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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4912, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999275

RESUMO

Most signals detected by genome-wide association studies map to non-coding sequence and their tissue-specific effects influence transcriptional regulation. However, key tissues and cell-types required for functional inference are absent from large-scale resources. Here we explore the relationship between genetic variants influencing predisposition to type 2 diabetes (T2D) and related glycemic traits, and human pancreatic islet transcription using data from 420 donors. We find: (a) 7741 cis-eQTLs in islets with a replication rate across 44 GTEx tissues between 40% and 73%; (b) marked overlap between islet cis-eQTL signals and active regulatory sequences in islets, with reduced eQTL effect size observed in the stretch enhancers most strongly implicated in GWAS signal location; (c) enrichment of islet cis-eQTL signals with T2D risk variants identified in genome-wide association studies; and (d) colocalization between 47 islet cis-eQTLs and variants influencing T2D or glycemic traits, including DGKB and TCF7L2. Our findings illustrate the advantages of performing functional and regulatory studies in disease relevant tissues.


Assuntos
Glicemia/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diacilglicerol Quinase/genética , Diacilglicerol Quinase/metabolismo , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA-Seq , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Proteína 2 Semelhante ao Fator 7 de Transcrição/genética , Proteína 2 Semelhante ao Fator 7 de Transcrição/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
2.
In Vivo ; 34(5): 3029-3032, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Reports indicate that coronaviridae may inhibit insulin secretion. In this report we aimed to describe the course of glycemia in critically ill patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 36 SARS-CoV-2 patients (with no history of diabetes) in one intensive care unit (ICU). All the patients were admitted for hypoxemic respiratory failure; all but four required mechanical ventilation. The mean (±SD) age of the patients was 64.7 (9.7) years; 27 were men; the mean (±SD) duration of ICU stay was 12.9 (8.3 days). RESULTS: Twenty of 36 patients presented with hyperglycemia; brief intravenous infusions of short-acting insulin were administered in six patients. As of May 29 2020, 11 patients had died (seven with hyperglycemia). In 17 patients the Hyperglycemia Index [HGI; defined as the area under the curve of (hyper)glycemia level*time (h) divided by the total time in the ICU] was <16.21 mg/dl (0.90 mmol/l), whereas in three patients the HGI was ≥16.21 mg/dl (0.90 mol/l) and <32.25 mg/dl (1.79 mmol/l). CONCLUSION: In our series of ICU patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and no history of diabetes, a substantial number of patients had hyperglycemia, to a higher degree than would be expected by the stress of critical illness, lending credence to reports that speculated a tentative association between SARS-CoV-2 and hyperglycemia. This finding is important, since hyperglycemia can lead to further infectious complications.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Hiperglicemia/terapia , Insulina/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Glicemia/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/virologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Hiperglicemia/virologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Respiração Artificial , Insuficiência Respiratória/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/complicações , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/terapia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia
3.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(9): 780-788, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882762

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This research was designed to investigate how miR-542-5p regulates the progression of hyperglycemia and hyperlipoidemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An in vivo model with diabetic db/db mice and an in vitro model with forskolin/dexamethasone (FSK/DEX)-induced primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells were employed in the study. Bioinformatics analysis was conducted to identify the expression of candidate miRNAs in the liver tissues of diabetic and control mice. H&E staining revealed liver morphology in diabetic and control mice. Pyruvate tolerance tests, insulin tolerance tests, and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test were utilized to assess insulin resistance. ELISA was conducted to evaluate blood glucose and insulin levels. Red oil O staining showed lipid deposition in liver tissues. Luciferase reporter assay was used to depict binding between miR-542-5p and forkhead box O1 (FOXO1). RESULTS: MiR-542-5p expression was under-expressed in the livers of db/db mice. Further in vitro experiments revealed that FSK/DEX, which mimics the effects of glucagon and glucocorticoids, induced cellular glucose production in HepG2 cells and in primary hepatocytes cells. Notably, these changes were reversed by miR-542-5p. We found that transcription factor FOXO1 is a target of miR-542-5p. Further in vivo study indicated that miR-542-5p overexpression decreases FOXO1 expression, thereby reversing increases in blood glucose, blood lipids, and glucose-related enzymes in diabetic db/db mice. In contrast, anti-miR-542-5p exerted an adverse influence on blood glucose and blood lipid metabolism, and its stimulatory effects were significantly inhibited by sh-FOXO1 in normal control mice. CONCLUSION: Collectively, our results indicated that miR-542-5p inhibits hyperglycemia and hyperlipoidemia by targeting FOXO1.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/genética , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , MicroRNAs/genética , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glucose/metabolismo , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Células Hep G2 , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Hiperlipidemias/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/farmacologia
4.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 16: 343-352, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943869

