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1.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(9): e1008886, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931525

RESUMO

Citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) is one of the most devastating diseases in citrus. Meiwa kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia) has shown a durable resistance against Xcc. Here, we aimed to characterize the mechanisms responsible for such a durable resistance by characterizing the transcriptional and physiological responses of Meiwa kumquat to Xcc. Inoculation of Meiwa kumquat with Xcc promoted immune responses such as upregulation of PR genes, accumulation of salicylic acid, hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death and early leaf abscission. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia symptoms, which are known to be caused by Xcc-induction of the canker susceptibility gene LOB1 through the transcription activator-like effector (TALE) PthA4, always appear prior to the development of cell death. Mutation of pthA4 in Xcc abolished the induction of LOB1, canker symptoms, cell death, and leaf abscission and reduced the expression of PR genes in inoculated kumquat leaves without reducing Xcc titers in planta. Transcriptome analysis demonstrated that PthA4 promotes plant biotic and abiotic stress responses and the biosynthesis of abscisic acid. Transcriptional induction of LOB1 homologs in Meiwa kumquat by Xcc pthA4 mutant strains carrying a repertoire of designer TALEs promoted the elicitation of HR-like phenotype and leaf abscission, suggesting that kumquat response to Xcc is associated with upregulation of LOB1. Our study suggests a novel mechanism of plant resistance to Xanthomonas via elicitation of immune responses by upregulation of a host susceptibility gene.


Assuntos
Citrus , Genes de Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas , Imunidade Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas , Transativadores , Xanthomonas/imunologia , Citrus/genética , Citrus/imunologia , Citrus/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/imunologia , Transativadores/genética , Transativadores/imunologia
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4778, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963241

RESUMO

Obtaining genetic variation information from indica rice hybrid parents and identification of loci associated with heterosis are important for hybrid rice breeding. Here, we resequence 1,143 indica accessions mostly selected from the parents of superior hybrid rice cultivars of China, identify genetic variations, and perform kinship analysis. We find different hybrid rice crossing patterns between 3- and 2-line superior hybrid lines. By calculating frequencies of parental variation differences (FPVDs), a more direct approach for studying rice heterosis, we identify loci that are linked to heterosis, which include 98 in superior 3-line hybrids and 36 in superior 2-line hybrids. As a proof of concept, we find two accessions harboring a deletion in OsNramp5, a previously reported gene functioning in cadmium absorption, which can be used to mitigate rice grain cadmium levels through hybrid breeding. Resource of indica rice genetic variation reported in this study will be valuable to geneticists and breeders.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Vigor Híbrido/genética , Oryza/genética , Cruzamento , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , China , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Deleção de Genes , Genes de Plantas , Hibridização Genética , Oryza/classificação , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237493, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946440

RESUMO

The phyllosphere epiphytic microbiome is composed of microorganisms that colonize the external aerial portions of plants. Relationships of plant responses to specific microorganisms-both pathogenic and beneficial-have been examined, but the phyllosphere microbiome functional and metabolic profile responses are not well described. Changing crop growth conditions, such as increased drought, can have profound impacts on crop productivity. Also, epiphytic microbial communities provide a new target for crop yield optimization. We compared Zea mays leaf microbiomes collected under drought and well-watered conditions by examining functional gene annotation patterns across three physically disparate locations each with and without drought treatment, through the application of short read metagenomic sequencing. Drought samples exhibited different functional sequence compositions at each of the three field sites. Maize phyllosphere functional profiles revealed a wide variety of metabolic and regulatory processes that differed in drought and normal water conditions and provide key baseline information for future selective breeding.


