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1.
Horm Metab Res ; 54(2): 104-112, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130571

RESUMO

Some studies have suggested that diabetes may be a risk factor for osteoarthritis. However, whether prediabetes is also associated with osteoarthritis has not been comprehensively examined. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between prediabetes and osteoarthritis. This meta-analysis included relevant observational studies from Medline, Embase, and Web of Science databases. A random-effect model after incorporation of the intra-study heterogeneity was selected to pool the results. Ten datasets from six observational studies were included, which involved 41 226 general adults and 10 785 (26.2%) of them were prediabetic. Pooled results showed that prediabetes was not independently associated with osteoarthritis [risk ratio (RR): 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00 to 1.14, p=0.06, I2=0%]. Sensitivity limited to studies with adjustment of age and body mass index showed consistent result (RR: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.14, p=0.09, I2=0%). Results of subgroup analyses showed that prediabetes was not associated with osteoarthritis in cross-sectional or cohort studies, in studies including Asian or non-Asian population, or in studies with different quality scores (p for subgroup difference>0.10). Besides, prediabetes was not associated with osteoarthritis in men or in women, in studies with prediabetes defined as impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or HbA1c (approximately 39-46 mmol/mol). Moreover, prediabetes was not associated with overall osteoarthritis, and knee or hip osteoarthritis. Current evidence does not support that prediabetes is independently associated with osteoarthritis in adult population.


Assuntos
Intolerância à Glucose , Osteoartrite , Estado Pré-Diabético , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Osteoartrite/complicações , Osteoartrite/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/complicações , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
2.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 1215097, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35941904

RESUMO

The present study evaluated the polyphenolic contents and hypoglycemic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects of the diethyl ether fraction of Thespesia garckeana using various in vitro and in vivo models. Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extract were 613.65 ± 2.38 and 152.83 ± 1.56 mg/100 g dry weight, respectively. The extract exhibited in vitro antioxidant activities against DPPH, FRAP, LPO, and ABTS with respective half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 30.91 ± 0.23, 16.81 ± 0.51, 41.29 ± 1.82, and 42.39 ± 2.24 µg/mL. In vitro anti-inflammatory studies using membrane stabilization, protein denaturation, and proteinase activities revealed the effectiveness of the extract with respective IC50 values of 54.45 ± 2.89, 93.62 ± 3.04, and 56.60 ± 2.34 µg/mL, while in vitro hypoglycemic analysis of the extract revealed inhibition of α-amylase (IC5064.59 ± 3.29 µg/mL) and enhancement of glucose uptake by yeast cells. Interestingly, the extract demonstrated in vivo hypoglycemic and anti-inflammatory effects in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic and xylene-induced ear swelling models, respectively. In addition, the extract improved insulin secretion, attenuated pancreatic tissue distortion and oxidative stress, and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and reduced glutathione (GSH), while reducing the concentration of LPO in the diabetic rats. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis identified the presence of catechin (6.81e - 1 ppm), rutin (8.46 e - 1 ppm), myricetin, apigenin (4.019 e - 1 ppm), and luteolin (15.09 ppm) with respective retention times (RTs) of 13.64, 24.269, 27.781, 29.58, and 32.23 min, and these were subjected to a pharmacoinformatics analysis, which revealed their drug-likeness and good pharmacokinetic properties. A docking analysis hinted at the potential of luteolin, the most abundant compound in the extract, for targeting glucose-metabolizing enzymes. Thus, the present study provides preclinical insights into the bioactive constituents of T. garckeana, its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and its potential for the treatment of diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Malus , Malvaceae , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Luteolina/farmacologia , Luteolina/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Estreptozocina/uso terapêutico
3.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 913207, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909561

