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1.
J Int Med Res ; 50(1): 3000605211073305, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35000485

RESUMO

Acute secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) is characterized by escalating neurological disability, with limited disease-modifying therapeutic options. A 48-year-old woman with acute SPMS being treated with interferon beta-1a and oral corticosteroids presented as a clinical outpatient with no disease-modifying effects after treatment. A decision was made to treat her with a combination of guanidinoacetate and creatine for 21 days. She had made clinical progress at follow-up, with the intensity of fatigue dropping from severe to mild. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed increased brain choline, creatine, N-acetylaspartate, and glutathione. Patients with SPMS may benefit from guanidinoacetate-creatine treatment in terms of patient- and clinician-reported outcomes; this requires additional study.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla Crônica Progressiva , Esclerose Múltipla , Creatina , Feminino , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
2.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 61(1): 95-98, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34979777

RESUMO

To investigate the efficacy and safety of total oral regimen containing ixazomib in multidrug-resistant relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma(RRMM). A total of 38 patients were retrospectively analyzed from August 2018 to January 2020 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University. The overall response rate (ORR)was 36.8%. Among them, the very good partial response (VGPR) or better rate was 23.7%, and the complete response (CR) rate was 5.3%. The ORR was 41.7% in patients receiving ixazomib-lenalidomide-dexamethasone (IRD) regimen. Median PFS was 5 months and median OS was 7.5 months. The ORR was 50% after second-line therapy, 40% after third-line therapy and 12.5% after forth-line therapy or more. The ORR was 29.0% in bortezomib-refractory patients, 38.0% in lenalidomide-refractory patients, 21.4% in bortezmoib & lenalidomide dual refractory patients. Grade 3-4 hematological adverse events (AEs) were reported in 21% patients. Common hematological AEs included lymphopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia. Other usual AEs were fatigue and diarrhea. No grade 3-4 peripheral neuropathy was recorded. In the treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma patients with multidrug resistance, the total oral regimens containing ixazomib demonstrate reliable efficacy and safety. Early administration of ixazomib at first or second relapse is suggested for more favorable clinical outcome.


Assuntos
Mieloma Múltiplo , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Boro , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 267(Pt 1): 120501, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688062

RESUMO

Glyphosate is widely used herbicides and causes several diseases in humans. Therefore, the detection of glyphosate is curial and urgent. Studies on the detection of glyphosate in literature are often based on inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. In this study, we developed two simple colorimetric sensors, BP-Cl and CP-Cl, by linking 3-chloro-4-methylpyridine with 4-(dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde or 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde in a one-step reaction. The colorimetric and optical sensing properties of these compounds were investigated by the naked-eye and UV-Vis spectrophotometer in ACN/HEPES buffer (5 mM pH 8.0, 1:1 v/v). The sensors displayed high sensitivity and selectivity for glyphosate by color changes, which ranged from colorless to yellow for BP-Cl and yellow to orange for CP-Cl. The detection limits of BP-Cl and CP-Cl by the naked-eye detection were found as 15 µM and 10 µM. On the other hand, the detection limits of BP-Cl and CP-Cl via UV-Vis measurements were calculated as 0.847 µM and 1.23 µM, respectively. Moreover, the sensors were able to monitor glyphosate in water samples using the naked-eye, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and filter paper strips.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase , Colorimetria , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2414: 207-226, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784040

RESUMO

Bacteria are known to release nanometer scale proteoliposomes termed bacterial membrane vesicles (MVs), and it is considered that native and bioengineered MVs would be applicable for development of acellular vaccines and novel drug delivery systems in medical settings. However, important considerations for manufacturing purposes include the varied productivity of MV among bacterial species and strains, as well as endotoxicity levels due to the lipopolysaccharide component. The method for MV induction using glycine described here is simple and provides a solution to these problems. Glycine weakens bacterial peptidoglycans and significantly increases bacterial MV formation, while the relative endotoxin activity of glycine-induced MVs is extremely reduced as compared to that of noninduced MVs. Nevertheless, glycine-induced MVs elicit strong immune responses at levels nearly equivalent to those of noninduced MVs. Taken together, the present method for induction by glycine is convenient for research studies of bacterial MVs and has potential for use in medical applications including vaccine development.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Membrana Celular , Endotoxinas , Glicina
5.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(1): 134-146, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634364