Assuntos
Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/microbiologia , Secas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Genes de Plantas , Metagenômica , Microbiota , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Água/metabolismo , Zea mays/fisiologia
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236226, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866160

RESUMO

Amine oxidases (AOs) including copper containing amine oxidases (CuAOs) and FAD-dependent polyamine oxidases (PAOs) are associated with polyamine catabolism in the peroxisome, apoplast and cytoplasm and play an essential role in growth and developmental processes and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we identified PAO genes in common wheat (Triticum aestivum), T. urartu and Aegilops tauschii and reported the genome organization, evolutionary features and expression profiles of the wheat PAO genes (TaPAO). Expression analysis using publicly available RNASeq data showed that TaPAO genes are expressed redundantly in various tissues and developmental stages. A large percentage of TaPAOs respond significantly to abiotic stresses, especially temperature (i.e. heat and cold stress). Some TaPAOs were also involved in response to other stresses such as powdery mildew, stripe rust and Fusarium infection. Overall, TaPAOs may have various functions in stress tolerances responses, and play vital roles in different tissues and developmental stages. Our results provided a reference for further functional investigation of TaPAO proteins.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-NH/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Termotolerância/genética , Triticum/genética , Aegilops/enzimologia , Aegilops/genética , Processamento Alternativo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Evolução Molecular , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Cadeias de Markov , Modelos Genéticos , Peso Molecular , Família Multigênica , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-NH/química , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-NH/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Domínios Proteicos/genética , RNA-Seq , Alinhamento de Sequência , Triticum/enzimologia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236186, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866164

RESUMO

AIM: To establish a gene co-expression network for identifying principal modules and hub genes that are associated with drought resistance mechanisms, analyzing their mechanisms, and exploring candidate genes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 42 data sets including PRJNA380841 and PRJNA369686 were used to construct the co-expression network through weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). A total of 1,896,897,901 (284.30 Gb) clean reads and 35,021 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained from 42 samples. Functional enrichment analysis indicated that photosynthesis, DNA replication, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, starch and sucrose metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism, and cell cycle were significantly influenced by drought stress. Furthermore, the DEGs with similar expression patterns, detected by K-means clustering, were grouped into 29 clusters. Genes involved in the modules, such as dark turquoise, yellow, and brown, were found to be appreciably linked with drought resistance. Twelve central, greatly correlated genes in stage-specific modules were subsequently confirmed and validated at the transcription levels, including TraesCS7D01G417600.1 (PP2C), TraesCS5B01G565300.1 (ERF), TraesCS4A01G068200.1 (HSP), TraesCS2D01G033200.1 (HSP90), TraesCS6B01G425300.1 (RBD), TraesCS7A01G499200.1 (P450), TraesCS4A01G118400.1 (MYB), TraesCS2B01G415500.1 (STK), TraesCS1A01G129300.1 (MYB), TraesCS2D01G326900.1 (ALDH), TraesCS3D01G227400.1 (WRKY), and TraesCS3B01G144800.1 (GT). CONCLUSIONS: Analyzing the response of wheat to drought stress during different growth stages, we have detected three modules and 12 hub genes that are associated with drought resistance mechanisms, and five of those genes are newly identified for drought resistance. The references provided by these modules will promote the understanding of the drought-resistance mechanism. In addition, the candidate genes can be used as a basis of transgenic or molecular marker-assisted selection for improving the drought resistance and increasing the yields of wheat.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Triticum/genética , China , Análise por Conglomerados , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Secas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , RNA-Seq , Seleção Genética
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110961, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888621

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd), which seriously affects plant growth and crop production, is harmful to humans. Previous studies revealed ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) exhibits Cd tolerance, and may be useful as a potential hyperaccumulator because of its wide distribution. In this study, the physiological and transcriptional responses of two ryegrass cultivars [i.e., high (LmHC) and low (LmLC) Cd tolerance] to Cd stress were investigated and compared. The Cd tolerance of LmHC was greater than that of LmLC at various Cd concentrations. The uptake of Evans blue dye revealed that Cd-induced root cell mortality was higher in LmLC than in LmHC after a 12-h Cd treatment. Furthermore, the content and influx rate of Cd in LmLC roots were greater than in LmHC roots under Cd stress conditions. The RNA sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR data indicated that the Cd transport regulatory genes (ABCG37, ABCB4, NRAMP4, and HMA5) were differentially expressed between the LmLC and LmHC roots. This expression-level diversity may contribute to the differences in the Cd accumulation and translocation between LmLC and LmHC. These findings may help clarify the physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying ryegrass responses to Cd toxicity. Additionally, ryegrass may be able to hyperaccumulate toxic heavy metals during the phytoremediation of contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Cádmio/metabolismo , Lolium/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Adaptação Biológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Adaptação Biológica/genética , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/toxicidade , Genes de Plantas , Lolium/química , Lolium/genética , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4393, 2020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879321

