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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(26): 953-958, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197363

RESUMO

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, schools across the United States began transitioning to virtual learning during spring 2020. However, schools' learning modes varied during the 2020-21 school year across states as schools transitioned at differing times back to in-person learning, in part reflecting updated CDC guidance. Reduced access to in-person learning is associated with poorer learning outcomes and adverse mental health and behavioral effects in children (1-3). Data on the learning modes available in 1,200 U.S. public school districts (representing 46% of kindergarten through grade 12 [K-12] public school enrollment) from all 50 states and the District of Columbia during September 2020-April 2021 were matched with National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) demographic data. Learning mode access was assessed for K-12 students during the COVID-19 pandemic, over time and by student race/ethnicity, geography, and grade level group. Across all assessed racial/ethnic groups, prevalence of virtual-only learning showed more variability during September-December 2020 but declined steadily from January to April 2021. During January-April 2021, access to full-time in-person learning for non-Hispanic White students increased by 36.6 percentage points (from 38.0% to 74.6%), compared with 31.1 percentage points for non-Hispanic Black students (from 32.3% to 63.4%), 23.0 percentage points for Hispanic students (from 35.9% to 58.9%) and 30.6 percentage points for students of other races/ethnicities (from 26.3% to 56.9%). In January 2021, 39% of students in grades K-5 had access to full-time in-person learning compared with 33% of students in grades 6-8 and 30% of students in grades 9-12. Disparities in full-time in-person learning by race/ethnicity existed across school levels and by geographic region and state. These disparities underscore the importance of prioritizing equitable access to this learning mode for the 2021-22 school year. To increase equitable access to full-time in-person learning for the 2021-22 school year, school leaders should focus on providing safety-optimized in-person learning options across grade levels. CDC's K-12 operational strategy presents a pathway for schools to safely provide in-person learning through implementing recommended prevention strategies, increasing vaccination rates for teachers and older students with a focus on vaccine equity, and reducing community transmission (4).


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Educação/métodos , Educação/organização & administração , Aprendizagem , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Escolaridade , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Geografia , Humanos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4403, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285238

RESUMO

Sulfur cycling is ubiquitous in sedimentary environments, where it mediates organic carbon remineralization, impacting both local and global redox budgets, and leaving an imprint in pyrite sulfur isotope ratios (δ34Spyr). It is unclear to what extent stratigraphic δ34Spyr variations reflect local aspects of the depositional environment or microbial activity versus global sulfur-cycle variations. Here, we couple carbon-nitrogen-sulfur concentrations and stable isotopes to identify clear influences on δ34Spyr of local environmental changes along the Peru margin. Stratigraphically coherent glacial-interglacial δ34Spyr fluctuations (>30‰) were mediated by Oxygen Minimum Zone intensification/expansion and local enhancement of organic matter deposition. The higher resulting microbial sulfate reduction rates led to more effective drawdown and 34S-enrichment of residual porewater sulfate and sulfide produced from it, some of which is preserved in pyrite. We identify organic carbon loading as a major influence on δ34Spyr, adding to the growing body of evidence highlighting the local controls on these records.


Assuntos
Bactérias Anaeróbias/metabolismo , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Ferro/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sulfetos/metabolismo , Enxofre/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Ciclo do Carbono , Geografia , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Ferro/química , Oxirredução , Peru , Sulfetos/química , Isótopos de Enxofre/análise
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4247, 2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253727

RESUMO

The gymnosperm Welwitschia mirabilis belongs to the ancient, enigmatic gnetophyte lineage. It is a unique desert plant with extreme longevity and two ever-elongating leaves. We present a chromosome-level assembly of its genome (6.8 Gb/1 C) together with methylome and transcriptome data to explore its astonishing biology. We also present a refined, high-quality assembly of Gnetum montanum to enhance our understanding of gnetophyte genome evolution. The Welwitschia genome has been shaped by a lineage-specific ancient, whole genome duplication (~86 million years ago) and more recently (1-2 million years) by bursts of retrotransposon activity. High levels of cytosine methylation (particularly at CHH motifs) are associated with retrotransposons, whilst long-term deamination has resulted in an exceptionally GC-poor genome. Changes in copy number and/or expression of gene families and transcription factors (e.g. R2R3MYB, SAUR) controlling cell growth, differentiation and metabolism underpin the plant's longevity and tolerance to temperature, nutrient and water stress.


