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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2859, 2024 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310106

RESUMO

As the malignancy with the highest global incidence, breast cancer represents a significant threat to women's health. Recent advances have shed light on the importance of mitochondrial function in cancer, particularly in metabolic reprogramming within tumors. Recognizing this, we developed a novel risk signature based on mitochondrial-related genes to improve prognosis prediction and risk stratification in breast cancer patients. In this study, transcriptome data and clinical features of breast cancer samples were extracted from two sources: the TCGA, serving as the training set, and the METABRIC, used as the independent validation set. We developed the signature using LASSO-Cox regression and assessed its prognostic efficacy via ROC curves. Furthermore, the signature was integrated with clinical features to create a Nomogram model, whose accuracy was validated through clinical calibration curves and decision curve analysis. To further elucidate prognostic variations between high and low-risk groups, we conducted functional enrichment and immune infiltration analyses. Additionally, the study encompassed a comparison of mutation landscapes and drug sensitivity, providing a comprehensive understanding of the differing characteristics in these groups. Conclusively, we established a risk signature comprising 8 mitochondrial-related genes-ACSL1, ALDH2, MTHFD2, MRPL13, TP53AIP1, SLC1A1, ME3, and BCL2A1. This signature was identified as an independent risk predictor for breast cancer patient survival, exhibiting a significant high hazard ratio (HR = 3.028, 95%CI 2.038-4.499, P < 0.001). Patients in the low-risk group showed a more favorable prognosis, with enhanced immune infiltration, distinct mutation landscapes, and greater sensitivity to anti-tumor drugs. In contrast, the high-risk group exhibited an adverse trend in these aspects. This risk signature represents a novel and effective prognostic indicator, suggesting valuable insights for patient stratification in breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Prognóstico , Genes Mitocondriais , Mitocôndrias/genética , Medição de Risco , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial
2.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0298221, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354179

RESUMO

Due to traditional classification methods' limitations, some cryptic species remain undiscovered. To better explore the existence of the Schrenck salamander (Salamandrella tridactyla, a cryptic species of Siberian salamander S. keyserlingii) in China, we conducted a molecular phylogenetic analysis to confirm the taxonomic relationship among Salamandrella species and investigate genetic variation. We used complete sequences of the mitochondrial COI gene from 65 specimens collected across a wide range in Northeastern China. Thirty-five haplotypes were obtained from six populations. They showed medium-high haplotype diversity (Hd) and low nucleotide polymorphism (π). The phylogenetic tree and haplotype network analysis revealed that populations from Greater Khingan Ridge (Huma: HM) and Lesser Khingan Ridge (Tieli: TL) belong to S. keyserlingii, while populations from Changbai Mountain (Shangzhi-zhuziying: SZ, Shangzhi-cuijia: SC, Hailin: HL, and Baishan: BS) belong to S. tridactyla. This indicates the monophyly of Salamandrella and each of the two species. There was a substantial level of genetic differentiation between different species and within populations of the same species. This differentiation was significantly related to geographical distance. At last, the mismatch distribution and neutrality analyses indicated that the TL populations have undergone expansion of history. The study supplements the distributional range of Schrenck salamander. And it provides a theoretical basis for species conservation of Salamandrella species.


Assuntos
Deriva Genética , Urodelos , Animais , Filogenia , Urodelos/genética , Genes Mitocondriais , China , Haplótipos , Variação Genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética
3.
Mol Biol Rep ; 51(1): 298, 2024 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brachiopods are a phylum of marine invertebrates with over 10,000 fossil species. Today, there are fewer than 500 extant species assigned to the class Articulata or Inarticulata and for which knowledge of evolutionary genetics and genomics is still poor. Until now, complete mitogenome sequences of two inarticulate species and four articulate species were available. METHODS AND RESULTS: The complete mitogenome of the inarticulate brachiopod species Lingula reevii (20,778 bp) was obtained by using next generation sequencing. It contains 12 protein-coding genes (the annotation of atp8 is unsure), two ribosomal RNA genes, 26 transfer RNA genes, and one supernumerary ORF that is also conserved in the inarticulate species Lingula anatina. It is hypothesized that this ORF could represent a Lingula-specific mtORFan gene (without obvious homology to other genes). Comparative mitogenomics indicate the mitochondrial gene order of L. reevii is unique among brachiopods, and that compared to articulate species, inarticulate species exhibit massive mitogenome rearrangements, deviant ATP8 protein sequences and supernumerary ORFs, possibly representing species- or lineage-specific mtORFan genes. CONCLUSION: The results of this study enrich genetics knowledge of extant brachiopods, which may eventually help to test hypotheses about their decline.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial , Invertebrados , Animais , Invertebrados/genética , Evolução Biológica , Genômica , Genes Mitocondriais , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Filogenia
4.
Zootaxa ; 5397(4): 451-485, 2024 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38221190

