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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 379, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A major worldwide health issue is the rising frequency of resistance of bacteria.Drug combinations are a winning strategy in fighting resistant bacteria and might help in protecting the existing drugs.Monolaurin is natural compound extracted from coconut oil and has a promising antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus.aureus. This study aims to examine the efficacy of monolaurin both individually and in combination with ß-lactam antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus isolates. METHODS: Agar dilution method was used for determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of monolaurin against S.aureus isolates. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to detect morphological changes in S.aureus after treatment with monolaurin. Conventional and Real-time Polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were performed to detect of beta-lactamase (blaZ) gene and its expressional levels after monolaurin treatment. Combination therapy of monolaurin and antibiotics was assessed through fractional inhibitory concentration and time-kill method. RESULTS: The antibacterial activity of monolaurin was assessed on 115 S.aureus isolates, the MIC of monolaurin were 250 to 2000 µg/ml. SEM showed cell elongation and swelling in the outer membrane of S.aureus in the prescence of 1xMIC of monolaurin. blaZ gene was found in 73.9% of S.aureus isolates. RT-PCR shows a significant decrease in of blaZ gene expression at 250 and 500 µg/ml of monolaurin. Synergistic effects were detected through FIC method and time killing curve. Combination therapy established a significant reduction on the MIC value. The collective findings from the antibiotic combinations with monolaurin indicated synergism rates ranging from 83.3% to 100%.In time-kill studies, combination of monolaurin and ß-lactam antibiotics produced a synergistic effect. CONCLUSION: This study showed that monolaurin may be a natural antibacterial agent against S. aureus, and may be an outstanding modulator of ß-lactam drugs. The concurrent application of monolaurin and ß-lactam antibiotics, exhibiting synergistic effects against S. aureus in vitro, holds promise as potential candidates for the development of combination therapies that target particularly, patients with bacterial infections that are nearly incurable.


Assuntos
Lauratos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Monoglicerídeos , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus , 60693 , Glicerol/farmacologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Monobactamas/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
2.
Reprod Toxicol ; 125: 108575, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462211

RESUMO

The generally undesired effects of exocannabinoids on male reproduction include alterations in testicular cell proliferation and function, as well as apoptosis induction. However, this paradigm has been challenged by the ability of endocannabinoids to regulate reproductive function. The present study addresses these paradoxical facts by investigating the effects of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) on mouse Sertoli cells' survival and apoptosis, with a mechanistic insight into Sertoli cell-based growth factors' production. The Mus musculus Sertoli cell line (TM4) was exposed to different concentrations of 2-AG, and cell viability was evaluated using MTT assay. Growth factors' gene and protein expressions were analyzed through RT-PCR and western blotting. 2-AG concentration dependently increased TM4 viability, with a slight increase starting at 0.0001 µM, a peak of 190% of the control level at 1 µM, and a decrease at 3 µM. Moreover, 2-AG paradoxically altered mRNA expression of caspase-3 and growth factors. Caspase-3 mRNA expression was down-regulated, and growth factors mRNA and protein expression were up-regulated when using a low concentration of 2-AG (1 µM). Opposite effects were observed by a higher concentration of 2-AG (3 µM). These paradoxical effects of 2-AG can be explained through the concept of hormesis. The results indicate the pivotal role of 2-AG in mediating Sertoli cell viability and apoptosis, at least in part, through altering growth factors secretion. Furthermore, they suggest the involvement of endocannabinoids in Sertoli cell-based physiological and pathological conditions and reflect the ability of abnormally elevated 2-AG to mimic the actions of exocannabinoids in reproductive dysfunction.


Assuntos
Canabinoides , Endocanabinoides , Camundongos , Animais , Masculino , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Endocanabinoides/farmacologia , Células de Sertoli , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Glicerol/metabolismo , Glicerol/farmacologia , Hormese , Sobrevivência Celular , Apoptose , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fertilidade , Células Cultivadas
3.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 59(3): e14551, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462999

RESUMO

Cryopreservation is one of the reliable techniques for long-term storage of sperm. The success of this technique depends on the choice of cryoprotectant; therefore, a plethora of literature has reported the effects of different cryoprotective agents so far. Kappa-carrageenan (κ-carrageenan) is a hydrocolloid polysaccharide extracted from red marine seaweed. Its unique property makes it a promising option as a non-colligative cryoprotectant. The current study aims to evaluate the cryoprotective effect of k-carrageenan along with glycerol on ram sperm quality both after equilibration and freezing. Nine Kajli rams were utilized in this experiment for semen collection through an artificial vagina maintained at 42°C. Qualified samples were diluted in tris egg yolk glycerol (TEYG) extender containing different concentrations of k-carrageenan as 0 mg/mL (control), 0.2, 0.5, 0.8 and 1 mg/mL. Post-thaw assessment was done at 37°C after 24 h of storage, which showed a significant improvement (p < .05) in sperm viability, motility, membrane and acrosome integrity in an extender containing k-carrageenan at a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL compared to control. It is concluded from the current study that the combination of glycerol and 0.5 mg/mL concentration of k-carrageenan improved the sperm post-thaw quality.


