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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(41): 1481-1484, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056954

RESUMO

Breast cancer among males in the United States is rare; approximately 2,300 new cases and 500 associated deaths were reported in 2017, accounting for approximately 1% of all breast cancers.* Risk for male breast cancer increases with increasing age (1), and compared with women, men receive diagnoses later in life and often at a later stage of disease (1). Gradual improvement in breast cancer survival from 1976-1985 to 1996-2005 has been more evident for women than for men (1). Studies examining survival differences among female breast cancer patients observed that non-Hispanic White (White) females had a higher survival than non-Hispanic Black (Black) females (2), but because of the rarity of breast cancer among males, few studies have examined survival differences by race or other factors such as age, stage, and geographic region. CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR)† data were used to examine relative survival of males with breast cancer diagnosed during 2007-2016 by race/ethnicity, age group, stage at diagnosis, and U.S. Census region. Among males who received a diagnosis of breast cancer during 2007-2016, 1-year relative survival was 96.1%, and 5-year relative survival was 84.7%. Among characteristics examined, relative survival varied most by stage at diagnosis: the 5-year relative survival for males was higher for cancers diagnosed at localized stage (98.7%) than for those diagnosed at distant stage (25.9%). Evaluation of 1-year and 5-year relative survival among males with breast cancer might help guide health care decisions regarding early detection of male breast cancer and establishing programs to support men at high risk for breast cancer and male breast cancer survivors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/mortalidade , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/patologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Zootaxa ; 4821(2): zootaxa.4821.2.1, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056319

RESUMO

The ant genus Prionopelta Mayr, 1866 is revised for the Neotropics. Morphological traits combined with geographical data led to the recognition of eight species, four of them described here as new: Prionopelta dubia sp. n., Prionopelta menininha sp. n., Prionopelta minuta sp. n., and Prionopelta tapatia sp. n. Prionopelta marthae Forel, 1909 is proposed as a new junior synonym of Prionopelta antillana Forel, 1909. External morphological descriptions of the worker caste for all species are provided, as well as for some of the males and queens, mostly described here for the first time. Identification keys for all known castes, distribution maps and high-resolution illustrations are supplied for all species.


Assuntos
Formigas , Animais , Geografia , Masculino , Fenótipo
3.
Zootaxa ; 4838(2): zootaxa.4838.2.6, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056825

RESUMO

Some regions, such as the Northeast Region of Brazil, are still severely understudied and the trichopteran fauna of this region is not entirely known, mainly in areas from Cerrado and Caatinga biomes. Currently, 25 species have been reported from Piauí State, but most of these records are concentrated from one locality. This study aimed to update the knowledge of Trichoptera diversity in this state, including the description of a new species and new geographic records for the Northeast region and Brazil. The samples were collected in seven municipalities, using various traps. Specimens were also received from the municipality of Bom Jesus. Thirty-two species were added for Trichoptera fauna of Piauí, 14 of these represent new records for Northeast Brazil; furthermore, Neotrichia palma Flint 1982 is a new record for Brazil. Additionally, a new species, Cernotina longa sp. nov., is describe and illustrate, being the third nominal record of the genus for the Caatinga biome. Thus, with the contribution of this study, 57 species, 20 genera and seven families of caddisflies are known for Piauí State.


Assuntos
Holometábolos , Insetos , Animais , Brasil , Geografia
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5071, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033235

RESUMO

Identifying species that are both geographically restricted and functionally distinct, i.e. supporting rare traits and functions, is of prime importance given their risk of extinction and their potential contribution to ecosystem functioning. We use global species distributions and functional traits for birds and mammals to identify the ecologically rare species, understand their characteristics, and identify hotspots. We find that ecologically rare species are disproportionately represented in IUCN threatened categories, insufficiently covered by protected areas, and for some of them sensitive to current and future threats. While they are more abundant overall in countries with a low human development index, some countries with high human development index are also hotspots of ecological rarity, suggesting transboundary responsibility for their conservation. Altogether, these results state that more conservation emphasis should be given to ecological rarity given future environmental conditions and the need to sustain multiple ecosystem processes in the long-term.