RESUMO

The area around the Malagasy village of Andasibe, which includes Analamazaotra-Mantadia National Park as well as other protected areas, is characterized by very species-rich and well-studied communities of animals and plants, but new species are still regularly discovered. Three species of phytotelmic frogs of the subgenus Pandanusicola in the genus Guibemantis are known from this area, G. flavobrunneus, G. liber, and G. pulcher. Further Pandanusicola frogs from this area have been provisionally assigned to G. bicalcaratus or G. albolineatus, pending detailed taxonomic review. During preliminary exploration of the ecology of these specialized frogs that live and reproduce in the leaf axils of Pandanus screw pines, we noticed the syntopic presence of two differently colored and differently sized Pandanusicola in Andasibe that could not be unambiguously assigned to any known species. A genetic screening revealed that these correspond to yet two further species in the area. Based on our data, seven species of Pandanusicola occur in Andasibe and nearby forests: (1) G. liber, the only non-phytotelmic species of the subgenus in the region; (2) G. flavobrunneus which is the largest species and characterized by a diagnostic yellowish brown dorsal pattern; (3) G. pulcher, characterized by translucent-green color with purplish brown spotting not observed in any other species in the area; (4) G. methueni, a brownish species usually lacking contrasted dorsolateral bands that differs from the other species in the area by emitting a characteristic trill-like advertisement call series (rather than clicks or chirps) and according to our data is widespread along Madagascars east coast; as well as three new species: (5) G. ambakoana sp. nov., a brownish species, typically with contrasted incomplete light dorsolateral bands and with single click-like advertisement calls; (6) G. vakoa sp. nov., a species that is equally brownish but lacks contrasted light dorsolateral bands and that has single click-like advertisement calls of very short duration; and (7) G. rianasoa sp. nov., a species that is smaller sized and has less distinct femoral glands than all the others, and emits a short series of soft chirp-like advertisement calls. All these species are genetically highly distinct, with >5% uncorrected pairwise distances in the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene, and lack of haplotype sharing in two nuclear-encoded genes. The co-occurrence of seven Pandanusicola frogs in a relatively small geographic area is unprecedented in Madagascar and calls for in-depth studies of a possible differentiation in habitat use and life history.


Assuntos
Anuros , Genes Mitocondriais , Animais , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Filogenia , Madagáscar , Anuros/genética
5.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 451, 2024 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38200005

RESUMO

Immune cells must adapt to different environments during the course of an immune response. Here we study the adaptation of CD8+ T cells to the intestinal microenvironment and how this process shapes the establishment of the CD8+ T cell pool. CD8+ T cells progressively remodel their transcriptome and surface phenotype as they enter the gut wall, and downregulate expression of mitochondrial genes. Human and mouse intestinal CD8+ T cells have reduced mitochondrial mass, but maintain a viable energy balance to sustain their function. We find that the intestinal microenvironment is rich in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which drives mitochondrial depolarization in CD8+ T cells. Consequently, these cells engage autophagy to clear depolarized mitochondria, and enhance glutathione synthesis to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) that result from mitochondrial depolarization. Impairing PGE2 sensing promotes CD8+ T cell accumulation in the gut, while tampering with autophagy and glutathione negatively impacts the T cell pool. Thus, a PGE2-autophagy-glutathione axis defines the metabolic adaptation of CD8+ T cells to the intestinal microenvironment, to ultimately influence the T cell pool.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Dinoprostona , Genes Mitocondriais , Glutationa
6.
Parasitology ; 151(1): 77-83, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38229575

RESUMO

The genus Encyclometra is one of the two genera in family Encyclometridae, known for parasitising the oesophagus, stomach and intestine of snakes. Among Encyclometra, the species present are: Encyclometra colubrimurorum, Encyclometra japonica, Encyclometra asymmetrica and Encyclometra bungara. Species discrimination within Encyclometra has predominantly relied on morphological differences, such as the length of the caeca and the position of the testes. Morphological overlaps exist among these species making species discrimination challenging. Additionally, the use of molecular information has been limited for Encyclometra. To determine the Encyclometra species infecting Enhydris enhydris from Thailand and Cambodia, morphological and molecular identification was conducted. Morphological characters and measurements were obtained from 30 Encyclometra adults, and they were compared with previous studies of other Encyclometra species. Novel sequences of E. bungara were generated using the nuclear 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA genes, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Our results revealed that the specimens could be morphologically identified as E. bungara, with support from molecular information obtained from the phylogenies of the 3 genetic markers employed. Molecular analysis showed that the Encyclometra specimens were distinct from E. colubrimurorum and E. japonica. Through morphological and molecular identification of the Encyclometra specimens found in E. enhydris from Thailand and Cambodia, we describe and provide a record of E. bungara in a new host and new locality. Additionally, novel molecular sequences were generated, revealing the phylogenetic position of E. bungara within the superfamily Gorgoderoidea.