Assuntos
Preservação do Sêmen , Sêmen , Masculino , Ovinos , Animais , Carragenina/farmacologia , Glicerol/farmacologia , Motilidade dos Espermatozoides , Espermatozoides , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Criopreservação/veterinária , Criopreservação/métodos , Carneiro Doméstico , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Preservação do Sêmen/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais
4.
Respir Res ; 25(1): 75, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (EC) have gained popularity, especially among young people, with the introduction of fourth-generation devices based on e-liquids containing nicotine salts that promise a smoother vaping experience than freebase nicotine. However, the toxicological effects of nicotine salts are still largely unknown, and the chemical diversity of e-liquids limits the comparison between different studies to determine the contribution of each compound to the cytotoxicity of EC aerosols. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicological profile of controlled composition e-liquid aerosols to accurately determine the effects of each ingredient based on exposure at the air-liquid interface. METHODS: Human lung epithelial cells (A549) were exposed to undiluted aerosols of controlled composition e-liquids containing various ratios of propylene glycol (PG)/vegetable glycerin (VG) solvents, freebase nicotine, organic acids, nicotine salts, and flavoured commercial e-liquids. Exposure of 20 puffs was performed at the air-liquid interface following a standard vaping regimen. Toxicological outcomes, including cytotoxicity, inflammation, and oxidative stress, were assessed 24 h after exposure. RESULTS: PG/VG aerosols elicited a strong cytotoxic response characterised by a 50% decrease in cell viability and a 200% increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) production, but had no effects on inflammation and oxidative stress. These effects occurred only at a ratio of 70/30 PG/VG, suggesting that PG is the major contributor to aerosol cytotoxicity. Both freebase nicotine and organic acids had no greater effect on cell viability and LDH release than at a 70/30 PG/VG ratio, but significantly increased inflammation and oxidative stress. Interestingly, the protonated form of nicotine in salt showed a stronger proinflammatory effect than the freebase nicotine form, while benzoic acid-based nicotine salts also induced significant oxidative stress. Flavoured commercial e-liquids was found to be cytotoxic at a threshold dose of ≈ 330 µg/cm². CONCLUSION: Our results showed that aerosols of e-liquids consisting only of PG/VG solvents can cause severe cytotoxicity depending on the concentration of PG, while nicotine salts elicit a stronger pro-inflammatory response than freebase nicotine. Overall, aerosols from fourth-generation devices can cause different toxicological effects, the nature of which depends on the chemical composition of the e-liquid.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Vaping , Humanos , Adolescente , Nicotina/toxicidade , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Sais , Solventes , Propilenoglicol/toxicidade , Propilenoglicol/química , Glicerol/química , Glicerol/farmacologia , Aerossóis , Aromatizantes , Inflamação
5.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 55(1): 190-197, 2024 Jan 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38322514

RESUMO

Objective: To create a novel chitosan antibacterial hemostatic sponge (NCAHS) and to evaluate its material and biological properties. Methods: Chitosan, a polysaccharide, was used as the sponge substrate and different proportions of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), glycerol, and phenol sulfonyl ethylamine were added to prepare the sponges through the freeze-drying method. The whole-blood coagulation index (BCI) was used as the screening criterion to determine the optimal concentrations of chitosan and the other additives and the hemostatic sponges were prepared accordingly. Zein/calcium carbonate (Zein/CaCO3) composite microspheres loaded with ciprofloxacin hydrochloride were prepared and added to the hemostatic sponges to obtain NCAHS. Scanning electron microscope was used to observe the microscopic morphology and porosity of the NCAHS. The water absorption rate, in vitro antibacterial susceptibility rate against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli), in vitro coagulation performance, and hemocompatibility of NCAHS were examined. The coagulation performance of NCAHS was evaluated by using rabbit liver injury and rabbit auricular artery hemorrhageear models and commercial hemostatic sponge (CHS) was used as a control. The in vivo biocompatibility, including such aspects as cytotoxicity, skin irritation in animals, and acute in vivo toxicity, of the NCAHS extracts was examined by using as a reference the national standards for biological evaluation of medical devices. Results: The NCAHS prepared with 1.5% chitosan (W/V), 0.01% STPP (W/V), 0% glycerol (V/V), 0.15% phenol-sulfonyl-ethylamine (V/V), Zein and CaCO3 at the mixing ratio of 5∶1 (W/W), Zein at the final mass concentration of 2.5 g/L, and ethanol at the final concentration of 17.5% (V/V) were fine and homogeneous, possessing a honeycomb-like porous structure with a pore size of about 200 µm. The NCAHS thus prepared had the lowest BCI value. The water absorption ([2362.16±201.15] % vs. [1102.56±91.79]%) and in vitro coagulation performance (31.338% vs. 1.591%) of NCAHS were significantly better than those of CHS (P<0.01). Tests with the in vivo auricular artery hemorrhage model ([36.00±13.42] s vs. [80.00±17.32] s) and rabbit liver bleeding model ([30.00±0] s vs. [70.00±17.32] s) showed that the hemostasis time of NCAHS was significantly shorter than that of CHS (P<0.01). NCAHS had significant inhibitory ability against S. aureus and E. coli. In addition, NCAHS showed good in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility. Conclusion: NCAHS is a composite sponge that shows excellent antimicrobial properties, hemostatic effect, and biocompatibility. Therefore, its extensive application in clinical settings is warranted.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Hemostáticos , Zeína , Animais , Coelhos , Quitosana/química , Hemostáticos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli , Glicerol/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus , Zeína/farmacologia , Hemostasia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Hemorragia , Água/farmacologia , Etilaminas/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia
6.
Mar Drugs ; 22(2)2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38393062

