Kangaroo Valley in the mid-southern coast of New South Wales to near Walhalla in central Gippsland in Victoria. The habitat of the two subspecies is remarkably similar. Adults spend large portions of their lives on the forest floor where they forage and burrow in a variety of vegetation communities. The southern subspecies occurs most commonly in dry sclerophyll forests with an open understory in the south and in open forest and heath communities with a dense understory in the north of its distribution. The northern subspecies is also found in dry open forests and heaths in association with eroded sandstone landscapes in the Sydney Basin bioregion. Males of both taxa call from both constructed burrows and open positions on small streams, differing from the five Western Australian species of Heleioporus where males call only from constructed burrows. Using the IUCN Red List process, we found that the extent of occupancy and area of occupancy along with evidence of decline for both subspecies are consistent with the criteria for Endangered (A2(c)B2(a)(b)).


Assuntos
Anuros , Ecossistema , Animais , Anuros/genética , Genes Mitocondriais , Masculino , Filogenia
7.
Zootaxa ; 4999(1): 58-76, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810503

RESUMO

A new species of the Cyrtodactylus irregularis group is described from Ninh Thuan Province, southern Vietnam based on molecular divergence and morphological differences. Cyrtodactylus orlovi sp. nov. is distinguished from the remaining Indochinese bent-toed geckos by having the unique combination of the following characters: size medium (SVL 61.077.7 mm); dorsal tubercles in 1620 irregular rows; 3639 ventral scale rows; precloacal pores absent in females, 5 or 6 in males, in a continuous row; femoral pores absent; 38 enlarged femoral scales; postcloacal spurs 1 or 2; lamellae under toe IV 1619; a continuous neckband; a highly irregular transverse banded dorsal pattern; the absence of transversely enlarged median subcaudal scales. In phylogenetic analyses, the new species was revealed to be the sister taxon to a clade consisting of Cyrtodactylus cattienensis and the most recently described species from Vietnam, C. chungi, with 12.112.4% and 11.7 % pairwise genetic divergence from the two species, respectively, based on a fragment of the mitochondrial COI gene.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Ecossistema , Feminino , Genes Mitocondriais , Lagartos/genética , Masculino , Filogenia , Vietnã
8.
Zootaxa ; 4996(3): 540-554, 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810514

RESUMO

Six species of geckos in the genus Goniurosaurus have been recorded from Guangxi, China. Here we describe a new species, Goniurosaurus chengzheng sp. nov. The new species is similar to allied species from Guangxi, but unique in a combination of the following characters: (1) four body bands with three between limb insertions; (2) precloacal pores 20; (3) body color reddish- brown; (4) snout to eye distance: eye to ear distance 1. We used the mitochondrial genes 16S and cytb to confirm the distinctiveness of the species and place it within a molecular phylogeny of Goniurosaurus. The type specimens are deposited in the Museum of Biology, East China Normal University (ECNU).


Assuntos
Lagartos , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , China , Genes Mitocondriais , Lagartos/genética , Filogenia
9.
Zootaxa ; 5026(4): 527-540, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810918

RESUMO

A total of 45 adult and larval specimens of 6 Chinese Hydromanicus species are included in this molecular association analysis. Of these, the larvae of Hydromanicus melli Complex, H. canaliculatus, and H. umbonatus were associated with their adults using independent DNA sequences (the nuclear 28S-D2 fragment and the mitochondrial COI barcode gene) and were compared to metamorphotypes where available. Phylograms based on both genes revealed deep intraspecific divergences in several species, suggesting that cryptic diversity is likely common within the genus. Illustrated larval descriptions are provided for the three associated species. However, the larvae of species in the H. melli Complex cannot be morphologically differentiated from each other.


Assuntos
Holometábolos , Animais , China , Genes Mitocondriais , Insetos , Larva
10.
Zootaxa ; 5039(3): 433-439, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811072

RESUMO

The original description of Burbrinks Keelback, Herpetoreas burbrinki was based on a sole damaged specimen collected from Zayu County, Xizang Autonomous Region, China in September 2007. On 16 August 2019, we collected a second live adult female specimen from the type locality. The identity of the species is established based on morphological and molecular comparison with the holotype. One mitochondrial gene (Cytb) and three nuclear genes (C-mos, Rag1, NT3) of the new specimen were sequenced. The four sequences all share the same haplotypes with the holotype. We describe the coloration in life, variation with the type and expand the morphological description of this species.