RESUMO

Boron has an important potential for facilitating biological activity and for use in pharmaceutical drug design. Boron glycine monoester (BGM) and boron glycine diester (BGD) compounds containing boron atoms were synthesized and investigated their cytotoxic, oxidative stress, and antimicrobial activities on the HepG2 cancer cell line. The cytotoxic activity of newly synthesized boron compounds on hepatocellular carcinoma was determined by the MTT method for 48 h. Antioxidant (CAT, GSH), lipid peroxidation (MDA), and enzyme activity (ACP, ALP) analyses were determined by spectrophotometric methods in HepG2 cells. Antimicrobial activity was determined by the disk diffusion method. After 48 h of BGM and BGD application to HepG2 cells, we found the IC50 values as 9.9 mM and 24 mM, respectively. While CAT and ACP enzyme activities decreased in all groups compared to the control, ALP enzyme activity did not change in the BGM group but increased in the BGD group. It was determined that the GSH level did not change in all groups, while the MDA level increased. It has been stated that these IC50 doses of BGM and BGD have antibacterial effects on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Newly synthesized boron compounds, particularly BGM, with their cytotoxic, oxidative stress, and antimicrobial effects, could provide a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Antioxidantes , Boro/farmacologia , Compostos de Boro/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Glicina , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Food Chem ; 371: 131137, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562777

RESUMO

The role of amino acids and α-dicarbonyls in the flavor formation of Amadori rearrangement product (ARP) during thermal processing was investigated. Comparisons of the volatile compounds and their concentrations when N-(1-deoxy-α-d-ribulos-1-yl)-glycine reacted with different amino acids or glyoxal (GO) at 100 °C were executed. Additional amino acids, such as glycine (Gly), in ARP models contributed to the diversity of furanoids by the chain elongation of the derived formaldehyde. Whereas the monoanion of additional glutamic acid acted as nucleophile, favored 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine and 2,5-dimethylpyrazine formation; the nonionized amino group of additional lysine were involved in α-dicarbonyls formation, causing pyrazine and methylpyrazine accumulation in the ARP model. Moreover, the high dosage and pH stabilization of additional GO probably promoted the ARP degradation and deoxyosones retro-aldol cleavage, resulting in methylpyrazine rather than furanoids formation. The present work provided the guidance for the controlled flavor formation of ARP in industrial application.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Glicina , Aromatizantes , Glioxal , Reação de Maillard
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 2): 150503, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600204

RESUMO

The management of sugarcane ripening is essential to ensuring the supply of high-quality raw material for the sugar-alcohol industry; chemical ripeners are frequently used to accelerate sucrose accumulation in the stalks during harvesting. The potential ripening effect of a low dose of glyphosate was evaluated in sugarcane, along with its impact on productivity and sprouting in the next crop cycle. A field experiment was conducted in 2015 and 2016 using a randomized block design with eight replicates in a split-plot scheme, with the following treatments: (1) control with only water application, (2) glyphosate at a low dose of 1.8 g a.e. ha-1 (corresponding to 0.005 L ha-1 of the commercial product (cp)), and (3) glyphosate at the commercially recommended dose for a ripener at 180 g a.e. ha-1 (corresponding to 0.50 L ha-1 of the cp) applied at 60, 45, 30, and 15 days before harvest (DBH). The harvest was performed on May 25, 2016 (0 DBH), and a total of five periods were evaluated. This study showed that the application of a hormetic dose of glyphosate to stimulate sugarcane ripening is promising, despite the limited duration of the effect. The application of the hormetic dose (1.8 g a.e. ha-1) at 30 DBH improved the technological quality of sugarcane in terms of Brix% juice, pol% cane, purity% juice, moisture% cane, reducing sugars, total reducing sugars, and total recoverable sugar. Additionally, it increased pol productivity, and did not affect ratoon sprouting in the subsequent cycle. Thus, this study provides a strategy for ripening management with a low environmental impact for sugarcane producers through a low (hormetic) dose of glyphosate.