Assuntos
Cycadopsida/genética , Clima Desértico , Genoma de Planta , África , Metilação de DNA/genética , Evolução Molecular , Geografia , Meristema/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Folhas de Planta/genética , Chuva , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie , Transcriptoma/genética
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(12)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208244

RESUMO

The effects of environmental exposure on human health have been widely explored by scholars in health geography for decades. However, recent advances in geospatial technologies, especially the development of mobile approaches to collecting real-time and high-resolution individual data, have enabled sophisticated methods for assessing people's environmental exposure. This study proposes an individual environmental exposure assessment system (IEEAS) that integrates objective real-time monitoring devices and subjective sensing tools to provide a composite way for individual-based environmental exposure data collection. With field test data collected in Chicago and Beijing, we illustrate and discuss the advantages of the proposed IEEAS and the composite analysis that could be applied. Data collected with the proposed IEEAS yield relatively accurate measurements of individual exposure in a composite way, and offer new opportunities for developing more sophisticated ways to measure individual environmental exposure. With the capability to consider both the variations in environmental risks and human mobility in high spatial and temporal resolutions, the IEEAS also helps mitigate some uncertainties in environmental exposure assessment and thus enables a better understanding of the relationship between individual environmental exposure and health outcomes.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Saúde Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Geografia , Humanos , Incerteza
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(8): 524, 2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34318380

RESUMO

Considering environmental resources as a context for sustainable development is of paramount importance. Iran has faced a variety of environmental problems over the past few decades due to population development, changing patterns of residence, and urban development. Resilience measures the adaptation to changes occurring after unwanted events. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate environmental resilience (natural and human factors) among the Iranian provinces. Then, the environmental resilience index was categorized through a data mining method, and the required measures for each pattern were presented according to the obtained patterns. Based on the results, Semnan Province had the highest environmental resilience, whereas Tehran, Alborz, Hormozgan, Isfahan, Khorasan Razavi, Khuzestan, and Sistan and Baluchestan had the lowest environmental resilience index (ERI). In addition, the results of data mining indicate that the provinces have five distinct patterns. CO2 emissions and drinking water access indicators have the highest and lowest importance in the formation of patterns, respectively. Furthermore, the environmental resilience of Tehran Province was influenced more by both indicators of energy use and CO2 emissions. Therefore, improvements in energy efficiency, developing public transportation, using standard fuels, and modernizing old industries should be considered as ways to increase productivity. The results of resilience patterns significantly help planners and managers develop policies and programs to increase environmental resilience.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Transportes , Geografia , Humanos , Indústrias , Irã (Geográfico)
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070635

RESUMO

The geographical distribution of mortality has frequently been studied. Nevertheless, those studies often consider isolated causes of death. In this work, we aim to study the geographical distribution of mortality in urban areas, in particular, in 26 Spanish cities. We perform an overall study of 16 causes of death, considering that their geographical patterns could be dependent and estimating the dependence between the causes of death. We study the deaths in these 26 cities during the period 1996-2015 at the census tract level. A multivariate disease mapping model is used in order to solve the potential small area estimation problems that these data could show. We find that most of the geographical patterns found show positive correlations. This suggests the existence of a transversal geographical pattern, common to most causes of deaths, which determines those patterns to a higher/lower extent depending on each disease. The causes of death that exhibit that underlying pattern in a more prominent manner are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, and cirrhosis for men and cardiovascular diseases and dementias for women. Such findings are quite consistent for most of the cities in the study. The high positive correlation found between geographical patterns reflects the existence of both high and low-risk areas in urban settings, in general terms for nearly all the causes of death. Moreover, the high-risk areas found often coincide with neighborhoods known for their high deprivation. Our results suggest that dependence among causes of death is a key aspect to be taken into account when mapping mortality, at least in urban contexts.


