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1.
Geospat Health ; 19(1)2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38357855

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death in Michigan. Most patients are diagnosed at advanced stages of the disease. There is a need to detect clusters of lung cancer incidence over time, to generate new hypotheses about causation and identify high-risk areas for screening and treatment. The Michigan Cancer Surveillance database of individual lung cancer cases, 1985 to 2018 was used for this study. Spatial and spatiotemporal clusters of lung cancer and level of disease (localized, regional and distant) were detected using discrete Poisson spatial scan statistics at the zip code level over the study time period. The approach detected cancer clusters in cities such as Battle Creek, Sterling Heights and St. Clair County that occurred prior to year 2000 but not afterwards. In the northern area of the lower peninsula and the upper peninsula clusters of late-stage lung cancer emerged after year 2000. In Otter Lake Township and southwest Detroit, late-stage lung cancer clusters persisted. Public and patient education about lung cancer screening programs must remain a health priority in order to optimize lung cancer surveillance. Interventions should also involve programs such as telemedicine to reduce advanced stage disease in remote areas. In cities such as Detroit, residents often live near industry that emits air pollutants. Future research should therefore, continue to focus on the geography of lung cancer to uncover place-based risks and in response, the need for screening and health care services.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Michigan/epidemiologia , Incidência , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Geografia , Análise Espaço-Temporal
2.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0297029, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363764

RESUMO

Affected by global warming, the permafrost in Northeast China (NEC) has been continuously degrading in recent years. Many researchers have focused on the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of permafrost in NEC, however, few studies have delved into the field scale. In this study, based on the Optimal Parameters-based Geographical Detector (OPGD) model and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) test, the spatial stratified heterogeneity of permafrost distribution and the indicating performance of environmental variables on permafrost in NEC at the field scale were analyzed. Permafrost spatial distribution data were obtained from the Engineering Geological Investigation Reports (EGIR) of six highways located in NEC and a total of 19 environmental variables related to heat transfer, vegetation, soil, topography, moisture, and ecology were selected. The H-factors (variables with the highest contribution in factor detector results and interaction detector results): slope position (γ), surface frost number (SFN), elevation (DEM), topographic diversity (TD), and annual snow cover days (ASCD) were found to be the major contributors to the distribution of permafrost at the field scale. Among them, γ has the highest contribution and is a special explanatory variable for permafrost. In most cases, interaction can improve the impact of variables, especially the interaction between H-factors. The risk of permafrost decreases with the increase of TD, RN, and SBD, and increases with the increase of SFN. The performance of SFN to indicate permafrost distribution was found to be the best among all variables (AUC = 0.7063). There is spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of permafrost on highways in different spatial locations. This study summarized the numerical and spatial location between permafrost and different environmental variables at the field scale, and many results were found to be informative for environmental studies and engineering construction in NEC.


Assuntos
Pergelissolo , Solo , Geografia , Análise Espacial , China
3.
J Evol Biol ; 37(2): 248-255, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302071

RESUMO

Ecology and geography can play important roles in the evolution of reproductive isolation across the speciation continuum, but few studies address both at the later stages of speciation. This notable gap in knowledge arises from the fact that traditional ecological speciation studies have predominantly focused on the role of ecology in initiating the speciation process, while many studies exploring the effect of geography (e.g., reinforcement) concentrate on species pairs that lack divergent ecological characteristics. We simultaneously examine the strength of habitat isolation and sexual isolation among three closely related species of Belonocnema gall-forming wasps on two species of live oaks, Quercus virginiana and Q. geminata, that experience divergent selection from their host plants and variable rates of migration due to their geographic context. We find that the strength of both habitat isolation and sexual isolation is lowest among allopatric species pairs with the same host plant association, followed by allopatric species with different host plant associations, and highest between sympatric species with different host-plant associations. This pattern suggests that divergent selection due to different host use interacts with geography in the evolution of habitat isolation and sexual isolation during the later stages of speciation of Belonocnema wasps.


