Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 36.171
Filtrar
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 257, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sulfur (S) is a mineral nutrient essential for plant growth and development, which is incorporated into diverse molecules fundamental for primary and secondary metabolism, plant defense, signaling, and maintaining cellular homeostasis. Although, S starvation response is well documented in the dicot model Arabidopsis thaliana, it is not clear if the same transcriptional networks control the response also in the monocots. RESULTS: We performed series of physiological, expression, and metabolite analyses in two model monocot species, one representing the C3 plants, Oryza sativa cv. kitaake, and second representing the C4 plants, Setaria viridis. Our comprehensive transcriptomic analysis revealed twice as many differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in S. viridis than in O. sativa under S-deficiency, consistent with a greater loss of sulfur and S-containing metabolites under these conditions. Surprisingly, most of the DEGs and enriched gene ontology terms were species-specific, with an intersect of only 58 common DEGs. The transcriptional networks were different in roots and shoots of both species, in particular no genes were down-regulated by S-deficiency in the roots of both species. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis shows that S-deficiency seems to have different physiological consequences in the two monocot species and their nutrient homeostasis might be under distinct control mechanisms.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Oryza , Genes de Plantas , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Enxofre/metabolismo , Homeostase , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oryza/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 250, 2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580919

RESUMO

Alternative splicing (AS), a pivotal post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism, profoundly amplifies diversity and complexity of transcriptome and proteome. Liriodendron chinense (Hemsl.) Sarg., an excellent ornamental tree species renowned for its distinctive leaf shape, which resembles the mandarin jacket. Despite the documented potential genes related to leaf development of L. chinense, the underlying post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms remain veiled. Here, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of the transcriptome to clarify the genome-wide landscape of the AS pattern and the spectrum of spliced isoforms during leaf developmental stages in L. chinense. Our investigation unveiled 50,259 AS events, involving 10,685 genes (32.9%), with intron retention as the most prevalent events. Notably, the initial stage of leaf development witnessed the detection of 804 differentially AS events affiliated with 548 genes. Although both differentially alternative splicing genes (DASGs) and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were enriched into morphogenetic related pathways during the transition from fishhook (P2) to lobed (P7) leaves, there was only a modest degree of overlap between DASGs and DEGs. Furthermore, we conducted a comprehensively AS analysis on homologous genes involved in leaf morphogenesis, and most of which are subject to post-transcriptional regulation of AS. Among them, the AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE transcript factor LcAIL5 was characterization in detailed, which experiences skipping exon (SE), and two transcripts displayed disparate expression patterns across multiple stages. Overall, these findings yield a comprehensive understanding of leaf development regulation via AS, offering a novel perspective for further deciphering the mechanism of plant leaf morphogenesis.


Assuntos
Liriodendron , Liriodendron/genética , Processamento Alternativo , Transcriptoma , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas
4.
Bioinformatics ; 40(3)2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38430463

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Large-scale gene expression studies allow gene network construction to uncover associations among genes. To study direct associations among genes, partial correlation-based networks are preferred over marginal correlations. However, FDR control for partial correlation-based network construction is not well-studied. In addition, currently available partial correlation-based methods cannot take existing biological knowledge to help network construction while controlling FDR. RESULTS: In this paper, we propose a method called Partial Correlation Graph with Information Incorporation (PCGII). PCGII estimates partial correlations between each pair of genes by regularized node-wise regression that can incorporate prior knowledge while controlling the effects of all other genes. It handles high-dimensional data where the number of genes can be much larger than the sample size and controls FDR at the same time. We compare PCGII with several existing approaches through extensive simulation studies and demonstrate that PCGII has better FDR control and higher power. We apply PCGII to a plant gene expression dataset where it recovers confirmed regulatory relationships and a hub node, as well as several direct associations that shed light on potential functional relationships in the system. We also introduce a method to supplement observed data with a pseudogene to apply PCGII when no prior information is available, which also allows checking FDR control and power for real data analysis. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: R package is freely available for download at https://cran.r-project.org/package=PCGII.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Simulação por Computador , Genes de Plantas , Tamanho da Amostra
5.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2262, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38480732

