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1.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 154, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, hospitals have been forced to divert substantial resources to cope with the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. It is unclear if this situation will affect long-standing infection prevention practices and impact on healthcare associated infections. Here, we report a nosocomial cluster of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) that occurred on a COVID-19 dedicated intensive care unit (ICU) despite intensified contact precautions during the current pandemic. Whole genome sequence-based typing (WGS) was used to investigate genetic relatedness of VRE isolates collected from COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients during the outbreak and to compare them to environmental VRE samples. METHODS: Five VRE isolated from patients (three clinical and two screening samples) as well as 11 VRE and six vancomycin susceptible Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) samples from environmental sites underwent WGS during the outbreak investigation. Isolate relatedness was determined using core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST). RESULTS: WGS revealed two genotypic distinct VRE clusters with genetically closely related patient and environmental isolates. The cluster was terminated by enhanced infection control bundle strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Our results illustrate the importance of continued adherence to infection prevention and control measures during the COVID-19 pandemic to prevent VRE transmission and healthcare associated infections.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/epidemiologia , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Prevenção Primária , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina/genética , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina/isolamento & purificação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4365, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868761

RESUMO

Current approaches explore bacterial genes that change transcriptionally upon stress exposure as diagnostics to predict antibiotic sensitivity. However, transcriptional changes are often specific to a species or antibiotic, limiting implementation to known settings only. While a generalizable approach, predicting bacterial fitness independent of strain, species or type of stress, would eliminate such limitations, it is unclear whether a stress-response can be universally captured. By generating a multi-stress and species RNA-Seq and experimental evolution dataset, we highlight the strengths and limitations of existing gene-panel based methods. Subsequently, we build a generalizable method around the observation that global transcriptional disorder seems to be a common, low-fitness, stress response. We quantify this disorder using entropy, which is a specific measure of randomness, and find that in low fitness cases increasing entropy and transcriptional disorder results from a loss of regulatory gene-dependencies. Using entropy as a single feature, we show that fitness and quantitative antibiotic sensitivity predictions can be made that generalize well beyond training data. Furthermore, we validate entropy-based predictions in 7 species under antibiotic and non-antibiotic conditions. By demonstrating the feasibility of universal predictions of bacterial fitness, this work establishes the fundamentals for potentially new approaches in infectious disease diagnostics.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Evolução Molecular Direcionada , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Estresse Fisiológico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Doenças Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Entropia , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Genes Bacterianos , Genoma Bacteriano , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Streptococcus pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genética , Streptococcus pneumoniae/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0232305, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785271

RESUMO

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) that cause severe disease predominantly carry the toxin gene variant stx2a. However, the role of Shiga toxin in the ruminant reservoirs of this zoonotic pathogen is poorly understood and strains that cause severe disease in humans (HUSEC) likely constitute a small and atypical subset of the overall STEC flora. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of stx2a in samples from cattle and to isolate and characterize stx2a-positive E. coli. In nationwide surveys in Sweden and Norway samples were collected from individual cattle or from cattle herds, respectively. Samples were tested for Shiga toxin genes by real-time PCR and amplicon sequencing and stx2a-positive isolates were whole genome sequenced. Among faecal samples from Sweden, stx1 was detected in 37%, stx2 in 53% and stx2a in 5% and in skin (ear) samples in 64%, 79% and 2% respectively. In Norway, 79% of the herds were positive for stx1, 93% for stx2 and 17% for stx2a. Based on amplicon sequencing the most common stx2 types in samples from Swedish cattle were stx2a and stx2d. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of 39 stx2a-positive isolates collected from both countries revealed substantial diversity with 19 different sequence types. Only a few classical LEE-positive strains similar to HUSEC were found among the stx2a-positive isolates, notably a single O121:H19 and an O26:H11. Lineages known to include LEE-negative HUSEC were also recovered including, such as O113:H21 (sequence type ST-223), O130:H11 (ST-297), and O101:H33 (ST-330). We conclude that E. coli encoding stx2a in cattle are ranging from strains similar to HUSEC to unknown STEC variants. Comparison of isolates from human HUS cases to related STEC from the ruminant reservoirs can help identify combinations of virulence attributes necessary to cause HUS, as well as provide a better understanding of the routes of infection for rare and emerging pathogenic STEC.


