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1.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e190007, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576983

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the pattern of spatial distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) cases and the mortality attributed to this disease throughout the Brazilian territory, in 2005, 2016 and 2017. METHODS: This is an ecological study of spatial analysis, using data from the Information System for Notifiable Diseases and the Brazilian Mortality Information System. HBV detection and mortality rates were analyzed. The spatial analysis from 2005 to 2017 was held through the Global Moran's Index (I) for global data and the Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) for the 5,564 municipalities of the country. RESULTS: The North region stands out with the highest HBV detection and mortality rates in the country. The Global Moran's I showed a spatial correlation of HBV cases in Brazil, and the LISA Map evidenced the presence of hotspots or spatial clusters (high-high type), mainly in the North region and also in some municipalities of Santa Catarina, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Espírito Santo, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. CONCLUSION: The spatial analysis of the HBV distribution pattern in Brazil shows areas with a large concentration of cases, particularly in the North of the country and in other points distributed throughout the national territory. These data reinforce the urgency of intervention actions related to prevention, diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis B.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B/mortalidade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Geografia , Humanos , Mortalidade/tendências , Prevalência , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e190008, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576984

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the distribution of health care services for viral hepatitis and reported cases of viral hepatitis according to the health regions of Northern Brazil. METHOD: It is an evaluative, descriptive and quantitative research considering viral hepatitis care services and reported cases in the Northern region of Brazil, using data collected from the National Registry of Health Establishments and the Notifiable Diseases Information System. Descriptive statistics and georeferencing, through software, were used to demonstrate the spatial distribution of services and reported cases. RESULTS: Viral hepatitis health services are distributed in a differentiated way; rapid tests are capillaries in the states; confirmatory tests and treatment are performed in some health regions, with a greater grouping of services in the capitals and their surroundings. Cases were reported across all regions, with areas of higher concentration near services. CONCLUSION: The availability of services can favor access to prevention, diagnosis and monitoring of cases. However, organizational peculiarities of the health system and services highlight fragilities that have repercussions on the access and entirety of viral hepatitis care.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Notificação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Geografia , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Hepatite Viral Humana/diagnóstico , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Carga Viral/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e190009, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576985

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Knowledge about risky sexual behavior among young people has been widely acknowledged as a key tool to controlling the spread of HIV. This article aimed at presenting the risk behavior of Brazilian Army conscripts toward HIV infection according to the country's geographic regions. . METHOD: We collected data from 37,282 conscripts, aged 17 to 22, during enlistment in the Brazilian Army in 2016. The prevalence of HIV infection, both self-reported and measured through laboratory results, and risk behavior factors were estimated by region. RESULTS: 75% of the sample of conscripts reported to have already started sexual activity, and the average age of their sexual initiation was 15. Condom use varied according to the type of sexual relationship, being lower among steady partners and greater among less stable relationships. HIV prevalence assessed by laboratory tests was 0.12% across the country and the highest prevalence was observed in the North region (0.24%). Alcohol and illicit drug usage was higher in the South region. DISCUSSION: The study allowed the observation of risk behavior monitoring for HIV infection among young Brazilians. Lower condom usage among steady partners may be contributing to an increase in the number of HIV-infected individuals. CONCLUSION: Results suggest the need to intensify prevention campaigns to disseminate safe sex practices among young people, in addition to the expansion of testing offer to this population.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/etiologia , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Geografia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 67, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483007

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the years of life lost by the Brazilian population due to mouth and pharynx cancer from 1979 to 2013, and analyze the temporal trends in the studied period, according to the country's region, sex and anatomical site. METHODS: The death records were obtained from the Mortality Information System and the data referring to the population, from the censuses of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics of 1980, 1991, 2000, 2010, and from intercensal estimates for the other years. The rates of potential years of life lost were calculated by applying the method suggested by Romeder and McWhinnie, and their trends were calculated using the Prais-Winsten method with first-order autocorrelation. The historical series were smoothed with the centered moving average technique of third order for white noise reduction. RESULTS: In the period from 1979 to 2013 in Brazil, there were a total of 107,506 premature deaths due to mouth and pharynx cancer, which generated a total of 1,589,501 potential years of life lost, the equivalent to a rate of 3.6 per 10,000 inhabitants. Males, whose rate was six times higher than for females, contributed with 85% of the years lost. The trends in the rates of years of life lost showed an annual 0.72% increase for men, 1.13% for women and 1.05% for pharynx cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of potential years of life lost due to mouth and pharynx cancer in the country showed an upward trend within the studied period for both sexes, as well as for pharynx cancer and for the North, Northeast and Midwest regions.