RESUMO

The inter-subspecific indica-japonica hybrid rice confer potential higher yield than the widely used indica-indica intra-subspecific hybrid rice. Nevertheless, the utilization of this strong heterosis is currently hindered by asynchronous diurnal floret opening time (DFOT) of indica and japonica parental lines. Here, we identify OsMYB8 as a key regulator of rice DFOT. OsMYB8 induces the transcription of JA-Ile synthetase OsJAR1, thereby regulating the expression of genes related to cell osmolality and cell wall remodeling in lodicules to promote floret opening. Natural variations of OsMYB8 promoter contribute to its differential expression, thus differential transcription of OsJAR1 and accumulation of JA-Ile in lodicules of indica and japonica subspecies. Furthermore, introgression of the indica haplotype of OsMYB8 into japonica effectively promotes DFOT in japonica. Our findings reveal an OsMYB8-OsJAR1 module that regulates differential DFOT in indica and japonica, and provide a strategy for breeding early DFOT japonica to facilitate breeding of indica-japonica hybrids.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas , Isoleucina/análogos & derivados , Oryza , Melhoramento Vegetal , Vigor Híbrido , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo
6.
Plant Cell Rep ; 43(4): 101, 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38498195

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Over expression of MsSPL12 improved alfalfa salt tolerance by reducing Na+ accumulation and increasing antioxidant enzyme activity and regulating down-stream gene expression. Improvement of salt tolerance is one of the major goals in alfalfa breeding. Here, we demonstrated that MsSPL12, an alfalfa transcription factor gene highly expressed in the stem cells, plays a positive role in alfalfa salt tolerance. MsSPL12 is localized in the nucleus and shows transcriptional activity in the presence of its C-terminus. To investigate MsSPL12 function in plant response to salt stress, we generated transgenic plants overexpressing either MsSPL12 or a chimeric MsSPL12-SRDX gene that represses the function of MsSPL12 by using the Chimeric REpressor gene-Silencing Technology (CRES-T), and observed that overexpression of MsSPL12 increased the salt tolerance of alfalfa transgenic plants associated with an increase in K+/Na+ ratio and relative water content (RWC) under salt stress treatment, but a reduction in electrolyte leakage (EL), reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and proline (Pro) compared to wild type (WT) plants. However, transgenic plants overexpressing MsSPL12-SRDX showed an inhibited plant growth and a reduced salt tolerance. RNA-sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed that MsSPL12 affected the expression of plant abiotic resistance-related genes in multiple physiological pathways. The potential MsSPL12-mediated regulatory pathways based on the differentially expressed genes between the MsSPL12 overexpression transgenics and WT controls were predicted. In summary, our study proves that MsSPL12 is a positive regulator in alfalfa salt tolerance and can be used as a new candidate for manipulation to develop forage crops with enhanced salt tolerance.


Assuntos
Medicago sativa , Tolerância ao Sal , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Medicago sativa/genética , Medicago sativa/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Genes de Plantas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 201, 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38500065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The B3 gene family, one of the largest plant-specific transcription factors, plays important roles in plant growth, seed development, and hormones. However, the B3 gene family, especially the REM subfamily, has not been systematically and functionally studied. RESULTS: In this study, we performed genome-wide re-annotation of B3 genes in five Solanaceae plants, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Oryza sativa, and finally predicted 1,039 B3 genes, including 231 (22.2%) newly annotated genes. We found a striking abundance of REM genes in pepper species (Capsicum annuum, Capsicum baccatum, and Capsicum chinense). Comparative motif analysis revealed that REM and other subfamilies (ABI3/VP1, ARF, RAV, and HSI) consist of different amino acids. We verified that the large number of REM genes in pepper were included in the specific subgroup (G8) through the phylogenetic analysis. Chromosome location and evolutionary analyses suggested that the G8 subgroup genes evolved mainly via a pepper-specific recent tandem duplication on chromosomes 1 and 3 after speciation between pepper and other Solanaceae. RNA-seq analyses suggested the potential functions of REM genes under salt, heat, cold, and mannitol stress conditions in pepper (C. annuum). CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides evolutionary and functional insights into the REM gene family in pepper.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Capsicum , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas/genética , Família Multigênica , Capsicum/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
8.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2449, 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38503771