RESUMO

Objective: Studies have shown that sex differences in lean mass, concentrations of sex hormones, and lifestyles influence cle health and glucose metabolism. We evaluated the sex-specific association between low muscle mass and glucose fluctuations in hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) receiving continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy. Methods: A total of 1084 participants were included. Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Intraday blood glucose fluctuation was estimated by the Largest amplitude of glycemic excursions (LAGE) and standard deviation of blood glucose (SDBG). Results: The prevalence of low muscle mass was higher in males than in females (p<0.001). There was a significant sex-specific interaction between the status of low muscle mass and glucose fluctuations (LAGE and SDBG) (p for interaction=0.025 and 0.036 for SDBG and LAGE, respectively). Among males, low muscle mass was significantly associated with a higher LAGE and SDBG (difference in LAGE: 2.26 [95% CI: 1.01 to 3.51], p < 0.001; difference in SDBG: 0.45 [95% CI: 0.25 to 0.65], p < 0.001) after adjustment for HbA1c, diabetes duration, hyperlipidemia, diabetic peripheral neuropathy, diabetic nephropathy, and cardiovascular disease. These associations remained significant after further adjustment for age and C-peptide. Among females, low muscle mass was not associated with LAGE or SDBG after adjustment for all covariates. Conclusion: The prevalence of low muscle mass was higher in males than in females. Low muscle mass was significantly associated with higher LAGE and SDBG among males, but not females.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Glucose , Humanos , Insulina , Masculino , Músculos
4.
Ethn Dis ; 32(3): 203-212, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909644

RESUMO

Background: Diabetes and prediabetes are common among African Americans (AA), but the frequency and predictors of transition between normal, impaired glucose metabolism, and diabetes are not well-described. The aim of this study was to examine glucometabolic transitions and their association with the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods: AA participants of the Jackson Heart Study who attended baseline exam (2000-2004) and at least one of two subsequent exams (2005-2008 and 2009-2013, ~8 years) were classified according to glycemic status. Transitions were defined as progression (deterioration) or remission (improvement) of glycemic status. Multinomial logistic regression models with repeated measures were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) for remission and progression with adjustment for demographic, anthropometric, behavioral, and biochemical factors. Results: Among 3353 participants, (mean age 54.6±12.3 years), 43% were normoglycemic, 32% were prediabetes, and 25% had diabetes at baseline. For those with normal glucose at a visit, the probability at the next visit (~4years) of having prediabetes or diabetes was 38.5% and 1.8%, respectively. For those with prediabetes, the probability was 9.9% to improve to normal and 19.9% to progress to diabetes. Progression was associated with baseline BMI, diabetes status, triglycerides, family history of diabetes, and weight gain (OR 1.04 kg, 95% CI:1.03-1.06, P=<.0001). Remission was strongly associated with weight loss (OR .97 kg, 95%CI: .95-.98, P<.001). Conclusions: In AAs, glucometabolic transitions were frequent and most involved deterioration. From a public health perspective additional emphasis should be placed on weight control to preserve glucometabolic status and prevent progression to T2D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Estado Pré-Diabético , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/complicações , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(32): e2208855119, 2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35914126

RESUMO

Wild-type (WT) mice maintain viable levels of blood glucose even when adipose stores are depleted by 6 d of 60% calorie restriction followed by a 23-h fast (hereafter designated as "starved" mice). Survival depends on ghrelin, an octanoylated peptide hormone. Mice that lack ghrelin suffer lethal hypoglycemia when subjected to the same starvation regimen. Ghrelin is known to stimulate secretion of growth hormone (GH), which in turn stimulates secretion of IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1). In the current study, we found that starved ghrelin-deficient mice had a 90% reduction in plasma IGF-1 when compared with starved WT mice. Injection of IGF-1 in starved ghrelin-deficient mice caused a twofold increase in glucose production and raised blood glucose to levels seen in starved WT mice. Increased glucose production was accompanied by increases in plasma glycerol, fatty acids and ketone bodies, and hepatic triglycerides. All of these increases were abolished when the mice were treated with atglistatin, an inhibitor of adipose tissue triglyceride lipase. We conclude that IGF-1 stimulates adipose tissue lipolysis in starved mice and that this lipolysis supplies energy and substrates that restore hepatic gluconeogenesis. This action of IGF-1 in starved mice is in contrast to its known action in inhibiting adipose tissue lipase in fed mice. Surprisingly, the ghrelin-dependent maintenance of plasma IGF-1 in starved mice was not mediated by GH. Direct injection of GH into starved ghrelin-deficient mice failed to increase plasma IGF-1. These data call attention to an unsuspected role of IGF-1 in the adaptation to starvation.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I , Inanição , Adaptação Fisiológica , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/enzimologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Grelina/metabolismo , Gluconeogênese , Glicerol/sangue , Hormônio do Crescimento/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Corpos Cetônicos/sangue , Lipase/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipase/metabolismo , Lipólise , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Inanição/sangue , Inanição/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
6.
Cell Metab ; 34(8): 1083-1085, 2022 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921815