RESUMO

Purpose: The impact of glycemic control on macrovascular complications and arterial stiffness in type II diabetes (T2D), as well as the extent of additive effect of hypertension, is unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate the impact of glycemic control on the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), an indicator of arterial stiffness, and to determine the relative risk of concomitant diabetes and hypertension with arterial stiffness. Methods: One hundred and nine participants were enrolled and classified as non-diabetes (n= 37) and diabetes (n=72); the diabetic group was further identified as controllable and uncontrollable T2D depending on their hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels. Univariate and multiple regression analyses were used to assess the association between CAVI and glycemic control status and hypertension. Relative risk analysis for abnormal CAVI with exposure to diabetes and hypertension was investigated. Results: In all participants, age, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, and fasting blood sugar were independent predictors of CAVI. In diabetic participants, glycemic control status or HbA1c levels did not significantly correlate with CAVI. Systolic blood pressure was an independent predictor for CAVI with ß = 0.26. In addition, the coexistence of diabetes together with hypertension was significantly associated with a 2.4-fold increase in the risk of abnormal CAVI (95% CI, 1.410-4.184; p <0.001). Conclusion: This study demonstrates that HbA1c as well as fasting blood sugar levels in diabetic participants do not correlate with arterial stiffness. Concomitant diabetes and hypertension significantly increase the risk of arterial stiffness.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Rigidez Vascular , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Índice Vascular Coração-Tornozelo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4592, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929089

RESUMO

Prediabetes is a state of glycaemic dysregulation below the diagnostic threshold of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Globally, ~352 million people have prediabetes, of which 35-50% develop full-blown diabetes within five years. T2D and its complications are costly to treat, causing considerable morbidity and early mortality. Whether prediabetes is causally related to diabetes complications is unclear. Here we report a causal inference analysis investigating the effects of prediabetes in coronary artery disease, stroke and chronic kidney disease, complemented by a systematic review of relevant observational studies. Although the observational studies suggest that prediabetes is broadly associated with diabetes complications, the causal inference analysis revealed that prediabetes is only causally related with coronary artery disease, with no evidence of causal effects on other diabetes complications. In conclusion, prediabetes likely causes coronary artery disease and its prevention is likely to be most effective if initiated prior to the onset of diabetes.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Estado Pré-Diabético/complicações , Glicemia/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Intervalos de Confiança , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Jejum/sangue , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Razão de Chances , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22233, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM), which is the major type of diabetes, accounts for more than 90% of all case of diabetes, and its pathogenesis remains inconclusive. Recent studies have revealed a significant role of gut microbiota in the onset and development of T2DM. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has accumulated rich clinical experience in the treatment of T2DM for thousands of years and a large amount of studies have shown that TCM has the capacity of lowering blood glucose and modulating gut microbiota. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate all randomized controlled trials on TCM for gut microbiota to assess the effectiveness and safety of TCM in T2DM patients. METHODS: Seven electronic databases (Web of Science, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Database, and VIP Information-Chinese Scientific Journal Database) will be searched from inception to present in the English and Chinese languages. Eligible randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of TCM in T2DM patients, compared with western medicine, placebo or no intervention will be included in the study. The primary outcomes are the glucose metabolism and gut microbiota as well as its metabolites. The second outcomes are changes in weight, and changes in inflammatory markers. Two authors will independently select studies, extract data, and assess the quality of the studies by scanning the titles, abstracts, and full texts. The meta-analysis will be conducted using Review Manager version 5.3. The results will be presented as risk ratios for dichotomous data and adverse events, and as mean differences for continuous data. RESULT: The study will provide a summary of current evidence for the treatment of T2DM from the perspective of gut microbiota by using TCM based on the outcome measures. CONCLUSION: The systematic review will evaluate the efficacy of TCM in treating T2DM from the perspective of gut microbiota, providing current evidence and laying a foundation for further work in the field. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020188043.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/microbiologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Metanálise como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue
7.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): ahead of print, 2020 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921748