Assuntos
Bovinos/microbiologia , Toxina Shiga II/genética , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/genética , Animais , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Variação Genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica/microbiologia , Humanos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Noruega/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/citologia , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/isolamento & purificação , Suécia/epidemiologia , Virulência/genética , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0234839, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853201

RESUMO

Distinct lineages of Gammaproteobacteria clade Woeseiales are globally distributed in marine sediments, based on metagenomic and 16S rRNA gene analysis. Yet little is known about why they are dominant or their ecological role in Arctic fjord sediments, where glacial retreat is rapidly imposing change. This study combined 16S rRNA gene analysis, metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs), and genome-resolved metatranscriptomics uncovered the in situ abundance and transcriptional activity of Woeseiales with burial in four shallow sediment sites of Kongsfjorden and Van Keulenfjorden of Svalbard (79°N). We present five novel Woeseiales MAGs and show transcriptional evidence for metabolic plasticity during burial, including sulfur oxidation with reverse dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) down to 4 cm depth and nitrite reduction down to 6 cm depth. A single stress protein, spore protein SP21 (hspA), had a tenfold higher mRNA abundance than any other transcript, and was a hundredfold higher on average than other transcripts. At three out of the four sites, SP21 transcript abundance increased with depth, while total mRNA abundance and richness decreased, indicating a shift in investment from metabolism and other cellular processes to build-up of spore protein SP21. The SP21 gene in MAGs was often flanked by genes involved in membrane-associated stress response. The ability of Woeseiales to shift from sulfur oxidation to nitrite reduction with burial into marine sediments with decreasing access to overlying oxic bottom waters, as well as enter into a dormant state dominated by SP21, may account for its ubiquity and high abundance in marine sediments worldwide, including those of the rapidly shifting Arctic.


Assuntos
Gammaproteobacteria/genética , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Regiões Árticas , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Estuários , Gammaproteobacteria/classificação , Gammaproteobacteria/metabolismo , Genoma Bacteriano , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Metagenoma , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Svalbard , Transcriptoma
6.
Science ; 369(6503): 554-557, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732422

RESUMO

Structural biology studies performed inside cells can capture molecular machines in action within their native context. In this work, we developed an integrative in-cell structural approach using the genome-reduced human pathogen Mycoplasma pneumoniae We combined whole-cell cross-linking mass spectrometry, cellular cryo-electron tomography, and integrative modeling to determine an in-cell architecture of a transcribing and translating expressome at subnanometer resolution. The expressome comprises RNA polymerase (RNAP), the ribosome, and the transcription elongation factors NusG and NusA. We pinpointed NusA at the interface between a NusG-bound elongating RNAP and the ribosome and propose that it can mediate transcription-translation coupling. Translation inhibition dissociated the expressome, whereas transcription inhibition stalled and rearranged it. Thus, the active expressome architecture requires both translation and transcription elongation within the cell.


Assuntos
Mycoplasma pneumoniae/metabolismo , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/ultraestrutura , Elongação Traducional da Cadeia Peptídica , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Transcrição Genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/metabolismo , Genoma Bacteriano , Humanos , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/genética , Fatores de Alongamento de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
7.
PLoS Genet ; 16(8): e1008935, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841233

RESUMO

Bacterial symbionts bring a wealth of functions to the associations they participate in, but by doing so, they endanger the genes and genomes underlying these abilities. When bacterial symbionts become obligately associated with their hosts, their genomes are thought to decay towards an organelle-like fate due to decreased homologous recombination and inefficient selection. However, numerous associations exist that counter these expectations, especially in marine environments, possibly due to ongoing horizontal gene flow. Despite extensive theoretical treatment, no empirical study thus far has connected these underlying population genetic processes with long-term evolutionary outcomes. By sampling marine chemosynthetic bacterial-bivalve endosymbioses that range from primarily vertical to strictly horizontal transmission, we tested this canonical theory. We found that transmission mode strongly predicts homologous recombination rates, and that exceedingly low recombination rates are associated with moderate genome degradation in the marine symbionts with nearly strict vertical transmission. Nonetheless, even the most degraded marine endosymbiont genomes are occasionally horizontally transmitted and are much larger than their terrestrial insect symbiont counterparts. Therefore, horizontal transmission and recombination enable efficient natural selection to maintain intermediate symbiont genome sizes and substantial functional genetic variation.