RESUMO

Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism, including hypoglycemia and lactic acidosis, are common features of malaria. In this issue of Cell Metabolism, Ramos et al. report that regulation of gluconeogenesis and glycemia by the host glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit 1 (G6Pc1) is a key metabolic step that affects both Plasmodium replication and clinical outcome of disease.


Assuntos
Acidose Láctica , Hipoglicemia , Malária , Glicemia/metabolismo , Gluconeogênese , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/metabolismo
7.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 915603, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35928887

RESUMO

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is considered as one of the most important complications of diabetes mellitus. At present, effective treatments that might improve the damaged neurological function in DPN are sorely needed. As myricetin has been proved to possess excellent neuroprotective and antioxidant effects, it might have therapeutic potential for DPN. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to detect the potential beneficial effect of myricetin on DPN. A single dose of 50 mg/kg of streptozotocin was applied in rats for the establishment of diabetic models. Different doses of myricetin (0.5 mg/kg/day, 1.0 mg/kg/day, and 2.0 mg/kg/day) were intraperitoneally injected for 2 weeks from the 21st day after streptozotocin injection. After the final myricetin injection, behavioral, electrophysiological, biochemical, and protein analyses were performed. In the present study, myricetin significantly ameliorated diabetes-induced impairment in sensation, nerve conduction velocities, and nerve blood flow. In addition, myricetin significantly reduced the generation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and elevated Na+, K+-ATPase activity and antioxidant activities in nerves in diabetic animals. Additional studies revealed that myricetin significantly raised the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels, and elevated the expression level of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) as well as nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) in diabetic rats. In addition, myricetin has the capability of decreasing plasma glucose under diabetic conditions. The findings in our present study collectively indicated that myricetin could restore the impaired motor and sensory functions under diabetic conditions. The Nrf2-dependent antioxidant action and the capability of decreasing plasma glucose might be the underlying mechanisms for the beneficial effect of myricetin on impaired neural functions. Our study showed the therapeutic potential of myricetin in the management of DPN.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Neuropatias Diabéticas , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Neuropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neuropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Flavonoides , NAD/uso terapêutico , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estreptozocina
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13220, 2022 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918386

RESUMO

Imeglimin is a new anti-diabetic drug commercialized in Japan (Twymeeg®) and has been drawing much attention in diabetes research area as well as in clinical practice. In this study, we evaluated the effect of imeglimin on pancreatic ß-cells. First, single-dose administration of imeglimin enhanced insulin secretion from ß-cells and decreased blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetic db/db mice. In addition, single-dose administration of imeglimin significantly augmented insulin secretion in response to glucose from islets isolated from non-diabetic db/m mice. Second, during an oral glucose tolerance test 4-week chronic treatment with imeglimin enhanced insulin secretion and ameliorated glycemic control in diabetic db/db mice. Furthermore, the examination with electron microscope image showed that imeglimin exerted favorable effects on morphology in ß-cell mitochondria and substantially increased the number of insulin granules in type 2 diabetic db/db and KK-Ay mice. Finally, imeglimin reduced the percentage of apoptotic ß-cell death which was accompanied by reduced expression levels of various genes related to apoptosis and inflammation in ß-cells. Taken together, imeglimin directly enhances insulin secretion in response to glucose from ß-cells, increases the number of insulin granules, exerts favorable effects on morphology in ß-cell mitochondria, and reduces apoptotic ß-cell death in type 2 diabetic mice, which finally leads to amelioration of glycemic control.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Células Secretoras de Insulina , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Triazinas
9.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 67(4): 195-202, 2022 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35809287