Assuntos
Saccharum , Grão Comestível , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Hormese
8.
Food Chem ; 367: 130617, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352696

RESUMO

The abuse application of glyphosate can result in a potential hazard for environment and human, however its ultrasensitive detection remains challenging. Herein, a Cu2+ modulated DNA-templated silver nanoclusters (DNA-AgNCs) sensor was constructed to sensitively determine glyphosate based on the turn-on fluorescence strategy. The fluorescence quenching of DNA-AgNCs occurred with the existence of Cu2+. Upon the presence of glyphosate, the functional groups on the surface of glyphosate could chelate with Cu2+, following the fluorescence recovery of DNA-AgNCs. Through the stoichiometric methods, we unveil that Cu2+-trigged fluorescence quenching mode is a combination of static and dynamic quenching with the static mode being predominant. In DNA-AgNCs/Cu2+ system, the carboxylate, amine, and phosphonate groups of glyphosate interact with Cu2+ through chelation, in which the carboxylate oxygen, the phosphonate oxygen atoms, and the monoprotonated secondary amine nitrogen atom and Cu2+ form chelate rings. This fluorescence sensor showed a desired linearity of glyphosate analysis under the optimum conditions, ranging from 15 to 100 µg/L with a low detection down to 5 µg/L. Moreover, the proposed sensor was successfully utilized to measure glyphosate in real samples, indicating a promising application in pesticide residues detection.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Prata , DNA/genética , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Humanos
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 229: 113074, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34915224

RESUMO

The amino acid metabolism-related herbicides glufosinate and glyphosate are used worldwide and have flowed into the oceans, threatening the marine organisms. In the present study, physiological activities and transcriptomic profiles of the scleractinian coral Pocillopora damicornis and symbiotic Symbiodiniaceae were determined during a 48 h-exposure to the two herbicides with the final concentration of 10 µmol L-1. Coral samples were collected at 0, 12, 24, and 48 h after exposure to determine symbiont density, chlorophyll content, as well as activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) and phenoloxidase (PO), and the caspase-3 levels, and the samples collected at 24 h were employed in the transcriptomic analysis. Specifically, the symbiont densities did not change significantly in response to the two herbicides, while the chlorophyll content increased significantly at 24 h post glufosinate exposure. SOD and CAT activities in the coral host increased significantly at 12 h after glufosinate and glyphosate exposure, while the activity of NOS in symbionts decreased significantly at 48 h after glufosinate exposure. Caspase-3 levels in the coral host declined significantly at 24 h after exposure to the two herbicides. In the transcriptomic analysis, glufosinate triggered the expression of genes related to the response to stimuli and immunoregulation in the coral host, and suppressed the expression of genes related to coral nitrogen-related metabolism, symbiont cell cycle, and response to nutrient levels. Furthermore, glyphosate activated the expression of genes involved in coral calcification and symbiont nutrient export and suppressed the expression of genes involved in coral meiosis and symbiont cell communication. These results suggest that although the coral-Symbiodiniaceae symbiosis is not disrupted, short-term glufosinate and glyphosate exposures alter several essential physiological processes including metabolism, calcification, and meiosis in the coral host, as well as the cell cycle and nutrient export in the symbiont. SUMMARY: Glufosinate and glyphosate herbicide exposures can disturb several essential physiological processes, including metabolism, calcification, and meiosis in the coral host as well as the cell cycle and nutrient export in the symbiont, threating the survival of scleractinian corals.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Dinoflagelados , Herbicidas , Aminobutiratos , Animais , Antozoários/genética , Dinoflagelados/genética , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Simbiose , Transcriptoma
10.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 24(2): 941-954, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34913940

RESUMO

We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of the fragmentation of singly and doubly N-methylated glycine (sarcosine and N,N-dimethyl glycine, respectively) induced by low-energy (keV) O6+ ions. Multicoincidence mass spectrometry techniques and quantum chemistry simulations (ab initio molecular dynamics and density functional theory) allow us to characterise different fragmentation pathways as well as the associated mechanisms. We focus on the fragmentation of doubly ionised species, for which coincidence measurements provide unambiguous information on the origin of the various charged fragments. We have found that single N-methylation leads to a larger variety of fragmentation channels than in no methylation of glycine, while double N-methylation effectively closes many of these fragmentation channels, including some of those appearing in pristine glycine. Importantly, the closure of fragmentation channels in the latter case does not imply a protective effect by the methyl group.


Assuntos
Glicina/química , Sarcosina/química , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Íons , Metilação , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular
11.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118382, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666097