RESUMO

The present study aims to explore the probable anti-adipogenesis effect of Dictyopteris divaricata (D. divaricata) in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes by regulating heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). The extract of D. divaricata retarded lipid accretion and decreased triglyceride (TG) content in 3T3-L1 adipocytes but increased free glycerol levels. Treatment with the extract inhibited lipogenesis by inhibiting protein expressions of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL), whereas lipolysis increased by activating phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (p-HSL) and AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK). The extract inhibited adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes through down-regulating adipogenic transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1). This is attributed to the triggering of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling. In addition, this study found that treatment with the extract activated HO-1 expression. Pharmacological approaches revealed that treatment with Zinc Protoporphyrin (ZnPP), an HO-1 inhibitor, resulted in an increase in lipid accumulation and a decrease in free glycerol levels. Finally, three adipogenic transcription factors, such as PPARγ, C/EBPα, and SREBP1, restored their expression in the presence of ZnPP. Analysis of chemical constituents revealed that the extract of D. divaricata is rich in 1,4-benzenediol, 7-tetradecenal, fucosterol, and n-hexadecanoic acid, which are known to have multiple pharmacological properties.


Assuntos
Adipogenia , Feófitas , Animais , Camundongos , Lipólise , Células 3T3-L1 , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Glicerol/farmacologia , Glicerol/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Adipócitos , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Lipídeos/farmacologia
7.
Cryobiology ; 114: 104853, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301951

RESUMO

Recovering and cryopreserving epididymal spermatozoa are suitable methods for preserving the genetic potential of livestock and endangered species. Regarding encouraging reports on the use of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in cryopreserving various cell types, we conducted this study to examine the impact of PVA on the post-thaw quality, longevity, and in vitro fertility of ram epididymal sperm. In the first experiment, ram epididymal spermatozoa were frozen in extenders containing 6 % glycerol and 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, or 15 mg/ml of PVA. Polyvinyl alcohol at concentrations of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/ml improved the motility and functional membrane integrity (FMI) of the sperm compared with the control group (P < 0.05). In the second experiment, we investigated whether PVA could partially substitute glycerol in the freezing extender. PVA was added at 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/ml to the extenders containing 1 % or 2 % glycerol. After thawing, the sperm motility parameters of the group containing 1 mg/ml PVA and 2 % glycerol were significantly higher than those of the un-supplemented groups (P < 0.05). In the third experiment, the effect of PVA on the post-thaw sperm longevity were examined. Sperm were frozen in 3 extenders: one containing 6 % glycerol and 1 mg/ml PVA (Gly6P1), another containing 2 % glycerol and 1 mg/ml PVA (Gly2P1), and a control extender with 6 % glycerol. After thawing, the quality of the sperm was evaluated. Sperm were then diluted in human tubal fluid (HTF) and incubated at 37 °C for 3 h. Afterwards, the quality of the sperm was evaluated once more. The presence of PVA in the freezing extender improved motility parameters and FMI. Additionally, PVA-containing groups had lower proportions of capacitated and acrosome reacted sperm compared with the control group (P < 0.05). The Gly6P1 group performed better than the other two groups (P < 0.05). In the fourth experiment, sperm from the Gly6P1 and Control groups were used in the IVF process immediately after thawing (T0) and after a 3-h incubation at 37 °C in HTF (T3). Cleavage, blastocyst and hatching rates in both groups were similar at T0, but they were lower in the Control group at T3 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, PVA as an additive to the freezing extender significantly improves post-thaw motility, viability, acrosome integrity, longevity, and fertile lifespan of ram epididymal spermatozoa.


