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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14944, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056125

RESUMO

Phytotoxicity is caused by the interaction between plants and a chemical substance, which can cause critical damage to plants. Understanding the molecular mechanism underlying plant-chemical interactions is important for managing pests in crop fields and avoiding plant phytotoxicity by insecticides. The genomic region responsible for sensitivity to phytotoxicity of etofenprox (PE), controlled by a single dominant gene, was detected by constructing high density genetic map using recombination inbred lines (RILs) in soybean. The genomic region of ~ 80 kbp containing nine genes was identified on chromosome 16 using a high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping system using two different RIL populations. Through resequencing data of 31 genotypes, nonsynonymous SNPs were identified in Glyma.16g181900, Glyma.16g182200, and Glyma.16g182300. The genetic variation in Glyma.16g182200, encoding glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein (GPI-AP), caused a critical structure disruption on the active site of the protein. This structural variation of GPI-AP may change various properties of the ion channels which are the targets of pyrethroid insecticide including etofenprox. This is the first study that identifies the candidate gene and develops SNP markers associated with PE. This study would provide genomic information to understand the mechanism of phytotoxicity in soybean and functionally characterize the responsive gene.


Assuntos
Piretrinas , Soja , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genes de Plantas , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Piretrinas/metabolismo , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076914

RESUMO

Rust and downy mildew (DM) are two important sunflower diseases that lead to significant yield losses globally. The use of resistant hybrids to control rust and DM in sunflower has a long history. The rust resistance genes, R13a and R16, were previously mapped to a 3.4 Mb region at the lower end of sunflower chromosome 13, while the DM resistance gene, Pl33, was previously mapped to a 4.2 Mb region located at the upper end of chromosome 4. High-resolution fine mapping was conducted using whole genome sequencing of HA-R6 (R13a) and TX16R (R16 and Pl33) and large segregated populations. R13a and R16 were fine mapped to a 0.48 cM region in chromosome 13 corresponding to a 790 kb physical interval on the XRQr1.0 genome assembly. Four disease defense-related genes with nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) motifs were found in this region from XRQr1.0 gene annotation as candidate genes for R13a and R16. Pl33 was fine mapped to a 0.04 cM region in chromosome 4 corresponding to a 63 kb physical interval. One NLR gene, HanXRQChr04g0095641, was predicted as the candidate gene for Pl33. The diagnostic SNP markers developed for each gene in the current study will facilitate marker-assisted selections of resistance genes in sunflower breeding programs.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Helianthus , Oomicetos , Peronospora , Basidiomycota/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Resistência à Doença/genética , Genes de Plantas , Ligação Genética , Helianthus/genética , Família Multigênica , Oomicetos/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
3.
GM Crops Food ; 13(1): 218-241, 2022 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35996854

RESUMO

Achieving global food security is becoming increasingly challenging and many stakeholders around the world are searching for new ways to reach this demanding goal. Here we demonstrate examples of genetically modified and genome edited plants introduced to the market in different world regions. Transgenic crops are regulated based on the characteristics of the product in many countries including the United States and Canada, while the European Union, India, China and others regulate process-based i.e. on how the product was made. We also present the public perception of state-of-the-art plant gene technologies in different regions of the world in the past 20 years. The results of literature analysis show that the public in Europe and North America is more familiar with the notion of genome editing and genetically modified organisms than the public in other world regions.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas , Opinião Pública , Biotecnologia , Segurança Alimentar , Edição de Genes/métodos , Genoma de Planta , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Estados Unidos
4.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(8)2022 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011264