RESUMO

Wheat powdery mildew is one of the most destructive diseases threatening global wheat production. The wild relatives of wheat constitute rich sources of diversity for powdery mildew resistance. Here, we report the map-based cloning of the powdery mildew resistance gene Pm13 from the wild wheat species Aegilops longissima. Pm13 encodes a mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) protein that contains an N-terminal-domain of MLKL (MLKL_NTD) domain in its N-terminus and a C-terminal serine/threonine kinase (STK) domain. The resistance function of Pm13 is validated by mutagenesis, gene silencing, transgenic assay, and allelic association analyses. The development of introgression lines with significantly reduced chromosome segments of Ae. longissima encompassing Pm13 enables widespread deployment of this gene into wheat cultivars. The cloning of Pm13 may provide valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying Pm13-mediated powdery mildew resistance and highlight the important roles of kinase fusion proteins (KFPs) in wheat immunity.


Assuntos
Aegilops , Ascomicetos , Triticum/genética , Genes de Plantas , Resistência à Doença/genética , Ascomicetos/genética , Aegilops/genética , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7331, 2024 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38538851

RESUMO

The selection of stable reference genes for the normalization of reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) is generally overlooked despite being the crucial element in determining the accuracy of the relative expression of genes. In the present study, the stability of seven candidate reference genes: actin (act), α-tubulin (atub), ß-tubulin (btub), translation elongation factor 1-α (ef1), elongation factor 2 (ef2), ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (ubc) and 40S ribosomal protein S3A (ws21) in Phytophthora capsici has been validated. The validation was performed at six infection time points during its interaction with its susceptible host Piper nigrum, two developmental stages, and for the combined dataset. Four algorithms: geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and the ΔCt method were compared, and a comprehensive ranking order was produced using RefFinder. The overall analysis revealed that ef1, ws21, and ubc were identified as the three most stable genes in the combined dataset, ef1, ws21, and act were the most stable at the infection stages, and, ef1, btub, and ubc were most stable during the developmental stages. These findings were further corroborated by validating the P. capsici pathogenesis gene NPP1 expression. The findings are significant as this is the first study addressing the stability of reference genes for P. capsici-P. nigrum interaction studies.


Assuntos
Phytophthora , Piper nigrum , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Phytophthora/genética , Algoritmos , Genes de Plantas , Padrões de Referência , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos
10.
Nat Plants ; 10(3): 390-401, 2024 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467801

RESUMO

Scientific testing including stable isotope ratio analysis (SIRA) and trace element analysis (TEA) is critical for establishing plant origin, tackling deforestation and enforcing economic sanctions. Yet methods combining SIRA and TEA into robust models for origin verification and determination are lacking. Here we report a (1) large Eastern European timber reference database (Betula, Fagus, Pinus, Quercus) tailored to sanctioned products following the Ukraine invasion; (2) statistical test to verify samples against a claimed origin; (3) probabilistic model of SIRA, TEA and genus distribution data, using Gaussian processes, to determine timber harvest location. Our verification method rejects 40-60% of simulated false claims, depending on the spatial scale of the claim, and maintains a low probability of rejecting correct origin claims. Our determination method predicts harvest location within 180 to 230 km of true location. Our results showcase the power of combining data types with probabilistic modelling to identify and scrutinize timber harvest location claims.


Assuntos
Fagus , Pinus , Ucrânia , Betula , Genes de Plantas
11.
J Appl Microbiol ; 135(4)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38486365