Assuntos
Glicerol , Preservação do Sêmen , Humanos , Masculino , Animais , Ovinos , Congelamento , Glicerol/farmacologia , Álcool de Polivinil/farmacologia , Longevidade , Criopreservação/métodos , Motilidade dos Espermatozoides , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Preservação do Sêmen/métodos , Sêmen , Espermatozoides , Crioprotetores/farmacologia
8.
Animal ; 18(3): 101104, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38417217

RESUMO

Delivering piglets is one of the most energy-demanding activities sows undergo in their lifetime. Sows can have myometrial contractions from 2 to 12 h before the first piglet is expelled as well as a nest-building behavior. Thus, when the first piglet is delivered, the female has already used part of her energy supply. When the sow gets exhausted due to lack of energy, the farrowing process can be interrupted, causing damage to the viability and vitality of the piglets. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of feeding sows an energy supplement at the onset of farrowing on farrowing kinetics and piglet vitality. The energy supplement consisted of a blend of carbohydrates and glycerol which provides 439 kJ of metabolizable energy per kg of metabolic weight. A total of 180 sows were used. At the onset of farrowing, sows were assigned to one of the following treatments: sows that were not supplied energy at the onset of farrowing, serving as controls (CON, n = 85); sows fed the energy supplement at the onset of farrowing (ESP, n = 95). Farrowing kinetics, blood glucose concentration, and piglet vitality were recorded for each sow. Blood glucose concentration was assessed by puncturing the auricular vein and using a portable glucometer at four different time points: after the birth of the 1st piglet (T0), and at 20 (T20), 40 (T40), 80 (T80), and 180 (T180) min after the birth of the 1st piglet. The vitality of the 1st, 6th, 12th, 17th, and 20th piglet born was evaluated using the Apgar score. Piglet birth weight and average colostrum intake were measured. The farrowing duration was 20 min shorter (P < 0.05) for ESP sows in comparison with CON sows. Sows from ESP treatment had higher (P ≤ 0.05) blood glucose concentration at T20 and T40 compared to the CON sows. The inter-piglet birth interval was shortened (P < 0.05) by 14 min between the 1st and 2nd piglet for the ESP treatment. The 17th and 20th piglets born from ESP sows had higher (P < 0.05) Apgar score compared to piglets of the same birth order from CON sows. Colostrum intake was higher (P < 0.01) for piglets born from ESP sows. Litter growth performance did not differ (P > 0.05). In conclusion, feeding a blend of carbohydrates and glycerol as an energy supplement for farrowing sows improved farrowing kinetics and piglet vitality score.


Assuntos
Glicerol , Lactação , Gravidez , Animais , Suínos , Feminino , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Glicerol/farmacologia , Glicerol/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Colostro/metabolismo
9.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 59(1): e14524, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38268208

RESUMO

Globalization and habitat destruction pose a significant threat to wildlife felids. Even though conservation banks for genetic materials have been created, the sperm cryopreservation with minimal cell damage is still a great challenge. Thus, this study aimed to compare the effects of two commercial extenders with different concentrations of alternative cryoprotectants on thawed sperm quality of domestic cats. Five adult cats were anaesthetized (using a combination of 40 µg/kg medetomidine associated to 5 mg/kg ketamine), and the semen was collected by electroejaculation (electrical stimulation of 2-3 V). Semen samples were evaluated for sperm characteristics (kinetics, morphology, membrane integrity and morphometry). Subsequently, they were sorted into two aliquots and centrifuged. The aliquots were added to a commercial extender containing 3% glycerol and 2% methylformamide (extender I) or 2% glycerol and 3% methylformamide (extender II), frozen, thawed (37°C/30 s) and reevaluated. Comparatively, the sperm kinetics and membrane integrity of fresh semen were higher (p < .002) than frozen samples in extender I and II. Total and progressive motility were lowest in the thawed samples. However, the subjective analysis indicated high sperm motility, since the kinetics evaluation was impaired by the low cell number in the thawed samples. There were no differences in sperm morphology between the groups. In the sperm morphometric analysis, a significant difference (p = .04) was identified in the length of the intermediate piece in extender II samples compared with fresh and extender I. Thus, it can be concluded that although the concentrations tested did not maintain the kinetic parameters and membrane integrity of spermatozoa after thawing, the extender with a lower concentration of glycerol was less toxic for maintaining the midpiece length.


Assuntos
Formamidas , Glicerol , Sêmen , Masculino , Gatos , Animais , Glicerol/farmacologia , Motilidade dos Espermatozoides , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Espermatozoides
10.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 10(2): 851-862, 2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38176101

RESUMO

In transfusion medicine, the cryopreservation of red blood cells (RBCs) is of major importance. The organic solvent glycerol (Gly) is considered the current gold-standard cryoprotectant (CPA) for RBC cryopreservation, but the deglycerolization procedure is complex and time-consuming, resulting in severe hemolysis. Therefore, it remains a research hotspot to find biocompatible and effective novel CPAs. Herein, the natural and biocompatible inulin, a polysaccharide, was first employed as a CPA for RBC cryopreservation. The presence of inulin could improve the thawed RBC recovery from 11.83 ± 1.40 to 81.86 ± 0.37%. It was found that inulin could promote vitrification because of its relatively high viscosity and glass transition temperature (Tg'), thus reducing the damage during cryopreservation. Inulin possessed membrane stability, which also had beneficial effects on RBC recovery. Moreover, inulin could inhibit the mechanical damage induced by ice recrystallization during thawing. After cryopreservation, the RBC properties were maintained normally. Mathematical modeling analysis was adopted to compare the performance of inulin, Gly, and hydroxyethyl starch (HES) in cryopreservation, and inulin presented the best efficiency. This work provides a promising CPA for RBC cryopreservation and may be beneficial for transfusion therapy in the clinic.