Assuntos
Colubridae , Animais , Colubridae/genética , Feminino , Genes Mitocondriais , Filogenia
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5849, 2021 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615861

RESUMO

Feature selection (marker gene selection) is widely believed to improve clustering accuracy, and is thus a key component of single cell clustering pipelines. Existing feature selection methods perform inconsistently across datasets, occasionally even resulting in poorer clustering accuracy than without feature selection. Moreover, existing methods ignore information contained in gene-gene correlations. Here, we introduce DUBStepR (Determining the Underlying Basis using Stepwise Regression), a feature selection algorithm that leverages gene-gene correlations with a novel measure of inhomogeneity in feature space, termed the Density Index (DI). Despite selecting a relatively small number of genes, DUBStepR substantially outperformed existing single-cell feature selection methods across diverse clustering benchmarks. Additionally, DUBStepR was the only method to robustly deconvolve T and NK heterogeneity by identifying disease-associated common and rare cell types and subtypes in PBMCs from rheumatoid arthritis patients. DUBStepR is scalable to over a million cells, and can be straightforwardly applied to other data types such as single-cell ATAC-seq. We propose DUBStepR as a general-purpose feature selection solution for accurately clustering single-cell data.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Algoritmos , Artrite Reumatoide , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação , Análise por Conglomerados , Expressão Gênica , Genes Mitocondriais , Humanos , RNA-Seq , Projetos de Pesquisa , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Software
12.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 85(2-4): 277-289, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686926

RESUMO

The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, is a ubiquitous and taxonomically controversial pest of dogs with immense veterinary and public health significance. Genetic analyses of specimens from various geographical origins reveal intraspecific diversity within the taxon. Little information is available on the genetic characteristics of R. sanguineus s.l. in Nigeria, West Africa. In this study, 460 bp of the mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene of R. sanguineus s.l. collected from dogs in different ecological zones of Nigeria was amplified, sequenced and characterized. Phylogenetic and pairwise analyses were used to compare the sequences generated in this study to each other and to sequences in GenBank. The sequences in this study were highly similar (>98%) to each other and clustered with sequences of the R. sanguineus s.l. tropical lineage in GenBank. None of the sequences in this study clustered with the 'southeastern Europe' or temperate lineage. The mean intraspecific divergence among R. sanguineus s.l. in this study was 1.7% (range: 0-8.0%). Furthermore, the sequences in this study showed mean divergence of 1.5% (0-10%), 5.0% (3.8-13.9%) and 9.7% (6.9-19.8%) from sequences of the tropical, southeastern Europe and temperate lineages, respectively. Interestingly, sequences in this study showed a mean divergence of 9.3% (1.0-17.8%) from the Rhipicephalus sp. morphotype 4 (GenBank acc. nr. KC243850) earlier identified from cattle in Nigeria, suggesting diversity in this taxon in Nigeria. Further studies are needed to elucidate the veterinary and public health significance of R. sanguineus s.l. in Nigeria taking into cognizance the existence of intraspecific variation in vector competence.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Doenças do Cão , Rhipicephalus sanguineus , Rhipicephalus , Animais , Bovinos , Cães , Genes Mitocondriais , Nigéria , Filogenia , Rhipicephalus/genética , Rhipicephalus sanguineus/genética
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5261, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489404

RESUMO

The advent of single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) technologies has revolutionized transcriptomic studies. However, large-scale integrative analysis of scRNA-seq data remains a challenge largely due to unwanted batch effects and the limited transferabilty, interpretability, and scalability of the existing computational methods. We present single-cell Embedded Topic Model (scETM). Our key contribution is the utilization of a transferable neural-network-based encoder while having an interpretable linear decoder via a matrix tri-factorization. In particular, scETM simultaneously learns an encoder network to infer cell type mixture and a set of highly interpretable gene embeddings, topic embeddings, and batch-effect linear intercepts from multiple scRNA-seq datasets. scETM is scalable to over 106 cells and confers remarkable cross-tissue and cross-species zero-shot transfer-learning performance. Using gene set enrichment analysis, we find that scETM-learned topics are enriched in biologically meaningful and disease-related pathways. Lastly, scETM enables the incorporation of known gene sets into the gene embeddings, thereby directly learning the associations between pathways and topics via the topic embeddings.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Modelos Genéticos , Análise de Sequência de RNA/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Animais , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/estatística & dados numéricos , Genes Mitocondriais , Humanos , Camundongos , Redes Neurais de Computação , RNA Citoplasmático Pequeno , Retina/citologia , Retina/fisiologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34575852