Assuntos
Mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Cidades , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3602, 2021 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34127665

RESUMO

Improved understanding of the effects of meteorological conditions on the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent for COVID-19 disease, is needed. Here, we estimate the relationship between air temperature, specific humidity, and ultraviolet radiation and SARS-CoV-2 transmission in 2669 U.S. counties with abundant reported cases from March 15 to December 31, 2020. Specifically, we quantify the associations of daily mean temperature, specific humidity, and ultraviolet radiation with daily estimates of the SARS-CoV-2 reproduction number (Rt) and calculate the fraction of Rt attributable to these meteorological conditions. Lower air temperature (within the 20-40 °C range), lower specific humidity, and lower ultraviolet radiation were significantly associated with increased Rt. The fraction of Rt attributable to temperature, specific humidity, and ultraviolet radiation were 3.73% (95% empirical confidence interval [eCI]: 3.66-3.76%), 9.35% (95% eCI: 9.27-9.39%), and 4.44% (95% eCI: 4.38-4.47%), respectively. In total, 17.5% of Rt was attributable to meteorological factors. The fractions attributable to meteorological factors generally were higher in northern counties than in southern counties. Our findings indicate that cold and dry weather and low levels of ultraviolet radiation are moderately associated with increased SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility, with humidity playing the largest role.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , Conceitos Meteorológicos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Geografia , Humanos , Umidade , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura , Raios Ultravioleta , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Tempo (Meteorologia)
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2113818, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143191

RESUMO

Importance: Limited information on the transmission and dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 at the city scale is available. Objective: To describe the local spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Valencia, Spain. Design, Setting, and Participants: This single-center epidemiological cohort study of patients with SARS-CoV-2 was performed at University General Hospital in Valencia (population in the hospital catchment area, 364 000), a tertiary hospital. The study included all consecutive patients with COVID-19 isolated at home from the start of the COVID-19 pandemic on February 19 until August 31, 2020. Exposures: Cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by the presence of IgM antibodies or a positive polymerase chain reaction test result on a nasopharyngeal swab were included. Cases in which patients with negative laboratory results met diagnostic and clinical criteria were also included. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the characterization of dissemination patterns and connections among the 20 neighborhoods of Valencia during the outbreak. To recreate the transmission network, the inbound and outbound connections were studied for each region, and the relative risk of infection was estimated. Results: In total, 2646 patients were included in the analysis. The mean (SD) age was 45.3 (22.5) years; 1203 (46%) were male and 1442 (54%) were female (data were missing for 1); and the overall mortality was 3.7%. The incidence of SARS-CoV-2 cases was higher in neighborhoods with higher household income (ß2 [for mean income per household] = 0.197; 95% CI, 0.057-0.351) and greater population density (ß1 [inhabitants per km2] = 0.228; 95% CI, 0.085-0.387). Correlations with meteorological variables were not statistically significant. Neighborhood 3, where the hospital and testing facility were located, had the most outbound connections (14). A large residential complex close to the city (neighborhood 20) had the fewest connections (0 outbound and 2 inbound). Five geographically unconnected neighborhoods were of strategic importance in disrupting the transmission network. Conclusions and Relevance: This study of local dissemination of SARS-COV-2 revealed nonevident transmission patterns between geographically unconnected areas. The results suggest that tailor-made containment measures could reduce transmission and that hospitals, including testing facilities, play a crucial role in disease transmission. Consequently, the local dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 spread might inform the strategic lockdown of specific neighborhoods to stop the contagion and avoid a citywide lockdown.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Área Programática de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/transmissão , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha/epidemiologia
9.
Zootaxa ; 4974(1): 4778, 2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186869

RESUMO

Cabassous comprises armadillos lacking a full osteoderm cover in the tail, justifying its common name naked-tailed armadillos. In the only taxonomic revision of the genus, in 1980, four living species were recognized, including a polytypic taxon with two subspecies. Recent studies have questioned this classification, but a comprehensive taxonomic review is lacking. Here, we revise the taxonomy of the genus Cabassous using complementary morphological approaches and clarify the geographical limits of naked-tailed armadillo species. Based on qualitative and quantitative analyses, we recognize five living species: C. centralis, C. chacoensis, C. squamicaudis, C. unicinctus, and C. tatouay. Most of the species can be easily differentiated using external or cranial traits, except C. centralis and C. unicinctus, which share several morphological features. The scutes pattern on the cephalic shield is an important diagnostic feature in naked-tailed armadillos and can be easily applied in field studies. Cabassous squamicaudis and C. unicinctus were previously treated as subspecies but we show they have conspicuous diagnostic traits, without mixture of characters even in closer contact. Cabassous species can be classified as open-dwellers (C. chacoensis and C. squamicaudis), forest-dwellers (C. centralis and C. unicinctus), or of more generalist habits (C. tatouay). We designate a lectotype for C. unicinctus to preserve its long-term nomenclature use.