Assuntos
Trematódeos , Animais , Filogenia , Tailândia , Camboja , Trematódeos/genética , Genes Mitocondriais
7.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 115(1): e22075, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38288487

RESUMO

Molecular data has become a powerful tool for species delimitation, particularly among those that present limited morphological differences; while the mitochondrial genome, with its moderate length, low cost of sequencing and fast lineage sorting, has emerged as a practical data set. Due to the limited morphological differences among the closely related species of Carbula Stål 1865, the species boundaries between Carbula abbreviata (Motschulsky, 1866), Carbula humerigera (Uhler, 1860), and Carbula putoni (Jakovlev, 1876) have remained particularly unclear. In this study, we applied two phylogenetic reconstruction methods to two data sets (mitogenome and COI) to assess the phylogeny of Carbula distributed in Asia, and five species delimitation methods to determine the boundaries between East Asian Carbula species. Our phylogenetic analyses showed Carbula to be paraphyletic; the seven known species distributed within East Asia to form a single monophyletic group, and within this, C. abbreviata, C. humerigera, C. putoni and middle-type to comprise a C. humerigera species complex. Our results show that mitogenome data alone, while effective in the differentiation of more distantly related Carbula species, is not sufficient to accurately delimit the species within this newly described complex.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Heterópteros , Animais , Hemípteros/genética , Genes Mitocondriais , Filogenia , Heterópteros/genética
8.
BMC Cancer ; 24(1): 94, 2024 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38233752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitochondria, which serve as the fundamental organelle for cellular energy and metabolism, are closely linked to the growth and survival of cancer cells. This study aims to identify and assess Sideroflexin1 (SFXN1), an unprecedented mitochondrial gene, as a potential prognostic biomarker for lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). METHODS: The mRNA and protein levels of SFXN1 were investigated based on the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) LUAD dataset, and then validated by real-time quantitative PCR, Western Blotting and immunohistochemistry from our clinical samples. The clinical correlation and prognostic value were evaluated by the TCGA cohort and verified via our clinical dataset (n = 90). The somatic mutation, drug sensitivity data, immune cell infiltration and single-cell RNA sequencing data of SFXN1 were analyzed through public databases. RESULTS: SFXN1 was markedly upregulated at both mRNA and protein levels in LUAD, and high expression of SFXN1 were correlated with larger tumor size, positive lymph node metastasis, and advanced clinical stage. Furthermore, SFXN1 upregulation was significantly associated with poor clinical prognosis. SFXN1 co-expressed genes were also analyzed, which were mainly involved in the cell cycle, central carbon metabolism, DNA repair, and the HIF-1α signaling pathway. Additionally, SFXN1 expression correlated with the expression of multiple immunomodulators, which act to regulate the tumor immune microenvironment. Results also demonstrated an association between SFXN1 expression and increased immune cell infiltration, such as activated CD8 + T cells, natural killer cells (NKs), activated dendritic cells (DCs), and macrophages. LUAD patients with high SFXN1 expression exhibited heightened sensitivity to multiple chemotherapies and targeted drugs and predicted a poor response to immunotherapy. SFXN1 represented an independent prognostic marker for LUAD patients with an improved prognostic value for overall survival when combined with clinical stage information. CONCLUSIONS: SFXN1 is frequently upregulated in LUAD and has a significant impact on the tumor immune environment. Our study uncovers the potential of SFXN1 as a prognostic biomarker and as a novel target for intervention in LUAD.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Biomarcadores , Genes Mitocondriais , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Prognóstico , RNA Mensageiro , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38190283

RESUMO

The inclusion of ingredients derived from pigs in highly processed consumer products poses a significant challenge for DNA-targeted analytical enforcement, which could be overcome by using digital PCR. However, most species detection methods use digital PCR to target single-copy nuclear genes, which limits their sensitivity. In this work, we examined the performance of a nanoplate-based digital PCR method that targets multi-copy nuclear (MPRE42) and mitochondrial (Cytb) genes. Poor separation of positive and negative partitions, as well as a 'rain effect' were obtained in the porcine-specific MPRE42 assay. Among the optimization strategies examined, the inclusion of restriction enzymes slightly improved the separation of positive and negative partitions, but a more extensive 'rain effect' was observed. The high copy number of the MPRE42 amplicon is hypothesized to contribute to the saturation of the positive signal. In contrast, the porcine-specific Cytb assay achieved perfect separation of positive and negative partitions with no 'rain effect'. This assay can detect as little as 0.4 pg of pork DNA, with a sensitivity of 0.05% (w/w) in a pork-chicken mixture, proving its applicability for detecting pork in meat and meat-based products. For the MPRE42 assay, potential applications in highly degraded products such as gelatin and lard are anticipated.