RESUMO

Diabetes is associated with an increase in other chronic diseases and an increase in mortality. The individual differences influence the treatment of this disease in pharmacokinetics and clinical responses. One of the important factors related to individual differences includes genetic factors in transmission, metabolism, and drug function. On the other hand, this disease has a significant impact on the patients' quality of life and their family. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the role of single nucleotide polymorphism (rs2110385) of the visfatin gene on insulin required to maintain glucose homeostasis and to evaluate the effect of insulin pump therapy on the quality of life in type 1 diabetic patients. In this regard, this study was performed on 47 patients with type 1 diabetes. The short form of the Diabetes Quality of Life Questionnaire (DQOL) was used to record information. Laboratory tests also included FBS, HbA1C, G2h, serum levels of visfatin, insulin, and adiponectin. Insulin resistance (HOMA) and insulin sensitivity (QUICKI) indices were calculated. The polymorphism of the studied genotype was performed by the PCR-RFLP method. The results showed that the scores of both dimensions of quality of life, including patient care behaviors and satisfaction with the disease control after the intervention increased significantly (P <0.001). There was a significant and direct relationship between the patient's age and the duration of the disease with the score of increasing patients' quality of life. No significant differences were found between HbA1C, G2h, FBS levels, fasting insulin concentration, HOMA, and QUICKI indices. The insulin dose used to maintain glucose homeostasis at the same levels was significantly lower in the GG genotype than in other genotypes. In general, the present study results showed that insulin pump therapy and its dimensions could improve the life quality of patients with type 1 diabetes. Also, genetic evaluation of individuals helps to provide the correct and accurate dose of insulin with the help of the insulin pump for these patients to increase their quality of life as much as possible.


Assuntos
Citocinas , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistência à Insulina , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase , Glicemia/metabolismo , Citocinas/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Genótipo , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Qualidade de Vida
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11853, 2022 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35831319

RESUMO

The rates of early gastric cancer and type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) are sharply increasing in Korea. Oncometabolic surgery in which metabolic surgery is conducted along with cancer surgery is a method used to treat gastric cancer and T2DM in one-stage operation. From 2011 to 2019, a total of 48 patients underwent long-limb Roux-en-Y gastrectomy (LRYG) in Inha University Hospital, and all data were reviewed retrospectively. A 75 g oral glucose tolerance test and serum insulin level test were performed before and 1 week and 1 year after surgery. One year after LRYG operation, 25 of 48 patients showed complete or partial remission and 23 patients showed non-remission of T2DM. The preoperative HbA1c level was significantly lower and the change in HbA1c was significantly greater in the T2DM remission group. Insulin secretion indices(insulinogenic index and disposition index) were increased significantly in the T2DM remission group. In contrast, the insulin resistance indices (homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and Matsuda index) changed minimal. In the case of LRYG in T2DM patients, remnant ß cell function is an important predictor of favorable glycemic control.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Derivação Gástrica , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade Mórbida , Neoplasias Gástricas , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/cirurgia , Derivação Gástrica/métodos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Indução de Remissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 21(1): 129, 2022 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35804351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mannose binding lectin (MBL) has been suggested to be associated with an impaired cardiovascular prognosis in dysglycaemic conditions, but results are still contrasting. Our aims are (i) to examine whether MBL levels differ between patients with an acute myocardial infarction (MI) and healthy controls and between subgroups with different glucose tolerance status, and (ii) to investigate the relation between MBL and future cardiovascular events. METHODS: MBL levels were assessed at discharge and after 3 months in 161 AMI patients without any previously known glucose perturbations and in 183 age- and gender-matched controls from the Glucose metabolism in patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction (GAMI) study. Participants were classified as having dysglycaemia, i.e. type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance, or not by an oral glucose tolerance test. The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular events comprising cardiovascular death, AMI, stroke or severe heart failure during 11 years of follow-up. Total and cardiovascular mortality served as secondary outcomes. RESULTS: At hospital discharge patients had higher MBL levels (median 1246 µg/L) than three months later (median 575 µg/L; p < 0.01), the latter did not significantly differ from those in the controls (801 µg/L; p = 0.47). MBL levels were not affected by dysglycaemia either in patients or controls. Independent of glycaemic state, increasing MBL levels did not predict any of the studied outcomes in patients. In unadjusted analyses increasing MBL levels predicted cardiovascular events (hazard ratio HR: 1.67, 95% confidence interval CI 1.06-2.64) and total mortality (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.12-2.10) in the control group. However, this did not remain in adjusted analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Patients had higher MBL levels than controls during the hospital phase of AMI, supporting the assumption that elevated MBL reflects acute stress. MBL was not found to be independently associated with cardiovascular prognosis in patients with AMI regardless of glucose state.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Infarto do Miocárdio , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Humanos , Prognóstico
12.
Med Arch ; 76(2): 96-100, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35774039