RESUMO

Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) -the most widely used herbicides in agriculture worldwide-are frequently generalized by the name of "glyphosate". However, GBH encompass a variety of glyphosate salts as active ingredient and different adjuvants, which differ between products. These herbicides reach water bodies and produce diverse impacts over aquatic communities. Yet, the risk assessment assays required for the approval focus mostly on active ingredients. Herein, we compared the effect of five different GBH as well as of monoisopropylamine salt of glyphosate (GIPA) on aquatic microbial communities from natural shallow lakes that were mixed and allowed to evolve in an outdoor pond. We performed an 8-day long assay under indoor control conditions to evaluate the effects of exposure on the structure of nano-plus microphytoplankton (net phytoplankton, with sizes between 2 and 20 µm and >20 µm, respectively) and picoplankton (size ranging between 0.2 and 2 µm) communities through microscopy and flow cytometry, respectively. Significantly different effects were evident on the structure of microbial communities dependent on the GBH, even with herbicides sharing similar active ingredients. Each GBH evoked increases of different magnitude in bacterioplankton abundance. Furthermore, GIPA and a formulation decreased the abundance of a phycocyanin-rich (PC-rich) picocyanobacteria (Pcy) cytometric population and GIPA further altered Pcy composition. Also, two GBH increased net phytoplankton total abundance and, unlike the tested GBH, no apparent effect of GIPA was detected on this community structure. These results demonstrate that GBH effects on aquatic microbial communities should not be summarized as "glyphosate" effects considering that the formulations have effects beyond those exerted by the active ingredients alone. This work intends to alert on the lack of real knowledge regarding the consequences of the variety of GBH on natural aquatic ecosystems. Indeed, the wide use of the term "glyphosate effect" should be thoroughly rethought.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Microbiota , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/toxicidade , Herbicidas/análise , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Fitoplâncton
12.
Environ Res ; 203: 111811, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339697

RESUMO

Human exposure to glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) is increasing rapidly worldwide. Most existing studies on health effects of glyphosate have focused on occupational settings and cancer outcomes and few have examined this common exposure in relation to the health of pregnant women and newborns in the general population. We investigated associations between prenatal glyphosate exposure and length of gestation in The Infant Development and the Environment Study (TIDES), a multi-center US pregnancy cohort. Glyphosate and its primary degradation product [aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA)] were measured in urine samples collected during the second trimester from 163 pregnant women: 69 preterm births (<37 weeks) and 94 term births, the latter randomly selected as a subset of TIDES term births. We examined the relationship between exposure and length of gestation using multivariable logistic regression models (dichotomous outcome; term versus preterm) and with weighted time-to-event Cox proportional hazards models (gestational age in days). We conducted these analyses in the overall sample and secondarily, restricted to women with spontaneous deliveries (n = 90). Glyphosate and AMPA were detected in most urine samples (>94 %). A shortened gestational length was associated with maternal glyphosate (hazard ratio (HR): 1.31, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.71) and AMPA (HR: 1.32, 95%CI: 1.00-1.73) only among spontaneous deliveries using adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. In binary analysis, glyphosate and AMPA were not associated with preterm birth risk (<37 weeks). Our results indicate widespread exposure to glyphosate in the general population which may impact reproductive health by shortening length of gestation. Given the increasing exposure to GBHs and the public health burden of preterm delivery, larger confirmatory studies are needed, especially in vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and newborns.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Nascimento Prematuro , Criança , Feminino , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/toxicidade , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Gestantes , Nascimento Prematuro/induzido quimicamente , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia
13.
Food Microbiol ; 101: 103897, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579850

RESUMO

The effects of l-glycine (Gly) and l-glutamic acid (Glu) on oxidative damage induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in Pediococcus pentosaceus R1 were investigated. Gly and Glu significantly reduce the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and the levels of malondialdehyde and carbonylated proteins and concomitantly increase ATP levels in P. pentosaceus R1 under H2O2-induced stress (P < 0.05). Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy of bacteria under H2O2-induced stress revealed that Gly and Glu suppress bacterial membrane deformation and cell damage. Gly exhibited stronger ferrous ion-chelating ability, whereas Glu has higher radical scavenging activities and reducing power (P < 0.05). The abilities of Gly and Glu to inhibit lipid peroxidation are comparable. Gly and Glu significantly enhance the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, respectively, and increase the total antioxidant capacity of bacteria (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that Gly and Glu alleviate H2O2-induced oxidative stress via direct antioxidant effects and increase the activities of bacterial antioxidant enzyme.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Ácido Glutâmico , Glicina , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Pediococcus pentosaceus/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo
14.
Food Chem ; 369: 130952, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474283

RESUMO

l-glycine and l-serine are the building blocks of proteins and exhibit various biological activities. This work found that l-glycine and l-serine show low scavenging capacity for methylglyoxal at moderate conditions (pH 7.0, 37 °C). However, they efficiently eliminate methylglyoxal and formaldehyde when the two aldehydes co-exist, via generation of imidazole salt, a compound formed by one molecule of methylglyoxal and formaldehyde, and two molecules of amino acids. The imidazole salts were identified in biscuits and fried potato crisps. Moreover, the formation of imidazole salts greatly decreased the cytotoxicity of their precursors, methylglyoxal and formaldehydes. This finding suggests that glycine and serine can be used to scavenge these two harmful aldehydes both after intake and during food processing.