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive disease with poor prognosis. Only about 15-20% of patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer can undergo surgical resection, while the remaining 80% are diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). In these cases, chemotherapy and radiotherapy only confer marginal survival benefit. Recent progress has been made in understanding the pathobiology of pancreatic cancer, with a particular effort in discovering new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, novel therapeutic targets, and biomarkers that can predict response to chemo- and/or radiotherapy. Mitochondria have become a focus in pancreatic cancer research due to their roles as powerhouses of the cell, important subcellular biosynthetic factories, and crucial determinants of cell survival and response to chemotherapy. Changes in the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) have been implicated in chemoresistance and metastatic progression in some cancer types. There is also growing evidence that changes in microRNAs that regulate the expression of mtDNA-encoded mitochondrial proteins (mitomiRs) or nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins (mitochondria-related miRs) could serve as diagnostic and prognostic cancer biomarkers. This review discusses the current knowledge on the clinical significance of changes of mtDNA, mitomiRs, and mitochondria-related miRs in pancreatic cancer and their potential role as predictors of cancer risk, as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, and as molecular targets for personalized cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Genes Mitocondriais , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , DNA Mitocondrial , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prognóstico
15.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256961, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473778

RESUMO

Smooth-shelled blue mussels, Mytilus spp., have a worldwide antitropical distribution and are ecologically and economically important. Mussels of the Mytilus edulis species complex have been the focus of numerous taxonomic and biogeographical studies, in particular in the Northern hemisphere, but the taxonomic classification of mussels from South America remains unclear. The present study analysed 348 mussels from 20 sites in Argentina, Chile, Uruguay and the Falkland Islands on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America. We sequenced two mitochondrial locus, Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I (625 bp) and 16S rDNA (443 bp), and one nuclear gene, ribosomal 18S rDNA (1770 bp). Mitochondrial and nuclear loci were analysed separately and in combination using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods to identify the combination of the most informative dataset and model. Species delimitation using five different models (GMYC single, bGMYC, PTP, bPTP and BPP) revealed that the Mytilus edulis complex in South America is represented by three species: native M. chilensis, M. edulis, and introduced Northern Hemisphere M. galloprovincialis. However, all models failed to delimit the putative species Mytilus platensis. In contrast, however, broad spatial scale genetic structure in South America using Geneland software to analyse COI sequence variation revealed a group of native mussels (putatively M. platensis) in central Argentina and the Falkland Islands. We discuss the scope of species delimitation methods and the use of nuclear and mitochondrial genetic data to the recognition of species within the Mytilus edulis complex at regional and global scales.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Mytilus edulis/classificação , Mytilus edulis/genética , Filogenia , Animais , Argentina , Sequência de Bases , Teorema de Bayes , Chile , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Ilhas Malvinas , Feminino , Genes Mitocondriais , Loci Gênicos , Haplótipos , Especificidade da Espécie , Uruguai
16.
Biomaterials ; 277: 121108, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478929

RESUMO

Rare monogenic disorders are a group of single-gene-mutated diseases that have a low incidence rate (less than 0.5‰) and eventually lead to patient disability and even death. Due to the relatively low number of people affected, these diseases typically fail to attract a great deal of commercial investment and research interest, and the affected patients thus have unmet medical needs. Advances in genomics biology, gene editing, and gene delivery can now offer potentially effective options for treating rare monogenic diseases. Herein, we review the application of gene therapy strategies (traditional gene therapy and gene editing) against various rare monogenic diseases with nuclear or mitochondrial gene mutations, including eye, central nervous system, pulmonary, systemic, and blood cell diseases. We summarize their pathologic features, address the barriers to gene delivery for these diseases, discuss available therapies in the clinic and in clinical trials, and sum up in-development gene delivery systems for various rare monogenic disorders. Finally, we elaborate the possible directions and outlook of gene therapy for rare monogenic disorders.


Assuntos
Genes Mitocondriais , Terapia Genética , Edição de Genes , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Humanos , Mutação
17.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21864, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423880