RESUMO

Background: IDegLira( fixed combination of GLP 1 receptor agonist and insulin) has been shown to be effective in improving the glucoregulation in patients previously treated with oral therapy as well as individual components, GLP-1 receptor agonist or basal insulin. Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the parameters of metabolic control in patients treated with IDegLira who were previously treated with premix insulin in several daily doses and to compare them with patients whose premix insulin dose was increased. Methods: The study included 100 patients who had been previously treated with two or three daily doses of premix insulin. Half of the patients were switched to IdegLira( group I), and half (group II) had their insulin dose increased according to the clinical assessment of the physician. Fasting glucose, 2h postprandial glucose, HbA1c, BMI and insulin dose were determined at baseline and at follow-up after 6 months. Results: Patients treated with IDegLira compared to patients whose insulin dose was increased achieved significantly lower fasting glucose (p <0.001), postprandial glucose (p <0.001), HbA1c (p <0.001), BMI (p <0.001) with a significantly lower insulin dose (p <0.001). Comparison of the same parameters within the groups of patients at the beginning and after 6 months showed that patients who were switched from insulin premix to IDegLira achieved significantly lower fasting blood glucose (p <0.001), postprandial glucose (p <0.001), HbA1c (p < 0.001), BMI (p <0.001) with significantly lower insulin dose within the fixed combination (p <0.001). Patients with gradually increased insulin dose achieved significant reduction in fasting glucose (p = 0.021) and postprandial glucose (p = 0.036),but with a significantly higher insulin dose (p = 0.005). There was also a slight increase in BMI that was not statistically significant (p = 0.267). Conclusion: The obtained data suggest that switching patients from a complex insulin regimen to a fixed combination of basal insulin and GLP 1 receptor agonist in comparison to increases in insulin dose results in a significant improvement in fasting glucose, postprandial glucose, HbA1c, and BMI. The results were achieved with a significantly lower daily insulin dose.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/uso terapêutico , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Insulina de Ação Prolongada , Liraglutida
13.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807469

RESUMO

It has been shown that citrus flavanone naringenin and its prenyl derivative 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN) possess various pharmacological activities in in vitro and in vivo models. Interestingly, it has been proposed that prenylation can enhance biological potentials, including the estrogen-like activities of flavonoids. The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-diabetic potential and molecular mechanism of 8-PN in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced insulin-deficient diabetic mice in comparison with naringenin reported to exhibit hypoglycemic effects. The oral administration of naringenin and 8-PN ameliorated impaired glucose homeostasis and islet dysfunction induced by STZ treatment. These protective effects were associated with the suppression of pancreatic ß-cell apoptosis and inflammatory responses in mice. Moreover, both naringenin and 8-PN normalized STZ-induced insulin-signaling defects in skeletal muscles and apoptotic protein expression in the liver. Importantly, 8-PN increased the protein expression levels of estrogen receptor-α (ERα) in the pancreas and liver and of fibroblast growth factor 21 in the liver, suggesting that 8-PN could act as an ERα agonist in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. This study provides novel insights into the mechanisms underlying preventive effects of naringenin and 8-PN on the impairment of glucose homeostasis in insulin-deficient diabetic mice.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Flavanonas , Animais , Apoptose , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Flavanonas/uso terapêutico , Glucose/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fitoestrógenos/uso terapêutico , Estreptozocina/farmacologia
14.
Nutrients ; 14(13)2022 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807854