Assuntos
Vespas , Animais , Ecossistema , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Geografia , Plantas , Especiação Genética
4.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2014): 20232583, 2024 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38196361

RESUMO

Predator-induced changes in prey foraging can influence community dynamics by increasing the abundance of basal resources via a trait-mediated trophic cascade. The strength of these cascades may be altered by eco-evolutionary relationships between predators and prey, but the role of basal resources has received limited attention. We hypothesized that trait-mediated trophic cascade strength may be shaped by selection from trophic levels above and below prey. Field and laboratory experiments used snails (Nucella lapillus) from two regions in the Gulf of Maine (GoM) that vary in basal resource availability (e.g. mussels), seawater temperature, and contact history with the invasive green crab, Carcinus maenas. In field and laboratory experiments, Nucella from both regions foraged on mussels in the presence or absence of green crab risk cues. In the field, Nucella from the northern GoM, where mussels are scarce, were less responsive to risk cues and more responsive to seawater temperature than southern Nucella. In the lab, however, northern Nucella foraged and grew more than southern snails in the presence of risk, but foraging and growth were similar in the absence of risk. We suggest that adaptation to basal resource availability may shape geographical variation in the strength of trait-mediated trophic cascades.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Sinais (Psicologia) , Geografia , Laboratórios
5.
Braz Oral Res ; 38: e012, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38198310

RESUMO

To plan and evaluate public health policies, it is important to understand the influence of social factors on the quality and access to dental care. This study aimed to verify the potential association between the indicators of pregnant women receiving dental care and the social and health care indicators of cities in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. A cross-sectional ecological study was performed with secondary data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and the Health Care Department of the Ministry of Health regarding the cities of Minas Gerais. The study analyzed three health care indicators (such as more than six prenatal, the proportion of syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus tests, and oral health coverage) and four social indicators (average monthly wage, illiteracy rate, proportion of employed population, and rate of adequate sanitary sewerage). Bivariate analysis (Mann-Whitney test) and logistic regression were performed using Jamovi software. All of the indicators analyzed were associated with the access of pregnant women to dental care. However, in the regression models, only health care indicators remained statistically significant. Thus, although social indicators are associated with the access of pregnant women to dental appointments, access to primary health care and the teamwork of primary health care teams may overcome social inequality in the access of pregnant women to dental care.


Assuntos
Gestantes , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Brasil , Cidades , Geografia
6.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0295043, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38232071

RESUMO

Crop-to-wild gene flow is a mechanism process widely documented, both in plants and animals. This can have positive or negative impacts on the evolution of admixed populations in natural environments, yet the phenomenon is still misunderstood in long-lived woody species, contrary to short-lived crops. Wild olive Olea europaea L. occurs in the same eco-geographical range as domesticated olive, i.e. the Mediterranean Basin (MB). Moreover, it is an allogamous and anemophilous species whose seeds are disseminated by birds, i.e. factors that drive gene flow between crops and their wild relatives. Here we investigated the genetic structure of western MB wild olive populations in natural environments assuming a homogenous gene pool with limited impact of cultivated alleles, as previously suggested. We used a target sequencing method based on annotated genes from the Farga reference genome to analyze 27 western MB olive tree populations sampled in natural environments in France, Spain and Morocco. We also target sequenced cultivated olive tree accessions from the Worldwide Olive Germplasm Bank of Marrakech and Porquerolles and from an eastern MB wild olive tree population. We combined PCA, sNMF, pairwise FST and TreeMix and clearly identified genuine wild olive trees throughout their natural distribution range along a north-south gradient including, for the first time, in southern France. However, contrary to our assumption, we highlighted more admixed than genuine wild olive trees. Our results raise questions regarding the admixed population evolution pattern in this environment, which might be facilitated by crop-to-wild gene flow.


Assuntos
Olea , Olea/genética , Geografia , Marrocos , Fluxo Gênico , Genômica , Variação Genética
7.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 24(1): 1, 2024 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38163884