Assuntos
Bactérias/patogenicidade , Bivalves/microbiologia , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Genoma Bacteriano , Recombinação Genética , Simbiose/genética , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bivalves/genética , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética
8.
PLoS Genet ; 16(8): e1008987, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853297

RESUMO

Replication-transcription conflicts promote mutagenesis and give rise to evolutionary signatures, with fundamental importance to genome stability ranging from bacteria to metastatic cancer cells. This review focuses on the interplay between replication-transcription conflicts and the evolution of gene directionality. In most bacteria, the majority of genes are encoded on the leading strand of replication such that their transcription is co-directional with the direction of DNA replication fork movement. This gene strand bias arises primarily due to negative selection against deleterious consequences of head-on replication-transcription conflict. However, many genes remain head-on. Can head-on orientation provide some benefit? We combine insights from both mechanistic and evolutionary studies, review published work, and analyze gene expression data to evaluate an emerging model that head-on genes are temporal targets for adaptive mutagenesis during stress. We highlight the alternative explanation that genes in the head-on orientation may simply be the result of genomic inversions and relaxed selection acting on nonessential genes. We seek to clarify how the mechanisms of replication-transcription conflict, in concert with other mutagenic mechanisms, balanced by natural selection, have shaped bacterial genome evolution.


Assuntos
Replicação do DNA/genética , Evolução Molecular , Seleção Genética/genética , Transcrição Genética , Bactérias/genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3970, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769975

RESUMO

The rise of antibiotic resistance in many bacterial pathogens has been driven by the spread of a few successful strains, suggesting that some bacteria are genetically pre-disposed to evolving resistance. Here, we test this hypothesis by challenging a diverse set of 222 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus with the antibiotic ciprofloxacin in a large-scale evolution experiment. We find that a single efflux pump, norA, causes widespread variation in evolvability across isolates. Elevated norA expression potentiates evolution by increasing the fitness benefit provided by DNA topoisomerase mutations under ciprofloxacin treatment. Amplification of norA provides a further mechanism of rapid evolution in isolates from the CC398 lineage. Crucially, chemical inhibition of NorA effectively prevents the evolution of resistance in all isolates. Our study shows that pre-existing genetic diversity plays a key role in shaping resistance evolution, and it may be possible to predict which strains are likely to evolve resistance and to optimize inhibitor use to prevent this outcome.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Evolução Molecular , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Ciprofloxacino/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Genoma Bacteriano , Mutação/genética , Filogenia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/genética
10.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(8): e1008137, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804944

RESUMO

Genome-scale metabolic models have been utilized extensively in the study and engineering of the organisms they describe. Here we present the analysis of a published dataset from pooled transposon mutant fitness experiments as an approach for improving the accuracy and gene-reaction associations of a metabolic model for Zymomonas mobilis ZM4, an industrially relevant ethanologenic organism with extremely high glycolytic flux and low biomass yield. Gene essentiality predictions made by the draft model were compared to data from individual pooled mutant experiments to identify areas of the model requiring deeper validation. Subsequent experiments showed that some of the discrepancies between the model and dataset were caused by polar effects, mis-mapped barcodes, or mutants carrying both wild-type and transposon disrupted gene copies-highlighting potential limitations inherent to data from individual mutants in these high-throughput datasets. Therefore, we analyzed correlations in fitness scores across all 492 experiments in the dataset in the context of functionally related metabolic reaction modules identified within the model via flux coupling analysis. These correlations were used to identify candidate genes for a reaction in histidine biosynthesis lacking an annotated gene and highlight metabolic modules with poorly correlated gene fitness scores. Additional genes for reactions involved in biotin, ubiquinone, and pyridoxine biosynthesis in Z. mobilis were identified and confirmed using mutant complementation experiments. These discovered genes, were incorporated into the final model, iZM4_478, which contains 747 metabolic and transport reactions (of which 612 have gene-protein-reaction associations), 478 genes, and 616 unique metabolites, making it one of the most complete models of Z. mobilis ZM4 to date. The methods of analysis that we applied here with the Z. mobilis transposon mutant dataset, could easily be utilized to improve future genome-scale metabolic reconstructions for organisms where these, or similar, high-throughput datasets are available.