Assuntos
Tatus/anatomia & histologia , Tatus/classificação , Animais , Geografia
10.
Zootaxa ; 4990(1): 1-22, 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186776

RESUMO

All the Turkish populations studied, both those previously assigned to D. dryada (Subasi and Yoldere villages, near Hopa) and those attributed to D. clarkorum (the largest sample studied so far, 177 specimens in total), are indistinguishable from each other and therefore must all be ascribed to the natural variability of a monotypic D. clarkorum. The Georgian specimens from the Type Locality of D. dryada (Charnaly river gorge, Chevachauri district) are clearly different, so that taxon cannot be considered a simple synonym for D. clarkorum, but as a valid taxon, although its proper status (more probably as a subspecies of D. clarkorum), is yet to be clarified. It is a highly threatened population, so studies should be done in vivo or with as low intrusiveness as possible. Darevskia dryada is clearly larger (SVL) than any D. clarkorum studied, with strongly longer heads and pilei in adult males (and hence more teeth in dentary bone), and higher dorsalia counts. There also seem to be (but need to be studied in a larger sample) more longitudinal rows of temporal scales between tympanic and parietal plates, a tendency to have more supralabial scales; comparatively smaller values for longitudinal rows of scales on the ventral surface of the thigh between the femoral pores and the outer row of enlarged scales, and higher collaria, and circumanalia scales. Other differences in femoralia and gularia are also reflected in Darevsky Tuniyev's (1997) tables and should also be investigated with more Georgian specimens. Two supposed discriminant characters, the frontonasal index and the presence of developed masseteric, are not valid. The frontonasal index does not discriminate both taxa; D dryada specimens fall inside the variation of D. clarkorum for this character. Also the presence of a developed masseteric plate is supposed to be rare if at all in D. clarkorum but always present in D. dryada; however, it appears in nearly 75% of D. clarkorum studied and in all D. dyada, so is also no longer valid for taxa discrimination. Although very similar, D. clarkorum and D. dryada are morphologically different, and genetic studies (as the unpublished results mentioned by Fu, 1999) do not make the provenance of the specimens clear, and hence the correct identification of the supposed specimens of D. dryada used. There are no geographical clines in D. clarkorum. However, as stated by Schmidtler et al. (2002), there is an inverse relationship between altitude and dorsalia values in D. clarkorum. Both the general differentiation between populations and the scalation (dorsalia) appear statistically correlated with the altitude and also with latitude (being both factors not strictly the same). The correlation seems to be stronger with morphology in general (multiple scalation characters and head biometry) than only with dorsalia. In the case of the general differentiation among samples, it is also significantly correlated with temperatures during the activity period (April-September) and with precipitation during incubation (July-August). As these climatic parameters of temperature and precipitation are not directly correlated with the dorsalia variation, the relation with altitude (and perhaps latitude) must be linked to some other climatic parameter not studied here, perhaps solar radiation or evapotranspiration.


Assuntos
Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Lagartos/classificação , Animais , Meio Ambiente , Geografia , Masculino , Turquia
11.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(2): 251-263, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061771