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is rare in infants and toddlers and is usually associated with a relatively high mortality when complicated with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). In infants, the classical symptoms of DKA are atypical and therefore many infants with DKA are mistreated for infections. We report a case of DKA precipitated by COVID-19 in an 8-month-old infant with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus. This case is reported in view of its rarity and originality. The relation between T1DM and COVID19 infection is discussed.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Cetoacidose Diabética/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Cetoacidose Diabética/sangue , Cetoacidose Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Lactente , Insulina Detemir/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21654, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871878

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to investigate the levels of 25(OH)D, inflammation markers and glucose and fat metabolism indexes in pregnant women with Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).One hundred and ten cases GDM and 100 cases healthy pregnant women in the First People's Hospital of Lianyungang City from October 2016 to December 2018 were recruited for this observational cross-sectional study. Each participant's anthropometric and demographic data was recorded. Blood samples were collected and analyzed to determine the levels of 25(OH)D, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), fasting blood glucose, fasting blood insulin, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), cholesterol and triglycerides.Inflammatory markers and glucose and fat metabolism indexes were all significantly higher in the GDM group than that in the control group, while Serum 25(OH)D level in the GDM group was significantly lower. Serum 25(OH)D levels were negatively correlated with hs-CRP, while not with TNF-α. Furthermore, Serum 25(OH)D, hs-CRP and TNF-α levels were all associated with increased risk of developing GDM.Nowadays, the reports on the association between 25(OH)D level and GDM were controversial. Our results are consistent with the view that there was association between 25(OH)D level and GDM, and expand the literature by showing the roles of 25(OH)D, inflammation markers as well as glucose and fat metabolism indexes in the risk of developing GDM in the pregnant women with the low overall levels of 25(OH)D before delivery. This broadens our knowledge on the pathophysiology of GDM, which may be helpful in prevention and treatment of GDM.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Gravidez , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Vitamina D/sangue
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e21901, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899020

RESUMO

Osteocalcin (OC) is an endocrine hormone that regulates glucose metabolism.The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum OC levels and glucose metabolism after trauma.This was a retrospective study of trauma patients admitted to the Department of Emergency Medicine between October 2017 and April 2019. Age, height, weight, injury severity score, and previous medical history were recorded. Serum N-terminal mid-fragment of OC (N-MID OC), hemoglobin Alc (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (FINS), C-peptide, and other biochemical indicators were measured. Differences between the HbA1c-L (HbA1c <6.5%) and HbA1c-H (HbA1c ≥6.5%) groups were compared. The association of N-MID OC with indicators of glucose metabolism was analyzed.Out of 394 trauma patients, leukocyte and FPG levels in the HbA1c-H group (n = 93) were higher (P < .05), while N-MID OC levels were lower (P = .011) than the HbA1c-L group (n = 301). N-MID OC was negatively correlated with HbA1c in the total population (r = -0.273, P < .001) as well as in the HbA1c-L (r = -0.289, P < .001) and HbA1c-H (r = -0.390, P < 0.001) groups, and was positively correlated with C-peptide in the HbA1c-H group (r = 0.395, P < .001). The different quartiles in the HbA1c-L showed that N-MID OC declined with increasing HbA1c, which was higher than N-MID OC levels in the HbA1c-H group. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that serum HbA1c was independently associated with serum OC levels after trauma (ß=-1.608, P < .001).This study strongly suggests the importance of serum OC on glucose metabolism in trauma patients. HbA1c is independently associated with serum OC levels.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Osteocalcina/sangue , Ferimentos e Lesões/sangue , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Diab Vasc Dis Res ; 17(5): 1479164120952321, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Estimated glucose disposal rate (eGDR) is a practical measure of Insulin Resistance (IR) which can be easily incorporated into clinical practice. We profiled eGDR in younger adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) by their demographic and clinical characteristics. METHODS: In this single centre study, medical records of TIDM were assessed and eGDR tertiles correlated with demographic and clinical variables. RESULTS: Of 175 T1DM individuals, 108 (61.7%) were males. Mean age (±SD) was 22.0 ± 1.6 years and median time from diagnosis 11.0 years (range 1-23). Individuals were predominantly Caucasian (81.7%), with 27.4% being overweight (BMI: 25-30 kg/m2) and 13.7% obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2). Mean total cholesterol (TC) levels were significantly lower in high and middle eGDR tertiles (4.4 ± 1 and 4.3 ± 0.8 mmol/l, respectively) compared with low eGDR tertile (4.8 ± 1, p < 0.05 for both). Triglyceride (TG) levels showed a similar trend at 1.1 ± 0.5 and 1.1 ± 0.5 mmol/l for high and middle eGDR tertile compared to low eGDR tertile (1.5 ± 1 mmol/l, p < 0.05 for both). Renal function was similar across eGDR tertiles and no difference in retinopathy was detected. CONCLUSION: TC and TG are altered in individuals with T1DM and low eGDR, suggesting that this subgroup requires optimal lipid management to ameliorate their vascular risk.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto Jovem
13.
Open Heart ; 7(2)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938758