RESUMO

The availability of large-scale genomic data resources makes it very convenient to mine and analyze genes that are related to important agricultural traits in rice. Pan-genomes have been constructed to provide insight into the genome diversity and functionality of different plants, which can be used in genome-assisted crop improvement. Thus, a pan-genome comprising all genetic elements is crucial for comprehensive variation study among the heat-resistant and -susceptible rice varieties. In this study, a rice pan-genome was firstly constructed by using 45 heat-tolerant and 15 heat-sensitive rice varieties. A total of 38,998 pan-genome genes were identified, including 37,859 genes in the reference and 1141 in the non-reference contigs. Genomic variation analysis demonstrated that a total of 76,435 SNPs were detected and identified as the heat-tolerance-related SNPs, which were specifically present in the highly heat-resistant rice cultivars and located in the genic regions or within 2 kbp upstream and downstream of the genes. Meanwhile, 3214 upregulated and 2212 downregulated genes with heat stress tolerance-related SNPs were detected in one or multiple RNA-seq datasets of rice under heat stress, among which 24 were located in the non-reference contigs of the rice pan-genome. We then mapped the DEGs with heat stress tolerance-related SNPs to the heat stress-resistant QTL regions. A total of 1677 DEGs, including 990 upregulated and 687 downregulated genes, were mapped to the 46 heat stress-resistant QTL regions, in which 2 upregulated genes with heat stress tolerance-related SNPs were identified in the non-reference sequences. This pan-genome resource is an important step towards the effective and efficient genetic improvement of heat stress resistance in rice to help meet the rapidly growing needs for improved rice productivity under different environmental stresses. These findings provide further insight into the functional validation of a number of non-reference genes and, especially, the two genes identified in the heat stress-resistant QTLs in rice.


Assuntos
Oryza , Termotolerância , Genes de Plantas , Oryza/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Termotolerância/genética , Transcriptoma
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13829, 2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35970910

RESUMO

Sulfur is an essential element required for plant growth and development, physiological processes and stress responses. Sulfur-encoding biosynthetic genes are involved in the primary sulfur assimilation pathway, regulating various mechanisms at the gene, cellular and system levels, and in the biosynthesis of sulfur-containing compounds (SCCs). In this study, the SCC-encoding biosynthetic genes in rice were identified using a sulfur-dependent model plant, the Arabidopsis. A total of 139 AtSCC from Arabidopsis were used as reference sequences in search of putative rice SCCs. At similarity index > 30%, the similarity search against Arabidopsis SCC query sequences identified 665 putative OsSCC genes in rice. The gene synteny analysis showed a total of 477 syntenic gene pairs comprised of 89 AtSCC and 265 OsSCC biosynthetic genes in Arabidopsis and rice, respectively. Phylogenetic tree of the collated (AtSCCs and OsSCCs) SCC-encoding biosynthetic genes were divided into 11 different clades of various sizes comprised of branches of subclades. In clade 1, nearing equal representation of OsSCC and AtSCC biosynthetic genes imply the most ancestral lineage. A total of 25 candidate Arabidopsis SCC homologs were identified in rice. The gene ontology enrichment analysis showed that the rice-Arabidopsis SCC homologs were significantly enriched in the following terms at false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05: (i) biological process; sulfur compound metabolic process and organic acid metabolic processes, (ii) molecular function; oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen and (iii) KEGG pathway; metabolic pathways and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. At less than five duplicated blocks of separation, no tandem duplications were observed among the SCC biosynthetic genes distributed in rice chromosomes. The comprehensive rice SCC gene description entailing syntenic events with Arabidopsis, motif distribution and chromosomal mapping of the present findings offer a foundation for rice SCC gene functional studies and advanced strategic rice breeding.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Oryza , Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Genoma de Planta/genética , Família Multigênica , Oryza/genética , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas/genética , Enxofre
6.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 563, 2022 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35933381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2C protein phosphatase (PP2C) is a negative regulator of ABA signaling pathway, which plays important roles in stress signal transduction in plants. However, little research on the PP2C genes family of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), as an important economic vegetable, has been conducted. RESULTS: This study conducted a genome-wide investigation of the CsPP2C gene family. Through bioinformatics analysis, 56 CsPP2C genes were identified in cucumber. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the PP2C genes of cucumber and Arabidopsis were divided into 13 groups. Gene structure and conserved motif analysis showed that CsPP2C genes in the same group had similar gene structure and conserved domains. Collinearity analysis showed that segmental duplication events played a key role in the expansion of the cucumber PP2C genes family. In addition, the expression of CsPP2Cs under different abiotic treatments was analyzed by qRT-PCR. The results reveal that CsPP2C family genes showed different expression patterns under ABA, drought, salt, and cold treatment, and that CsPP2C3, 11-17, 23, 45, 54 and 55 responded significantly to the four stresses. By predicting the cis-elements in the promoter, we found that all CsPP2C members contained ABA response elements and drought response elements. Additionally, the expression patterns of CsPP2C genes were specific in different tissues. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study provide a reference for the genome-wide identification of the PP2C gene family in other species and provide a basis for future studies on the function of PP2C genes in cucumber.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Cucumis sativus , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cucumis sativus/genética , Cucumis sativus/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35955640