Assuntos
Glicina , Aldeído Pirúvico , Formaldeído , Imidazóis , Sais , Serina
15.
Food Chem ; 370: 131031, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509153

RESUMO

To determine whether high spraying concentrations of Zn sources increase the Zn concentration in waxy corn (Zea mays L. var. ceratina Kulesh) seeds without compromising agronomic performance, field experiments were conducted between 2018 and 2020. Excess ZnSO4 application caused foliar burn, barren ear tip, and grain yield loss. ZnEDTA and Glycine-chelated Zn (ZnGly) caused less foliar burn, but Glycine-mixed Zn caused more foliar burn than ZnSO4. The seed Zn concentration increased with spraying Zn concentration. ZnEDTA (≤0.8%) had a higher threshold concentration than ZnGly (≤0.4%). Nevertheless, Zn biofortification efficacy did not significantly differ between 0.4% ZnGly and 0.8% ZnEDTA, and the grain Zn recovery rate of 0.4% ZnGly was much higher than that of 0.8% ZnEDTA. Additionally, dual-isotope labelling tests confirmed that 15N-glycine and 68Zn in ZnGly interacted. In the future, chelating technology is essential for developing new Zn fertilizers to optimize Zn biofortification efficacy.


Assuntos
Biofortificação , Sulfato de Zinco , Animais , Abelhas , Glicina/toxicidade , Ceras , Zea mays , Zinco
16.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 607(Pt 1): 607-620, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520904

RESUMO

A photocatalytic process was used to effectively remove glyphosate, an emerging pollutant and contaminant, through advanced oxidation. For this purpose, a feasible combination strategy of two-step anodisation and electrodeposition methods were proposed to fabricate graphene quantum dots (GQDs) supported titanium dioxide nanotube arrays (TNAs). The resultant GQDs/TNAs heterojunction composite exhibited significant degradation reactivity and circulation stability for glyphosate due to its excellent photo-generated electron and hole separation ability. After the introduction of GQDs into TNAs, the photodegradation efficiency of glyphosate increased from 69.5% to 94.7% within 60 min under UV-Vis light irradiation (λ = 320-780 nm). By analysing the intermediate products and through the evolvement of heteroatoms during glyphosate photodegradation, alanine and serine were discovered for the first time, and a detailed degradation mechanism of glyphosate was proposed. This study indicates that GQDs/TNAs heterojunction composite can almost completely degrade the glyphosate into inorganics under the appropriate conditions.


Assuntos
Grafite , Nanotubos , Pontos Quânticos , Catálise , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Luz , Titânio
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150177, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520929

RESUMO

The effects of glyphosate (GLY)-based and glufosinate ammonium (GA)-based herbicides (GBH and GABH, respectively) and polyethylene microplastic particles (PEMPs) on Scinax squalirostris tadpoles were assessed. Tadpoles were exposed to nominal concentrations of both herbicides (from 1.56 to 100 mg L-1) and PEMPs (60 mg L-1), either alone or in combination, and toxicity evaluated at 48 h. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), carboxylesterase (CbE), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were analyzed at the three lowest concentrations (1.56, 3.12 and 6.25 mg L-1, survival rates >85%) of both herbicides alone and with PEMPs. Additionally, the thermochemistry of the interactions between the herbicides and polyethylene (PE) was analyzed by Density Functional Theory (DFT). The median-lethal concentration (LC50) was 43.53 mg L-1 for GBH, 38.56 mg L-1 for GBH + PEMPs, 7.69 for GABH, and 6.25 mg L-1 for GABH+PEMPs. The PEMP treatment increased GST but decreased CbE activity, whereas GBH and GABH treatments increased GST but decreased AChE activity. In general, the mixture of herbicides with PEMPs increased the effect observed in the individual treatments: the highest concentration of GBH + PEMPs increased GST activity, whereas GABH+PEMP treatments decreased both AChE and CbE activities. DFT analysis revealed spontaneous interactions between the herbicides and PE, leading to the formation of bonds at the herbicide-PE interface, significantly stronger for GA than for GLY. The experimental and theoretical findings of our study indicate that these interactions may lead to an increase in toxicity when pollutants are together, meaning potential environmental risk of these combinations, especially in the case of GA.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Acetilcolinesterase , Aminobutiratos , Animais , Anuros , Produtos Agrícolas , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Larva , Microplásticos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150368, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543792

