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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(9): 2623-2630, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058714

RESUMO

Eleusine indica is a typical xerophytic weed species with a cosmopolitan distribution. It is invasive and highly adaptable to diverse habitats and crops. Due to rice cropping-pattern changes, E indica has become one of the main dominant grass weeds infecting direct-seeding paddy fields. A Chinese E. indica population has evolved multiple-herbicide resistance to cyhalofop-butyl and glyphosate. In this study, the multiple-resistance profile of E. indica to these two different types of herbicides and their resistance mechanisms were investigated. Whole-plant dose-response assays indicated that the multiple-herbicide-resistant (MHR) population exhibited 10.8-fold resistance to cyhalofop-butyl and 3.1-fold resistance to glyphosate compared with the susceptible (S) population. ACCase sequencing revealed that the Asp-2078-Gly mutation was strongly associated with E. indica resistance to cyhalofop-butyl. The MHR plants accumulated less shikimic acid than S plants at 4, 6, and 8 days after glyphosate treatment. In addition, no amino acid substitution in the EPSPS gene was found in MHR plants. Further analysis revealed that the relative expression level of EPSPS in MHR plants was 6-10-fold higher than that in S plants following glyphosate treatment, indicating that EPSPS overexpression may contribute to the glyphosate resistance. Furthermore, the effectiveness of nine post-emergence herbicides against E. indica were evaluated, and one PPO inhibitor pyraclonil was identified as highly effective in controlling the S and MHR E. indica populations.


Assuntos
Butanos/farmacologia , Eleusine/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Resistência a Herbicidas , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Eleusine/genética , Eleusine/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glicina/farmacologia , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Daninhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Daninhas/genética , Plantas Daninhas/metabolismo
2.
Ecotoxicology ; 29(3): 295-304, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088881

RESUMO

As the top-selling herbicide in the world, glyphosate distributes widely in natural environment and its influence on the ecological security and human health has attracted more and more concern. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a well-characterized superfamily of isoenzymes for cellular defense against exogenous toxic substances and therefore protect organisms from injury. In this study, the complete cDNA sequence of GST gene (named as Dja-GST) in freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica was firstly cloned by means of RACE method. The full-length Dja-GST comprises of 706 nucleotides which encodes a polypeptide of 200 amino acids. Dja-GST has two representative GST domains at the N- and C-termini. The conservative GST-N domain includes G-site Y8, F9, R14, W39, K43, P52 and S64, while the variable GST-C domain contains H-site K104, V156, D159 and L161. Sequence analysis, phylogenetic tree reconstruction and multiple alignment collectively indicate that Dja-GST belongs to the Sigma class of GST superfamily. Also, GST gene expression profile, GST enzymatic activity and MDA content in response to glyphosate exposure were systematically investigated and the correlations among them were analyzed. The results suggest that glyphosate exposure modified the mRNA transcription and enzymatic activity of GST, as well as the MDA content in planarians, indicating that Dja-GST might play an important part in organisms defending against oxidative stress induced by glyphosate. This work lays a molecular foundation for further exploring the exact functions of Dja-GST and gives an important implication for evaluating the ecological environment effects of herbicide glyphosate.


Assuntos
Glutationa Transferase/genética , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Planárias/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Clonagem Molecular , Água Doce , Glicina/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo
3.
Med Lav ; 111(1): 63-73, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32096774

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies on the association between occupational exposure to glyphosate and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and multiple myeloma (MM). METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of the literature, and identified 18 relevant publications, from which we extracted results from seven non-overlapping studies of NHL and three of MM. We performed random-effects meta-analyses for ever-exposure to glyphosate, dose-response, and risk of specific NHL subtypes. RESULTS: The meta-relative risk (RR) of NHL was 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.86-1.21), that of MM was 1.04 (95% CI 0.67-1.41). The meta-RR of NHL for highest category of exposure was 1.49 (95% CI 0.37-2.61; 3 studies). The meta-RR for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was 1.31 (95% CI 0.93-1.75); that for follicular lymphoma was 0.82 (95% CI 0.93-1.70), and that for chronic lymphocytic leukemia was 0.85 (95% CI 0.20-1.49). There was indication of publication bias for studies on NHL. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis provided no overall evidence of an increased risk for both NHL and MM in subjects occupationally exposed to glyphosate. In secondary analyses we detected a small increase in risk for the category with highest level of exposure as well as for DLBCL. The evidence of publication bias suggests caution in the interpretation of the results.