RESUMO

Objective: To date, no systematic reviews and meta-analysis on the global epidemiology of acromegaly are available in the literature. The aims of this study are to provide a systematic review and a meta-analysis of the global epidemiology of acromegaly and to evaluate the quality of study reporting for the identified studies. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library databases were searched for studies assessing the epidemiology of acromegaly from inception until 31 January 2020. We included original observational studies written in English, reporting acromegaly prevalence and/or incidence for a well-defined geographic area. Two reviewers independently extracted data and performed quality assessments. Prevalence and incidence pooled estimates were derived by performing a random-effects meta-analysis. Results: A total of 32 studies were included in the systematic review, and 22 of them were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of acromegaly was 5.9 (95% CI: 4.4-7.9) per 100 000 persons, while the incidence rate (IR) was 0.38 (95% CI: 0.32-0.44) cases per 100 000 person-years. For both prevalence and IR, considerable between-study heterogeneity was found (I2 = 99.3 and 86.0%, respectively). The quality of study reporting was rated as the medium for 20 studies and low for 12 studies. Conclusions: Although the largest amount of heterogeneity was due to the high precision of the studies' estimates, data source and geographic area could represent relevant study-level factors which could explain about 50% of the total between-study variability. Large-scale high-quality studies on the epidemiology of acromegaly are warranted to help the public health system in making decisions.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/epidemiologia , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Projetos de Pesquisa Epidemiológica , Geografia , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto/normas , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(2): e20190429, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133528

RESUMO

We study the geographical variation of the skull in the cavies Microcavia australis and M. maenas and its association with environmental variables. We tested four hypotheses previously proposed to explain the geographic patterns of morphological variation i) heat conservation; ii) heat dissipation; iii) primary productivity and iv) seasonality. We used 16 cranial measurements taken from 180 individuals. We analyzed the spatial variation in cranial morphology through Generalized Additive Models. Both species showed a north-south clinal gradient in skull size (increasing towards colder, less seasonal environments, with lower summer rainfalls in M. australis and towards warmer and seasonal environments in M. maenas). Microcavia australis presented greater ecomorphological variability than M. maenas, in agreement with its wider distribution and occurrence in more diverse environments. Also, the length of tympanic bullae in M. australis was larger towards its northern distributional range (associated to smaller skulls), and smaller to the south (associated to larger skulls). Overall, the distributional range of both species coincided with unproductive environments, where temperature represents a limiting factor and, together with rainfall, might determine the observed morphological patterns.


Assuntos
Roedores , Crânio , Animais , Geografia , Cobaias , Estações do Ano
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070110

RESUMO

This paper analyzes the success factors of health tourism based on natural attractions in selected European spa and health destinations. The natural resources included in the offers, such as water, salt, and air, play a central role in this context, as their evidence-based effects have a high relevance for the health and wellbeing of tourists. Due to its specific geographical location and considering the threat of climate change, however, this offer is facing increasing challenges which make adaptation strategies necessary. In addition to a conceptional introduction to the topic, this paper contains a descriptive analysis of tourism statistics and the results from self-administered questionnaires with six selected representatives from alpine health destinations (DE, FR, IT, AT, CH, SI). The results show varying forms of health tourism based on natural attractions, which are also reflected in online marketing, with potential for optimization. The web research and the responses to the questionnaire revealed that evidence-based studies hardly play a role in promoting health touristic offers. Furthermore, climate change effects on natural attractions are considered extremely small and tend to prompt the development of new offers. Health destinations are advised to generate a clearer focus on the risks of climate change regarding natural resources.


Assuntos
Turismo Médico , Turismo , Mudança Climática , Geografia , Recursos Naturais , Viagem
14.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071495