Assuntos
Aptidão Genética/genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Mutação/genética , Zymomonas , Anaerobiose , Engenharia Metabólica , Zymomonas/genética , Zymomonas/metabolismo
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(29): 17195-17203, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606248

RESUMO

The vast majority of intracellular protein targets are refractory toward small-molecule therapeutic engagement, and additional therapeutic modalities are needed to overcome this deficiency. Here, the identification and characterization of a natural product, WDB002, reveals a therapeutic modality that dramatically expands the currently accepted limits of druggability. WDB002, in complex with the FK506-binding protein (FKBP12), potently and selectively binds the human centrosomal protein 250 (CEP250), resulting in disruption of CEP250 function in cells. The recognition mode is unprecedented in that the targeted domain of CEP250 is a coiled coil and is topologically featureless, embodying both a structural motif and surface topology previously considered on the extreme limits of "undruggability" for an intracellular target. Structural studies reveal extensive protein-WDB002 and protein-protein contacts, with the latter being distinct from those seen in FKBP12 ternary complexes formed by FK506 and rapamycin. Outward-facing structural changes in a bound small molecule can thus reprogram FKBP12 to engage diverse, otherwise "undruggable" targets. The flat-targeting modality demonstrated here has the potential to expand the druggable target range of small-molecule therapeutics. As CEP250 was recently found to be an interaction partner with the Nsp13 protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19 disease, it is possible that WDB002 or an analog may exert useful antiviral activity through its ability to form high-affinity ternary complexes containing CEP250 and FKBP12.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Proteína 1A de Ligação a Tacrolimo/química , Proteína 1A de Ligação a Tacrolimo/metabolismo , Actinobacteria/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Autoantígenos/genética , Autoantígenos/metabolismo , Calcineurina/genética , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Homologia de Sequência , Sirolimo/química , Sirolimo/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0007871, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628669

RESUMO

Leprosy, caused by Mycobacterium leprae, has plagued humanity for thousands of years and continues to cause morbidity, disability and stigmatization in two to three million people today. Although effective treatment is available, the disease incidence has remained approximately constant for decades so new approaches, such as vaccine or new drugs, are urgently needed for control. Research is however hampered by the pathogen's obligate intracellular lifestyle and the fact that it has never been grown in vitro. Consequently, despite the availability of its complete genome sequence, fundamental questions regarding the biology of the pathogen, such as its metabolism, remain largely unexplored. In order to explore the metabolism of the leprosy bacillus with a long-term aim of developing a medium to grow the pathogen in vitro, we reconstructed an in silico genome scale metabolic model of the bacillus, GSMN-ML. The model was used to explore the growth and biomass production capabilities of the pathogen with a range of nutrient sources, such as amino acids, glucose, glycerol and metabolic intermediates. We also used the model to analyze RNA-seq data from M. leprae grown in mouse foot pads, and performed Differential Producibility Analysis to identify metabolic pathways that appear to be active during intracellular growth of the pathogen, which included pathways for central carbon metabolism, co-factor, lipids, amino acids, nucleotides and cell wall synthesis. The GSMN-ML model is thereby a useful in silico tool that can be used to explore the metabolism of the leprosy bacillus, analyze functional genomic experimental data, generate predictions of nutrients required for growth of the bacillus in vitro and identify novel drug targets.