Assuntos
Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Suínos/genética , Animais , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Genes Mitocondriais , Carne Vermelha/análise , Carne de Porco/análise , DNA/genética , Carne/análise
10.
Parasitol Res ; 123(1): 113, 2024 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38273031

RESUMO

Prohemistomum vivax is a zoonotic small cyathocotylid trematode that inhabits the intestines of fish-eating birds and mammals. Here, we amplified the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence and six mitochondrial protein-coding genes (PCGs) from P. vivax. The ITS region was 1389 base pairs long and had a partial 18S ribosomal RNA gene, a full ITS1, 5.8S rRNA, and ITS2 sequence, and a partial 28S rRNA gene. The ITS region of P. vivax showed a minimum pairwise distance (0.3-0.6%) from the ITS sequences of Cyathocotylidae sp. 1 and 2 metacercariae from Clarias gariepinus. This result suggests that these metacercariae belong to P. vivax metacercariae. We first amplified mitochondrial genes from P. vivax, including cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (cox3) partial sequence; tRNA-His, cytochrome b (cytb), and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4L (nad4L) complete sequences; and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (nad4), cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1), and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (nad5) partial sequences. P. vivax was most closely related to Cyathocotyle prussica (NC_039780) and Holostephanus sp. (OP082179), with cox1, cox3, and cytb genes conserved among the three trematodes. The ML phylogenetic tree of ITS sequences supports the order Diplostomida, divided into two main clades (the superfamily Diplostomoidea and Schistosomatoidea). The phylogeny of concatenated amino acid sequences of P. vivax six PCGs revealed that diplostomoids and Clinostomum sp. evolved in a clade with Plagiorchiida members, away from Schistosoma species. These results may yield ribosomal and mitochondrial genetic markers for molecular epidemiological investigations of cyathocotylid intestinal flukes.


Assuntos
Genes Mitocondriais , Trematódeos , Animais , Filogenia , NADH Desidrogenase/genética , Trematódeos/genética , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , Mamíferos
11.
Sci Transl Med ; 16(731): eadd6883, 2024 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38266108

RESUMO

Down syndrome (DS) is caused by trisomy of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21). DS is a gene dosage disorder that results in multiple phenotypes including congenital heart defects. This clinically important cardiac pathology is the result of a third copy of one or more of the approximately 230 genes on Hsa21, but the identity of the causative dosage-sensitive genes and hence mechanisms underlying this cardiac pathology remain unclear. Here, we show that hearts from human fetuses with DS and embryonic hearts from the Dp1Tyb mouse model of DS show reduced expression of mitochondrial respiration genes and cell proliferation genes. Using systematic genetic mapping, we determined that three copies of the dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (Dyrk1a) gene, encoding a serine/threonine protein kinase, are associated with congenital heart disease pathology. In embryos from Dp1Tyb mice, reducing Dyrk1a gene copy number from three to two reversed defects in cellular proliferation and mitochondrial respiration in cardiomyocytes and rescued heart septation defects. Increased dosage of DYRK1A protein resulted in impairment of mitochondrial function and congenital heart disease pathology in mice with DS, suggesting that DYRK1A may be a useful therapeutic target for treating this common human condition.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Down , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Síndrome de Down/genética , Genes Mitocondriais , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Miócitos Cardíacos , Trissomia
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252910, 2024. tab, mapas, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360209

RESUMO

Bemisia tabaci is a species complex that causes damage to its broad range of plant hosts through serious feeding. It transmits plant viruses of different groups to important agricultural crops. Some important cash crops of Pakistan are sugar cane, rice, tobacco and seed oil. It shows high genetic variability and is differentiated as races or biotypes. Biotypes are, biotype Q, biotype B, biotype B2, biotype M, biotype L, biotype A, biotype H, biotype C, biotype K, biotype N, biotype R, biotype E, biotype P, biotype J, biotype S, biotype AN. Although the current report based on the Bayesian study of mitochondrial cytohrome oxidase gene1 (CO1) DNA sequences has classified the different populations of whiteflies into twelve genetic groups which are Mediterranean, Sub-Saharan Africa silverleafing, Indian Ocean, Asia II, Asia I, Australia, New World, Italy, China, Sub-Saharan Africa non-silverleafing, Mediterranean/Asia Minor/Africa and Uganda sweet potato. Begomoviruses is largest group of viruses transmitted by B. tabaci and cause major diseases of crops such as tomato and chili leaf curl disease, cassava mosaic disease; yellow mosaic disease of legumes and cotton leaf curl disease. The main objective of current study is to inculpate knowledge regarding genetic diversity of whitefly in cotton fields across Pakistan via analysis of partial DNA sequence of mitochondrial gene Cytochrom Oxidase I (mtCO1).