RESUMO

Rcr3 is a secreted protease of tomato that is targeted by fungal effector Avr2, a secreted protease inhibitor of the fungal pathogen Cladosporium fulvum. The Avr2-Rcr3 complex is recognized by receptor-like protein Cf-2, triggering hypersensitive cell death (HR) and disease resistance. Avr2 also targets Rcr3 paralog Pip1, which is not required for Avr2 recognition but contributes to basal resistance. Thus, Rcr3 acts as a guarded decoy in this interaction, trapping the fungus into a recognition event. Here we show that Rcr3 evolved > 50 million years ago (Mya), whereas Cf-2 evolved <6Mya by co-opting the pre-existing Rcr3 in the Solanum genus. Ancient Rcr3 homologs present in tomato, potato, eggplants, pepper, petunia and tobacco can be inhibited by Avr2 with the exception of tobacco Rcr3. Four variant residues in Rcr3 promote Avr2 inhibition, but the Rcr3 that co-evolved with Cf-2 lacks three of these residues, indicating that the Rcr3 co-receptor is suboptimal for Avr2 binding. Pepper Rcr3 triggers HR with Cf-2 and Avr2 when engineered for enhanced inhibition by Avr2. Nicotiana benthamiana (Nb) is a natural null mutant carrying Rcr3 and Pip1 alleles with deleterious frame-shift mutations. Resurrected NbRcr3 and NbPip1 alleles were active proteases and further NbRcr3 engineering facilitated Avr2 inhibition, uncoupled from HR signalling. The evolution of a receptor co-opting a conserved pathogen target contrasts with other indirect pathogen recognition mechanisms.


Assuntos
Cladosporium , Resistência à Doença/genética , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Solanum , Tabaco , Cladosporium/genética , Cladosporium/metabolismo , Cladosporium/patogenicidade , Evolução Molecular , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteases/metabolismo , Solanum/genética , Solanum/metabolismo , Solanum/microbiologia , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo , Tabaco/microbiologia
8.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(8): e1008082, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790763

RESUMO

We study the genotype-phenotype maps of 80 quantitative phenotypes in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, by representing the genotypes affecting each phenotype as a genotype network. In such a network, each vertex or node corresponds to an individual's genotype at all those genomic loci that affect a given phenotype. Two vertices are connected by an edge if the associated genotypes differ in exactly one nucleotide. The 80 genotype networks we analyze are based on data from genome-wide association studies of 199 A. thaliana accessions. They form connected graphs whose topography differs substantially among phenotypes. We focus our analysis on the incidence of epistasis (non-additive interactions among mutations) because a high incidence of epistasis can reduce the accessibility of evolutionary paths towards high or low phenotypic values. We find epistatic interactions in 67 phenotypes, and in 51 phenotypes every pairwise mutant interaction is epistatic. Moreover, we find phenotype-specific differences in the fraction of accessible mutational paths to maximum phenotypic values. However, even though epistasis affects the accessibility of maximum phenotypic values, the relationships between genotypic and phenotypic change of our analyzed phenotypes are sufficiently smooth that some evolutionary paths remain accessible for most phenotypes, even where epistasis is pervasive. The genotype network representation we use can complement existing approaches to understand the genetic architecture of polygenic traits in many different organisms.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Epistasia Genética/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Evolução Molecular , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Fenótipo
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111063, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791358