Assuntos
Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Faríngeas/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
5.
Pneumologie ; 73(9): 516-522, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Big cities in Europe have the highest incidence rates of TB in otherwise low incidence settings. Understanding of the spatio-temporal patterns of TB incidence can support efforts for TB prevention and control in line with the End-TB Strategy of the WHO in such settings for low incidence settings. METHODS: Data from the municipal TB register of Cologne collected between 2006 and 2015 under the infection prevention legislation were retrieved, addresses geographically identified and all notified incident TB cases retrospectively analysed for their spatial and temporal distribution in this large German city using a geographic information system. RESULTS: During the analysed period 1,038 incident cases were reported, equivalent to an incidence rate of 10.03 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Contagious pulmonary TB contributed 57 % of all cases. Distribution patterns changed over time with decreases in 37 and increases in 22 of the 77 urban sub-districts, three of which showing constant high rates of TB incidence. CONCLUSION: The study presents a complementary method to monitor the distribution and development of incident TB cases at a disaggregated level of urban sub-districts. Identification of areas with comparatively high incidence can support identification of clusters respectively their prevention and allow better planning for targeted local TB services.


Assuntos
Análise Espaço-Temporal , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Geografia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico
6.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 229-230, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544398

RESUMO

In China, the mountainous and hilly schistosomiasis-endemic regions are mainly distributed in 2 provinces of Sichuan and Yunnan. Following the concerted efforts for more than 60 years, great successes have been achieved in schistosomiasis control in mountainous and hilly regions of China. Recently, Sichuan and Yunnan provinces seized the opportunity created in the rural and agriculture development, implemented the integrated strategy with emphasis on infectious source control, utilized modern information techniques, innovated schistosomiasis control models, built sensitive and highly effective surveillance-response systems, and actively tackled the challenges of schistosomiasis elimination, which greatly facilitated the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis in mountainous and hilly regions of China.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Esquistossomose , Animais , China , Geografia , Programas Governamentais , Humanos , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Caramujos
7.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20171028, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482992

RESUMO

Aplectana hylambatis is a nematode with a wide geographic distribution and low host specificity. In spite of numerous reports, until this moment, the morphological variations between different hosts and localities have not been studied. We studied 401 specimens collected from five host species from seven localities in Argentina, and examined the following morphological characters: mamelon-like cuticular protuberances anterior to the vulva, structure of the gubernaculum and the spicules, number and arrangement of caudal papillae, and the measurements of twelve characters in females and eleven characters in males. The results showed that mamelon-like protuberances and caudal papillae varied in number and arrangement between different hosts and localities. The metrical study revealed that five characters in males and six in females contributed to variability; nine characters showed significant differences between host species and localities. Specimens of A. hylambatis collected from R. arenarum formed a group clearly differentiated from the rest of the specimens. The results from this study highlight the importance of examining as many specimens as possible from different host samples and from several localities to cover the intraspecific variations.


Assuntos
Anuros/parasitologia , Nematoides/anatomia & histologia , Nematoides/classificação , Animais , Anuros/classificação , Argentina , Feminino , Geografia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Masculino
8.
Community Dent Health ; 36(3): 195-197, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436923

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between dentists' demographic changes and their uneven geographical distribution. METHODS: Secondary analysis of nationwide government surveys, to assess trends in the geographical distribution of dentists by gender and age from 1996 to 2014 in Japan. RESULTS: The Gini-coefficient for the number of dentists per population from 47 prefectures decreased from 0.084 in 1996 to 0.069 in 2014. The coefficients for female (0.124-0.144) were higher than for male dentists (0.058-0.081). Coefficients for dentists aged 60 and older were lower than those for dentists younger than 40 in 2014 (male: 0.060 vs. 0.112; female: 0.107 vs. 0.169). CONCLUSION: The geographical maldistribution of dentists in Japan has improved. Demographic changes among dentists, including the increasing number of female dentists, could moderate this improvement.