RESUMO

Postprandial hyperglycemia is an important risk factor in the development and progression of type-2 diabetes and cardiometabolic diseases. Therefore, maintaining a low postprandial glucose response is key in preventing these diseases. Carbohydrate-rich meals are the main drivers of excessive glycemic excursions during the day. The consumption of whey protein premeals or mulberry leaf extract was reported to reduce postprandial glycemia through different mechanisms of action. The efficacy of these interventions was shown to be affected by the timing of the consumption or product characteristics. Two randomised crossover studies were performed, aiming to identify the optimal conditions to improve the efficacy of these nutritional supplements in reducing a glycemic response. The acute postprandial glycemic response was monitored with a continuous glucose monitoring device. The first study revealed that a preparation featuring 10 g of whey protein microgel reduced the postprandial glucose response by up to 30% (p = 0.001) and was more efficient than the whey protein isolates, independently of whether the preparation was ingested 30 or 10 min before a complete 320 kcal breakfast. The second study revealed that a preparation featuring 250 mg mulberry leaf extract was more efficient if it was taken together with a complete 510 kcal meal (-34%, p < 0.001) rather than ingested 5 min before (-26%, p = 0.002). These findings demonstrate that the efficacy of whey proteins premeal and mulberry leaf extracts can be optimised to provide potential nutritional solutions to lower the risk of type-2 diabetes or its complications.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Morus , Glicemia/metabolismo , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Estudos Cross-Over , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Glucose , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Refeições , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Período Pós-Prandial , Proteínas do Soro do Leite
15.
Nutrients ; 14(13)2022 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eating two kiwifruit before breakfast by equi-carbohydrate partial exchange of cereal has been associated with lower postprandial glucose and insulin, but it increases the intake of fruit sugar. We assessed the effects of kiwifruit ingestion at breakfast over 7 weeks on metabolic and physiologic factors. METHOD: Forty-three healthy Asian participants were randomised to ingest 500 mL of carbonated water (control) or 500 mL of carbonated water plus two kiwifruit (intervention), before breakfast. Three-day weighed diet records were taken before and at week 4 during the intervention. Overnight fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and week 7. Forty-two participants completed the study (n = 22 control, n = 20 intervention). RESULTS: The kiwifruit group consumed more fructose, vitamin C, vitamin E, and carbohydrates as a percentage of energy compared with the control group (p < 0.01). There was no evidence of between-group changes in metabolic outcomes at the end of the intervention, with the following mean (95% confidence interval) differences in fasting blood samples: glucose 0.09 (-0.06, 0.24) mmol/L; insulin -1.6 (-3.5, 0.3) µU/mL; uric acid -13 (-30, 4) µmol/L; triglycerides -0.10 (-0.22, 0.03) mmol/L; and total cholesterol -0.05 (-0.24, 0.14) mmol/L. There was a -2.7 (-5.5, 0.0) mmHg difference in systolic blood pressure for the intervention group compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: Eating two kiwifruit as part of breakfast increased fruit consumption and intake of antioxidant nutrients without a change in fasting insulin. There was a difference in systolic blood pressure and no adverse fructose-associated increases in uric acid, triglycerides, or total cholesterol. This simple intervention may provide health benefits to other demographic groups.


Assuntos
Actinidia , Água Carbonatada , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , Colesterol , Frutose , Frutas/metabolismo , Glucose , Humanos , Insulina , Triglicerídeos , Ácido Úrico
16.
Nutrients ; 14(13)2022 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807953

RESUMO

The scientific evidence that cinnamon may exert beneficial effects on type 2 diabetes mellitus due to the biological activity of its bioactive compounds has been increasing in recent years. This review provides an overview of the effects of cinnamon on clinical parameters of diabetes and summarizes the molecular mechanisms of action of cinnamon on glucose and lipid metabolism. Search criteria include an electronic search using PubMed, Medline, and Cochrane Library databases. English literature references from 2000 up to 2022 were included. Following title and abstract review, full articles that met the inclusion criteria were included. The results from the available evidence revealed that cinnamon improved glycemic and lipidemic indicators. Clinical trials clarified that cinnamon also possesses an anti-inflammatory effect, which may act beneficially in diabetes. Based on in vitro and in vivo studies, cinnamon seems to elicit the regulation of glucose metabolism in tissues by insulin-mimetic effect and enzyme activity improvement. Furthermore, cinnamon seems to decrease cholesterol and fatty acid absorption in the gut. The current literature search showed a considerable number of studies on diabetic subjects. Some limitations in comparing published data should be highlighted, including variability in doses, extracts and species of cinnamon, administration forms, and antidiabetic therapy.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Dislipidemias , Glicemia/metabolismo , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(13)2022 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35808386