Assuntos
Genoma Bacteriano , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Mycobacterium leprae/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Mycobacterium leprae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3363, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620750

RESUMO

Studying emerging or neglected pathogens is often challenging due to insufficient information and absence of genetic tools. Dual RNA-seq provides insights into host-pathogen interactions, and is particularly informative for intracellular organisms. Here we apply dual RNA-seq to Orientia tsutsugamushi (Ot), an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes the vector-borne human disease scrub typhus. Half the Ot genome is composed of repetitive DNA, and there is minimal collinearity in gene order between strains. Integrating RNA-seq, comparative genomics, proteomics, and machine learning to study the transcriptional architecture of Ot, we find evidence for wide-spread post-transcriptional antisense regulation. Comparing the host response to two clinical isolates, we identify distinct immune response networks for each strain, leading to predictions of relative virulence that are validated in a mouse infection model. Thus, dual RNA-seq can provide insight into the biology and host-pathogen interactions of a poorly characterized and genetically intractable organism such as Ot.


Assuntos
Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/imunologia , Orientia tsutsugamushi/genética , Tifo por Ácaros/imunologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Genoma Bacteriano , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Sequências Repetitivas Dispersas/genética , Camundongos , Doenças Negligenciadas/microbiologia , Orientia tsutsugamushi/imunologia , Orientia tsutsugamushi/patogenicidade , Proteômica , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , RNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , RNA não Traduzido/genética , RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Tifo por Ácaros/microbiologia , Transcrição Genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
14.
Mol Cell ; 79(3): 416-424.e5, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645367

RESUMO

CRISPR-Cas12c/d proteins share limited homology with Cas12a and Cas9 bacterial CRISPR RNA (crRNA)-guided nucleases used widely for genome editing and DNA detection. However, Cas12c (C2c3)- and Cas12d (CasY)-catalyzed DNA cleavage and genome editing activities have not been directly observed. We show here that a short-complementarity untranslated RNA (scoutRNA), together with crRNA, is required for Cas12d-catalyzed DNA cutting. The scoutRNA differs in secondary structure from previously described tracrRNAs used by CRISPR-Cas9 and some Cas12 enzymes, and in Cas12d-containing systems, scoutRNA includes a conserved five-nucleotide sequence that is essential for activity. In addition to supporting crRNA-directed DNA recognition, biochemical and cell-based experiments establish scoutRNA as an essential cofactor for Cas12c-catalyzed pre-crRNA maturation. These results define scoutRNA as a third type of transcript encoded by a subset of CRISPR-Cas genomic loci and explain how Cas12c/d systems avoid requirements for host factors including ribonuclease III for bacterial RNA-mediated adaptive immunity.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Endodesoxirribonucleases/genética , Genoma Bacteriano/imunologia , RNA Bacteriano/genética , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/imunologia , Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Endodesoxirribonucleases/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/imunologia , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Filogenia , RNA Bacteriano/química , RNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , RNA Guia/genética , RNA Guia/metabolismo , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/química , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico
15.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(1): 320, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bacterial gene loss and acquisition is a well-known phenomenon which contributes to bacterial adaptation through changes in important phenotypes such as virulence, antibiotic resistance and metabolic capability. While advances in DNA sequencing have accelerated our ability to generate short genome sequence reads to disentangle phenotypic changes caused by gene loss and acquisition, the short-read genome sequencing often results in fragmented genome assemblies as a basis for identification of gene loss and acquisition events. However, sensitive and precise determination of gene content change for fragmented genome assemblies remains challenging as analysis needs to account for cases when only a fragment of the gene is assembled or when the gene assembly is split in more than one contig. RESULTS: We developed GenAPI, a command-line tool that is designed to compare the gene content of bacterial genomes for which only fragmented genome assemblies are available. GenAPI, unlike other available tools of similar purpose, accounts for imperfections in sequencing and assembly, and aims to compensate for them. We tested the performance of GenAPI on three different datasets to show that GenAPI has a high sensitivity while it maintains precision when dealing with partly assembled genes in both simulated and real datasets. Furthermore, we benchmarked the performance of GenAPI with six popular tools for gene presence-absence identification. CONCLUSIONS: Our developed bioinformatics tool, called GenAPI, has the same precision and recall rates when analyzing complete genome sequences as the other tools of the same purpose; however, GenAPI's performance is markedly better on fragmented genome assemblies.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Genômica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Software , Anotação de Sequência Molecular
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235873, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687505