Assuntos
Gelo , Vitrificação , Inulina/farmacologia , Inulina/metabolismo , Criopreservação/métodos , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Crioprotetores/metabolismo , Glicerol/farmacologia , Glicerol/metabolismo , Membrana Celular
11.
Poult Sci ; 103(3): 103448, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38237325

RESUMO

Currently, glycerol is the most effective cryoprotectant when combined with straw packaging for preserving chicken sperm. Glycerol, however, has toxic effects on sperm cells, which can reduce fertility when present in inseminated semen. Historically, the serial dilution (SD) method was developed to eliminate glycerol and mitigate its adverse effects. We have recently developed a new method for removing glycerol called sucrose-Percoll (SP), that can be performed at either 4°C (4°C-SP) or 20°C (20°C-SP). This SP protocol has been found to be simpler and faster to improve fertility compared to the traditional SD method. Nevertheless, the reasons for such effectiveness differences between glycerol removal procedures remained unclear and required more comprehensive understandings for future protocol developments. Here, we examined the effects of SP and SD protocols on the fertility duration. We also investigated the potential causes of varying effects of these methods by analyzing sperm quality parameters and sperm storage in the hen's reproductive tract. The fertility was significantly higher in 4°C-SP than 20°C-SP during the first 6 d after insemination, and also higher than sperm processed using SD. No difference was observed between 20°C-SP and SD between 7 and 13 d. However, a 2.7-time higher fertility was shown with 4°C-SP. In addition, the SP method demonstrated a 2-fold greater ability to remove glycerol than the SD method. Sperm centrifuged at 4°C-SP exhibited higher sperm storage compared to 20°C-SP and were higher than sperm treated with SD. Overall, our findings revealed that the differences in efficiencies between SP and SD methods were not related to in vitro sperm quality but resulted from a higher ability to remove glycerol, a higher storage capacity in the female reproductive tract, and a longer fertility ability. Since no impacts were observed in sperm cellular characteristics, further experiments are necessary to investigate the influences of glycerol removal treatments at the molecular level.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Glicerol , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Glicerol/farmacologia , Sêmen , Espermatozoides , Criopreservação/veterinária , Coloides
12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 255: 127952, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37951437

RESUMO

Wound infection control is a primary clinical concern nowadays. Various innovative solutions have been developed to fabricate adaptable wound dressings with better control of infected wound healing. This work presents a facile approach by leveraging 3D printing to fabricate chitosan/glycerol into composite dressings with tailored micropatterns to improve wound healing. The bioinks of chitosan/glycerol were investigated as suitable for 3D printing. Then, three tailored micropatterns (i.e., sheet, strip, and mesh) with precise geometry control were 3D printed onto a commercial dressing to fabricate the micropatterned composite dressings. In vitro and in vivo studies indicate that these micropatterned dressings could speed up wound healing due to their increased water uptake capacity (up to ca. 16-fold@2 min), benign cytotoxicity (76.7 % to 90.4 % of cell viability), minor hemolytic activity (<1 %), faster blood coagulation effects (within 76.3 s), low blood coagulation index (14.5 % to 18.7 % @ 6 min), enhanced antibacterial properties (81.0 % to 86.1 % against S. aureus, 83.7 % to 96.5 % against E. coli), and effective inhibition of wound inflammation factors of IL-1ß and TNF-α. Such tailored micropatterned composite dressing is facile to obtain, highly reproducible, and cost-efficient, making it a promising implication for improved and personalized contaminated wound healing.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Quitosana/farmacologia , Glicerol/farmacologia , Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus , Cicatrização , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bandagens/microbiologia , Impressão Tridimensional
13.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 108(2): 383-394, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37899704