Assuntos
Odontólogos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Odontólogos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20190153, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432909

RESUMO

Despite being the largest and most remarkable species of Chalcidoidea, species of Leptofoeninae are very rarely collected. Here, we expand the distribution range extension of the Leptofoenus howardi (Ashmead, 1895) for Rondônia and Minas Gerais, Leptofoenus stephanoides (Roman, 1920) for Rondônia, Espírito Santo and São Paulo and Leptofoenus westwoodi (Ashmead, 1895) for Roraima, Amazonas, Rondônia, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and Rio Grande do Sul.


Assuntos
Vespas/anatomia & histologia , Vespas/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Geografia , Masculino
10.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(8): 2682-2690, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418193

RESUMO

Based on the field investigation data and the integration GIS spatial methods and geographical detector model, we analyzed the main and interactive effects of geographical and social environmental factors on the distribution of invasive plants in Fujian Province, China. The results showed that a total of 82 invasive plant species were recorded, with Compositae as the dominant family. Conyza canadensis, Ageratum conyzoides, and Alternanthera philoxeroides had the highest frequencies. There were more invasive species in coastal areas than in inland areas. Fuzhou and Xiamen were the hot areas for plant invaision. The invasive plants widely distributed at different altitudes, and the invasion reduced with the increasing altitude. The geographical detector analysis showed that rainfall as a natural environment factor and road density and people density as socio-economy factors were the major driving factors for the distribution of invasive plant species. The multi-factor interaction had a positive effect on the spatial distribution of invasive plants, implying the complexity of impact factors on the distribution of invasive plant species. In conclusion, the geographical detector could be used in the studies of invasive plants, and environmental factors could be also applied for monitoring the suitable establishment areas of invasive plants in Fujian Province. Our results provide a scientific basis for effective management of invasive plants.


Assuntos
Espécies Introduzidas , Plantas , Altitude , China , Geografia
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(33): e16818, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415398

RESUMO

There is an increasing demand for medical provision systems that are friendly for working mothers with sick children in Japan. The aim of this cross-sectional, observational study was to analyze the demographic characteristics of pediatric patients presenting to a convenient care clinic, which was located in a large railway station and offered primary care with after-hours accessibility in a metropolitan area of Tokyo.We analyzed anonymous data for patients who had visited the pediatric department at a clinic between August 2013 and June 2016. Data regarding patients' sex, age, time of visit, waiting time, presence or absence of an appointment, diagnosis, and addresses were collected from electronic health and billing records.Overall, 8091 patients visited the department 45,388 times. The numbers of visits by patients who resided within 2, 5, and 10 miles of the clinic were 37,160 (84.6%), 42,336 (96.4%), and 43,399 (98.8%), respectively. No seasonal variation in the number of visits was observed. Male patients visited the clinic 23,742 times (52.3%) and the patients' median age was 3 years (interquartile range, 1-6). Most visits occurred on Mondays, and 5643 (15.2%) and 4790 (12.9%) patients visited the clinic when consultations began at 10 AM and 3 PM, respectively. Approximately 20% of weekday visits occurred after 6 PM, when other pediatricians' offices were typically closed. Children older than 7 years of age visited the clinic more frequently after 6 PM. The overall median waiting time was 650 seconds (interquartile range, 429-1020). The 3 most common diagnoses were upper respiratory tract infection (27,173), asthmatic bronchitis (23,744), and allergic rhinitis (10,556). The number of individuals who were referred to other medical institutions was 284 (0.6%).The majority of patients were children aged 1 to 4 years living near the clinic and 80% of visits were during the daytime. However, children older than 7 years of age visited the clinic more frequently after 6 PM. The convenience of the clinic contributed to the fulfillment of the medical needs of children with mild illnesses whose mothers were in full-time employment.


Assuntos
Plantão Médico/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Plantão Médico/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Tóquio
12.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 61, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390430