RESUMO

The mimosoid legumes are a clade of ~40 genera in the Caesalpinioideae subfamily of the Fabaceae that grow in tropical and subtropical regions. Unlike the better studied Papilionoideae, there are few genomic resources within this legume group. The tree Prosopis cineraria is native to the Near East and Indian subcontinent, where it thrives in very hot desert environments. To develop a tool to better understand desert plant adaptation mechanisms, we sequenced the P. cineraria genome to near-chromosomal assembly, with a total sequence length of ~691 Mb. We predicted 77,579 gene models (76,554 CDS, 361 rRNAs and 664 tRNAs) from the assembled genome, among them 55,325 (~72%) protein-coding genes that were functionally annotated. This genome was found to consist of over 58% repeat sequences, primarily long terminal repeats (LTR-)-retrotransposons. We find an expansion of terpenoid metabolism genes in P. cineraria and its relative Prosopis alba, but not in other legumes. We also observed an amplification of NBS-LRR disease-resistance genes correlated with LTR-associated retrotransposition, and identified 410 retrogenes with an active burst of chimeric retrogene creation that approximately occurred at the same time of divergence of P. cineraria from a common lineage with P. alba~23 Mya. These retrogenes include many biotic defense responses and abiotic stress stimulus responses, as well as the early Nodulin 93 gene. Nodulin 93 gene amplification is consistent with an adaptive response of the species to the low nitrogen in arid desert soil. Consistent with these results, our differentially expressed genes show a tissue specific expression of isoprenoid pathways in shoots, but not in roots, as well as important genes involved in abiotic salt stress in both tissues. Overall, the genome sequence of P. cineraria enriches our understanding of the genomic mechanisms of its disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Thus, it is a very important step in crop and legume improvement.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Prosopis , Resistência à Doença/genética , Fabaceae/genética , Genes de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Prosopis/genética , Árvores/genética
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35955817

RESUMO

Synthetic targeted optimization of plant promoters is becoming a part of progress in mainstream postgenomic agriculture along with hybridization of cultivated plants with wild congeners, as well as marker-assisted breeding. Therefore, here, for the first time, we compiled all the experimental data-on mutational effects in plant proximal promoters on gene expression-that we could find in PubMed. Some of these datasets cast doubt on both the existence and the uniqueness of the sought solution, which could unequivocally estimate effects of proximal promoter mutation on gene expression when plants are grown under various environmental conditions during their development. This means that the inverse problem under study is ill-posed. Furthermore, we found experimental data on in vitro interchangeability of plant and human TATA-binding proteins allowing the application of Tikhonov's regularization, making this problem well-posed. Within these frameworks, we created our Web service Plant_SNP_TATA_Z-tester and then determined the limits of its applicability using those data that cast doubt on both the existence and the uniqueness of the sought solution. We confirmed that the effects (of proximal promoter mutations on gene expression) predicted by Plant_SNP_TATA_Z-tester correlate statistically significantly with all the experimental data under study. Lastly, we exemplified an application of Plant_SNP_TATA_Z-tester to agriculturally valuable mutations in plant promoters.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas , Transcrição Genética , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Mutação , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , TATA Box
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35955919