Assuntos
Aves/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Internacionalidade , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Animais , Geografia , Humanos , Camada de Gelo , Filogenia , Análise de Componente Principal , Especificidade da Espécie
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5085, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033250

RESUMO

Tibetan wheat is grown under environmental constraints at high-altitude conditions, but its underlying adaptation mechanism remains unknown. Here, we present a draft genome sequence of a Tibetan semi-wild wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. tibetanum Shao) accession Zang1817 and re-sequence 245 wheat accessions, including world-wide wheat landraces, cultivars as well as Tibetan landraces. We demonstrate that high-altitude environments can trigger extensive reshaping of wheat genomes, and also uncover that Tibetan wheat accessions accumulate high-altitude adapted haplotypes of related genes in response to harsh environmental constraints. Moreover, we find that Tibetan semi-wild wheat is a feral form of Tibetan landrace, and identify two associated loci, including a 0.8-Mb deletion region containing Brt1/2 homologs and a genomic region with TaQ-5A gene, responsible for rachis brittleness during the de-domestication episode. Our study provides confident evidence to support the hypothesis that Tibetan semi-wild wheat is de-domesticated from local landraces, in response to high-altitude extremes.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Altitude , Triticum/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Domesticação , Ecótipo , Genoma de Planta , Geografia , Metagenômica , Fenótipo , Análise de Componente Principal , Tibet , Triticum/genética
6.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 252(2): 159-168, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041315

RESUMO

The double burden of malnutrition is the coexistence of two different conditions, mainly reflected as excess or deficit in weight. Anemia is a specific nutritional deficit not always included in the double burden assessment. We reviewed overweight and/or obesity (OW/OB) and anemia studies from Latin-American Children over the last ten years up to 2019. Two authors evaluated the MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and LILACS databases. A scale of ten questions was used to assess the risk of bias in prevalence studies. Fourteen studies were selected. The population studies' size ranged from 147 to 20,342 children with different socio-economic backgrounds, such as urban, peri-urban and rural settings, socio-economic status, schooling, population (ethnic minorities and indigenous), and environmental differences (sea level or high altitude). The prevalence of OW/OB ranged from 4.9% to 42%. The prevalence of anemia was from 3.4% to 67%. The double burden, including OW/OB and anemia, ranged from 0.7% to 67%. A higher prevalence of excess weight and anemia was found in rural and high altitude above sea level environments, extreme poverty, low education level, and indigenous communities. These heterogeneous data, before the 2020 (COVID-19 pandemic), reflect the vast inequities between countries and within each country. Food insecurity linked to poverty and the induced change in eating habits and lifestyles threaten optimal child nutrition in ongoing and future scenarios. The existence of OW/OB and anemia and their simultaneous coexistence in the community, home, and individual levels, indicates that interventions should be comprehensive to face the double burden of malnutrition.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Geografia , Humanos , Lactente , América Latina , Prevalência , Publicações
7.
Zootaxa ; 4780(1): zootaxa.4780.1.6, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055759

RESUMO

This study presents an updated checklist of centipedes (Chilopoda) from Iran based on a review of the literature and recently examined specimens of Geophilomorpha collected from many sites in the Alborz Mountains. The centipedes of Iran comprise 48 species, of which 17 species have so far only been reported from Iran. Many species are known from a single locality, and only from specimens of a single sex. Species of the geophilomorph genera Clinopodes and Strigamia are here reported from Iran for the first time. The checklist includes all published geographical distribution data from Iran and a comparison with the centipede fauna of neighboring countries using the Jaccard index. The Iranian centipede fauna is still scantily known and further investigations are expected to contribute substantially, especially because of the diverse physiography of the country.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Animais , Geografia , Irã (Geográfico)
8.
Zootaxa ; 4845(3): zootaxa.4845.3.2, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056762