RESUMO

This study evaluates whole-genome sequence of Lactobacillus reuteri PNW1 and identifies its safety genes that may qualify it as a putative probiotic. It further extracted the bacteriocin produced by the strain and tested its effectiveness against pathogenic STEC E. coli O177. The genomic DNA was sequenced on illuminal Miseq instrument and the sequenced data was assessed for quality reads before assembled with SPAdes. The draft assembly was annotated with Prokaryotic Genome Annotation Pipeline (PGAP) and Rapid Annotations using Subsystems Technology (RAST). Further downstream analyses were carried out using appropriate bioinformatic tools. Production of biogenic amines was biochemically confirmed through HPLC analysis. The assembled genome was 2,430,215 bp long in 420 contigs with 39% G+C content. Among all known genes, putatively responsible for the production of toxic biochemicals, only arginine deiminase (EC3.5.3.6) was spotted. Coding sequences (CDS) putative for D-lactate dehydrogenase (EC1.1.1.28), L-lactate dehydrogenase (EC1.1.1.27) and bacteriocin helveticin J were found within the genome together with plethora of other probiotic important genes. The strain harbours only resistant genes putative for Lincosamide (lnuC) and Tetracycline resistant genes (tetW). There was no hit found for virulence factors and probability of the strain being a human pathogen was zero. Two intact prophage regions were detected within the genome of L. reuteri PNW1 and nine CDS were identified for insertion sequence by OASIS which are belong to seven different families. Five putative CDS were identified for the CRISPR, each associated with Cas genes. Maximum zone of inhibition exhibited by the bacteriocin produced L. reuteri PNW1 is 20.0±1.00 mm (crude) and 23.3±1.15 mm (at 0.25 mg/ml) after being partially purified. With the strain predicted as non-human pathogen, coupled with many other identified desired features, L. reuteri PNW1 stands a chance of making good and safe candidates for probiotic, though further in-vivo investigations are still necessary.


Assuntos
Genoma Bacteriano , Lactobacillus reuteri/genética , Probióticos/efeitos adversos , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Bacteriocinas/genética , Bacteriocinas/metabolismo , Bacteriocinas/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrolases/genética , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/genética , Lactobacillus reuteri/patogenicidade , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Fatores de Virulência/genética
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3442, 2020 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651390

RESUMO

Genomic evolution, transmission and pathogenesis of Streptococcus pneumoniae, an opportunistic human-adapted pathogen, is driven principally by nasopharyngeal carriage. However, little is known about genomic changes during natural colonisation. Here, we use whole-genome sequencing to investigate within-host microevolution of naturally carried pneumococci in ninety-eight infants intensively sampled sequentially from birth until twelve months in a high-carriage African setting. We show that neutral evolution and nucleotide substitution rates up to forty-fold faster than observed over longer timescales in S. pneumoniae and other bacteria drives high within-host pneumococcal genetic diversity. Highly divergent co-existing strain variants emerge during colonisation episodes through real-time intra-host homologous recombination while the rest are co-transmitted or acquired independently during multiple colonisation episodes. Genic and intergenic parallel evolution occur particularly in antibiotic resistance, immune evasion and epithelial adhesion genes. Our findings suggest that within-host microevolution is rapid and adaptive during natural colonisation.