RESUMO

Risk factors for COVID-19 patients with poorer outcomes include pre-existing conditions: obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease (CVD), heart failure, hypertension, low oxygen saturation capacity, cancer, elevated: ferritin, C reactive protein (CRP) and D-dimer. A common denominator, hyperinsulinaemia, provides a plausible mechanism of action, underlying CVD, hypertension and strokes, all conditions typified with thrombi. The underlying science provides a theoretical management algorithm for the frontline practitioners.Vitamin D activation requires magnesium. Hyperinsulinaemia promotes: magnesium depletion via increased renal excretion, reduced intracellular levels, lowers vitamin D status via sequestration into adipocytes and hydroxylation activation inhibition. Hyperinsulinaemia mediates thrombi development via: fibrinolysis inhibition, anticoagulation production dysregulation, increasing reactive oxygen species, decreased antioxidant capacity via nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide depletion, haem oxidation and catabolism, producing carbon monoxide, increasing deep vein thrombosis risk and pulmonary emboli. Increased haem-synthesis demand upregulates carbon dioxide production, decreasing oxygen saturation capacity. Hyperinsulinaemia decreases cholesterol sulfurylation to cholesterol sulfate, as low vitamin D regulation due to magnesium depletion and/or vitamin D sequestration and/or diminished activation capacity decreases sulfotransferase enzyme SULT2B1b activity, consequently decreasing plasma membrane negative charge between red blood cells, platelets and endothelial cells, thus increasing agglutination and thrombosis.Patients with COVID-19 admitted with hyperglycaemia and/or hyperinsulinaemia should be placed on a restricted refined carbohydrate diet, with limited use of intravenous dextrose solutions. Degree/level of restriction is determined by serial testing of blood glucose, insulin and ketones. Supplemental magnesium, vitamin D and zinc should be administered. By implementing refined carbohydrate restriction, three primary risk factors, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperglycaemia and hypertension, that increase inflammation, coagulation and thrombosis risk are rapidly managed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hiperinsulinismo/terapia , Insulina/sangue , Magnésio/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Trombose/terapia , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Hiperinsulinismo/sangue , Hiperinsulinismo/epidemiologia , Cetonas/sangue , Magnésio/sangue , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Trombose/sangue , Trombose/epidemiologia , Trombose/virologia , Vitamina D/sangue , Zinco/uso terapêutico
15.
N Engl J Med ; 383(8): 721-732, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some studies have suggested that in people with type 2 diabetes, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass has therapeutic effects on metabolic function that are independent of weight loss. METHODS: We evaluated metabolic regulators of glucose homeostasis before and after matched (approximately 18%) weight loss induced by gastric bypass (surgery group) or diet alone (diet group) in 22 patients with obesity and diabetes. The primary outcome was the change in hepatic insulin sensitivity, assessed by infusion of insulin at low rates (stages 1 and 2 of a 3-stage hyperinsulinemic euglycemic pancreatic clamp). Secondary outcomes were changes in muscle insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function, and 24-hour plasma glucose and insulin profiles. RESULTS: Weight loss was associated with increases in mean suppression of glucose production from baseline, by 7.04 µmol per kilogram of fat-free mass per minute (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.74 to 9.33) in the diet group and by 7.02 µmol per kilogram of fat-free mass per minute (95% CI, 3.21 to 10.84) in the surgery group during clamp stage 1, and by 5.39 (95% CI, 2.44 to 8.34) and 5.37 (95% CI, 2.41 to 8.33) µmol per kilogram of fat-free mass per minute in the two groups, respectively, during clamp stage 2; there were no significant differences between the groups. Weight loss was associated with increased insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, from 30.5±15.9 to 61.6±13.0 µmol per kilogram of fat-free mass per minute in the diet group and from 29.4±12.6 to 54.5±10.4 µmol per kilogram of fat-free mass per minute in the surgery group; there was no significant difference between the groups. Weight loss increased beta-cell function (insulin secretion relative to insulin sensitivity) by 1.83 units (95% CI, 1.22 to 2.44) in the diet group and by 1.11 units (95% CI, 0.08 to 2.15) in the surgery group, with no significant difference between the groups, and it decreased the areas under the curve for 24-hour plasma glucose and insulin levels in both groups, with no significant difference between the groups. No major complications occurred in either group. CONCLUSIONS: In this study involving patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes, the metabolic benefits of gastric bypass surgery and diet were similar and were apparently related to weight loss itself, with no evident clinically important effects independent of weight loss. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02207777.).