RESUMO

Habitat niches of fish species can exert a strong influence on population structure, even on a small geographical scale. In this scope, Pelasgus thesproticus is a great model species to study connectivity in riverine environments owing to its naturally patchy habitat distribution. Furthermore, it is important to conduct such studies in near-natural systems to avoid the impact of human disturbances on the river, such as fragmentation, morphological changes and habitat degradation. In this sense, the Vjosa in Albania is an excellent study area. A total of 204 individuals were sampled from five locations in the lower Vjosa and two tributaries and genotyped with 33 newly designed microsatellites loci using high throughput sequencing. The application of microsatellite genotyping by sequencing revealed genetic structure and some differentiation, even at a small spatial scale (< 65 river km). A total of 500 alleles were found with an average of 0.93 private alleles among sites with rather low FST values (< 0.04). The extent of admixture observed in some populations indicate that the genetic structure is mainly influenced by upstream populations, either from the main river itself or from tributaries. In addition, the connection between a tributary and the other sites is disrupted by the flow regime, which is reflected in a high degree of divergence from the other populations. Our results indicate that hydrological conditions of the flowing river present strong barriers to gene flow, particularly in the upstream direction, but at the same time act as dispersal corridors in the downstream direction and exhibit source-sink dynamics in which upstream populations contribute disproportionately to downstream populations for this habitat specialist along the river. It is suggested that processes of colonization and reinforcement may play an important role in shaping the genetic structure of patchily distributed fish species in natural river systems. Future studies should increase the knowledge of dispersal factors, habitat heterogeneity, consequence of source-sink dynamics, and gene flow within the system, which will help to understand and maintain important processes related to metapopulation theory and the potential evolutionary consequences of habitat loss and fragmentation.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Peixes , Humanos , Animais , Genótipo , Peixes/genética , Geografia , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética
8.
Zootaxa ; 5397(4): 521-538, 2024 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38221187

RESUMO

The main object of this study is to make contributions to the Staphylininae (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) fauna of Trkiye with additional records from tribes Othiini and Xantholinini and a new species of Xantholinus Dejean, 1821. Examined material was composed of specimens collected from the Aegean Region between 20192022. A total of 18 species were recorded, belonging to nine genera and two tribes. Three of these are new records for Aegean Region. Furthermore, a new species, Xantholinus (Calolinus) manisaensis sp. n., is described from Manisa province. Description of the new species, photographs of habitus, genital segment and aedeagus as well as a differential diagnosis are also provided. The global distributions of the above species are included, and the zoogeographic status of each species is discussed. Previous records from the study area are compared to and evaluated with our findings. The majority of the collected species were European and Asian in distribution, reflecting the regional character and geographical position of Trkiye. It can be concluded that climate change has negatively affected biodiversity and with species loss as a possible result.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Distribuição Animal , Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Geografia
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 913: 169790, 2024 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38181958

RESUMO

Aquaponics has witnessed global proliferation and a notable enhancement in sustainability in recent years. Consequently, it assumes paramount importance to delineate optimal locations for its implementation, in fact, the success of an aquaponic facility also depends on its geographical placement, necessitating consideration of many variables encompassing natural resources, socioeconomic factors, infrastructural availability and environmental constraints, whether natural or artificial. This paper focuses on the definition and test in the Emilia-Romagna region (Italy) of a GIS-based multi-criteria land suitability assessment model aimed at allowing the diffusion and environmental integration of innovative integrated multi-trophic aquaponic systems. The process has been implemented with a Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) model, where decisions and criteria were selected via a participatory mechanism involving experts in various fields. The region has been subdivided into 50 × 50 m grid cells, with each grid cell being associated with a value ranging from 0 to 8. In this context, a rating of 0 means unsuitability, while a rating of 1 denotes minimal suitability, and the highest rating of 8 designates maximal suitability. Notably, a substantial portion of the surveyed territory has been found to be completely unsuitable for the establishment of aquaponic facilities. More than 86.4% of the remaining suitable areas were rated 6, 7, or 8, affirming the overall favourability of the Emilia-Romagna region for aquaponic installations. Finally, the veracity and robustness of the results have been tested through a one-at-a-time sensitivity analysis, that has proven the appropriateness of the proposed model.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Geografia , Recursos Naturais , Itália
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 1496, 2024 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38233479

RESUMO

Plant image analysis is a significant tool for plant phenotyping. Image analysis has been used to assess plant trails, forecast plant growth, and offer geographical information about images. The area segmentation and counting of the leaf is a major component of plant phenotyping, which can be used to measure the growth of the plant. Therefore, this paper developed a convolutional neural network-based leaf counting model called LC-Net. The original plant image and segmented leaf parts are fed as input because the segmented leaf part provides additional information to the proposed LC-Net. The well-known SegNet model has been utilised to obtain segmented leaf parts because it outperforms four other popular Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) models, namely DeepLab V3+, Fast FCN with Pyramid Scene Parsing (PSP), U-Net, and Refine Net. The proposed LC-Net is compared to the other recent CNN-based leaf counting models over the combined Computer Vision Problems in Plant Phenotyping (CVPPP) and KOMATSUNA datasets. The subjective and numerical evaluations of the experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the LC-Net to other tested models.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Redes Neurais de Computação , Geografia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Folhas de Planta
11.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0293312, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38236902