Bemisia tabaci é um complexo de espécies que causa danos a uma ampla gama de hospedeiros vegetais por meio de alimentação séria. Ele transmite vírus de plantas de diferentes grupos para importantes safras agrícolas. Algumas safras comerciais importantes do Paquistão são cana-de-açúcar, arroz, tabaco e óleo de semente. Apresenta alta variabilidade genética e é diferenciado em raças ou biótipos. Os biótipos são: biótipo Q, biótipo B, biótipo B2, biótipo M, biótipo L, biótipo A, biótipo H, biótipo C, biótipo K, biótipo N, biótipo R, biótipo E, biótipo P, biótipo J, biótipo S, biótipo AN . Embora o relatório atual baseado no estudo bayesiano das sequências de DNA do gene 1 da oxidase do citocromo mitocondrial (CO1) tenha classificado as diferentes populações de moscas-brancas em doze grupos genéticos, que são Mediterrâneo, África Subsaariana com folha de prata, Oceano Índico, Ásia II, Ásia I, Austrália, Novo Mundo, Itália, China, África Subsaariana sem folha prateada, Batata-doce Mediterrâneo / Ásia Menor / África e Uganda. Os begomovírus são o maior grupo de vírus transmitidos por B. tabaci e causam as principais doenças de culturas, como a doença do cacho do tomate e da pimenta-malagueta, doença do mosaico da mandioca, doença do mosaico amarelo de leguminosas e doença do enrolamento da folha do algodão. O principal objetivo do presente estudo é inculpar conhecimento sobre a diversidade genética da mosca-branca em campos de algodão em todo o Paquistão por meio da análise da sequência parcial de DNA do gene mitocondrial Citocromo Oxidase I (mtCO1).


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Genes Mitocondriais , Begomovirus , Pragas da Agricultura
13.
PeerJ ; 11: e16446, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38047014

RESUMO

Background: The mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of metazoans generally include the same set of protein-coding genes, which ensures the homology of mitochondrial genes between species. The mitochondrial genes are often used as reference data for species identification based on genetic data (DNA barcoding). The need for such reference data has been increasing due to the application of environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis for environmental assessments. Recently, the number of publicly available sequence reads obtained with next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been increasing in the public database (the NCBI Sequence Read Archive, SRA). Such freely available NGS reads would be promising sources for assembling mitochondrial protein-coding genes (mPCGs) of organisms whose mitochondrial genes are not available in GenBank. The present study aimed to assemble annelid mPCGs from raw data deposited in the SRA. Methods: The recent progress in the classification of Annelida was briefly introduced. In the present study, the mPCGs of 32 annelid species of 19 families in clitellates and allies in Sedentaria (echiurans and polychaetes) were newly assembled from the reads deposited in the SRA. Assembly was performed with a recently published pipeline mitoRNA, which includes cycles of Bowtie2 mapping and Trinity assembly. Assembled mPCGs were deposited in GenBank as Third Party Data (TPA) data. A phylogenetic tree was reconstructed with maximum likelihood (ML) analysis, together with other mPCGs deposited in GenBank. Results and Discussion: mPCG assembly was largely successful except for Travisia forbesii; only four genes were detected from the assembled contigs of the species probably due to the reads targeting its parasite. Most genes were largely successfully obtained, whereas atp8, nad2, and nad4l were only successful in 22-24 species. The high nucleotide substitution rates of these genes might be relevant to the failure in the assembly although nad6, which showed a similarly high substitution rate, was successfully assembled. Although the phylogenetic positions of several lineages were not resolved in the present study, the phylogenetic relationships of some polychaetes and leeches that were not inferred by transcriptomes were well resolved probably due to a more dense taxon sampling than previous phylogenetic analyses based on transcriptomes. Although NGS data are generally better sources for resolving phylogenetic relationships of both higher and lower classifications, there are ensuring needs for specific loci of the mitochondrial genes for analyses that do not require high resolutions, such as DNA barcoding, eDNA, and phylogenetic analysis among lower taxa. Assembly from publicly available NGS reads would help design specific primers for the mitochondrial gene sequences of species, whose mitochondrial genes are hard to amplify by Sanger sequencing using universal primers.