RESUMO

Two endemic taxa of the Northern Iberian System have been rescued from synonymy using the study of external morphology by means of morphometric analysis and genital anatomy. The causes that possibly led to these two taxa erroneously being identified as synonyms are analysed in this research. In the case of Nebria (Nebria) urbionensis versus Nebria (Nebria) vuillefroyi, their confused relationship was caused by the handling of incorrectly labelled specimens and the subsequent interpolation of distribution areas, which led to overestimating the extent of N. (N.) vuillefroyi to the detriment of recognizing N. (N.) urbionensis as a valid species. According to the criterion that is defended in this work, both taxa are steno-endemic and, therefore, deserve protection due to their reduced habitats. The principle of authority applied by experts, based on an error, may, in this case, have been amplified and contributed to chronify the error.                The second case under review is Zabrus (Iberozabrus) cameranus versus Zabrus (Iberozabrus) laurae, which in a recent study of genus Zabrus, were subjected to a totally unjustified synonymy. The origin of such a taxonomic decision must be sought in the concatenation of a series of errors: the number and origin of the specimens studied do not adequately justify the statements and conclusions expressed in the text, the use of a single character (internal sac of the aedeagus) while ignoring other morphological characters, an inadequate taxonomic praxis, and the elaboration of conclusions based on the lack of supposedly-derived characters (that is, relying on symplesiomorphies). All of this does not point towards an adequate reconstruction of the genus systematics.                The uni- and multivariate biometric study, together with the morphological features that are contributed in this work (added to those already recognized initially for these species), allow to affirm that, although the taxa in discussion are nearby species and possibly sister taxa, they are perfectly valid: Nebria (Nebria) urbionensis stat. res.; Zabrus (Iberozabrus) cameranus stat. res. In addition to the morphological differences, both species diverge respectively from N. (N.) vuillefroyi and Z. (I.) laurae by 2% of the COI 1 gene sequence. The geographical ranges of Nebria (N.) urbionensis and Zabrus (I.) cameranus are confined to the Sistema Ibérico Septentrional, and are separated by the high Duero Valley from the ranges of N. (N.) vuillefroyi and Z. (I.) laurae, which are located in the Central System.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Ecossistema , Europa (Continente) , Geografia
9.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 329, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The new Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which was first detected in Wuhan (China) in December of 2019 is responsible for the current global pandemic. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that it is similar to other betacoronaviruses, such as SARS-CoV and Middle-Eastern Respiratory Syndrome, MERS-CoV. Its genome is ∼ 30 kb in length and contains two large overlapping polyproteins, ORF1a and ORF1ab that encode for several structural and non-structural proteins. The non-structural protein 1 (nsp1) is arguably the most important pathogenic determinant, and previous studies on SARS-CoV indicate that it is both involved in viral replication and hampering the innate immune system response. Detailed experiments of site-specific mutagenesis and in vitro reconstitution studies determined that the mechanisms of action are mediated by (a) the presence of specific amino acid residues of nsp1 and (b) the interaction between the protein and the host's small ribosomal unit. In fact, substitution of certain amino acids resulted in reduction of its negative effects. METHODS: A total of 17,928 genome sequences were obtained from the GISAID database (December 2019 to July 2020) from patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 from different areas around the world. Genomes alignment was performed using MAFFT (REFF) and the nsp1 genomic regions were identified using BioEdit and verified using BLAST. Nsp1 protein of SARS-CoV-2 with and without deletion have been subsequently modelled using I-TASSER. RESULTS: We identified SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences, from several Countries, carrying a previously unknown deletion of 9 nucleotides in position 686-694, corresponding to the AA position 241-243 (KSF). This deletion was found in different geographical areas. Structural prediction modelling suggests an effect on the C-terminal tail structure. CONCLUSIONS: Modelling analysis of a newly identified deletion of 3 amino acids (KSF) of SARS-CoV-2 nsp1 suggests that this deletion could affect the structure of the C-terminal region of the protein, important for regulation of viral replication and negative effect on host's gene expression. In addition, substitution of the two amino acids (KS) from nsp1 of SARS-CoV was previously reported to revert loss of interferon-alpha expression. The deletion that we describe indicates that SARS-CoV-2 is undergoing profound genomic changes. It is important to: (i) confirm the spreading of this particular viral strain, and potentially of strains with other deletions in the nsp1 protein, both in the population of asymptomatic and pauci-symptomatic subjects, and (ii) correlate these changes in nsp1 with potential decreased viral pathogenicity.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Deleção de Sequência , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Frequência do Gene , Genoma Viral , Geografia , Humanos , Lisina/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenilalanina/genética , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Domínios Proteicos/genética , Serina/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Virulência/genética , Replicação Viral/genética
10.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 338, 2020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused the first coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China and has become a public health emergency of international concern. SARS-CoV-2 outbreak has been declared a pandemic by WHO on March 11th, 2020 and the same month several Countries put in place different lockdown restrictions and testing strategies in order to contain the spread of the virus. METHODS: The calculation of the Case Fatality Rate of SARS-CoV-2 in the Countries selected was made by using the data available at https://github.com/owid/covi-19-data/tree/master/public/data . Case fatality rate was calculated as the ratio between the death cases due to COVID-19, over the total number of SARS-CoV-2 reported cases 14 days before. Standard Case Fatality Rate values were normalized by the Country-specific ρ factor, i.e. the number of PCR tests/1 million inhabitants over the number of reported cases/1 million inhabitants. Case-fatality rates between Countries were compared using proportion test. Post-hoc analysis in the case of more than two groups was performed using pairwise comparison of proportions and p value was adjusted using Holm method. We also analyzed 487 genomic sequences from the GISAID database derived from patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 from January 2020 to April 2020 in Italy, Spain, Germany, France, Sweden, UK and USA. SARS-CoV-2 reference genome was obtained from the GenBank database (NC_045512.2). Genomes alignment was performed using Muscle and Jalview software. We, then, calculated the Case Fatality Rate of SARS-CoV-2 in the Countries selected. RESULTS: In this study we analyse how different lockdown strategies and PCR testing capability adopted by Italy, France, Germany, Spain, Sweden, UK and USA have influenced the Case Fatality Rate and the viral mutations spread. We calculated case fatality rates by dividing the death number of a specific day by the number of patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection observed 14 days before and normalized by a ρ factor which takes into account the diagnostic PCR testing capability of each Country and the number of positive cases detected. We notice the stabilization of a clear pattern of mutations at sites nt241, nt3037, nt14408 and nt23403. A novel nonsynonymous SARS-CoV-2 mutation in the spike protein (nt24368) has been found in genomes sequenced in Sweden, which enacted a soft lockdown strategy. CONCLUSIONS: Strict lockdown strategies together with a wide diagnostic PCR testing of the population were correlated with a relevant decline of the case fatality rate in different Countries. The emergence of specific patterns of mutations concomitant with the decline in case fatality rate needs further confirmation and their biological significance remains unclear.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Mutação/genética , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Genoma Viral , Geografia , Humanos , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Análise de Sequência de DNA
11.
J R Soc Interface ; 17(170): 20200518, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993434