RESUMO

Increasing applications and markets for essential oils could bring new opportunities for cost-effective and sustainable management of unused forestry biomass; however, better knowledge of the production and application of such essential oils is necessary. The objective of this work is to contribute to greater knowledge of the essential oil production on a pilot scale from foliage biomass of wild shrubs and tree residues produced in some forestry enhancement operations and to study their antioxidant capacity (ORAC-oxygen radical absorbance capacity). Fresh biomass (twigs) of seven species (E. globulus, E. nitens, P. pinaster, P. sylvestris, R. officinalis, C. ladanifer, and J. communis) was manually collected in Spain in two different periods and was ground at 30 mm and distilled in a 30 L stainless steel still with saturated steam. The essential oil components were identified by GC-MS and quantified by GC-FID, and their antioxidant activity was determined with the ORAC method. Promising results on essential oil yield were obtained with E. globulus, E. nitens, R. officinalis, and J. communis. All essential oils studied exhibited antioxidant capacity by the ORAC assay, particularly that from C. ladanifer. Moreover, oxygenated sesquiterpenes contents, one of the minor components of oils, were significantly correlated with ORAC values.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Biomassa , Cromatografia Gasosa , Cistus , Eucalyptus/química , Florestas , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Geografia , Monoterpenos/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sesquiterpenos/análise , Espanha , Árvores
15.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252867, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After one year of the pandemic and hints of seasonal patterns, temporal variations of in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 are widely unknown. Additionally, heterogeneous data regarding clinical indicators predicting disease severity has been published. However, there is a need for a risk stratification model integrating the effects on disease severity and mortality to support clinical decision-making. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, observational, prospective, epidemiological cohort study at 45 hospitals in Germany. Until 1 January 2021, all hospitalized SARS CoV-2 positive patients were included. A comprehensive data set was collected in a cohort of seven hospitals. The primary objective was disease severity and prediction of mild, severe, and fatal cases. Ancillary analyses included a temporal analysis of all hospitalized COVID-19 patients for the entire year 2020. FINDINGS: A total of 4704 COVID-19 patients were hospitalized with a mortality rate of 19% (890/4704). Rates of mortality, need for ventilation, pneumonia, and respiratory insufficiency showed temporal variations, whereas age had a strong influence on the course of mortality. In cohort conducting analyses, prognostic factors for fatal/severe disease were: age (odds ratio (OR) 1.704, CI:[1.221-2.377]), respiratory rate (OR 1.688, CI:[1.222-2.333]), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (OR 1.312, CI:[1.015-1.695]), C-reactive protein (CRP) (OR 2.132, CI:[1.533-2.965]), and creatinine values (OR 2.573, CI:[1.593-4.154]. CONCLUSIONS: Age, respiratory rate, LDH, CRP, and creatinine at baseline are associated with all cause death, and need for ventilation/ICU treatment in a nationwide series of COVID 19 hospitalized patients. Especially age plays an important prognostic role. In-hospital mortality showed temporal variation during the year 2020, influenced by age. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04659187.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Feminino , Geografia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
16.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253466, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138950

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Reports of disparities in COVID-19 mortality rates are emerging in the public health literature as the pandemic continues to unfold. Alcohol misuse varies across the US and is related to poorer health and comorbidities that likely affect the severity of COVID-19 infection. High levels of pre-pandemic alcohol misuse in some counties may have set the stage for worse COVID-19 outcomes. Furthermore, this relationship may depend on how rural a county is, as access to healthcare in rural communities has lagged behind more urban areas. The objective of this study was to test for associations between county-level COVID-19 mortality, pre-pandemic county-level excessive drinking, and county rurality. METHOD: We used national COVID-19 data from the New York Times to calculate county-level case fatality rates (n = 3,039 counties and county equivalents; October 1 -December 31, 2020) and other external county-level data sources for indicators of rurality and health. We used beta regression to model case fatality rates, adjusted for several county-level population characteristics. We included a multilevel component to our model and defined state as a random intercept. Our focal predictor was a single variable representing nine possible combinations of low/mid/high alcohol misuse and low/mid/high rurality. RESULTS: The median county-level COVID-19 case fatality rate was 1.57%. Compared to counties with low alcohol misuse and low rurality (referent), counties with high levels of alcohol and mid (ß = -0.17, p = 0.008) or high levels of rurality (ß = -0.24, p<0.001) demonstrated significantly lower case fatality rates. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the intersecting roles of county-level alcohol consumption, rurality, and COVID-19 mortality.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Alcoolismo/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/virologia , Comorbidade , Geografia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Análise Multivariada , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Food Chem ; 362: 130087, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139571

RESUMO

EEM data recorded at different pH values was exploited by MCR-ALS in order to determine qualitative information about Brazilian red wines. In addition, the geographical traceability of wines produced in the Serra Gaúcha (Rio Grande do Sul) was carried out by DD-SIMCA considering 53 samples from the target class and 20 from other producing regions. The fluorescence signal corresponds to 9 EEMs recorded at different pH (3-11), generating four-way data. By MCR-ALS decomposition, eight factors were retrieved and related to typical chemical compounds found in red wine. In addition, the EEM pH data was used to build a one-class classification model, considering that MCR scores and all samples of the target class were properly recognised as belonging to the target class, with maximal sensitivity equal to 1. Samples of the non-target class were also adequately rejected by the model, and the specificity was found to be 0.97.