Assuntos
Glicina/análogos & derivados , Linfoma não Hodgkin , Mieloma Múltiplo , Exposição Ocupacional , Glicina/toxicidade , Humanos , Linfoma não Hodgkin/epidemiologia , Mieloma Múltiplo/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
4.
Drugs Today (Barc) ; 56(1): 21-32, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32055803

RESUMO

Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) are key metabolic enzymes that convert isocitrate to alpha-ketoglutarate (alphaKG). Somatic point mutations in IDH1/2 that are found in rare distinct subsets of cancers confer a gain of function in cancer cells which results in the accumulation and secretion in vast excess of the oncometabolite D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG). Overproduction of D-2HG interferes with cellular metabolism and epigenetic regulation, contributing to oncogenesis. High levels of D-2HG inhibit alphaKG-dependent dioxygenases including histone, DNA and RNA demethylases, resulting in histone, DNA and RNA hypermethylation and cell differentiation blockade. In addition, D-2HG is a biomarker suitable for the detection of IDH1/2 mutations at diagnosis, and is also predictive of clinical response. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved ivosidenib, a mutant-IDH1 enzyme inhibitor, for patients with relapsed or refractory IDH1-mutated acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in 2018, and also as front-line therapy for newly diagnosed elderly patients 75 years or older or who are ineligible to receive intensive chemotherapy in 2019. Ivosidenib represents a novel drug class for targeted therapy in AML.


Assuntos
Glicina/análogos & derivados , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Epigênese Genética , Glicina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Mutação
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 127, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960150

RESUMO

Glyphosate (GLYP), the globally most important herbicide, may have effects in various compartments of the environment such as soil and water. Although laboratory studies showed fast microbial degradation and a low leaching potential, it is often detected in various environmental compartments, but pathways are unknown. Therefore, the objective was to study GLYP leaching and transformations in a lysimeter field experiment over a study period of one hydrological year using non-radioactive 13C2-15N-GLYP labelling and maize cultivation. 15N and 13C were selectively measured using isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (IR-MS) in leachates, soil, and plant material. Additionally, HPLC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was used for quantitation of GLYP and its main degradation product aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in different environmental compartments (leachates and soil). Results show low recoveries for GLYP (< 3%) and AMPA (< level of detection) in soil after the study period, whereas recoveries of 15N (11-19%) and 13C (23-54%) were higher. Time independent enrichment of 15N and 13C and the absence of GLYP and AMPA in leachates indicated further degradation. 15N was enriched in all compartments of maize plants (roots, shoots, and cobs). 13C was only enriched in roots. Results confirmed rapid degradation to further degradation products, e.g., 15NH4+, which plausibly was taken up as nutrient by plants. Due to the discrepancy of low GLYP and AMPA concentrations in soil, but higher values for 15N and 13C after the study period, it cannot be excluded that non-extractable residues of GLYP remained and accumulated in soil.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Glicina/química , Herbicidas/análise , Isoxazóis , Solo/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Tetrazóis , Água/análise , Zea mays/metabolismo
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 190: 110140, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901810