RESUMO

The lipocalins genes have been assigned for involving in the responses of organisms to various stress factors. The function of lipocalins under PCB18 stress was addressed by pathway complementation in the Oryza sativa L. OsTIL-silenced mutant. The growth of wild type (WT) and OsTIL-silenced mutant (MT) callus were suppressed by PCB18, and MT varieties were inhibited more seriously than WT varieties. Meanwhile, only WT varieties showed "Hormesis" effect. Compared with WT (3 day > 90.0%, 6 day ≤45.5%), MT varieties kept high removing efficiency by HPLC analysis. Varied gene transcription after OsTIL silencing was demonstrated between two varieties, especially obvious under PCB stress. Silenced OsTIL induced more protective gene transcriptions by qPCR analysis, OsVDE at 3 day, OsCHL, OsZEP1, OsZEP2 and OsUN at 6 day and OsZEP2 at 9 day. PCB18 stress further irritated these genes transcription in MT varieties. The defense stagy in WT varieties was that the transcriptions of lipocalins were inhibited to reduce PCB18 accumulation and toxicity. OsTIL could effectively limit PCB18 accumulation and toxicity. After TIL lacking, OsCHL, OsZEP1, OsZEP2 and OsUN in mutant were strongly evoked to against PCB stress. Remarkably, OsUN and OsZEP2 gene expressions were responded to PCB18 stress in both two varieties.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Lipocalinas/genética , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade , Ativação Transcricional/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Inativação Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Oryza/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Oxidativo/genética
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237334, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776991

RESUMO

We studied the correlation of synonymous codon usage (SCU) on gene expression levels under drought stress in rice. Sixty genes related to drought stress (with high, intermediate and low expression) were selected from rice meta-analysis data and various codon usage indices such as the effective number of codon usage (ENC), codon adaptation index (CAI) and relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) were calculated. We found that in genes highly expressing under drought 1) GC content was higher, 2) ENC value was lower, 3) the preferred codons of some amino acids changed and 4) the RSCU ratio of GC-end codons relative to AT-end codons for 18 amino acids increased significantly compared with those in other genes. We introduce ARSCU as the Average ratio of RSCUs of GC-end codons to AT-end codons in each gene that could significantly separate high-expression genes under drought from low-expression genes. ARSCU is calculated using the program ARSCU-Calculator developed by our group to help predicting expression level of rice genes under drought. An index above ARSCU threshold is expected to indicate that the gene under study may belong to the "high expression group under drought". This information may be applied for codon optimization of genes for rice genetic engineering. To validate these findings, we further used 60 other genes (randomly selected subset of 43233 genes studied for their response to drought stress). ARSCU value was able to predict the level of expression at 88.33% of the cases. Using third set of 60 genes selected amongst high expressing genes not related to drought, only 31.65% of the genes showed ARSCU value of higher than the set threshold. This indicates that the phenomenon we described in this report may be unique for drought related genes. To justify the observed correlation between CUB and high expressing genes under drought, possible role of tRNA post transcriptional modification and tRFs was hypothesized as possible underlying biological mechanism.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Genes de Plantas/genética , Oryza/fisiologia , Composição de Bases , Uso do Códon , Simulação por Computador , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla
11.
Gene ; 761: 145043, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777530

RESUMO

Tonoplast Intrinsic Proteins (TIPs) constitute a significant class of the aquaporins. The TIPs control water trade among cytosolic and vacuolar compartments and can also transport glycerol, ammonia, urea, hydrogen peroxide, metals/metalloids, and so forth. Additionally, TIPs are engaged with different abiotic stress responses and developmental processes like leaf expansion, root elongation and seed germination. In this study, ten TIP genes in the rice genome were identified from Oryza sativa ssp indica. Among these, representative groups of TIP genes were cloned and sequenced whilst some TIP sequences showed stop codons in the coding region. The secondary structure analysis represented six conserved transmembrane helices along with the inter-helical regions having conserved motifs. The representative three-dimensional tetrameric design of protein sequence of TIP1;1 displayed key features like NPA motifs, aromatic/arginine (ar/R) selectivity filters, and Froger's residues. The vacuolar localization, transmembrane topological properties, and conserved motif analysis of the cloned genes altogether supported their identity as TIPs. An unrooted phylogenetic tree delineated the relatedness of TIPs from Oryza with different species and bunched them into five clades. The promoter analysis uncovered key regulons associated with administering abiotic stress responses. Gene expression studies showed thatTIPsare differentially regulated under salt and drought stress at various time points in shoots and roots of rice. Also, the pattern of expression was found to be significantly variable in five different rice tissues. The heat-map based tissue and stress- specific expression analysis supported the experimental findings. In conclusion, the identification and transcript-level expression studies of TIPs significantly contribute towards the comprehension of their utilitarian significance in the abiotic stress response.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Aquaporinas/genética , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular/métodos , Secas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Vacúolos/genética , Água/metabolismo
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237711, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810182