RESUMO

Resistance training (RT) dynamically alters the skeletal muscle nuclear DNA methylome. However, no study has examined if RT affects the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) methylome. Herein, ten older, Caucasian untrained males (65 ± 7 y.o.) performed six weeks of full-body RT (twice weekly). Body composition and knee extensor torque were assessed prior to and 72 h following the last RT session. Vastus lateralis (VL) biopsies were also obtained. VL DNA was subjected to reduced representation bisulfite sequencing providing excellent coverage across the ~16-kilobase mtDNA methylome (254 CpG sites). Biochemical assays were also performed, and older male data were compared to younger trained males (22 ± 2 y.o., n = 7, n = 6 Caucasian & n = 1 African American). RT increased whole-body lean tissue mass (p = .017), VL thickness (p = .012), and knee extensor torque (p = .029) in older males. RT also affected the mtDNA methylome, as 63% (159/254) of the CpG sites demonstrated reduced methylation (p < .05). Several mtDNA sites presented a more "youthful" signature in older males after RT in comparison to younger males. The 1.12 kilobase mtDNA D-loop/control region, which regulates replication and transcription, possessed enriched hypomethylation in older males following RT. Enhanced expression of mitochondrial H- and L-strand genes and complex III/IV protein levels were also observed (p < .05). While limited to a shorter-term intervention, this is the first evidence showing that RT alters the mtDNA methylome in skeletal muscle. Observed methylome alterations may enhance mitochondrial transcription, and RT evokes mitochondrial methylome profiles to mimic younger men. The significance of these findings relative to broader RT-induced epigenetic changes needs to be elucidated.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Metilação de DNA , DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Epigenoma , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Mitocondriais/genética , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Treinamento de Força , Idoso , Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/citologia , RNA Mensageiro/análise , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nat Cell Biol ; 23(8): 870-880, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341532

RESUMO

The memory of stresses experienced by parents can be passed on to descendants as a forecast of the challenges to come. Here, we discovered that the neuronal mitochondrial perturbation-induced systemic mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) in Caenorhabditis elegans can be transmitted to offspring over multiple generations. The transgenerational activation of UPRmt is mediated by maternal inheritance of elevated levels of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which causes the proteostasis stress within mitochondria. Furthermore, results from intercrossing studies using wild C. elegans strains further support that maternal inheritance of higher levels of mtDNA can induce the UPRmt in descendants. The mitokine Wnt signalling pathway is required for the transmission of elevated mtDNA levels across generations, thereby conferring lifespan extension and stress resistance to offspring. Collectively, our results reveal that the nervous system can transmit stress signals across generations by increasing mtDNA in the germline, enabling descendants to better cope with anticipated challenges.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Genes Mitocondriais , Herança Materna , Neurônios/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Longevidade/genética , Biogênese de Organelas , Via de Sinalização Wnt
19.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 85(1): 49-61, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435267

RESUMO

The genetic population structure relationships of Hyalomma (Euhyalomma) lusitanicum in Andalusia (the south of the Iberian Peninsula) were examined using mtDNA sequence data from 887 bp of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. The sequence for the COI region was determined for 84 individuals collected in several localities of Andalusia, and 10 for other localities (i.e., five from Toledo, central Iberian Peninsula, four from Sicily (Italy) and one from Canary Island). Seventeen haplotypes were detected, including 27 polymorphic sites. The number of amino acid substitutions per site from mean diversity calculations for the entire population was 0.017. AMOVA analysis revealed a low gene flow that characterises the genetic population structure of this species in South Iberian Peninsula, with a haplotype diversity (h) value of 0.815. No geographically induced differentiation was observed, and separate evolutionary units were not detected. Our results indicate low genetic diversity across the geographical range of H. lusitanicum tick in Andalusia. Our data do not show any genetic discontinuity between the tick populations studied, including specimens from Canary Island and Sicily (Italy).


Assuntos
Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons , Ixodidae , Animais , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Genes Mitocondriais , Ixodidae/genética , Filogenia , Filogeografia
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16359, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381166

RESUMO

A better understanding of the secondary injury mechanisms that occur after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is essential for the development of novel neuroprotective strategies linked to the restoration of metabolic deficits. We and others have shown that Ketogenic diet (KD), a high fat, moderate in proteins and low in carbohydrates is neuroprotective and improves behavioural outcomes in rats with acute SCI. Ketones are alternative fuels for mitochondrial ATP generation, and can modulate signaling pathways via targeting specific receptors. Here, we demonstrate that ad libitum administration of KD for 7 days after SCI rescued mitochondrial respiratory capacity, increased parameters of mitochondrial biogenesis, affected the regulation of mitochondrial-related genes, and activated the NRF2-dependent antioxidant pathway. This study demonstrates that KD improves post-SCI metabolism by rescuing mitochondrial function and supports the potential of KD for treatment of acute SCI in humans.


Assuntos
Medula Cervical/patologia , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Expressão Gênica/genética , Genes Mitocondriais/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/genética , Animais , Dieta Cetogênica/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Corpos Cetônicos/genética , Masculino , Biogênese de Organelas , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Medula Espinal/patologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/patologia
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