RESUMO

Glyphosate (GLY), a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, can result in gut microbiota dysbiosis intimately involving various diseases. The latest research has shown an association between gut microbiota alteration and defective spermatogenesis. Here, we aimed to investigate whether GLY-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis contributed to male reproductive toxicity. Data showed that GLY-exposed rats exhibited male reproductive dysfunction, evidenced by impaired testis architectural structure, reduced sperm motility, together with increased sperm malformation ratio. 16S rDNA sequencing analysis indicated that GLY exposure altered the composition of gut commensal microbiota, of which the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla was significantly changed. Unexpectedly, the increased abundance of Prevotella_1 and Bacteroides genera was negatively correlated with sperm quality. Mechanistically, the pathological changes in GLY-exposed testis were accompanied by the increased interleukin (IL)-17A production, probably due to gut microbes-derived Th17 cell migration. Furthermore, activation of IL-17A signaling triggered testicular oxidative damage. Taken together, these findings uncover an underlying mechanistic scenario that gut microbiota dysbiosis-driven local IL-17A production is one reason responsible for male reproductive toxicity induced by GLY, which provides new insights into the male reproductive toxicity of GLY in mammals.


Assuntos
Disbiose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Disbiose/induzido quimicamente , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/toxicidade , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Ratos , Motilidade Espermática
19.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 265: 120378, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543989

RESUMO

The structure of water, especially around the solute is thought to play an important role in many biological and chemical processes. Water-peptide and cosolvent-peptide interactions are crucial in determining the structure and function of protein molecules. In this work, we present the H-bonding analysis for model peptides like glycyl-glycine (gly-gly), glycine-ւ-valine (gly-val), glycyl-ւ-leucine (gly-leu) and triglycine (trigly) and triethylammonium based carboxylate protic ionic liquids (PILs) in aqueous solutions as well as for peptides in ∼0.2 mol·L-1 of aqueous PIL solutions in the spectral range of 7800-5500 cm-1 using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy at 298.15 K. The hydration numbers for peptides and PILs were obtained using NIR method of simultaneous estimation of hydration spectrum and hydration number of a solute dissolved in water. The H-bond of water molecules around peptides and PILs are found to be stronger and shorter than those in pure liquid water. We observe that the hydration shell around zwitterions is a clathrate-like cluster of water in which ions entrap. Watery network analysis confirms that singly H-bonded species or NHBs changes to partial or distorted ice-like structures of water in the hydration shell of PILs. The overall water H-bonding in the hydration sphere of PILs increases in the order TEAF < TEAA < TEAG < TEAPy ≈ TEAP < TEAB. The influence of PILs on hydration behavior of peptides is explored in terms of H-bonding, cooperativity, hydrophobicity, water structural changes, ionic interactions etc.


Assuntos
Líquidos Iônicos , Glicina , Peptídeos , Soluções , Água
20.
Biomol Concepts ; 12(1): 156-163, 2021 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34969185

RESUMO

Studies published earlier this year demonstrated the association of the solute carrier SLC6A20 gene with the risk and severity of COVID-19. The SLC6A20 protein product (Sodium-dependent Imino Transporter 1 (SIT1)) is involved in the transport of amino acids, including glycine. Here we summarized the results of recent studies demonstrating the interaction of SIT1 with the ACE2 receptor for SARS-CoV-2 as well as an observed association of SLC6A20 with the risk and traits of Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recently, it was also proposed that SLC6A20 represents the novel regulator of glycine levels and that glycine has beneficial effects against the proinflammatory cytokine secretion induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Ivermectin, as a partial agonist of glycine-gated chloride channels, was also recently suggested to interfere with the COVID-19 cytokine storm by inducing the activation of glycine receptors. Furthermore, plasma glycine levels are found to be decreased in diabetic patients. Thus, further clinical trials are warranted to confirm the potential favorable effects of targeting the SIT1 transporter and glycine levels in the treatment of COVID-19, particularly for the severe case of disease associated with hyperglycemia, inflammation, and T2D. These findings suggest that SIT1 may potentially represent one of the missing pieces in the complex puzzle observed between these two pandemic diseases and the potential novel target for their efficient treatment.


Assuntos
COVID-19/genética , Glicina/sangue , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , COVID-19/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Humanos
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