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to isolate plant growth and drought tolerance-promoting bacteria from the nutrient-poor rhizosphere soil of Thar desert plants and unravel their molecular mechanisms of plant growth promotion. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among our rhizobacterial isolates, Enterobacter cloacae C1P-IITJ, Kalamiella piersonii J4-IITJ, and Peribacillus frigoritolerans T7-IITJ, significantly enhanced root and shoot growth (4-5-fold) in Arabidopsis thaliana under PEG-induced drought stress. Whole genome sequencing and biochemical analyses of the non-pathogenic bacterium T7-IITJ revealed its plant growth-promoting traits, viz., solubilization of phosphate (40-73 µg/ml), iron (24 ± 0.58 mm halo on chrome azurol S media), and nitrate (1.58 ± 0.01 µg/ml nitrite), along with production of exopolysaccharides (125 ± 20 µg/ml) and auxin-like compounds (42.6 ± 0.05 µg/ml). Transcriptome analysis of A. thaliana inoculated with T7-IITJ and exposure to drought revealed the induction of 445 plant genes (log2fold-change > 1, FDR < 0.05) for photosynthesis, auxin and jasmonate signalling, nutrient uptake, redox homeostasis, and secondary metabolite biosynthesis pathways related to beneficial bacteria-plant interaction, but repression of 503 genes (log2fold-change < -1) including many stress-responsive genes. T7-IITJ enhanced proline 2.5-fold, chlorophyll 2.5-2.8-fold, iron 2-fold, phosphate 1.6-fold, and nitrogen 4-fold, and reduced reactive oxygen species 2-4.7-fold in plant tissues under drought. T7-IITJ also improved the germination and seedling growth of Tephrosia purpurea, Triticum aestivum, and Setaria italica under drought and inhibited the growth of two plant pathogenic fungi, Fusarium oxysporum, and Rhizoctonia solani. CONCLUSIONS: P. frigoritolerans T7-IITJ is a potent biofertilizer that regulates plant genes to promote growth and drought tolerance.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Bacillus , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Bactérias , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Secas
12.
Science ; 383(6690): 1448-1454, 2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547266

RESUMO

The defensive alkaloid gramine not only protects barley and other grasses from insects but also negatively affects their palatability to ruminants. The key gene for gramine formation has remained elusive, hampering breeding initiatives. In this work, we report that a gene encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP76M57, which we name AMI synthase (AMIS), enables the production of gramine in Nicotiana benthamiana, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We reconstituted gramine production in the gramine-free barley (Hordeum vulgare) variety Golden Promise and eliminated it from cultivar Tafeno by Cas-mediated gene editing. In vitro experiments unraveled that an unexpected cryptic oxidative rearrangement underlies this noncanonical conversion of an amino acid to a chain-shortened biogenic amine. The discovery of the genetic basis of gramine formation now permits tailor-made optimization of gramine-linked traits in barley by plant breeding.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450 , Hordeum , Alcaloides Indólicos , Família Multigênica , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/metabolismo , Alcaloides Indólicos/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Oxirredução , Triptofano/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Edição de Genes , Genes de Plantas
13.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 208: 108463, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442625

RESUMO

Floral organ development is one of the most vital events in flowering plants and is closely related to ornamental properties. The proliferate flower (a new branch or flower occurring in the centre of a flower) in plants is an interesting type, while the specific molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. Osmanthus fragrans 'Tianxiang Taige' has two different flower morphologies: normal flower and proliferate flower. Phenotypic observation suggested that a normal flower was composed of calyx, petal, stamen and pistil (reduced to leaf-like carpel). While in proliferate flower, the leaf-like carpel continued to grow and was replaced by a new branch. Paraffin section indicated that the re-growth of leaf carpels might be the main reason for proliferate flower formation. Transcriptome sequencing of normal and proliferate flower was performed, and the expression levels of related genes were analysed. Among the differentially expressed genes, OfBFT-a and OfBFT-b had differential expression during the proliferate flower formation process. The expression patterns revealed that both OfBFT-a and OfBFT-b were highly accumulated in carpels, and were significantly downregulated during the proliferate flower development process. Subcellular localization indicated that OfBFT-a and OfBFT-b proteins were located in the nucleus. Functional studies in 'Tianxiang Taige' and Arabidopsis showed that OfBFT-a and OfBFT-b had important roles in floral organ development, especially the proliferate flower formation process by downregulating the accumulation of AG and SEP3 homologous genes. These results may shed new light on the study of proliferate flower formation and flower morphology breeding in flowering plants.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Magnoliopsida , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Melhoramento Vegetal , Plantas/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Magnoliopsida/genética , Flores/genética
14.
Genes (Basel) ; 15(3)2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38540326