RESUMO

Contagious ecthyma is a skin disease, caused by Orf virus, creating great economic threats to livestock farming worldwide. Zoonotic potential of this disease has gained recent attention owing to the re-emergence of disease in several parts of the world. Increased public health concern emphasizes the need for a predictive understanding of the geographic distributional potential of Orf virus. Here, we mapped the current distribution using occurrence records, and estimated the ecological niche in both geographical and environmental spaces. Twenty modeling experiments, resulting from two- and three-partition models, were performed to choose the candidate models that best represent the geographic distributional potential of Orf virus. For all of our models, it was possible to reject the null hypothesis of predictive performance no better than random expectations. However, statistical significance must be accompanied by sufficiently good predictive performance if a model is to be useful. In our case, omission of known distribution of the virus was noticed in all Maxent models, indicating inferior quality of our models. This conclusion was further confirmed by the independent final evaluation, using occurrence records sourced from the Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International. Minimum volume ellipsoid (MVE) models indicated the broad range of environmental conditions under which Orf virus infections are found. The excluded climatic conditions from MVEs could not be considered as unsuitable owing to the broad distribution of Orf virus. These results suggest two possibilities: that the niche models fail to identify niche limits that constrain the virus, or that the virus has no detectable niche, as it can be found throughout the geographic distributions of its hosts. This potential limitation of component-based pathogen-only ENMs is discussed in detail.


Assuntos
Ectima Contagioso , Vírus do Orf , Poxviridae , Ovinos , Animais , Ecossistema , Geografia
12.
Acta Trop ; 251: 107117, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38184291

RESUMO

Drivers for wildlife infection are multiple and complex, particularly for vector-borne diseases. Here, we studied the role of host competence, geographic area provenance, and diversity of vector-host interactions as drivers of wild mammal infection risk to Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease. We performed a systematic sampling of wild mammals in 11 states of Mexico, from 2017 to 2018. We tested the positivity of T. cruzi with the Tc24 marker in tissues samples for 61 wild mammal species (524 specimens sampled). 26 mammal species were positive for T. cruzi, of which 11 are new hosts recorded in Mexico 75 specimens were positive and 449 were negative for T. cruzi infection, yielding an overall prevalence of 14.3%. The standardized infection risk of T. cruzi of our examined specimens was similar, no matter the host species or their geographic origins. Additionally, we used published data of mammal positives for T. cruzi to complement records of T. cruzi infection in wild mammals and inferred a trophic network of Triatoma spp. (vectors) and wild mammal species in Mexico, using spatial data-mining modelling. Infection with T. cruzi was not homogeneously distributed in the inferred trophic network. This information allowed us to develop a predictive model for T. cruzi infection risk for wild mammals in Mexico, considering risk as a function of the diversity of vector-host spatial associations in a large-scale geographic context, finding that the addition of competent vectors to a multi-host parasite system amplifies host infection risk. The diversity of vector-host interactions per se constitutes a relevant driver of infection risk because hosts and vectors are not isolated from each other.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Triatoma , Trypanosoma cruzi , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/veterinária , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Triatoma/parasitologia , Mamíferos/parasitologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Geografia
13.
Food Chem ; 441: 138283, 2024 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38185048

RESUMO

Hongyuan yak milk is a protected geographical indication (PGI) product of rich nutritional value, which is popular among consumers. Stable isotope ratio analysis (SIRA) is an effective way to protect the authenticity of the geographical origin of PGI products, and it is crucial to study the factors affecting stable isotopes. Firstly, we proved that the SIRA could be used to identify the geographical origin of Hongyuan yak milk, and that the identification accuracy in combination with δ13C and δ18O was 100 %. Secondly, we analyzed the effect of sampling selection on the stable isotopes of Hongyuan yak milk in practical applications, which showed that sampling time influenced the δ13C, δ2H, and δ18O, while the sampling locations did not. There were interactions between the effect of sampling time and location on δ2H and δ18O. These results provide a reliable method for identifying PGI products and also provide new guidance on sampling models.