RESUMO

We have analysed the COVID-19 epidemic data of more than 174 countries (excluding China) in the period between 22 January and 28 March 2020. We found that some countries (such as the USA, the UK and Canada) follow an exponential epidemic growth, while others (like Italy and several other European countries) show a power law like growth. Regardless of the best fitting law, many countries can be shown to follow a common trajectory that is similar to Italy (the epicentre at the time of analysis), but with varying degrees of delay. We found that countries with 'younger' epidemics, i.e. countries where the epidemic started more recently, tend to exhibit more exponential like behaviour, while countries that were closer behind Italy tend to follow a power law growth. We hypothesize that there is a universal growth pattern of this infection that starts off as exponential and subsequently becomes more power law like. Although it cannot be excluded that this growth pattern is a consequence of social distancing measures, an alternative explanation is that it is an intrinsic epidemic growth law, dictated by a spatially distributed community structure, where the growth in individual highly mixed communities is exponential but the longer term, local geographical spread (in the absence of global mixing) results in a power law. This is supported by computer simulations of a metapopulation model that gives rise to predictions about the growth dynamics that are consistent with correlations found in the epidemiological data. Therefore, seeing a deviation from straight exponential growth may be a natural progression of the epidemic in each country. On the practical side, this indicates that (i) even in the absence of strict social distancing interventions, exponential growth is not an accurate predictor of longer term infection spread, and (ii) a deviation from exponential spread and a reduction of estimated doubling times do not necessarily indicate successful interventions, which are instead indicated by a transition to a reduced power or by a deviation from power law behaviour.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Informática em Saúde Pública , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Coleta de Dados , Geografia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Cinética , Pandemias
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4556, 2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917883