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the temporal trend of leprosy indicators in a hyperendemic state of Brazil, from 2001-2015. METHODS: This is a time-series study of leprosy indicators in the state of Maranhão, Northeastern region of Brazil. The study used data from the Brazilian National System of Reportable Diseases, for the period between 2001 and 2015. The following indicators were evaluated: (i) detection coefficient in the general population; (ii) detection coefficient in people under 15 years old; (iii) rate of cases with grade 2 physical disability in the diagnosis; (iv) rate of examined contacts, and (v) proportion of healing . The Prais-Winsten regression model was used for trend analysis. Analyses were performed for the state and by each health region. RESULTS: 77,697 leprosy cases were analyzed in the general population and 7,599 in individuals under 15 years old. The detection coefficient in the general population ranged from 80.7/100 thousand inhabitants in 2001 to 51.2/100 thousand inhabitants in 2015. The coefficient in the general population presented a downward trend (annual percentage variation [APV] = -2.98; 95%CI -4.15- -1.79). For the population under 15 years old, the rate was 24.9/100 thousand inhabitants in 2001, and 19.9/100 thousand inhabitants in 2015, with downward trend (APV = -3.07; 95%CI -4.95- -1.15). It was observed upward trend in rate of contacts examined (APV = 2.35; 95%CI 0.58-4.15) and rate of cases with grade 2 disability (APV = 2.19; 95%CI 0.23-4.19). Stationary trend was observed in the proportion of healing (APV = -0.10; 95%CI -0.50-0.30). Regional differences were found in the performance of the indicators. CONCLUSIONS: A downward trend for the detection coefficients in the general population and in individuals under 15 years old was found in Maranhão. Despite this result, the rates are still very high, demanding efforts from all spheres of public administration and health professionals to reduce the burden of the disease in the state.


Assuntos
Doenças Endêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Hanseníase/transmissão , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 894, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small island Caribbean countries such as Jamaica are now facing an epidemic of obesity and decreased physical activity (PA) levels. Public parks have been shown to be important resources for PA that also provide psychological and social benefits associated with increased PA. There are no studies that document PA in parks in the Caribbean. METHODS: This study utilized a mixed method approach by using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) to obtain baseline data on park usage patterns in Emancipation Park, a large urban public park in Jamaica. In addition, in-depth interviews were conducted to gain additional insights on the park's use for PA. RESULTS: The park was used mostly by females, in the evenings and by persons 18-64 years old. Females had significantly lower mean energy expenditure (EE) than males (0.078 versus 0.080 kcal/kg/min, p < 0.05). In-depth interviews revealed that safety, a central location within a business district, aesthetic appeal, a walking track and individual health benefits were key reasons for persons engaging in PA at the park. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to describe the usage of a public park for PA in Jamaica. The study elicited aspects of park use for PA in a major urban park in Jamaica from different vantage points by using direct systematic observation augmented with a qualitative approach. It revealed important differential park use for PA by sex, age group and EE levels, and provided insights into factors that motivate and hinder park usage for PA. This can be used by policymakers in Jamaica to inform PA interventions to reduce obesity, provide baseline data for comparisons with other parks in developing countries and to advocate for well-designed public parks.


Assuntos
Exercício/psicologia , Parques Recreativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Recreação/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Metabolismo Energético , Planejamento Ambiental , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Jamaica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 138, 2019 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ancient Lake Baikal is characterized by an outstanding diversity of endemic faunas with more than 350 amphipod species and subspecies. We determined the genetic diversity within the endemic littoral amphipod species Eulimnogammarus verrucosus, E. cyaneus and E. vittatus and investigated whether within those species genetically separate populations occur across Lake Baikal. Gammarus lacustris from water bodies in the Baikal area was examined for comparison. RESULTS: Genetic diversities within a species were determined based on fragments of cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and for E. verrucosus additionally of 18S rDNA. Highly location-specific haplogroups of E. verrucosus and E. vittatus were found at the southern and western shores of Baikal that are separated by the Angara River outflow; E. verrucosus from the eastern shore formed a further, clearly distinct haplotype cluster possibly confined by the Selenga River and Angarskiy Sor deltas. The genetic diversities within these haplogroups were lower than between the different haplogroups. Intraspecific genetic diversities within E. verrucosus and E. vittatus with 13 and 10%, respectively, were similar to interspecies differences indicating the occurrence of cryptic, morphologically highly similar species; for E. verrucosus this was confirmed with 18S rDNA. The haplotypes of E. cyaneus and G. lacustris specimens were with intraspecific genetic distances of 3 and 2%, respectively, more homogeneous indicating no or only recent disruption of gene flow of E. cyaneus across Baikal and recent colonization of water bodies around Baikal by G. lacustris. CONCLUSIONS: Our finding of separation of subgroups of Baikal endemic amphipods to different degrees points to a species-specific ability of dispersal across areas with adverse conditions and to potential geographical dispersal barriers in Lake Baikal.