Assuntos
Isótopos , Leite , Animais , Bovinos , Leite/química , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise , Isótopos/análise , Geografia , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise
14.
Food Chem ; 441: 138294, 2024 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38218156

RESUMO

This study compares two data processing techniques (fingerprinting and untargeted profiling) to authenticate hazelnut cultivar and provenance based on its unsaponifiable fraction by GC-MS. PLS-DA classification models were developed on a selected sample set (n = 176). As test cases, cultivar models were developed for "Tonda di Giffoni" vs other cultivars, whereas provenance models were developed for three origins (Chile, Italy or Spain). Both fingerprinting and untargeted profiling successfully classified hazelnuts by cultivar or provenance, revealing the potential of the unsaponifiable fraction. External validation provided over 90 % correct classification, with fingerprinting slightly outperforming. Analysing PLS-DA models' regression coefficients and tentatively identifying compounds corresponding to highly relevant variables showed consistent agreement in key discriminant compounds across both approaches. However, fingerprinting in selected ion mode extracted slightly more information from chromatographic data, including minor discriminant species. Conversely, untargeted profiling acquired in full scan mode, provided pure spectra, facilitating chemical interpretability.


Assuntos
Corylus , Corylus/química , Estudos Prospectivos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Geografia , Itália , Análise Discriminante
15.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0295426, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38266003

RESUMO

This study utilizes panel data from 30 provinces in mainland China from 2011 to 2020 to investigate the impact of carbon-neutral development on economic high-quality development by constructing an economic high-quality development index and a carbon-neutral development index. Firstly, the study examines the effects of carbon-neutral development on economic high-quality development using baseline regression and spatial Durbin regression. The results indicate that carbon-neutral development has a positive direct effect on economic high-quality growth, but there are negative spatial spillover effects. Secondly, this study employs total factor productivity (TFP) as an intermediate variable in the mediation model regression. The findings demonstrate that carbon-neutral development significantly improves TFP, and the significant improvement in TFP promotes high-quality economic growth. Lastly, the study conducts regional heterogeneity analysis and finds a significant promoting effect of carbon-neutral development on economic high-quality development in the eastern and central regions of China, while it is not significant in the western region. Therefore, it is recommended that China, in the process of achieving carbon-neutral growth, consider the geographical connections between different regions to prevent negative spillover effects. Additionally, regional heterogeneity should be taken into account when formulating relevant policies to promote economic high-quality development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Condições Sociais , Carbono , China , Geografia
16.
BMJ Open ; 14(1): e074364, 2024 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38195168

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: People having close contact with drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) patients are at increased risk of contracting and developing the disease. However, no comprehensive review has been undertaken to estimate the burden of DR-TB among contacts of DR-TB patients. Therefore, the current systematic review will quantify the prevalence and incidence of DR-TB among contacts of DR-TB patients. METHOD AND ANALYSIS: Systematic searches will be conducted in Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials (CENTRAL) and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINHAL) databases. The search will be conducted without restrictions on time, language and geography. A random-effects meta-analysis will be conducted for effect estimates. The pooled prevalence and incidence of DR-TB will be compared between people with and without contact with DR-TB patients. The presence of heterogeneity between studies will be assessed by Higgins I2 statistics. Subgroup analysis will be conducted to determine the source of heterogeneity. The risk of bias will be assessed using a visual inspection of the funnel plot and Egger's regression test statistics. Trim and fill analysis will be done in the presence of publication bias. A sensitivity analysis will be conducted by trimming low-quality studies. The systematic review will be reported according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocol guidelines. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval will not be required for this study as it will be a systematic review and meta-analysis based on previously published evidence. The findings of the systematic review will be presented at scientific conferences and published in scientific journals. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION: The protocol is published in PROSPERO with registration number CRD42023390339.


Assuntos
Idioma , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Humanos , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Bases de Dados Factuais , Geografia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Metanálise como Assunto
17.
BMJ Open ; 14(1): e075316, 2024 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38238180

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Uterine adenomyosis is a benign gynaecological disease that causes physical and psychological problems, impacting on relationships. It is poorly understood and consequently may be diagnosed late. This protocol describes the process of conducting a systematic scoping review to retrieve and describe literature examining the daily experience and impact of living with uterine adenomyosis. It will explore the journey to diagnosis (and perceptions of what this process is like); identify the main concepts currently used in the literature and highlight gaps in knowledge for future research in relevant populations. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Using the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology, the population-concept-context approach is used to form clear review questions. A three-phase search strategy will locate published and unpublished evidence from multiple sources. All articles reporting on the personal experiences of women diagnosed with uterine adenomyosis will be considered. Findings from qualitative, quantitative and mixed-method study designs from all settings will be included, not limited by geography but restricted to English. Documents will be screened by the primary researcher, supported by university supervisors. Search outputs will be presented using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2020 flow diagram. No formal quality appraisal will be conducted. Review findings will be descriptively collated and reported consistent with the Scoping Review Extension of the PRISMA checklist. Patient and public involvement engagement reflected a positive response for the project that this protocol supports. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: As primary data will not be collected, formal ethical approval is not required. Prepared as part of a professional doctorate thesis, the findings of this study will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publications, conference presentations, support groups and social media networks.