RESUMO

Alleles at the Glu-1 loci play important roles in the functional properties of wheat flour. The effects of various high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) compositions on quality traits and bread-making properties were evaluated using 235 doubled haploid lines (DHs). The experiment was conducted in a split plot design with two water regimes as the main plot treatment, and DH lines as the subplot treatments. Results showed that the presence of subunit pair 5+10 at the Glu-D1 locus, either alone or in combination with others, appears to provide an improvement in quality and bread-making properties. At the Glu-A1 locus, subunit 1 produced a higher Zeleny sedimentation value (Zel) and stretch area (SA) than subunit 2* when subunits 14+15 and 5+10 were expressed at the Glu-B1 and Glu-D1 loci, and 2* had a positive effect on the maximum dough resistance (Rmax) when subunits 14+15 and 5'+12 were expressed at the Glu-B1 and Glu-D1 loci, respectively. Given subunit 1 at the Glu-A1 locus and 5'+12 at the Glu-D1 locus, the effects of Glu-B1 subunits 14+15 on the tractility (Tra), dough stability time (ST), and dough development time (DT) under the well-watered regime were significantly higher than those of Glu-B1 subunits 13+16. However, 13+16 had a positive effect on SA under the rain-fed regime when subunits 2* and 5+10 were expressed at the Glu-A1 and Glu-D1 loci, respectively. Multiple comparisons analysis revealed that the Zel and Rmax of the six subunits and eight HMW-GS compositions were stable under different water regimes. Overall, subunit compositions 1, 13+16 and 5+10 and 1, 14+15 and 5+10 had higher values for quality traits and bread-baking properties under the two water regimes. These results could play a positive guiding role in selecting and popularizing varieties suitable for production and cultivation in local areas.


Assuntos
Qualidade dos Alimentos , Glutens/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Triticum/química , Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Pão/normas , China , Farinha/normas , Genes de Plantas/genética , Loci Gênicos , Glutens/metabolismo , Haploidia , Peso Molecular , Subunidades Proteicas/química , Triticum/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236823, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745143

RESUMO

Stem rot, a devastating fungal disease of peanut, is caused by Sclerotium rolfsii. RNA-sequencing approaches have been used to unravel the mechanisms of resistance to stem rot in peanut over the course of fungal infection in resistant (NRCG-CS85) and susceptible (TG37A) genotypes under control conditions and during the course of infection. Out of about 290 million reads, nearly 251 million (92.22%) high-quality reads were obtained and aligned to the Arachis duranensis and Arachis ipaensis genomes with the average mapping of 78.91% and 78.61%, respectively. In total, about 48.6% of genes were commonly regulated, while approximately 21.8% and 29.6% of uniquely regulated genes from A. duranensis and A. ipaensis genomes, respectively, were identified. Several annotated transcripts, such as receptor-like kinases, jasmonic acid pathway enzymes, and transcription factors (TFs), including WRKY, Zinc finger protein, and C2-H2 zinc finger, showed higher expression in resistant genotypes upon infection. These transcripts have a known role in channelizing the downstream of pathogen perception. The higher expression of WRKY transcripts might have induced the systemic acquired resistance (SAR) by the activation of the jasmonic acid defense signaling pathway. Furthermore, a set of 30 transcripts involved in the defense mechanisms were validated with quantitative real-time PCR. This study suggested PAMP-triggered immunity as a probable mechanism of resistance, while the jasmonic acid signaling pathway was identified as a possible defense mechanism in peanut. The information generated is of immense importance in developing more effective ways to combat the stem rot disease in peanut.