RESUMO

Torreya grandis, an economically significant evergreen tree species exclusive to subtropical China, is highly valued for its seeds. However, the seed development process of T. grandis remains relatively unexplored. Given the pivotal role WRKY transcription factors (TFs) play in coordinating diverse cellular and biological activities, as well as crucial signaling pathways essential for plant growth and development, and the lack of comprehensive investigation into their specific functions in T. grandis, our study investigated its genome and successfully isolated 78 WRKY genes and categorized them into three distinct clades. A conserved motif analysis unveiled the presence of the characteristic WRKY domain in each identified TgWRKY protein. The examination of gene structures revealed variable numbers of introns (ranging from zero to eight) and exons (ranging from one to nine) among TgWRKY genes. A chromosomal distribution analysis demonstrated the presence of TgWRKY across eight chromosomes in T. grandis. Tissue-specific expression profiling unveiled distinctive patterns of these 78 TgWRKY genes across various tissues. Remarkably, a co-expression analysis integrating RNA-seq data and morphological assessments pinpointed the pronounced expression of TgWRKY25 during the developmental stages of T. grandis seeds. Moreover, a KEGG enrichment analysis, focusing on genes correlated with TgWRKY25 expression, suggested its potential involvement in processes such as protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, starch, and sucrose metabolism, thereby modulating seed development in T. grandis. These findings not only underscore the pivotal role of WRKY genes in T. grandis seed development but also pave the way for innovative breeding strategies.


Assuntos
Melhoramento Vegetal , Taxaceae , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Sementes/genética , Sementes/química , Taxaceae/química , Taxaceae/genética
15.
Genes (Basel) ; 15(3)2024 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38540334

RESUMO

Leaf rust (LR) caused by Puccinia recondita f. sp. secalis (Prs) is a highly destructive disease in rye. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying the rye immune response to this disease remain relatively uncharacterised. In this study, we analysed the expression of four genes in 12 rye inbred lines inoculated with Prs at 20 and 36 h post-treatment (hpt): DXS (1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase), Glu (ß-1,3-glucanase), GT (UDP-glycosyltransferase) and PR-1 (pathogenesis-related protein 1). The RT-qPCR analysis revealed the upregulated expression of the four genes in response to Prs in all inbred lines and at both time-points. The gene expression data were supported by microscopic and macroscopic examinations, which revealed that eight lines were susceptible to LR and four lines were highly resistant to LR. A relationship between the infection profiles and the expression of the analysed genes was observed: in the resistant lines, the expression level fold changes were usually higher at 20 hpt than at 36 hpt, while the opposite trend was observed in the susceptible lines. The study results indicate that DXS, Glu, GT and PR-1 may encode proteins crucial for the rye defence response to the LR pathogen.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Secale , Secale/genética , Basidiomycota/genética , Genes de Plantas , Genótipo , Doenças das Plantas/genética
16.
Genes (Basel) ; 15(3)2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38540367

RESUMO

Black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) is a pulses crop with good digestible protein and a high carbohydrate content, so it is widely consumed as human food and animal feed. Trichomes are large, specialized epidermal cells that confer advantages on plants under biotic and abiotic stresses. Genes regulating the development of trichomes are well characterized in Arabidopsis and tomato. However, little is known about trichome development in black gram. In this study, a high-density map with 5734 bin markers using an F2 population derived from a trichome-bearing and a glabrous cultivar of black gram was constructed, and a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) related to trichomes was identified. Six candidate genes were located in the mapped interval region. Fourteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or insertion/deletions (indels) were associated with those genes. One indel was located in the coding region of the gene designated as Scaffold_9372_HRSCAF_11447.164. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis demonstrated that only one candidate gene, Scaffold_9372_HRSCAF_11447.166, was differentially expressed in the stem between the two parental lines. These two candidate genes encoded the RNA polymerase-associated protein Rtf1 and Bromodomain adjacent to zinc finger domain protein 1A (BAZ1A). These results provide insights into the regulation of trichome development in black gram. The candidate genes may be useful for creating transgenic plants with improved stress resistance and for developing molecular markers for trichome selection in black gram breeding programs.