Assuntos
Adenomiose , Humanos , Feminino , Adenomiose/diagnóstico , Academias e Institutos , Lista de Checagem , Geografia , Conhecimento , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
18.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0293752, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38241216

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic's uneven impact on subnational regions highlights the importance of understanding its local-level mortality impact. Vital statistics are available for an increasing number of countries for 2020, 2021, and 2022, facilitating the computation of subnational excess mortality and a more comprehensive assessment of its burden. However, this calculation faces two important methodological challenges: it requires appropriate mortality projection models; and small populations imply considerable, though commonly neglected, uncertainty in the estimates. We address both issues using a method to forecast mortality at the subnational level, which incorporates uncertainty in the computation of mortality measures. We illustrate our approach by examining French départements (NUTS 3 regions, or 95 geographical units), and produce sex-specific estimates for 2020. This approach is highly flexible, allowing one to estimate excess mortality during COVID-19 in most demographic scenarios and for past pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Incerteza , Carga Global da Doença , Geografia , Mortalidade
19.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2015): 20231760, 2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38290543

RESUMO

Understanding how the abundance of species varies across geographical ranges is central to ecology; however, few studies test hypotheses using detailed abundance estimates across the full ranges of species on a continental scale. Here, we use unprecedented, detailed estimates of breeding abundance for North American birds (eBird) to test two hypotheses for how abundance varies across species' ranges. We find widespread support for the rare-edge hypothesis-where the abundance of species declines near the range edge-reflecting both reduced occurrence and lower local abundance near range edges. By contrast, we find mixed support for the abundant-centre hypothesis-where the abundance of species peaks in the centre of the range and declines towards the edges-with limited support in conservative tests within species, but general support in among-species tests that control for unbalanced sampling and consider a broader definition of the range centre. Overall, results are consistent with a gradual decline in suitable conditions and increase in challenge towards the range edge that eventually limit the ability of populations to persist.


Assuntos
Aves , Ecologia , Animais , Dinâmica Populacional , Geografia , América do Norte , Ecossistema
20.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 42, 2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38291495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gyrodactylus is a lineage of monogenean flatworm ectoparasites exhibiting many features that make them a suitable model to study the host-parasite coevolutionary dynamics. Previous coevolutionary studies of this lineage mainly relied on low-power datasets (a small number of samples and a single molecular marker) and (now) outdated algorithms. METHODS: To investigate the coevolutionary relationship of gyrodactylids and their fish hosts in high resolution, we used complete mitogenomes (including two newly sequenced Gyrodactylus species), a large number of species in the single-gene dataset, and four different coevolutionary algorithms. RESULTS: The overall coevolutionary fit between the parasites and hosts was consistently significant. Multiple indicators confirmed that gyrodactylids are generally highly host-specific parasites, but several species could parasitize either multiple (more than 5) or phylogenetically distant fish hosts. The molecular dating results indicated that gyrodactylids tend to evolve towards high host specificity. Speciation by host switch was identified as a more important speciation mode than co-speciation. Assuming that the ancestral host belonged to Cypriniformes, we inferred four major host switch events to non-Cypriniformes hosts (mostly Salmoniformes), all of which occurred deep in the evolutionary history. Despite their relative rarity, these events had strong macroevolutionary consequences for gyrodactylid diversity. For example, in our dataset, 57.28% of all studied gyrodactylids parasitized only non-Cypriniformes hosts, which implies that the evolutionary history of more than half of all included lineages could be traced back to these major host switch events. The geographical co-occurrence of fishes and gyrodactylids determined the host use by these gyrodactylids, and geography accounted for most of the phylogenetic signal in host use. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the coevolution of Gyrodactylus flatworms and their hosts is largely driven by geography, phylogeny, and host switches.


Assuntos
Platelmintos , Trematódeos , Animais , Filogenia , Trematódeos/genética , Platelmintos/genética , Evolução Biológica , Peixes/parasitologia , Geografia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita
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