Assuntos
Agaricales/patogenicidade , Arachis/genética , Doenças das Plantas , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Arachis/microbiologia , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Genes de Plantas , Genótipo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Fosfato)/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , RNA-Seq , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236651, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804948

RESUMO

WRKY transcription factors regulate diverse biological processes in plants, including abiotic and biotic stress responses, and constitute one of the largest transcription factor families in higher plants. Although the past decade has seen significant progress towards identifying and functionally characterizing WRKY genes in diverse species, little is known about the WRKY family in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) moench). Here we report the comprehensive identification of 94 putative WRKY transcription factors (SbWRKYs). The SbWRKYs were divided into three groups (I, II, and III), with those in group II further classified into five subgroups (IIa-IIe), based on their conserved domains and zinc finger motif types. WRKYs from the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were used for the phylogenetic analysis of all SbWRKY genes. Motif analysis showed that all SbWRKYs contained either one or two WRKY domains and that SbWRKYs within the same group had similar motif compositions. SbWRKY genes were located on all 10 sorghum chromosomes, and some gene clusters and two tandem duplications were detected. SbWRKY gene structure analysis showed that they contained 0-7 introns, with most SbWRKY genes consisting of two introns and three exons. Gene ontology (GO) annotation functionally categorized SbWRKYs under cellular components, molecular functions and biological processes. A cis-element analysis showed that all SbWRKYs contain at least one stress response-related cis-element. We exploited publicly available microarray datasets to analyze the expression profiles of 78 SbWRKY genes at different growth stages and in different tissues. The induction of SbWRKYs by different abiotic stresses hinted at their potential involvement in stress responses. qRT-PCR analysis revealed different expression patterns for SbWRKYs during drought stress. Functionally characterized WRKY genes in Arabidopsis and other species will provide clues for the functional characterization of putative orthologs in sorghum. Thus, the present study delivers a solid foundation for future functional studies of SbWRKY genes and their roles in the response to critical stresses such as drought.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sorghum/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Família Multigênica , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236980, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780737

RESUMO

Global warming induces heat stress in eggplant, seriously affecting its quality and yield. The response to heat stress is a complex regulatory process; however, the exact mechanism in eggplant is unknown. We analyzed the transcriptome of eggplant under different high-temperature treatments using RNA-Seq technology. Three libraries treated at high temperatures were generated and sequenced. There were 40,733,667, 40,833,852, and 40,301,285 clean reads with 83.98%, 79.69%, and 84.42% of sequences mapped to the eggplant reference genome in groups exposed to 28°C (CK), 38°C (T38), and 43°C (T43), respectively. There were 3,067 and 1,456 DEGs in T38 vs CK and T43 vs CK groups, respectively. In these two DEG groups, 315 and 342 genes were up- and down-regulated, respectively, in common. Differential expression patterns of DEGs in antioxidant enzyme systems, detoxication, phytohormones, and transcription factors under heat stress were investigated. We screened heat stress-related genes for further validation by qRT-PCR. Regulation mechanisms may differ under different temperature treatments, in which heat shock proteins and heat stress transcription factors play vital roles. These results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of the heat stress response in eggplant and may be useful in crop breeding.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Solanum melongena/genética , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética , RNA-Seq , Solanum melongena/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237774, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797075