Assuntos
Anelídeos , Poliquetos , Humanos , Animais , Genes Mitocondriais , Filogenia , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Poliquetos/genética
14.
PLoS One ; 18(12): e0287281, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38048310

RESUMO

Class Demospongiae is the largest in the phylum Porifera (Sponges) and encompasses nearly 8,000 accepted species in three subclasses: Keratosa, Verongimorpha, and Heteroscleromorpha. Subclass Heteroscleromorpha contains ∼90% of demosponge species and is subdivided into 17 orders. The higher level classification of demosponges underwent major revision as the result of nearly three decades of molecular studies. However, because most of the previous molecular work only utilized partial data from a small number of nuclear and mitochondrial (mt) genes, this classification scheme needs to be tested by larger datasets. Here we compiled a mt dataset for 136 demosponge species-including 64 complete or nearly complete and six partial mt-genome sequences determined or assembled for this study-and used it to test phylogenetic relationships among Demospongiae in general and Heteroscleromorpha in particular. We also investigated the phylogenetic position of Myceliospongia araneosa, a highly unusual demosponge without spicules and spongin fibers, currently classified as Demospongiae incertae sedis, for which molecular data were not available. Our results support the previously inferred sister-group relationship between Heteroscleromorpha and Keratosa + Verongimorpha and suggest five main clades within Heteroscleromorpha: Clade C0 composed of order Haplosclerida; Clade C1 composed of Scopalinida, Sphaerocladina, and Spongillida; Clade C2 composed of Axinellida, Biemnida, Bubarida; Clade C3 composed of Tetractinellida; and Clade C4 composed of Agelasida, Clionaida, Desmacellida, Merliida, Suberitida, Poecilosclerida, Polymastiida, and Tethyida. The inferred relationships among these clades were (C0(C1(C2(C3+C4)))). Analysis of molecular data from M. araneosa placed it in the C3 clade as a sister taxon to the highly skeletonized tetractinellids Microscleroderma sp. and Leiodermatium sp. Molecular clock analysis dated divergences among the major clades in Heteroscleromorpha from the Cambrian to the Early Silurian, the origins of most heteroscleromorph orders in the middle Paleozoic, and the most basal splits within these orders around the Paleozoic to Mesozoic transition. Overall, the results of this study are mostly congruent with the accepted classification of Heteroscleromorpha, but add temporal perspective and new resolution to phylogenetic relationships within this subclass.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial , Poríferos , Animais , Filogenia , Poríferos/genética , Genes Mitocondriais
15.
PLoS One ; 18(12): e0296286, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38157363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phlebotomus argentipes complex is the primary vector for cutaneous leishmaniasis, a burgeoning health concern in contemporary Sri Lanka, where effective vector control is important for proper disease management. Understanding the genetic diversity of the P. argentipes population in Sri Lanka is vital before implementing a successful vector control program. Various studies have indicated that genetic divergence, caused by genetic drift or selection, can significantly influence the vector capacity of arthropod species. To devise innovative control strategies for P. argentipes, exploring genetic diversity and phylogeography can offer valuable insights into vector competence, key genetic trait transfer, and impact on disease epidemiology. The primary objective is to analyze the genetic diversity and phylogeography of the P. argentipes complex in Sri Lanka, based on two mitochondrial genomic regions in modern representatives of P. argentipes populations. METHODOLOGY: A total of 159 P. argentipes specimens were collected from five endemic areas of cutaneous leishmaniasis and identified morphologically. Two mitochondrial regions (Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) were amplified using the total DNA and subsequently sequenced. Partial sequences of those mitochondrial genes were utilized to analyze genetic diversity indices and to explore phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationships. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Among five sampling locations, the highest genetic diversity for COI and ND4 was observed in Hambantota (Hd-0.749, π-0.00417) and Medirigiriya (Hd-0.977, π-0.01055), respectively. Phylogeographic analyses conducted using COI sequences and GenBank retrieved sequences demonstrated a significant divergence of P. argentipes haplotypes found in Sri Lanka. Results revealed that they have evolved from the Indian ancestral haplotype due to historical- geographical connections of the Indian subcontinent with Sri Lanka. CONCLUSIONS: Utilizing high-mutation-rate mitochondrial genes, such as ND4, can enhance the accuracy of genetic variability analysis in P. argentipes populations in Sri Lanka. The phylogeographical analysis of COI gene markers in this study provides insights into the historical geographical relationship between India and P. argentipes in Sri Lanka. Both COI and ND4 genes exhibited consistent genetic homogeneity in P. argentipes in Sri Lanka, suggesting minimal impact on gene flow. This homogeneity also implies the potential for horizontal gene transfer across populations, facilitating the transmission of genes associated with traits like insecticide resistance. This dynamic undermines disease control efforts reliant on vector control strategies.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea , Phlebotomus , Psychodidae , Animais , Psychodidae/genética , Phlebotomus/genética , Filogeografia , Filogenia , Genes Mitocondriais , Leishmaniose Cutânea/genética , Sri Lanka , Variação Genética
16.
Mol Biol Evol ; 40(11)2023 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37935058