RESUMO

Previous genetic studies have identified local population structure within the Netherlands; however their resolution is limited by use of unlinked markers and absence of external reference data. Here we apply advanced haplotype sharing methods (ChromoPainter/fineSTRUCTURE) to study fine-grained population genetic structure and demographic change across the Netherlands using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data (1,626 individuals) with associated geography (1,422 individuals). We identify 40 haplotypic clusters exhibiting strong north/south variation and fine-scale differentiation within provinces. Clustering is tied to country-wide ancestry gradients from neighbouring lands and to locally restricted gene flow across major Dutch rivers. North-south structure is temporally stable, with west-east differentiation more transient, potentially influenced by migrations during the middle ages. Despite superexponential population growth, regional demographic estimates reveal population crashes contemporaneous with the Black Death. Within Dutch and international data, GWAS incorporating fine-grained haplotypic covariates are less confounded than standard methods.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/genética , Genética Populacional , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise por Conglomerados , Emigração e Imigração , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Variação Genética/genética , Genoma , Geografia , Haplótipos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Genéticos , Países Baixos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
13.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 352, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding how HLA polymorphisms may affect both susceptibility, course and severity of Covid-19 infection could help both at the clinical level to identify individuals at higher risk from the disease and at the epidemiological one to explain the differences in the epidemic trend among countries or even within a specific country. Covid-19 disease in Italy showed a peculiar geographical distribution from the northern most affected regions to the southern ones only slightly touched. METHODS: In this study we analysed the regional frequencies for the most common Italian haplotypes from the Italian Bone Marrow Donor Registry (HLA-A, -B, -C and -DRB1 at four-digit level). Then we performed Pearson correlation analyses among regional haplotypes estimated frequency in the population and Covid-19 incidence and mortality. RESULTS: In this study we found that the two most frequent HLA haplotypes in the Italian population, HLA-A*:01:01g-B*08:01 g-C*07:01g-DRB1*03:01g and HLA-A*02.01g-B*18.01g-C*07.01g-DRB1*11.04g, had a regional distribution overlapping that of Covid-19 and showed respectively a positive (suggestive of susceptibility) and negative (suggestive of protection) significant correlation with both Covid-19 incidence and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these results, in order to define such HLA haplotypes as a factor effectively associated to the disease susceptibility, the creation of national networks that can collect patients' samples from all regions for HLA typing should be highly encouraged.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Antígenos HLA/genética , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genética Populacional , Geografia , Antígenos HLA-A/genética , Antígenos HLA-B/genética , Antígenos HLA-C/genética , Cadeias HLA-DRB1/genética , Haplótipos , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
14.
Hawaii J Health Soc Welf ; 79(9): 268-271, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914093

RESUMO

Infections with the SARS-CoV-2 virus are increasing in Hawai'i at alarming rates. In the absence of a SARS-CoV-2 virus vaccine, the options for control include social distancing, improved hygiene, and face mask use. There is evidence that mask use may decrease the rates of viral transmission. The rate of effective face mask use has not yet been established in Hawai'i. The authors performed an observational study at 2 locations in Honolulu and evaluated outdoor face mask use compliance in 200 people. Simultaneous observations were performed in a downtown Honolulu business area and in Waikiki, an area focusing on tourism. Overall, 77% of all subjects used face masks in an appropriate fashion, covering their nose and mouth, while 23% were either incorrectly masked or not masked. The rate of compliance with correct public mask use in downtown Honolulu (88%) was significantly higher than in Waikiki (66%) (P=.0003, Odds Ratio [95% Confidence Interval]=3.78 [1.82, 7.85]) These findings suggest that there are opportunities for improvement in rates of public face mask use and a potential decrease in the spread of COVID-19 in our population. Four proposed actions are suggested, including a reassessment of the face mask exemption requirements, enhanced mask compliance education, non-threatening communication for non-compliance, and centralization of information of the public compliance with face mask use.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Política Pública , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Geografia , Hawaii/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e21896, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925724

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the differences in antibiotic usage patterns in the treatment of acute pyelonephritis according to hospital type and region in Korea.The claims database of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service in Korea was used to select patients with the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision code N10 (acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis) or N12 (tubulo-interstitial nephritis, neither acute nor chronic) as the primary discharge diagnosis in 2010-2014. Usage of each class of antibiotics was expressed as the defined daily dose (DDD)/event.The average antibiotic usage per inpatient event was 11.3 DDD. The average antibiotic usage was the highest among patients admitted to tertiary hospitals (13.8 DDD), followed by those admitted to secondary hospitals (11.5 DDD), clinics (10.0 DDD), and primary hospitals (9.8 DDD). According to the geographic analyses, third-generation cephalosporins were highly prescribed in some southern regions; fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides were highly prescribed in some centrally located regions of the Korean peninsula. The hotspots for carbapenem usage included Seoul and Gyeonggi province cluster and Busan cluster: these regions include the capital city and the second biggest city in Korea, respectively.In conclusion, the antibiotic usage patterns for acute pyelonephritis in Korea differ according to the hospital type and region.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Pielonefrite/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Aminoglicosídeos/uso terapêutico , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Fluoroquinolonas/uso terapêutico , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Centros de Cuidados de Saúde Secundários/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Am J Bot ; 107(9): 1283-1295, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930404