RESUMO

(1) Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic, metabolic disease characterized by elevated levels of blood glucose. Recently, some studies approached the diabetes care domain through the analysis of the modifications of cardiovascular system parameters. In fact, cardiovascular diseases are the first leading cause of death in diabetic subjects. Thanks to their cost effectiveness and their ease of use, electrocardiographic (ECG) and photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals have recently been used in diabetes detection, blood glucose estimation and diabetes-related complication detection. This review's aim is to provide a detailed overview of all the published methods, from the traditional (non machine learning) to the deep learning approaches, to detect and manage diabetes using PPG and ECG signals. This review will allow researchers to compare and understand the differences, in terms of results, amount of data and complexity that each type of approach provides and requires. (2) Method: We performed a systematic review based on articles that focus on the use of ECG and PPG signals in diabetes care. The search was focused on keywords related to the topic, such as "Diabetes", "ECG", "PPG", "Machine Learning", etc. This was performed using databases, such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Semantic Scholar and IEEE Xplore. This review's aim is to provide a detailed overview of all the published methods, from the traditional (non machine learning) to the deep learning approaches, to detect and manage diabetes using PPG and ECG signals. This review will allow researchers to compare and understand the differences, in terms of results, amount of data and complexity that each type of approach provides and requires. (3) Results: A total of 78 studies were included. The majority of the selected studies focused on blood glucose estimation (41) and diabetes detection (31). Only 7 studies focused on diabetes complications detection. We present these studies by approach: traditional, machine learning and deep learning approaches. (4) Conclusions: ECG and PPG analysis in diabetes care showed to be very promising. Clinical validation and data processing standardization need to be improved in order to employ these techniques in a clinical environment.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Fotopletismografia , Algoritmos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Eletrocardiografia , Humanos , Fotopletismografia/métodos
18.
Can J Vet Res ; 86(3): 181-187, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35794971

RESUMO

Obesity, which is the most common spontaneous nutritional disorder in cats, is a known risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus and has been linked to insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and altered adipose-derived hormone secretion in cats. The objective of this study was to monitor and report changes in the results of serial intravenous glucose tolerance testing (IVGTT) and other metabolic parameters in 4 obese cats over a 4-year period. Serial IVGTT, insulin sensitivity indices, adipokine concentrations, and lipid profiles were evaluated. All cats had IVGTT changes consistent with impaired glucose tolerance and altered insulin secretory patterns during the 4-year study period. There was no significant increase in the fasting blood glucose or insulin concentrations and no changes in the insulin sensitivity indices evaluated. The mean adiponectin concentration decreased significantly over time, but there was no significant increase in the leptin concentration and no changes were observed in lipid profiles. Although IVGTT can be used to document early and/or mild impairment of glucose tolerance and changes in insulin secretory pattern, this test cannot be easily or readily carried out on client-owned cats in most clinical settings. More work needs to be done to establish reliable, convenient methods for earlier identification of cats at risk of developing clinical diabetes mellitus.