RESUMO

The source-sink relationship determines the ultimate grain yield of rice. In this study, we used a set of reciprocal introgression lines (ILs) derived from Xuishui09 × IR2061 to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that were associated with sink-, source-, and grain yield-related traits. A total of 95 QTLs influencing eight measured traits were identified using 6181 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphism markers. Nine background-independent QTLs were consistently detected in seven chromosomal regions in different genetic backgrounds. Seven QTLs clusters simultaneously affected sink-, source-, and grain yield-related traits, probably due to the genetic basis of significant correlations of grain yield with source and sink traits. We selected 15 candidate genes in the four QTLs consistently identified in the two populations by performing gene-based association and haplotype analyses using 2288 accessions from the 3K project. Among these, LOC_Os03g48970 for qTSN3b, LOC_Os06g04710 for qFLL6a, and LOC_Os07g32510 for qTGW7 were considered as the most likely candidate genes based on functional annotations. These results provide a basis for further study of candidate genes and for the development of high-yield rice varieties by balancing source-sink relationships using marker-assisted selection.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/genética , Oryza/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genes de Plantas , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
17.
Plant Mol Biol ; 104(3): 297-307, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748081

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: We have developed multiplex genome editing toolkits for citrus that significantly improve citrus genome editing efficacy. CRISPR/Cas systems have been engineered for genome editing in many organisms, including plants. However, the gene editing efficiency in citrus via CRISPR technology remains too low to be implemented for genetic improvement in practice. Moreover, it is very difficult to obtain homozygous or biallelic knockout mutants in citrus. Here, we have developed multiplex genome editing toolkits for citrus including PEG-mediated protoplast transformation, a GFP reporter system that allows the rapid assessment of CRISPR constructs, citrus U6 promoters with improved efficacy, and tRNA-mediated or Csy4-mediated multiplex genome editing. Using the toolkits, we successfully conducted genome modification of embryogenic protoplast cells and epicotyl tissues. We have achieved a biallelic mutation rate of 44.4% and a homozygous mutation rate of 11.1%, representing a significant improvement in citrus genome editing efficacy. In addition, our study lays the foundation for nontransgenic genome editing of citrus.


Assuntos
Citrus/genética , Edição de Genes/métodos , Genoma de Planta/genética , Homozigoto , Mutação , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Genes de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Protoplastos , RNA Guia/genética , RNA de Transferência/genética
18.
Plant Mol Biol ; 104(1-2): 97-112, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643113

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: By integrating genetics and genomics data, reproductive tissues-specific and heat stress responsive 35 meta-QTLs and 45 candidate genes were identified, which could be exploited through marker-assisted breeding for fast-track development of heat-tolerant rice cultivars. Rice holds the key to future food security. In rice-growing areas, temperature has already reached an optimum level for growth, hence, any further increase due to global climate change could significantly reduce rice yield. Several mapping studies have identified a plethora of reproductive tissue-specific and heat stress associated inconsistent quantitative trait loci (QTL), which could be exploited for improvement of heat tolerance. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis on previously reported QTLs and identified 35 most consistent meta-QTLs (MQTLs) across diverse genetic backgrounds and environments. Genetic and physical intervals of nearly 66% MQTLs were narrower than 5 cM and 2 Mb respectively, indicating hotspot genomic regions for heat tolerance. Comparative analyses of MQTLs underlying genes with microarray and RNA-seq based transcriptomic data sets revealed a core set of 45 heat-responsive genes, among which 24 were reproductive tissue-specific and have not been studied in detail before. Remarkably, all these genes corresponded to various stress associated functions, ranging from abiotic stress sensing to regulating plant stress responses, and included heat-shock genes (OsBiP2, OsMed37_1), transcription factors (OsNAS3, OsTEF1, OsWRKY10, OsWRKY21), transmembrane transporters (OsAAP7A, OsAMT2;1), sugar metabolizing (OsSUS4, α-Gal III) and abiotic stress (OsRCI2-7, SRWD1) genes. Functional data evidences from Arabidopsis heat-shock genes also suggest that OsBIP2 may be associated with thermotolerance of pollen tubes under heat stress conditions. Furthermore, promoters of identified genes were enriched with heat, dehydration, pollen and sugar responsive cis-acting regulatory elements, proposing a common regulatory mechanism might exist in rice for mitigating reproductive stage heat stress. These findings strongly support our results and provide new candidate genes for fast-track development of heat-tolerant rice cultivars.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/fisiologia , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas/genética , Genômica , Temperatura Alta , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenótipo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Reprodução , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Termotolerância
19.
Plant Mol Biol ; 104(1-2): 151-171, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656674