RESUMO

Bulls with varying freezability exhibit substantial variation in semen characteristics after cryopreservation. Sperm freezability is positively correlated with membrane cholesterol content, membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity and antioxidant content. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal concentration of hyaluronic acid (HA) in bull sperm with different cryotolerances. Simmental bulls (n = 10) semen samples were taken and categorized based on their progressive motility (PM) after freeze-thawing: Group I, consisting of bulls (n = 5) with progressive sperm motility ≥45%, was considered good freezability ejaculates (GF), and Group II, including bulls (n = 5) with progressive sperm motility ≤30%, was considered poor freezability ejaculates (PF) bulls. Semen samples were diluted with a Tris-egg-yolk-glycerol (TEYG) extender containing various concentrations of HA: without HA (control), 1 mM HA, 2 mM HA and 4 mM HA. After the freeze-thaw process, sperm kinematics, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity, mitochondrial activity and apoptotic status were evaluated. The addition of 1 mM HA to the diluent of bulls with GF increased PM and linearity (LIN) compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Normal morphology was improved after thawing in the samples treated with 1 and 2 mM HA in the GF and PF bulls respectively. The membrane and acrosome integrity of GF bulls treated with 1 mM HA was significantly (p < 0.05) greater than that of the control groups. Adding 1 mM HA to the extender of bulls with GF and PF improved the proportion of viable cells compared with the highest concentration (4 mM) of HA. The mitochondrial activity of PF bulls treated with 1 and 2 mM HA was significantly (p < 0.05) greater than that of the controls and 4 mM HA. Finally, it can be concluded that adding low doses of HA (1 mM) to the TEYG extender of GF and PF bulls ameliorated the post-thaw semen quality.


Assuntos
Preservação do Sêmen , Sêmen , Masculino , Animais , Bovinos , Congelamento , Ácido Hialurônico/farmacologia , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Motilidade dos Espermatozoides , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Espermatozoides , Criopreservação/veterinária , Glicerol/farmacologia , Apoptose , Crioprotetores/farmacologia
14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 254(Pt 1): 127622, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37890752

RESUMO

The study aimed to develop a biopolymer-based mupirocin film-forming spray (MUP-FFS) for wound healing using chitosan and α-cellulose. MUP-FFS formulation was optimized by box-Behnken design, wherein the amount of chitosan, glycerol, and microfluidizer cycles showed a significant effect on the drying time and sprayability, but drug release remained unaffected. The optimized MUP-FFS formulation prepared by 13 microfluidizer cycles containing chitosan (0.125 %), glycerol (2.76 %) was quickly sprayable with 235 s drying time. The viscosity, spray uniformity and occlusive potential were found optimum for MUP-FFS. MUP-FFS released 98.066 % of MUP, 2-fold and 4-fold greater than the marketed ointment and MUP-API. The transmission electron microscopy displayed a homogeneous fibrous network, and scanning electron microphotographs showed uniform drug distribution on the MUP-film surface. The antimicrobial study revealed the efficacy of MUP-FFS against S.aureus and E.coli, wherein the former was more susceptible to formulation than the later. MUP-FFS indicated better wound contraction and healing than other groups on 7th and 14th day in rats. On Day-21, MUP-FFS could regress TGF-ß1 to a normal level similar to the marketed formulation, which was also reflected in histopathological observations. Therefore, MUP-FFS can be a treatment option for chronic wounds, applied without touch and with minimal mechanical pressure.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Quitosana , Ratos , Animais , Mupirocina/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Quitosana/farmacologia , Glicerol/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Cicatrização , Celulose/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus
15.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 13(6): e2303244, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37934913

RESUMO

Wound management remains a critical healthcare issue due to the rising incidence of chronic diseases leading to persistent wounds. Traditional dressings have their limitations, such as potential for further damage during changing and suboptimal healing conditions. Recently, hydrogel-based dressings have gained attention due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and ability to fill wounds. Particularly, polysaccharide-based hydrogels have shown potential in various medical applications. This study focuses on the development of a novel hydrofilm wound dressing produced from a blend of chia seed mucilage (CSM) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), termed CSMP. While the individual properties of CSM and PVA are well-documented, their combined potential in wound management is largely unexplored. CSMP, coupled with sorbitol and glycerin, and cross-linked using ultraviolet light, results in a flexible, adhesive, and biocompatible hydrofilm demonstrating superior water absorption, moisturizing, and antibacterial properties. This hydrofilm promotes epithelial cell migration, enhanced collagen production, and outperforms existing commercial dressings in animal tests. The innovative CSMP hydrofilm offers a promising, cost-effective approach for improved wound care, bridging existing gaps in dressing performance and preparation simplicity. Future research can unlock further applications of such polysaccharide-based hydrofilm dressings.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Cicatrização , Animais , Bandagens , Movimento Celular , Glicerol/farmacologia , Hidrogéis/farmacologia
16.
Int J Cosmet Sci ; 46(1): 85-95, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37699769