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Derivação Gástrica , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/cirurgia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/cirurgia , Feminino , Técnica Clamp de Glucose , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Indução de Remissão
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754119

RESUMO

Background: Diabetes correlates with poor prognosis in patients with COVID-19, but very few studies have evaluated whether impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is also a risk factor for the poor outcomes of patients with COVID-19. Here we aimed to examine the associations between IFG and diabetes at admission with risks of complications and mortality among patients with COVID-19. Methods: In this multicenter retrospective cohort study, we enrolled 312 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 from 5 hospitals in Wuhan from Jan 1 to Mar 17, 2020. Clinical information, laboratory findings, complications, treatment regimens, and mortality status were collected. The associations between hyperglycemia and diabetes status at admission with primary composite end-point events (including mechanical ventilation, admission to intensive care unit, or death) were analyzed by Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results: The median age of the patients was 57 years (interquartile range 38-66), and 172 (55%) were women. At the time of hospital admission, 84 (27%) had diabetes (and 36 were new-diagnosed), 62 (20%) had IFG, and 166 (53%) had normal fasting glucose (NFG) levels. Compared to patients with NFG, patients with IFG and diabetes developed more primary composite end-point events (9 [5%], 11 [18%], 26 [31%]), including receiving mechanical ventilation (5 [3%], 6 [10%], 21 [25%]), and death (4 [2%], 9 [15%], 20 [24%]). Multivariable Cox regression analyses showed diabetes was associated increased risks of primary composite end-point events (hazard ratio 3.53; 95% confidence interval 1.48-8.40) and mortality (6.25; 1.91-20.45), and IFG was associated with an increased risk of mortality (4.11; 1.15-14.74), after adjusting for age, sex, hospitals and comorbidities. Conclusion: IFG and diabetes at admission were associated with higher risks of adverse outcomes among patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Complicações do Diabetes/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Intolerância à Glucose/complicações , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/virologia , Diabetes Mellitus/virologia , Jejum , Feminino , Seguimentos , Intolerância à Glucose/virologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taxa de Sobrevida
17.
Orv Hetil ; 161(35): 1475-1482, 2020 08.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822326