RESUMO

The ability of immature embryos to induce embryogenic callus (EC) is crucial for genetic transformation in maize, which is highly genotype-dependent. To dissect the genetic basis of maize EC induction, we conducted QTL mapping for four EC induction-related traits, the rate of embryogenic callus induction (REC), rate of shoot formation (RSF), length of shoot (LS), and diameter of callus (DC) under three environments by using an IBM Syn10 DH population derived from a cross of B73 and Mo17. These EC induction traits showed high broad-sense heritability (>80%), and significantly negative correlations were observed between REC and each of the other traits across multiple environments. A total of 41 QTLs for EC induction were identified, among which 13, 12, 10, and 6 QTLs were responsible for DC, RSF, LS, and REC, respectively. Among them, three major QTLs accounted for >10% of the phenotypic variation, including qLS1-1 (11.54%), qLS1-3 (10.68%), and qREC4-1 (11.45%). Based on the expression data of the 215 candidate genes located in these QTL intervals, we performed a weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). A combined use of KEGG pathway enrichment and eigengene-based connectivity (KME) values identified the EC induction-associated module and four hub genes (Zm00001d028477, Zm00001d047896, Zm00001d034388, and Zm00001d022542). Gene-based association analyses validated that the variations in Zm00001d028477 and Zm00001d034388, which were involved in tryptophan biosynthesis and metabolism, respectively, significantly affected EC induction ability among different inbred lines. Our study brings novel insights into the genetic and molecular mechanisms of EC induction and helps to promote marker-assisted selection of high-REC varieties in maize.


Assuntos
Locos de Características Quantitativas , Zea mays , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genes de Plantas , Fenótipo , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo
10.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(8)2022 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011356

RESUMO

Kengyilia is a newly established genus. Most species in this genus survive in hash environment, which might be an indicator of an acquirement of stress resistance genes and the potential for molecular breeding in Triticeae species. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is a widely used technique with varied sensitivity heavily dependent on the optimal level of the reference genes. K. melanthera is a typical psammophyte species which has high drought resistance. The reference genes of K. melanthera are not yet reported. This study aims to evaluate the expression stability of 14 candidate reference genes (EF1A, GAPDH, ACT1, UBI, TUBB3, TIPRL, CACS, PPP2R1B, TUBA1A, EIF4A1, CYPA3, TCTP, ABCG11L, and FBXO6L) under five treatments (drought, heat, cold, salt, and ABA) and find the most stable and suitable one even upon stressed conditions. The software NormFinder, GeNorm, BestKeeper, and RefFinder were used for data analysis. In general, the genes CACS and PPP2R1B are concluded to have the best overall performance under the various treatments. With the ABA treatment, TCTP and TIPRL show the best stability. CACS and TCTP, as well as TIPRL and CYPA3, were most stable under the treatments of cold and salt, respectively. CACS and FBXO6L were ranked the highest with the heat treatment and drought treatment, respectively. Finally, the Catalase-1 (CAT1) gene was used to verify the reliability of the above reference genes. Accordingly, CAT1's expression pattern remained unchanged after normalization with stable reference genes. This study provides beneficial information about the stability and reliability of potential reference genes for qRT-PCR in K. melanthera.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Expressão Gênica , Poaceae/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Cloreto de Sódio , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
11.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(8)2022 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011360

RESUMO

The type-B authentic response regulators (type-B ARRs) are positive regulators of cytokinin signaling and involved in plant growth and stress responses. In this study, we used bioinformatics, RNA-seq, and qPCR to study the phylogenetic and expression pattern of 35 type-B ARRs in Brassica napus. The BnARRs experienced gene expansion and loss during genome polyploidization and were classified into seven groups. Whole-genome duplication (WGD) and segmental duplication were the main forces driving type-B ARR expansion in B. napus. Several BnARRs with specific expression patterns during rapeseed development were identified, including BnARR12/14/18/23/33. Moreover, we found the type-B BnARRs were involved in rapeseed development and stress responses, through participating in cytokinin and ABA signaling pathways. This study revealed the origin, evolutionary history, and expression pattern of type-B ARRs in B. napus and will be helpful to the functional characterization of BnARRs.