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the effect of 1,3-propanediol at different concentrations (5%, 10%, or 15%), either applied alone or in combination with butylene glycol (BG) (5%) and/or glycerol (5%), on skin hydration and skin barrier function. The measurements were conducted using capacitance to determine skin hydration and trans epidermal water loss (TEWL) rates to evaluate skin barrier function. METHODS: A total of 30 healthy female subjects participated in the study. Capacitance and TEWL measurements were conducted at multiple time points, including before application and at 15 min, 2 and 8 h after the humectants were applied to the forearms of the subjects. All the subjects provided written informed consent. RESULTS: The 1,3-propanediol in all concentrations and in all combinations (with BG and/or glycerol) increased skin hydration and improved skin barrier function 15 min, 2 and 8 h after application. Glycerol increased the hydration performance of 1,3-propanediol. The application of 1,3-propanediol at a concentration of 15%, either alone or in combination with other humectants, reduced the TEWL to a greater extent than lower concentrations of 1,3-propanediol. Furthermore, the addition of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol 15% improved the skin barrier and reduced TEWL when compared with 1,3-propanediol alone and with the combination of 1,3-propanediol + BG. CONCLUSION: The humectants significantly improved skin hydration and reduced TEWL throughout the 8-h time course. The increase in 1,3-propanediol concentration, as well as its combination with glycerol, provided a greater benefit to the skin, improving both hydration and the skin barrier function.


OBJECTIF: Cette étude visait à évaluer l'effet sur l'hydratation de la peau et la fonction de barrière cutanée du 1,3-propanediol à différentes concentrations (5 %, 10 % ou 15 %), appliqué seul ou en association avec du butylène glycol (5 %) et/ou du glycérol (5 %). Les mesures ont été effectuées à l'aide de la capacitance pour déterminer l'hydratation de la peau et les taux de perte d'eau transépidermique (Trans Epidermal Water Loss, TEWL) pour évaluer la fonction de barrière cutanée. MÉTHODES: Au total, 30 sujets de sexe féminin en bonne santé ont participé à l'étude. Les mesures de la capacitance et de la TEWL ont été effectuées à plusieurs moments, y compris avant l'application, 15 minutes, 2 heures et 8 heures après l'application des produits humectant sur les avant-bras des sujets. Tous les sujets ont fourni un consentement éclairé écrit. RÉSULTATS: Le 1,3-propanediol, à toutes les concentrations et dans toutes les associations (avec le butylène glycol et/ou le glycérol), a augmenté l'hydratation de la peau et amélioré la fonction de barrière cutanée à 15 minutes, 2 heures et 8 heures après l'application. Le glycérol a augmenté les performances d'hydratation du 1,3-propanediol. L'application de 1,3-propanediol à une concentration de 15 %, seul ou en association avec d'autres produits humectant, a réduit la TEWL dans une plus grande mesure que des concentrations inférieures de 1,3-propanediol. En outre, l'ajout de glycérol au 1,3-propanediol 15 % a amélioré la barrière cutanée et réduit la TEWL par rapport au 1,3-propanediol seul et à l'association 1,3-propanediol + butylène glycol. CONCLUSION: Les produits humectant ont significativement amélioré l'hydratation de la peau et réduit la TEWL tout au long des 8 heures. L'augmentation de la concentration de 1,3-propanediol, ainsi que son association avec le glycérol, ont apporté un plus grand bénéfice à la peau, améliorant à la fois l'hydratation et la fonction de barrière cutanée.


Assuntos
Glicerol , Higroscópicos , Propilenoglicóis , Feminino , Humanos , Glicerol/farmacologia , Glicerol/metabolismo , Higroscópicos/farmacologia , Pele , Água/metabolismo , Propilenoglicol/farmacologia , Propilenoglicol/metabolismo , Butileno Glicóis/metabolismo , Butileno Glicóis/farmacologia , Perda Insensível de Água
17.
Exp Eye Res ; 239: 109756, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38135134

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the long-term preservation effects of nutrient capsules on the physiological activity, collagen fiber structure and transmittance of corneal stromal lenticules derived from small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE). METHODS: A new nutrient capsule was constructed for long-term preservation of SMILE-derived corneal stromal lenticules. The lenticules were randomly divided into 99% anhydrous glycerol, and hydrogel nutrient capsules. After preserving for 1 year at -80 °C, lenticules were compared with fresh lenticules. The optical transmittance, tissue morphology, ultrastructure, cells activity and immunogenicity of the lenticules was detected and compared between different groups. RESULTS: The rate of apoptotic cells was significantly higher in the glycerol group compared with the nutrient capsule group (P < 0.0001). More viable cells were present in the lenticules after nutrient capsule preservation compared to the glycerol group (P = 0.0003). The mean transmittance of the lenticules in the glycerol group (50 ± 18%) was significantly lower (P = 0.0008) compared to the control group (75 ± 11%), and the lenticules transmittance of the nutrient capsule group (64 ± 15%) after long-term preservation was not significantly different (P = 0.23) compared to the control group. The structure of HE staining showed that the collagen fibers in the nutrient capsule group were arranged in parallel and neatly, and a few cavitation vesicles were visible inside the tissue. There was no significant difference in the number of lenticular collagen fibers in the nutritional capsule group compared to the fresh lenticule group (P = 0.06). HLA-DR, HLA-ABC, CD45, CD25 and CD69 expression was low in all groups of lenticules after preservation. CONCLUSIONS: Nutrient capsules can preserve lenticules for a long time and maintain the transmission structure and cells activity of lenticules.