Assuntos
Infecções Pneumocócicas/genética , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Humanos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3526, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665571

RESUMO

Gene tandem amplifications are thought to drive bacterial evolution, but they are transient in the absence of selection, making their investigation challenging. Here, we analyze genomic sequences of Staphylococcus aureus USA300 isolates from the same geographical area to identify variations in gene copy number, which we confirm by long-read sequencing. We find several hotspots of variation, including the csa1 cluster encoding lipoproteins known to be immunogenic. We also show that the csa1 locus expands and contracts during bacterial growth in vitro and during systemic infection of mice, and recombination creates rapid heterogeneity in initially clonal cultures. Furthermore, csa1 copy number variants differ in their immunostimulatory capacity, revealing a mechanism by which gene copy number variation can modulate the host immune response.


Assuntos
Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Genótipo , Camundongos , Fenótipo , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade
19.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(7): e1007980, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678849

RESUMO

Bacteria need to survive in a wide range of environments. Currently, there is an incomplete understanding of the genetic basis for mechanisms underpinning survival in stressful conditions, such as the presence of anti-microbials. Transposon directed insertion-site sequencing (TraDIS) is a powerful tool to identify genes and networks which are involved in survival and fitness under a given condition by simultaneously assaying the fitness of millions of mutants, thereby relating genotype to phenotype and contributing to an understanding of bacterial cell biology. A recent refinement of this approach allows the roles of essential genes in conditional stress survival to be inferred by altering their expression. These advancements combined with the rapidly falling costs of sequencing now allows comparisons between multiple experiments to identify commonalities in stress responses to different conditions. This capacity however poses a new challenge for analysis of multiple data sets in conjunction. To address this analysis need, we have developed 'AlbaTraDIS'; a software application for rapid large-scale comparative analysis of TraDIS experiments that predicts the impact of transposon insertions on nearby genes. AlbaTraDIS can identify genes which are up or down regulated, or inactivated, between multiple conditions, producing a filtered list of genes for further experimental validation as well as several accompanying data visualisations. We demonstrate the utility of our new approach by applying it to identify genes used by Escherichia coli to survive in a wide range of different concentrations of the biocide Triclosan. AlbaTraDIS identified all well characterised Triclosan resistance genes, including the primary target, fabI. A number of new loci were also implicated in Triclosan resistance and the predicted phenotypes for a selection of these were validated experimentally with results being consistent with predictions. AlbaTraDIS provides a simple and rapid method to analyse multiple transposon mutagenesis data sets allowing this technology to be used at large scale. To our knowledge this is the only tool currently available that can perform these tasks. AlbaTraDIS is written in Python 3 and is available under the open source licence GNU GPL 3 from https://github.com/quadram-institute-bioscience/albatradis.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Escherichia coli/genética , Mutagênese Insercional , Software , Algoritmos , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Biblioteca Gênica , Genes Essenciais , Genoma Bacteriano , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Mutação , Fenótipo , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Triclosan/farmacologia
20.
PLoS Genet ; 16(7): e1008931, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32644999

RESUMO

Shigella species are specialised lineages of Escherichia coli that have converged to become human-adapted and cause dysentery by invading human gut epithelial cells. Most studies of Shigella evolution have been restricted to comparisons of single representatives of each species; and population genomic studies of individual Shigella species have focused on genomic variation caused by single nucleotide variants and ignored the contribution of insertion sequences (IS) which are highly prevalent in Shigella genomes. Here, we investigate the distribution and evolutionary dynamics of IS within populations of Shigella dysenteriae Sd1, Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri. We find that five IS (IS1, IS2, IS4, IS600 and IS911) have undergone expansion in all Shigella species, creating substantial strain-to-strain variation within each population and contributing to convergent patterns of functional gene loss within and between species. We find that IS expansion and genome degradation are most advanced in S. dysenteriae and least advanced in S. sonnei; and using genome-scale models of metabolism we show that Shigella species display convergent loss of core E. coli metabolic capabilities, with S. sonnei and S. flexneri following a similar trajectory of metabolic streamlining to that of S. dysenteriae. This study highlights the importance of IS to the evolution of Shigella and provides a framework for the investigation of IS dynamics and metabolic reduction in other bacterial species.


Assuntos
Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Disenteria/genética , Evolução Molecular , Shigella dysenteriae/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Disenteria/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Humanos , Shigella dysenteriae/patogenicidade
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