RESUMO

PREMISE: The Sphagnum recurvum complex comprises a group of closely related peat mosses that are dominant components of many northern wetland ecosystems. Taxonomic hypotheses for the group range from interpreting the whole complex as one polymorphic species to distinguishing 6-10 species. The complex occurs throughout the Northern Hemisphere, and some of the putative species have intercontinental ranges. Our goals were to delimit the complex and assess its phylogenetic structure in relation to morphologically defined species and intercontinental geography. METHODS: RADseq analyses were applied to a sample of 384 collections from Europe, North America, and Asia. The data were subjected to maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses and analyses of genetic structure using the software STRUCTURE and multivariate ordination approaches. RESULTS: The S. recurvum complex includes S. angustifolium, S. fallax, S. flexuosum, S. pacificum, and S. recurvum as clades with little evidence of admixture. We also resolved an unnamed clade that is referred to here as S. "pseudopacificum." We confirm that S. balticum and S. obtusum are nested within the complex. Species with bluntly acute to obtuse stem leaf apices are sister to those with acute to apiculate leaves. Most of the species exhibit some differentiation between intraspecific population systems disjunct on different continents. CONCLUSIONS: We recognize seven species in the amended S. recurvum complex, including S. balticum and S. obtusum, in addition to the informal clade S. "pseudopacificum." Although we detected some geographically correlated phylogenetic structure within widespread morphospecies, our RADseq data support the interpretation that these species have intercontinental geographic ranges.


Assuntos
Briófitas , Sphagnopsida , Ásia , Ecossistema , Europa (Continente) , Geografia , América do Norte , Filogenia
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 700, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first detected in China at the end of 2019 and it has since spread in few months all over the World. Italy was one of the first Western countries who faced the health emergency and is one of the countries most severely affected by the pandemic. The diffusion of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Italy has followed a peculiar spatial pattern, however the attention of the scientific community has so far focussed almost exclusively on the prediction of the evolution of the disease over time. METHODS: Official freely available data about the number of infected at the finest possible level of spatial areal aggregation (Italian provinces) are used to model the spatio-temporal distribution of COVID-19 infections at local level. An endemic-epidemic time-series mixed-effects generalized linear model for areal disease counts has been implemented to understand and predict spatio-temporal diffusion of the phenomenon. RESULTS: Three subcomponents characterize the fitted model. The first describes the transmission of the illness within provinces; the second accounts for the transmission between nearby provinces; the third is related to the evolution of the disease over time. At the local level, the provinces first concerned by containment measures are those that are not affected by the effects of spatial neighbours. On the other hand, the component accounting for the spatial interaction with surrounding areas is prevalent for provinces that are strongly involved by contagions. Moreover, the proposed model provides good forecasts for the number of infections at local level while controlling for delayed reporting. CONCLUSIONS: A strong evidence is found that strict control measures implemented in some provinces efficiently break contagions and limit the spread to nearby areas. While containment policies may potentially be more effective if planned considering the peculiarities of local territories, the effective and homogeneous enforcement of control measures at national level is needed to prevent the disease control being delayed or missed as a whole. This may also apply at international level where, as it is for the European Union or the United States, the internal border checks among states have largely been abolished.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Geografia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Modelos Lineares , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Arch Virol ; 165(11): 2555-2560, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880019