Assuntos
Substância Própria , Glicerol , Glicerol/farmacologia , Criopreservação , Colágeno/farmacologia , Matriz Extracelular
18.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 49(6): 1479-1488, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38051409

RESUMO

To investigate the effects of glycerol tributyrin (TB) (Triacylglycerol tributanoate) on the regulation of liver lipid metabolism by intestinal flora of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). The compound feed with soybean oil 2.8% + fish oil 1.8%, soybean oil 6.3% + fish oil 1.8%, and soybean oil 6.2% + fish oil 1.8% + TB 0.1% was added to the basal diet as a fat source and fed to the basal (control) group, high lipid (HL) group, and tributyrin (TB) group for 12 weeks. We tested the growth performance, fat content, diversity, and abundance of gut flora and other related indexes of grass carp by Soxhlet extraction, liver tissue enzyme activity, oil red O staining, and 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that the liver fat number and liver fat content of grass carp in the TB group were lower than those in the HL group, while the fattening degree was significantly higher than those in the other two groups; according to the indices such as Shannon, Ace, and Coverage, it was found that the grass carp in the TB group had the highest abundance and diversity of intestinal microflora; at the portal level, Proteobacteria and Fusobacteria were the main dominant flora in the TB group, with the number of unique OUTs accounting for about 59. 9% of the total number measured; at the genus level, the relative abundance of lipase-producing, short-chain fatty acid-associated bacteria, such as Bacillus-Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, was significantly lower (p < 0.05). Thus, we conclude that the addition of TB to high-fat diets can alter the structure of the intestinal microbial community and promote hepatic lipid metabolism in grass carp. TB can alleviate fatty liver in grass carp by increasing the relative abundance of short-chain fatty acids in the intestine. Meanwhile, TB inhibits the conversion of primary bile acids to secondary bile acids in the host, which can block intestinal FXR signaling and the hepatic FXR-SHP pathway, thus slowing down fat synthesis and alleviating the accumulation of liver lipids in grass carp.


Assuntos
Carpas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Glicerol/farmacologia , Glicerol/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Carpas/metabolismo , Óleo de Soja , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Dieta/veterinária , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Fígado/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Óleos de Peixe/farmacologia , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise
19.
J Insect Sci ; 23(6)2023 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38055939

RESUMO

A significant amount of researcher and practitioner effort has focused on developing new chemical controls for the parasitic Varroa destructor mite in beekeeping. One outcome of that has been the development and testing of "glycerol-oxalic acid" mixtures to place in colonies for extended periods of time, an off-label use of the otherwise legal miticide oxalic acid. The majority of circulated work on this approach was led by practitioners and published in nonacademic journals, highlighting a lack of effective partnership between practitioners and scientists and a possible failure of the extension mandate in beekeeping in the United States. Here, we summarize the practitioner-led studies we could locate and partner with a commercial beekeeper in the Southeast of the United States to test the "shop towel-oxalic acid-glycerol" delivery system developed by those practitioners. Our study, using 129 commercial colonies between honey flows in 2017 split into 4 treatment groups, showed no effectiveness in reducing Varroa parasitism in colonies exposed to oxalic acid-glycerol shop towels. We highlight the discrepancy between our results and those circulated by practitioners, at least for the Southeast, and the failure of extension to support practitioners engaged in research.


Assuntos
Mel , Varroidae , Estados Unidos , Animais , Abelhas , Ácido Oxálico/farmacologia , Glicerol/farmacologia , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos , Criação de Abelhas/métodos
20.
Arch Microbiol ; 206(1): 23, 2023 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38103058

RESUMO

In this study, IBCB 66, IBCB 868, and CBMAI 1306 isolates of Beauveria bassiana were grown in liquid culture for 4 days, leading to elevated submerged spores (SS) levels. The influence of the addition of different glycerol concentrations (0, 3, and 6%) (v/v) in the liquid culture was investigated regarding the stability (at 4 and 27 °C) of dried formulations. The virulence of SS was compared with aerial spores (AS) against Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae). The results demonstrate the potential of using SS to control T. urticae. CBMAI 1306 and IBCB 868 isolates caused T. urticae mortality rates of 91.11% and 88.89% 5 days after treatment, respectively, when applied at concentrations of 1 × 108 SS mL-1. The median Lethal Time (LT50) values for these strains were 2.64 and 2.61 days, respectively. The dried formulations showed potential acaricidal activity. Higher glycerol concentrations in the liquid culture medium reduced formulation stability at 27 °C.


Assuntos
Beauveria , Tetranychidae , Animais , Esporos Fúngicos , Virulência , Glicerol/farmacologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos
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