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Swept-source optical coherence tomography is a useful non-invasive device that is used to understand better the role of choroid in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. AIM: To measure choroidal thickness in diabetic eyes and to correlate it with established systemic risk factors, the severity and the therapy of diabetic retinopathy. METHOD: Prospective cross-sectional study using swept-source optical coherence tomography has been performed. Choroidal and macular thickness maps of 117 eyes of 60 diabetic patients were compared to data from 45 eyes of 24 healthy controls. In all diabetic patients, the systemic risk factors (duration and type of diabetes, blood hemoglobin A1C level, hypertension), the type (no, non-proliferative or proliferative) and the therapy of diabetic retinopathy were recorded, and their relation to choroidal thickness was evaluated using multiple regression models. RESULTS: A significantly thinner choroid was measured in diabetic patients compared to controls (p<0.05). Analysing the whole cohort, aging (p<0.001) and the presence of hypertension (p<0.05) showed significant correlation with choroidal thinning. In diabetic patients, the duration of diabetes significantly correlated with choroidal thinning (p<0.05). In multivariable analysis, the duration of diabetes remained a significant predictor of choroidal thickness (ß -0.18; p = 0.02). A significantly thinner choroid was measured in patients with proliferative retinopathy and in patients after panretinal photocoagulation treatment compared to nonproliferative retinopathy (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Diabetes mellitus itself and diabetic retinopathy progression affects choroidal thickness significantly. Choroidal thickness is affected significantly by systemic risk factors (age, the presence of hypertension, disease duration). Choroidal thinning proved to be correlated with panretinal photocoagulation treatment of diabetic retinopathy. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(35): 1475-1482.


Assuntos
Corioide/diagnóstico por imagem , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Retinopatia Diabética/complicações , Macula Lutea/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Corioide/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Retinopatia Diabética/patologia , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
J Med Life ; 13(2): 132-137, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32742503

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder with significant co-morbidities and healthcare burdens. Many large studies have investigated the association between perceived stress and DM; however, none investigated this in a larger Indian population. We hypothesized stress as one of the reasons for the progression of people with prediabetes into DM. The present study was, therefore, planned to report on associations between perceived stress and blood glucose markers stratified by diabetic status. The current descriptive study was a subset analysis of the nationwide cross-sectional survey, conducted in all Indian zones under the National Multicentric Diabetes Control Program. The study examined the perceived stress levels using a perceived stress scale (PSS-10) in people with prediabetes (n=649) and DM (n=485) and then segregated them into three categories (minimum, moderate, and severe). Blood glucose markers (fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, and HbA1c) were evaluated to report their association with the perceived stress. The study revealed a significantly higher HbA1c level in people with prediabetes, particularly those with severe perceived stress (6.12 ± 0.27) compared to other categories. Those with DM had a higher fasting blood glucose level, particularly with severe perceived stress (239.28 ± 99.52). An increased HbA1c level is noted in severely stressed people with prediabetes, requiring a comprehensive analysis with a longitudinal study of the role of perceived stress in the progression of prediabetes into DM. Additionally, higher fasting blood glucose levels in patients with DM and severe perceived stress suggests the need for establishing comprehensive diabetic care inclusive of stress management.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Índia
20.
J Med Life ; 13(2): 235-240, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32742520

RESUMO

Oral fluids provide a readily available and non-invasive medium for the diagnosis of a wide range of diseases and clinical situations. Diabetes mellitus is a common chronic metabolic disorder that affects millions of people. Our objective was to compare the salivary and serum glucose levels in patients with diabetes mellitus and healthy individuals. Two ml of unstimulated whole saliva was collected by the spitting method. Also, 2 ml of the patient's intravenous blood was obtained from the forearm's median cephalic vein. Both the samples were centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 2-3 minutes. Ten µl of both saliva and serum were taken out and added to glucose reagent. These were kept in a temperature-controlled water bath at 37°C for 10 minutes. The color change was noted, and the optical density was measured in a semi-auto analyzer. The presence of glucose was detected in both groups; however, the levels were raised in people with diabetes compared to healthy individuals. The present study indicated a substantial increase in salivary and serum glucose levels in diabetic patients compared to healthy controls. The concentration of glucose in saliva increases with the increase in serum glucose concentration.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Saliva/metabolismo , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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