RESUMO

Since the first official report of the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infections in the city of Qom in mid-February, Iran has become the country most affected by the COVID-19 epidemic in the Middle East. All Iranian provinces are now affected, although to a different extent. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the distance from the epicenter of the infection (Qom) or demographic factors such as population density and the ratio of the elderly population are associated with the incidence of COVID-19 in different Iranian provinces. For the purpose of determining whether the distance from the virus epicenter could be associated with the spread of infection, linear regression analysis was performed using STATA 12.0 software. The association of the incidence of COVID-19 with the population density and the ratio of the population over 65 years old in 31 Iranian provinces was also evaluated. According to our results, a strong association was found between the incidence of COVID-19 in Iranian provinces and their respective distance from Qom (p < 0.001; C = -0.68). The incidence of COVID-19 in Iranian provinces was also positively associated with the ratio of the population over 65 years old (p = 0.002; C = 0.53), while no significant association with population density was found (p = 0.39; C = 0.16). These results suggest that the implementation of travel restrictions from highly affected areas to other provinces could considerably reduce the rate of transmission of the disease throughout the country. Also, provinces with a higher proportion of elderly people (over 65) were identified as particularly at risk for the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infections. These results will contribute to better management of the COVID-19 outbreak in Iran, taking into account demographic and geographic characteristics of different provinces.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Geografia , Humanos , Incidência , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Densidade Demográfica , Viagem
19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237725, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886665

RESUMO

Technological developments in recent decades have increased young people's engagement with screen-based technologies (screen time), and a reduction in young people's contact with nature (green time) has been observed concurrently. This combination of high screen time and low green time may affect mental health and well-being. The aim of this systematic scoping review was to collate evidence assessing associations between screen time, green time, and psychological outcomes (including mental health, cognitive functioning, and academic achievement) for young children (<5 years), schoolchildren (5-11 years), early adolescents (12-14 years), and older adolescents (15-18 years). Original quantitative studies were identified in four databases (PubMed, PsycInfo, Scopus, Embase), resulting in 186 eligible studies. A third of included studies were undertaken in Europe and almost as many in the United States. The majority of studies were cross-sectional (62%). In general, high levels of screen time appeared to be associated with unfavourable psychological outcomes while green time appeared to be associated with favourable psychological outcomes. The ways screen time and green time were conceptualised and measured were highly heterogeneous, limiting the ability to synthesise the literature. The preponderance of cross-sectional studies with broadly similar findings, despite heterogeneous exposure measures, suggested results were not artefacts. However, additional high-quality longitudinal studies and randomised controlled trials are needed to make a compelling case for causal relationships. Different developmental stages appeared to shape which exposures and outcomes were salient. Young people from low socioeconomic backgrounds may be disproportionately affected by high screen time and low green time. Future research should distinguish between passive and interactive screen activities, and incidental versus purposive exposure to nature. Few studies considered screen time and green time together, and possible reciprocal psychological effects. However, there is preliminary evidence that green time could buffer consequences of high screen time, therefore nature may be an under-utilised public health resource for youth psychological well-being in a high-tech era.


Assuntos
Natureza , Psicologia , Tempo de Tela , Adolescente , Criança , Geografia , Humanos , Idioma , Publicações , Fatores Socioeconômicos
20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237931, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911494

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We conducted an implementation science study to increase TB case detection through a combination of interventions at health facility and community levels. We determined the impact of the study in terms of additional cases detected and notification rate and compared the yield of bacteriologically confirmed TB of facility based and community based case finding. METHODOLOGY: Over a period of 18 months, similar case finding activities were conducted at George health facility in Lusaka Zambia and its catchment community, an informal peri-urban settlement. Activities included awareness and demand creation activities, TB screening with digital chest x-ray or symptom screening, sputum evaluation using geneXpert MTB/RIF, TB diagnosis and linkage to treatment. RESULTS: A total of 18,194 individuals were screened of which 9,846 (54.1%) were screened at the facility and 8,348 (45.9%) were screened in the community. The total number of TB cases diagnosed during the intervention period were 1,026, compared to 759 in the pre-intervention period; an additional 267 TB cases were diagnosed. Of the 563 bacteriologically confirmed TB cases diagnosed under the study, 515/563 (91.5%) and 48/563 (8.5%) were identified at the facility and in the community respectively (P<0.0001). The TB notification rate increased from 246 per 100,000 population pre-intervention to 395 per 100,000 population in the last year of the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Facility active case finding was more effective in detecting TB cases than community active case finding. Strengthening health systems to appropriately identify and evaluate patients for TB needs to be optimised in high burden settings. At a minimum, provider initiated TB symptom screening with completion of the TB screening and diagnostic cascade should be provided at the health facility in high burden settings. Community screening needs to be systematic and targeted at high risk groups and communities with access barriers.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Instalações de Saúde , Características de Residência , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Tuberculose/classificação , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
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