Assuntos
Brassica napus , Brassica rapa , Brassica napus/genética , Brassica rapa/genética , Citocininas , Duplicação Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Genes Reguladores , Genoma de Planta/genética , Filogenia
12.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(8)2022 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011396

RESUMO

Dendrobium huoshanense is a kind of precious herb with important medicinal and edible value in China, which is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for various diseases. Recent studies have paid close attention to the genetic expression of the biosynthetic pathway of the main active components (polysaccharides, alkaloids, and flavonoids), and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is one of the most widely used methods for doing so. However, so far, no reference gene selections have been reported in D. huoshanense. In this study, 15 reference gene candidates (GAPDH, eIF, EF-1α, PP2A, UBCE, RPL5, TBP, APT1, MDH, PTBP3, PEPC, CYP71, NCBP2, TIP41, and F-box) were selected and evaluated for their expression stability in D. huoshanense under various experimental conditions, including in different tissues (root, stem, and leaf), abiotic stresses (oxidative, drought, cold, and UV), and hormone treatment (methyl jasmonate) using three statistical programs (geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper). Then, the RefFinder program was employed to comprehensively validate the stability of the selected reference genes. Finally, the expression profiles of the CESA and GMPP genes were further analyzed, and these results indicated that TBP, NCBP2, and CYP71 were the top three most stable reference genes after comprehensive comparison, which could be used as stable reference genes for normalizing the genes expression in D. huoshanense. This study described here provides the first data regarding on reference gene selection in D. huoshanense, which will be extremely beneficial for future research on the gene expression normalization in D. huoshanense.


Assuntos
Dendrobium , Genes de Plantas , Dendrobium/genética , Secas , Expressão Gênica , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
13.
Database (Oxford) ; 20222022 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932239

RESUMO

Recent focus on transcriptomic studies in food crops like rice, wheat and maize provide new opportunities to address issues related to agriculture and climate change. Re-analysis of such data available in public domain supplemented with annotations across molecular hierarchy can be of immense help to the plant research community, particularly co-expression networks representing transcriptionally coordinated genes that are often part of the same biological process. With this objective, we have developed NetREx, a Network-based Rice Expression Analysis Server, that hosts ranked co-expression networks of Oryza sativa using publicly available messenger RNA sequencing data across uniform experimental conditions. It provides a range of interactable data viewers and modules for analysing user-queried genes across different stress conditions (drought, flood, cold and osmosis) and hormonal treatments (abscisic and jasmonic acid) and tissues (root and shoot). Subnetworks of user-defined genes can be queried in pre-constructed tissue-specific networks, allowing users to view the fold change, module memberships, gene annotations and analysis of their neighbourhood genes and associated pathways. The web server also allows querying of orthologous genes from Arabidopsis, wheat, maize, barley and sorghum. Here, we demonstrate that NetREx can be used to identify novel candidate genes and tissue-specific interactions under stress conditions and can aid in the analysis and understanding of complex phenotypes linked to stress response in rice. Database URL: https://bioinf.iiit.ac.in/netrex/index.html.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Oryza , Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Triticum/genética , Zea mays/genética
14.
Theor Appl Genet ; 135(9): 3293-3305, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932330

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: A reliable locus confers broad-spectrum resistance to multiple plant viruses in soybean under field conditions. Soybean mosaic disease (SMD) can be caused by a variety of viruses, most of which have been largely overlooked in breeding programs. Effective mitigation of the adverse of SMD might result from breeding cultivars with broad-spectrum resistance. However, reports on broad-spectrum resistance to multiple virus have been limited. To catalog viral community members behind SMD, virus samples were collected from symptomatic field plots, and pathogenicity of component strains was assessed. Preliminary ELISA and PCR detection revealed that 39.58% and 66.67% of samples contained two or more virus strains, respectively. Only three soybean accessions were completely asymptomatic, while 42% exhibited moderate or severe susceptibility, indicating that co-infection of multiple virus remains a significant threat in current soybean production systems. Further, a RIL population consisting of 150 F7:9 strains derived from two soybean genotypes with contrasting reactions to virus infection was constructed and explored for significant markers and resistance genes. QTL analysis returned a reliable locus, named GmRmv, on chromosome 13. Significance of GmRmv in imparting resistance to SMD was further confirmed in NIL lines and delimited into a 157-kb interval that contains 17 annotated genes. Among these genes, three, Glyma.13G190000, Glyma.13G190300 and Glyma.13G190400, each contained LRR domains, as well as significant variation in coding sequences between resistant and susceptible parents. Hence, these three genes are considered strong candidate genes for explaining GmRmv significance. In summary, this research opens a new avenue for formulating strategies to breed soybean varieties with broad-spectrum resistance to multiple virus associated with SMD.