Assuntos
Vinho/análise , Vinho/classificação , Brasil , Fluorescência , Geografia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Vinho/normas
18.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072101

RESUMO

The tannery industry is one of the economic sectors that contributes to the development of different countries. Globally, Europe and Asia are the main producers of this industry, although Latin America and Africa have been growing considerably in recent years. With this growth, the negative environmental impacts towards different ecosystem resources as a result of the discharges of recalcitrated pollutants, have led to different investigations to generate alternative solutions. Worldwide, different technologies have been studied to address this problem, biological and physicochemical processes have been widely studied, presenting drawbacks with some recalcitrant compounds. This review provides a context on the different existing technologies for the treatment of tannery wastewater, analyzing the physicochemical composition of this liquid waste, the impact it generates on human health and ecosystems and the advances in the different existing technologies, focusing on advanced oxidation processes and the use of microalgae. The coupling of advanced oxidation processes with biological processes, mainly microalgae, is seen as a viable biotechnological strategy, not only for the removal of pollutants, but also to obtain value-added products with potential use in the biorefining of the biomass.


Assuntos
Resíduos Industriais/análise , Microalgas/metabolismo , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Biocombustíveis , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Biomassa , Biotecnologia , Cianobactérias , Ecossistema , Eletroquímica , Geografia , Metais Pesados , Oxirredução , Oxigênio/química , Curtume , Purificação da Água/métodos
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(24)2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099556

RESUMO

Human Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) cases were detected primarily in the Middle East before a major outbreak occurred in South Korea in 2015. The Korean outbreak was initiated by a single infected individual, allowing studies of virus evolution in the absence of further MERS-CoV introduction into human populations. In contrast, MERS is primarily a camel disease on the Arabian Peninsula and in Africa, with clinical disease in humans only in the former location. Previous work identified two mutations in the South Korean MERS-CoV, D510G and I529T on the Spike (S) protein, that led to impaired binding to the receptor. However, whether these mutations affected virulence is unknown. To address this question, we constructed isogenic viruses expressing mutations found in the S protein from Korean isolates and showed that isogenic viruses carrying the Korean MERS-CoV mutations, D510G or I529T, were attenuated in mice, resulting in greater survival, less induction of inflammatory cytokines, and less severe lung injury. In contrast, isogenic viruses expressing S proteins from African isolates were nearly fully virulent; other studies showed that West African camel isolates carry mutations in MERS-CoV accessory proteins, which may limit human transmission. These data indicate that following a single-point introduction of the virus, MERS-CoV S protein evolved rapidly in South Korea to adapt to human populations, with consequences on virulence. In contrast, the mutations in S proteins of African isolates did not change virulence, indicating that S protein variation likely does not play a major role in the lack of camel-to-human transmission in Africa.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Geografia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Transgênicos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Mutação/genética , Temperatura , Virulência , Internalização do Vírus
20.
Mar Drugs ; 19(6)2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073964

RESUMO

Stonefish are regarded as one of the most venomous fish in the world. Research on stonefish venom has chiefly focused on the in vitro and in vivo neurological, cardiovascular, cytotoxic and nociceptive effects of the venom. The last literature review on stonefish venom was published over a decade ago, and much has changed in the field since. In this review, we have generated a global map of the current distribution of all stonefish (Synanceia) species, presented a table of clinical case reports and provided up-to-date information about the development of polyspecific stonefish antivenom. We have also presented an overview of recent advancements in the biomolecular composition of stonefish venom, including the analysis of transcriptomic and proteomic data from Synanceia horrida venom gland. Moreover, this review highlights the need for further research on the composition and properties of stonefish venom, which may reveal novel molecules for drug discovery, development or other novel physiological uses.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/terapia , Venenos de Peixe/envenenamento , Peixes Venenosos , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Venenos de Peixe/análise , Venenos de Peixe/química , Peixes Venenosos/fisiologia , Geografia , Humanos , Oceano Índico/epidemiologia , Doenças Neuromusculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Neuromusculares/etiologia , Doenças Neuromusculares/terapia , Oceano Pacífico/epidemiologia
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