RESUMO

Genetic elements encoded in nuclear DNA determine the sex of an individual in many animals. In certain bivalve lineages that possess doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI), mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been hypothesized to contribute to sex determination. In these cases, females transmit a female mtDNA to all offspring, while male mtDNA (M mtDNA) is transmitted only from fathers to sons. Because M mtDNA is inherited in the same way as Y chromosomes, it has been hypothesized that mtDNA may be responsible for sex determination. However, the role of mitochondrial and nuclear genes in sex determination has yet to be validated in DUI bivalves. In this study, we used DNA, RNA, and mitochondrial short noncoding RNA (sncRNA) sequencing to explore the role of mitochondrial and nuclear elements in the sexual development pathway of the freshwater mussel Potamilus streckersoni (Bivalvia: Unionida). We found that the M mtDNA sheds a sncRNA partially within a male-specific mitochondrial gene that targets a pathway hypothesized to be involved in female development and mitophagy. RNA-seq confirmed the gene target was significantly upregulated in females, supporting a direct role of mitochondrial sncRNAs in gene silencing. These findings support the hypothesis that M mtDNA inhibits female development. Genome-wide patterns of genetic differentiation and heterozygosity did not support a nuclear sex-determining region, although we cannot reject that nuclear factors are involved with sex determination. Our results provide further evidence that mitochondrial loci contribute to diverse, nonrespiratory functions and additional insights into an unorthodox sex-determining system.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido , Feminino , Animais , Bivalves/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Genes Mitocondriais
17.
PLoS One ; 18(11): e0294687, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37988339

RESUMO

Pteromalidae and Eulophidae are predominant and abundant taxa within Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera: Apocrita). These taxa are found in diverse ecosystems, ranging from basin deserts (200 m) to alpine grasslands (4500 m). Mitochondria, cellular powerhouses responsible for energy production via oxidative phosphorylation, are sensitive to various environmental factors such as extreme cold, hypoxia, and intense ultraviolet radiation characteristic of alpine regions. Whether the molecular evolution of mitochondrial genes in these parasitoids corresponds to changes in the energy requirements and alpine environmental adaptations remains unknown. In this study, we performed a comparative analysis of mitochondrial protein-coding genes from 11 alpine species of Pteromalidae and Eulophidae, along with 18 lowland relatives, including 16 newly sequenced species. We further examined the codon usage preferences (RSCU, ENC-GC3s, neutrality, and PR2 bias plot) in these mitochondrial protein-coding sequences and conducted positive selection analysis based on their Bayesian phylogenetic relationships, and identified positive selection sites in the ATP6, ATP8, COX1, COX3, and CYTB genes, emphasizing the crucial role of mitochondrial gene adaptive evolution in the adaptation of Pteromalidae and Eulophidae to alpine environments. The phylogenetically independent contrast (PIC) analysis results verified the ω ratio of 13 PCGs from Pteromalidae and Eulophidae increased with elevation, and results from generalized linear model confirm that ATP6, ATP8, COX3, and ND1 are closely correlated with temperature-related environmental factors. This research not only enriched the molecular data of endemic alpine species but also underscores the significance of mitochondrial genes in facilitating the adaptation of these minor parasitoids to plateau habitats.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial , Himenópteros , Animais , Himenópteros/genética , Genes Mitocondriais , Filogenia , Teorema de Bayes , Ecossistema , Raios Ultravioleta , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética
18.
Pharmacol Res ; 198: 107017, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38006979