Assuntos
Vírus de Plantas , Soja , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Resistência à Doença/genética , Genes de Plantas , Loci Gênicos , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Vírus de Plantas/genética , Soja/genética
15.
Emerg Top Life Sci ; 6(3): 259-269, 2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35994008

RESUMO

The flower is an astonishing innovation that arose during plant evolution allowing flowering plants - also known as angiosperms - to dominate life on earth in a relatively short period of geological time. Flowers are formed from secondary meristems by co-ordinated differentiation of flower organs, such as sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels. The position, number and morphology of these flower organs impose a geometrical pattern - or symmetry type - within the flower which is a trait tightly connected to successful reproduction. During evolution, flower symmetry switched from the ancestral poly-symmetric (radial symmetry) to the mono-symmetric (bilateral symmetry) type multiple times, including numerous reversals, with these events linked to co-evolution with pollinators and reproductive strategies. In this review, we introduce the diversity of flower symmetry, trace its evolution in angiosperms, and highlight the conserved genetic basis underpinning symmetry control in flowers. Finally, we discuss the importance of building upon the concept of flower symmetry by looking at the mechanisms orchestrating symmetry within individual flower organs and summarise the current scenario on symmetry patterning of the female reproductive organ, the gynoecium, the ultimate flower structure presiding over fertilisation and seed production.


Assuntos
Flores , Magnoliopsida , Genes de Plantas , Magnoliopsida/genética , Meristema , Fenótipo , Reprodução
16.
Mol Plant ; 15(9): 1457-1469, 2022 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915586

RESUMO

Species of the genus Phytophthora, the plant killer, cause disease and reduce yields in many crop plants. Although many Resistance to Phytophthora infestans (Rpi) genes effective against potato late blight have been cloned, few have been cloned against other Phytophthora species. Most Rpi genes encode nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat-containing (NLR) immune receptor proteins that recognize RXLR (Arg-X-Leu-Arg) effectors. However, whether NLR proteins can recognize RXLR effectors from multiple Phytophthora species has rarely been investigated. Here, we identified a new RXLR-WY effector AVRamr3 from P. infestans that is recognized by Rpi-amr3 from a wild Solanaceae species Solanum americanum. Rpi-amr3 associates with AVRamr3 in planta. AVRamr3 is broadly conserved in many different Phytophthora species, and the recognition of AVRamr3 homologs by Rpi-amr3 activates resistance against multiple Phytophthora pathogens, including the tobacco black shank disease and cacao black pod disease pathogens P. parasitica and P. palmivora. Rpi-amr3 is thus the first characterized resistance gene that acts against P. parasitica or P. palmivora. These findings suggest a novel path to redeploy known R genes against different important plant pathogens.


Assuntos
Phytophthora infestans , Solanum tuberosum , Solanum , Resistência à Doença/genética , Genes de Plantas , Phytophthora infestans/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Solanum/genética , Solanum tuberosum/genética
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35897766

RESUMO

Germin-like protein (GLP) participates in plant growth and development and plays an important role in plant stress. In the present study, 22 CmGLPs belonging to five classes were identified in the melon genome. Each member of the CmGLPs family contains a typical Cupin_1 domain. We conducted a genome-wide analysis of the melon GLP gene family characterization. CmGLPs were randomly distributed in the melon chromosomes, with the largest number on chromosome 8, having eight family members. Gene duplication events drive the evolution and expansion of the melon GLP gene family. Based on the phylogenetic tree analysis of GLP proteins in melon, rice, Arabidopsis, and cucumber, it was found that the GLP gene families of different species have diverged in evolution. Based on qRT-PCR results, all members of the CmGLP gene family could be expressed in different tissues of melon. Most CmGLP genes were up-regulated after low-temperature stress. The relative expression of CmGLP2-5 increased by 157.13 times at 48 h after low-temperature treatment. This finding suggests that the CmGLP2-5 might play an important role in low-temperature stress in melon. Furthermore, quantitative dual LUC assays indicated that CmMYB23 and CmWRKY33 can bind the promoter fragment of the CmGLP2-5. These results were helpful in understanding the functional succession and evolution of the melon GLP gene family and further revealed the response of CmGLPs to low-temperature stress in melon.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Cucumis melo , Cucurbitaceae , Arabidopsis/genética , Cucumis melo/genética , Cucurbitaceae/genética , Genes de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Filogenia , Temperatura
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(14)2022 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886981