Assuntos
Anfípodes/genética , Especiação Genética , Lagos , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Variação Genética , Geografia
15.
Hum Genet ; 138(10): 1123-1142, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31312899

RESUMO

The study of runs of homozygosity (ROH) can shed light on population demographic history and cultural practices. We present a fine-scale ROH analysis of 1679 individuals from 28 sub-Saharan African (SSA) populations along with 1384 individuals from 17 worldwide populations. Using high-density SNP coverage, we could accurately identify ROH > 300 kb using PLINK software. The genomic distribution of ROH was analysed through the identification of ROH islands and regions of heterozygosity (RHZ). The analyses showed a heterogeneous distribution of autozygosity across SSA, revealing complex demographic histories. They highlight differences between African groups and can differentiate the impact of consanguineous practices (e.g. among the Somali) from endogamy (e.g. among several Khoe and San groups). Homozygosity cold and hotspots were shown to harbour multiple protein coding genes. Studying ROH therefore not only sheds light on population history, but can also be used to study genetic variation related to adaptation and potentially to the health of extant populations.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Genética Populacional , Homozigoto , África ao Sul do Saara , Consanguinidade , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Análise de Dados , Demografia , Variação Genética , Genômica/métodos , Geografia , Humanos
16.
Food Chem ; 298: 125013, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260999

RESUMO

The determination of cocoa shell content (Theobroma cacao L.) in cocoa products using a metabolomics approach was accomplished via high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF-MS). The developed method was used to separately analyze the polar and non-polar metabolome of the cocoa testa (cocoa shell) and the cocoa cotyledons (cocoa nibs) of cocoa samples from 15 different geographic origins, harvest years, and varieties in positive and negative ion mode. Potential key metabolites were selected which are exclusively contained in the cocoa shell or with significant higher concentration in the cocoa shell than in the cocoa nibs. The pool of potential key metabolites was filtered by established selection criteria, such as temperature stability, fermentations stability, and independence from the geographic origin. Based on these key metabolites an inverse sparse partial least square regression (SPLS) was used for the prediction of the cocoa shell content.


Assuntos
Cacau/metabolismo , Chocolate/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Metaboloma , Calibragem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fermentação , Frutas/metabolismo , Geografia , Metabolômica , Padrões de Referência , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Temperatura Ambiente
17.
Prev Vet Med ; 169: 104690, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311631

RESUMO

Taenia solium, a zoonotic tapeworm species of human and pigs, has been targeted by the World Health Organisation (WHO) for elimination in endemic areas of Africa, Latin America and some parts of Asia. Unfortunately, the assessment of control measures against T. solium is complicated by the lack of specificity of current immunodiagnostic techniques for diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis. Many authors have concluded that the prevalence of T. hydatigena in pigs in Africa is low and extensive epidemiological studies on T. solium cysticercosis in pigs have been carried out using serological tests that cannot differentiate the taeniid species. To estimate and compare the prevalence of T. solium and T. hydatigena in pigs in Cameroon, we examined 416 slaughtered pigs at a pig abattoir in Yaoundé city with the animals originating from several parts of the country. At post-mortem inspection, 35 pigs (8.4%; 95% Confidence Interval (CI), 5.9-11.5 %) were found infected exclusively with T. solium and 27 (6.5%; 95% CI, 4.3-9.3 %) infected exclusively with T. hydatigena metacestodes. One animal was infected with T. solium and T. hydatigena. A stochastic simulation model which took into account the sensitivity of dissection of the tongue, external masseters and heart for diagnosis of T. solium porcine cysticercosis (TMH dissection test) and examination of mesentery, surfaces of the intestines and liver to identify T. hydatigena cysticerci in slaughtered pigs was developed to estimate the prevalence of these taeniid species. The results revealed that the actual prevalence of T. solium and T. hydatigena in Cameroon were 24.8% (95% CI, 20.1-30.5%) and 19.2% (95% CI, 15.1-24.1%), respectively. This study reports the highest porcine T. hydatigena prevalence ever in Africa and adjusted the prevalence of porcine T. solium infection obtained with genus-specific Ag-ELISA (Dorny et al., 2000) in Cameroon due to the presence of T. hydatigena.