L'obésité, qui est le désordre nutritionnel spontané le plus fréquent chez les chats, est un facteur de risque connu pour le développement du diabète mellitus et a été associé à une résistance à l'insuline, à de l'hyperinsulinémie et à une sécrétion altérée d'hormone dérivée du tissu adipeux chez les chats. L'objectif de cette étude était de surveiller et rapporter les changements dans les résultats de tests de tolérance au glucose intraveineux en série (IVGTT) et autres paramètres métaboliques chez quatre chats obèses sur une période de 4 ans. Des IVGTT en série, les indices de sensibilité à l'insuline, les concentrations d'adipokines et les profils lipidiques ont été évalués. Tous les chats avaient des changements d'IVGTT compatibles avec une tolérance réduite au glucose et des patrons de sécrétion d'insuline altérés durant la période d'étude de 4 ans. Il n'y avait pas d'augmentation significative des concentrations de glucose sanguin ou d'insuline à jeun et aucun changement dans les indices de sensibilité à l'insuline évalués. La concentration moyenne d'adiponectine a diminué de manière significative en fonction du temps, mais il n'y avait pas d'augmentation significative de la concentration de leptine et aucun changement n'a été observé dans les profils lipidiques. Bien que l'IVGTT peut être utilisé pour documenter une diminution naissante et/ou légère de la tolérance au glucose et des changements dans le patron de sécrétion d'insuline, ce test ne peut pas être réalisé facilement ou rapidement sur des chats de clients dans la plupart des milieux de pratique. Plus de travail doit être fait pour établir des méthodes fiables et pratiques pour une identification plus précoce des chats à risque de développer un diabète mellitus.(Traduit par Docteur Serge Messier).


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Diabetes Mellitus , Resistência à Insulina , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Gatos , Diabetes Mellitus/veterinária , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Secreção de Insulina , Lipídeos , Obesidade/veterinária
19.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 67(4): 42-55, 2022 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35809303

RESUMO

In view of many complications of diabetes, kidney failure is considered as one of the main complications. The oxidative stress-induced due to persistent hyperglycemic conditions is the major cause of kidney disease. The present study was designed to explore the nephroprotective efficacy of polyherbal (PH) extract in a diabetic model induced by streptozotocin (STZ). STZ (55 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneal) was injected in overnight fasting rats to develop the diabetic experimental model. Effect on kidney injury was evaluated by investigating biochemical and histological evidences in renal tissue after 56 days of treatment of PH extract. Results showed the high glucose level in STZ treated rats that suggested hyperglycemia persistence along with the successful establishment of nephropathy in diabetic rats with altered renal function, inflammatory cytokines level as well as oxidative and nitrosative stress. Administration of PH extract significantly improved the glycemic condition, glomerular function and proximal reabsorptive markers. Further, elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines levels and disturbed redox status were restored. Moreover, findings were fostered and substantiated by histopathological examinations. Our work strongly proposes that the nephroprotective effect of the PH extract on renal damage could be attributed due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Thus, PH extract could have potential as a pharmaceutical drug for diabetes mellitus (DM). Additional long-term study or clinical trial is required for further investigations.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Insuficiência Renal , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Rim/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Insuficiência Renal/complicações , Estreptozocina/farmacologia
20.
Chin J Physiol ; 65(3): 117-124, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35775530

RESUMO

There is a potential therapeutic application targeting brown adipose tissue (BAT). Either voluntary running or liraglutide increases the thermogenesis of BAT in type 2 diabetes mellitus, but their combined effect is not yet clarified. Male leptin receptor-deficient db/db diabetic mice (n = 24) were randomly divided into voluntary running, liraglutide, voluntary running + liraglutide, and control groups (n = 6/group). Normal male C57 mice were the negative control (n = 6). Fasting blood glucose was monitored every week, plasma insulin and lipid profiles were analyzed, and thermogenic protein expression in BAT and white adipose tissue (WAT) were analyzed by the western blot. A total of 128 metabolites associated with phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylethanolamines, sphingomyelins, and ceramides were targeted in BAT. Compared to the control group, voluntary running or liraglutide treatment significantly lowered the blood glucose and increased the insulin level; the combined group showed a better effect than liraglutide alone. Hence, the combined treatment showed an enhanced hypoglycemic effect. Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and OXPHOS protein expression in BAT and UCP1 in WAT were significantly increased after exercise training and liraglutide treatment. However, BAT metabolomics showed that compared to the control mice, nine fatty acids increased in the exercise group, six increased in the liraglutide group, and only three increased in the combined group. These results may suggest a higher hypoglycemic effect and the activation of BAT and WAT browning in the combined group.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insulinas , Corrida , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Homeostase , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulinas/metabolismo , Insulinas/farmacologia , Liraglutida/metabolismo , Liraglutida/farmacologia , Liraglutida/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/farmacologia , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo
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