RESUMO

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a common biological phenomenon used in hybrid production of peppers (Capsicum annuum L.). Although several restorer-of-fertility (Rf) genes of pepper CMS lines have been mapped, there is no report that the Rf gene with clear gene function has been isolated. Here, pepper CMS line HZ1A and its restorer line HZ1C were used to construct (HZ1A × HZ1C) F2 populations and map the Rf gene. A single dominant gene CaRfHZ conferred male fertility according to inheritance analysis. Using sterile plants from (HZ1A × HZ1C) F2 populations and bulked segregant analysis (BSA), the CaRfHZ gene was mapped between P06gInDel-66 and P06gInDel-89 on chromosome 6. This region spans 533.81 kb, where four genes are annotated according to Zunla-1 V2.0 gene models. Based on the analysis of genomic DNA sequences, gene expressions, and protein structures, Capana06g002968 was proposed as the strongest candidate for the CaRfHZ gene. Our results may help with hybrid pepper breeding and to elucidate the mechanism of male fertility restoration in peppers.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Piper nigrum , Capsicum/genética , Fertilidade/genética , Genes de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , Piper nigrum/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética
19.
Molecules ; 27(14)2022 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35889464

RESUMO

The annual herb Euphorbia maculata L. produces anti-inflammatory and biologically active substances such as triterpenoids, tannins, and polyphenols, and it is used in traditional Chinese medicine. Of these bioactive compounds, terpenoids, also called isoprenoids, are major secondary metabolites in E. maculata. Full-length cDNA sequencing was carried out to characterize the transcripts of terpenoid biosynthesis reference genes and determine the copy numbers of their isoforms using PacBio SMRT sequencing technology. The Illumina short-read sequencing platform was also employed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the secondary metabolite pathways from leaves, roots, and stems. PacBio generated 62 million polymerase reads, resulting in 81,433 high-quality reads. From these high-quality reads, we reconstructed a genome of 20,722 genes, in which 20,246 genes (97.8%) did not have paralogs. About 33% of the identified genes had two or more isoforms. DEG analysis revealed that the expression level differed among gene paralogs in the leaf, stem, and root. Whole sets of paralogs and isoforms were identified in the mevalonic acid (MVA), methylerythritol phosphate (MEP), and terpenoid biosynthesis pathways in the E. maculata L. The nucleotide information will be useful for identifying orthologous genes in other terpenoid-producing medicinal plants.


Assuntos
Euphorbia , DNA Complementar/genética , Euphorbia/genética , Euphorbia/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Terpenos/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética
20.
Molecules ; 27(14)2022 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35889471

RESUMO

As the largest group of structurally diverse metabolites, terpenoids are versatile natural compounds that act as metabolism mediators, plant volatiles, and ecological communicators. However, few terpenoid compounds have been identified in plant parts of sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.). To elucidate the molecular genetic basis of the terpene biosynthetic pathway, terpenes from different parts of the plant, including seeds (S), young leaves (YL), mature leaves (ML), white flowers (WF), yellow flowers (YF), and red flowers (RF), were identified by LC-MS/MS and the relative contents of the same terpenes in different parts were compared. The results indicate that all plant parts primarily consist of triterpenes, with only minor quantities of sesquiterpenes and diterpenes, and there were differences in the terpene content detected in different plant parts. To illustrate the biosynthesis of various terpenoids, RNA sequencing was performed to profile the transcriptomes of various plant parts, which generated a total of 126.95 GB clean data and assembled into 29,630 unigenes. Among these unigenes, 105 candidate unigenes are involved in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway, methyl-erythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway, terpenoid backbone biosynthesis pathway, and terpenoid synthases pathway. Moreover, the co-expression network between terpene synthase (TPS) and WRKY transcription factors provides new information for the terpene biosynthesis pathway.


Assuntos
Nelumbo , Cromatografia Líquida , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Nelumbo/genética , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Terpenos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética
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