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Pollen abortion could be mainly attributed to abnormal meiosis in the mutant. Multiomics analysis uncovered significant epigenetic variations between the mutant and its wild type during the pollen abortion process. Male sterility caused by aborted pollen can result in seedless fruit. A seedless Ponkan mandarin mutant (bud sport) was used to compare the transcriptome, methylome, and metabolome with its progenitor to understand the mechanism of citrus pollen abortion. Cytological observations showed that the anther of the mutant could form microspore mother cells, although the microspores failed to develop fertile pollen at the anther dehiscence stage. Based on pollen phenotypic analysis, pollen abortion could be mainly attributed to abnormal meiosis in the mutant. A transcriptome analysis uncovered the molecular mechanisms underlying pollen abortion between the mutant and its wild type. A total of 5421 differentially expressed genes were identified, and some of these genes were involved in the meiosis, hormone biosynthesis and signaling, carbohydrate, and flavonoid pathways. A total of 50,845 differentially methylated regions corresponding to 15,426 differentially methylated genes in the genic region were found between the mutant and its wild type by the methylome analysis. The expression level of these genes was negatively correlated with their methylation level, especially in the promoter regions. In addition, 197 differential metabolites were identified between the mutant and its wild type based on the metabolome analysis. The transcription and metabolome analysis further indicated that the expression of genes in the flavonoid, carbohydrate, and hormone metabolic pathways was significantly modulated in the pollen of the mutant. These results indicated that demethylation may alleviate the silencing of carbohydrate genes in the mutant, resulting in excessive starch and sugar hydrolysis and thereby causing pollen abortion in the mutant.


Assuntos
Citrus/metabolismo , Epigenoma , Metaboloma , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pólen/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Citrus/citologia , Citrus/genética , Citrus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metilação de DNA , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Genótipo , Meiose , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Infertilidade das Plantas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Pólen/genética , Análise de Sequência
20.
Plant Mol Biol ; 104(1-2): 203-215, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683610

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Distinct catalytic features of the Poaceae TPS-a subfamily arose early in grass evolution and the reactions catalyzed have become more complex with time. The structural diversity of terpenes found in nature is mainly determined by terpene synthases (TPS). TPS enzymes accept ubiquitous prenyl diphosphates as substrates and convert them into the various terpene skeletons by catalyzing a carbocation-driven reaction. Based on their sequence similarity, terpene synthases from land plants can be divided into different subfamilies, TPS-a to TPS-h. In this study, we aimed to understand the evolution and functional diversification of the TPS-a subfamily in the Poaceae (the grass family), a plant family that contains important crops such as maize, wheat, rice, and sorghum. Sequence comparisons showed that aside from one clade shared with other monocot plants, the Poaceae TPS-a subfamily consists of five well-defined clades I-V, the common ancestor of which probably originated very early in the evolution of the grasses. A survey of the TPS literature and the characterization of representative TPS enzymes from clades I-III revealed clade-specific substrate and product specificities. The enzymes in both clade I and II function as sesquiterpene synthases with clade I enzymes catalyzing initial C10-C1 or C11-C1 ring closures and clade II enzymes catalyzing C6-C1 closures. The enzymes of clade III mainly act as monoterpene synthases, forming cyclic and acyclic monoterpenes. The reconstruction and characterization of clade ancestors demonstrated that the differences among clades I-III were already present in their ancestors. However, the ancestors generally catalyzed simpler reactions with less double-bond isomerization and fewer cyclization steps. Overall, our data indicate an early origin of key enzymatic features of TPS-a enzymes in the Poaceae, and the development of more complex reactions over the course of evolution.


Assuntos
Alquil e Aril Transferases/genética , Alquil e Aril Transferases/metabolismo , Poaceae/enzimologia , Poaceae/genética , Alquil e Aril Transferases/classificação , Clonagem Molecular , Escherichia coli/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genes de Plantas/genética , Liases Intramoleculares/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Análise de Sequência , Terpenos/metabolismo
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