Assuntos
Vigna , Animais , Humanos , Vigna/genética , Tricomas/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Genes de Plantas , Proteínas que Contêm Bromodomínio , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética
17.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 175, 2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38443788

RESUMO

In the natural environment, plants face constant exposure to biotic stress caused by fungal attacks. The plant's response to various biotic stresses relies heavily on its ability to rapidly adjust the transcriptome. External signals are transmitted to the nucleus, leading to activation of transcription factors that subsequently enhance the expression of specific defense-related genes. Epigenetic mechanisms, including histone modifications and DNA methylation, which are closely linked to chromatin states, regulate gene expression associated with defense against biotic stress. Additionally, chromatin remodelers and non-coding RNA play a significant role in plant defense against stressors. These molecular modifications enable plants to exhibit enhanced resistance and productivity under diverse environmental conditions. Epigenetic mechanisms also contribute to stress-induced environmental epigenetic memory and priming in plants, enabling them to recall past molecular experiences and utilize this stored information for adaptation to new conditions. In the arms race between fungi and plants, a significant aspect is the cross-kingdom RNAi mechanism, whereby sRNAs can traverse organismal boundaries. Fungi utilize sRNA as an effector molecule to silence plant resistance genes, while plants transport sRNA, primarily through extracellular vesicles, to pathogens in order to suppress virulence-related genes. In this review, we summarize contemporary knowledge on epigenetic mechanisms of plant defense against attack by pathogenic fungi. The role of epigenetic mechanisms during plant-fungus symbiotic interactions is also considered.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido , Cromatina , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(5)2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474246

RESUMO

The DA1-like gene family plays a crucial role in regulating seed and organ size in plants. The DA1 gene family has been identified in several species but has not yet been reported in sweet potatoes. In this study, nine, eleven, and seven DA1s were identified in cultivated sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas, 2n = 6x = 90) and its two diploid wild relatives, I. trifida (2n = 2x = 30) and I. triloba (2n = 2x = 30), respectively. The DA1 genes were classified into three subgroups based on their phylogenetic relationships with Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa (rice). Their protein physiological properties, chromosomal localization, phylogenetic relationships, gene structure, promoter cis-elements, and expression patterns were systematically analyzed. The qRT-PCR results showed that the expression levels of four genes, IbDA1-1, IbDA1-3, IbDA1-6, and IbDA1-7, were higher in the sweet potato leaves than in the roots, fiber roots, and stems. In our study, we provide a comprehensive comparison and further the knowledge of DA1-like genes in sweet potatoes, and provide a theoretical basis for functional studies.


Assuntos
Ipomoea batatas , Ipomoea batatas/genética , Filogenia , Diploide , Genoma de Planta , Genes de Plantas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(4)2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38396759

RESUMO

Caragana, a xerophytic shrub genus widely distributed in northern China, exhibits distinctive geographical substitution patterns and ecological adaptation diversity. This study employed transcriptome sequencing technology to investigate 12 Caragana species, aiming to explore genic-SSR variations in the Caragana transcriptome and identify their role as a driving force for environmental adaptation within the genus. A total of 3666 polymorphic genic-SSRs were identified across different species. The impact of these variations on the expression of related genes was analyzed, revealing a significant linear correlation (p < 0.05) between the length variation of 264 polymorphic genic-SSRs and the expression of associated genes. Additionally, 2424 polymorphic genic-SSRs were located in differentially expressed genes among Caragana species. Through weighted gene co-expression network analysis, the expressions of these genes were correlated with 19 climatic factors and 16 plant functional traits in various habitats. This approach facilitated the identification of biological processes associated with habitat adaptations in the studied Caragana species. Fifty-five core genes related to functional traits and climatic factors were identified, including various transcription factors such as MYB, TCP, ARF, and structural proteins like HSP90, elongation factor TS, and HECT. The roles of these genes in the ecological adaptation diversity of Caragana were discussed. Our study identified specific genomic components and genes in Caragana plants responsive to heterogeneous habitats. The results contribute to advancements in the molecular understanding of their ecological adaptation, lay a foundation for the conservation and development of Caragana germplasm resources, and provide a scientific basis for plant adaptation to global climate change.


Assuntos
Caragana , Caragana/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Transcriptoma , Genes de Plantas , Fenótipo , Repetições de Microssatélites
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...