Assuntos
Cisticercose/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Taenia/isolamento & purificação , Matadouros , Animais , Camarões/epidemiologia , Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Cisticercose/parasitologia , Cisticercose/patologia , Geografia , Testes Imunológicos , Prevalência , Análise de Regressão , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia , Taenia/imunologia
18.
Prev Vet Med ; 169: 104697, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311638

RESUMO

Malignant theileriosis of sheep and goats caused by Theileria lestoquardi is considered to be among the most important tick borne diseases in the Sudan. Information on the prevalence of the disease in different parts of the Sudan is limited. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the disease in five states of the Sudan using molecular and serological assays. A total of 393 blood and serum samples from clinically asymptomatic sheep were analysed using nested reverse line blot (nRLB) and loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), as well as an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results indicated a sero-prevalence of 33.8% while RLB and LAMP assays revealed molecular prevalences of 29.5 and 22.6% respectively. The prevalence of Theileria lestoquardi varied significantly according to the geographical origin of the infected animals, whereas age and gender did not have a significant effect. RLB data indicated that T. lestoquardi usually occurred as a co-infection with the non-pathogenic Theileria ovis. Using RLB as a gold standard, a sensitivity of 68.1% and a specificity of 96.4% were recorded for LAMP and a sensitivity of 75.9% and a specificity of 83.8% for ELISA. The Kappa coefficient between nRLB and LAMP indicated a significant level of agreement (0.692), but only moderate concordance (0.572) between nRLB and ELISA. The results of the present study confirm and extend earlier findings regarding the widespread of T. lestoquardi infections in sheep in the Sudan. The data provide evidence that should enable the veterinary authorities to deploy appropriate control measures.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Theileria/isolamento & purificação , Theileriose/epidemiologia , Animais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Geografia , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Prevalência , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/sangue , Sudão/epidemiologia , Theileriose/sangue
19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(9): 1774-1780, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342701

RESUMO

To compare the polysaccharides( LBLP),total flavonoids( LBLTF) and total phenols( LBLTP) of Lycium barbarum leaves from 14 production areas from Ningxia,Qinghai and Gansu at different harvesting time. Our results showed that there were significant difference of LBLP,LBLTF and LBLTP among different production areas. The LBLP collected from Xiangride township production area,Dulan,Qinghai was as high as 15. 02%. The LBLTF collected from Dagele township production area,Geermu,Qinghai was as high as28. 63%. The LBLTP collected from Keluke township production area,Delingha,Qinghai was as high as 16. 7%. There were also significant difference of these 3 components between different harvest periods. The average LBLP in May( 10. 20%) was significantly higher than that in June( 8. 49%). However,the average LBLTF( 17. 71%) and LBLTP( 12. 77%) in June was significantly higher than that in May( 14. 15%,11. 19%). The LBLTF and LBLTP have a positive correlation with the altitude of production areas,but there was no significant association between LBLP and altitude. The LBLP,LBLTF and LBLTP in different production areas and harvesting time was significant difference,the results provide some references for furthermore development and utilization of L. barbarum leaves.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/análise , Lycium/química , Fenóis/análise , Polissacarídeos/análise , Análise de Variância , China , Geografia , Folhas de Planta/química , Estações do Ano
20.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(6): 1815-1822, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257751

RESUMO

We used 10 representative provenances at different latitudes in two 33-year-old Pinus massoniana provenance test stands (Chun'an Laoshan in Zhejiang and Taizi Mountain Shilong in Hubei) to measure the differences among provenances, study the geographical variation, and identify its responses to hydrothermal factors. The results showed that the δ13C of the average annual rings was significantly different among the provenances of P. massoniana, being higher in trees from high latitude than from low latitude. The δ13C of average annual rings showed a zonal variation trend, indicating an adaptation to the original environment. The δ13C of annual rings was negatively correlated with mean annual temperature (MAT), mean temperature in January (T1), annual precipitation (MAP), precipitation from May to September (P5-9) and cumulative temperature above 10 ℃ (CT). It was positively correlated with the aridity index (AI). The response function of AI toδδ13C annual rings in Chun'an and Taizi Mountain explained 37.5% and 42.5% of the variation, respectively, indicating that AI was the most important limiting factor. The Taizi Mountain test site in Hubei Province located in the central and western region with relatively dry soil and high aridity. Therefore, the δ13C of the average annual ring was 1.8% higher than that in the Chun'an test site. The δ13C rings of P. massoniana at the Taizi Mountain and Chun'an were sensitive to the temperature in July and August, respectively. Summer precipitation was the main factor for carbon isotope fractionation with stable rings. The sensitivity of different provenances to future climate changes was different.


Assuntos
Pinus/química , Carbono , Isótopos de Carbono , Geografia , Árvores
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