RESUMO

Sorafenib, a multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is a first-line treatment for advanced solid tumors, but it induces many adverse cardiovascular events, including myocardial infarction and heart failure. These cardiac defects can be mediated by alternative splicing of genes critical for heart function. Whether alternative splicing plays a role in sorafenib-induced cardiotoxicity remains unclear. Transcriptome of rat hearts or human cardiomyocytes treated with sorafenib was analyzed and validated to define alternatively spliced genes and their impact on cardiotoxicity. In rats, sorafenib caused severe cardiotoxicity with decreased left ventricular systolic pressure, elongated sarcomere, enlarged mitochondria and decreased ATP. This was associated with alternative splicing of hundreds of genes in the hearts, many of which were targets of a cardiac specific splicing factor, RBM20. Sorafenib inhibited RBM20 expression in both rat hearts and human cardiomyocytes. The splicing of RBM20's targets, SLC25A3 and FHOD3, was altered into fetal isoforms with decreased function. Upregulation of RBM20 during sorafenib treatment reversed the pathogenic splicing of SLC25A3 and FHOD3, and enhanced the phosphate transport into mitochondria by SLC25A3, ATP synthesis and cell survival.We envision this regulation may happen in many drug-induced cardiotoxicity, and represent a potential druggable pathway for mitigating sorafenib-induced cardiotoxicity.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Cardiotoxicidade , Ratos , Animais , Humanos , Sorafenibe , Cardiotoxicidade/genética , Cardiotoxicidade/metabolismo , Sarcômeros/metabolismo , Genes Mitocondriais , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Forminas/genética , Forminas/metabolismo
19.
Genes (Basel) ; 14(11)2023 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38002981

RESUMO

Mytella strigata is a highly adaptable invasive alien species that has been established in coastal China since 2014. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is an important tool for studying the evolution and population genetics of invasive species. In this study, the mitochondrial genome of M. strigata from China was sequenced by Illumina high-throughput sequencing and characterized with 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs). By assessing the selective pressure of 13 PCGs, the nad2 gene had the fastest evolutionary rate and was finally selected for population genetic analysis. A total of 285 nad2 sequences from seven M. strigata populations in China were analyzed and showed obviously T-rich and C-rich characteristics. According to population genetic diversity analysis, all the seven populations had haplotype (gene) diversity (Hd) ≥ 0.5 and nucleotide diversity (Pi) < 0.005. Haplotype networks showed a "star" distribution. Population historical dynamic analyses showed that Fu's Fs and Tajima's D values of all populations were negative except the Qukou (QK) and Beihai (BH) populations. The Zhangzhou (ZJ) and Xiamen (XM) populations were unimodal while the other populations were multimodal. These results suggested that the population of M. strigata in China may have passed the bottleneck period and is currently in a state of population expansion.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Variação Genética , Animais , Variação Genética/genética , Genética Populacional , Genes Mitocondriais , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Bivalves/genética , China
20.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 28(10): 233, 2023 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37919084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fallopia aubertii (L. Henry) Holub is a perennial semi-shrub with both ornamental and medicinal value. The mitochondrial genomes of plants contain valuable genetic traits that can be utilized for the exploitation of genetic resources. The parsing of F. aubertii mitochondrial genome can provide insight into the role of mitochondria in plant growth and development, metabolism regulation, evolution, and response to environmental stress. METHODS: In this study, we sequenced the mitochondrial genome of F. aubertii using the Illumina NovaSeq 6000 platform and Nanopore platform. We conducted a comprehensive analysis of the mitochondrial genome of F. aubertii, which involved examining various aspects such as gene composition, repetitive sequences, RNA editing sites, phylogeny, and organelle genome homology. To achieve this, we employed several bioinformatics methods including sequence alignment analysis, repetitive sequence analysis, phylogeny analysis, and more. RESULTS: The mitochondrial genome of F. aubertii has 64 genes, including 34 protein-coding genes (PCGs), three rRNAs, and 27 tRNAs. There were 77 short tandem repeat sequences detected in the mitochondrial genome, five tandem repeat sequences identified by Tandem Repeats Finder (TRF), and 50 scattered repeat sequences observed, including 22 forward repeat sequences and 28 palindrome repeat sequences. A total of 367 RNA coding sites were predicted in PCGs, with the highest number (33) found within ccmB. Ka/Ks values estimated for mitochondrial genes of F. aubertii and three closely related species representing Caryophyllales were less than 1 for most of the genes. The maximum likelihood evolutionary tree showed that F. aubertii and Nepenthes ×ventrata are most closely related. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we obtained basic information on the mitochondrial genome of F. aubertii and this study investigated repeat sequences and homologous segments, predicted RNA editing sites, and utilized the Ka/Ks ratio to estimate the selection pressure on mitochondrial genes of F. aubertii. We also discussed the systematic evolutionary position of F. aubertii based on mitochondrial genome sequences. Our study revealed variations in the sequence and structure of mitochondrial genomes in Caryophyllales. These findings are of great significance for identifying and improving valuable plant traits and serve as a reference for future molecular studies of F. aubertii.


Assuntos
Fallopia , Genoma Mitocondrial , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Fallopia/genética , Filogenia , Genes Mitocondriais
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