RESUMO

D151 resin preloaded with Fe3+ [denoted as R-Fe3+] was to investigate R-Fe3+ as an adsorbent for glyphosate from water in the presence high concentration of salt. The adsorption mechanism revealed the coordination of Fe3+ inside R-Fe3+ with O atoms of P-O and N atoms in glyphosate molecule. The adsorption capacity of glyphosate by R-Fe3+ was much larger than that of D151 resin preloaded with Ni2+, Cu2+, Na+ and H+. Even in glyphosate solutions containing 16% NaCl, R-Fe3+ showed the constant adsorption capacity of glyphosate. The result provided the first evidence of R-Fe3+ as a salt resistant adsorbent for glyphosate. The adsorption capacity of glyphosate was the maximum at pH 3.35. The adsorption thermodynamics showed that the adsorption of glyphosate by R-Fe3+ was the ligand exchange of glyphosate and water. The maximum coordination ratio of glyphosate to Fe3+ inside R-Fe3+ was 1:1. The maximum adsorption capacity of glyphosate by R-Fe3+ was up to 481.85 mg/g, which is much higher than that of other reported adsorbents in the presence 16% NaCl. 2  mol/L NaOH, 2  mol/L H2SO4 and 2  mol/L Fe2(SO4)3 could all be used to achieve over 97% regeneration of R-Fe3+.


Assuntos
Glicina/análogos & derivados , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Adsorção , Glicina/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ferro/química , Cinética , Cloreto de Sódio , Termodinâmica
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(6): 1536-1545, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961689

RESUMO

In this work, an electrical-driven release and migration glyphosate (EDRMG) was fabricated using a nanocomposite made up of attapulgite (ATP), glyphosate (Gly), and calcium alginate (CA). Therein, ATP-CA acted as a nanonetwork-structured carrier to efficiently load plenty of Gly to form porous ATP-Gly-CA hydrogel spheres (actually EDRMG-0.5) via a cross-linking reaction. The pores in EDRMG-0.5 hydrogel spheres were enlarged under an electric field because of the Coulomb force of the anionic CA polymer, and the release of negatively charged Gly from the spheres could be driven by the electric field force. Thus, EDRMG-0.5 exhibited a great electroresponsively controlled-release property, which was confirmed by a pot experiment. Importantly, the EDRMG-0.5 hydrogel spheres had fine biocompatibility on fish and mice, displaying good biosafety. This work provides a low cost and promising approach to control Gly release, deliver Gly precisely, and improve utilization efficiency, which might have a high application value.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/química , /química , Alginatos/química , Animais , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/economia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Eletricidade , Peixes , Glicina/química , Hidrogéis/química , Compostos de Magnésio/química , Camundongos , Compostos de Silício/química
8.
Science ; 367(6475): 257-258, 2020 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949072
9.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0221382, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935213

RESUMO

Recently, poor control of Echinochloa colona with glyphosate has been reported in no-till agriculture systems of the northern grain region (NGR) of Australia. Two experiments were conducted using 10 populations of E. colona selected from the NGR of Australia to understand differences in their growth behavior and resistance pattern. Growth studies revealed that these populations differed in plant height (53-70 cm plant-1), tiller production (30-52 tillers plant-1), leaf production (124-186 leaves plant-1) and seed head production (37-65 seed heads plant-1). Days taken to seed heads and shoot biomass in these populations ranged between 40-48 d and 21-27 g plant-1, respectively. Seed production in these populations ranged between 5380 and 10244 seeds plant-1; lowest for population B17/25 and highest for population B17/13. Correlation studies revealed that seed number plant-1 had a positive correlation with tiller number plant-1 (r = 0.73) and negative relation with days taken to seed head initiation (r = - 0.65). The glyphosate dose-response study showed a wide range of responses in these populations and the glyphosate dose required to kill 50% plants (LD50 values) was estimated between 161 to 2339 g a.e. glyphosate ha-1. LD50 values of populations B17/16, B 17/34 and B17/35 were 1086, 2339 and 1153 g ha-1, respectively, making them 6.7, 15.1 and 7.2-fold resistant to glyphosate compared with the susceptible population B17/37. Growth behavior and seed production potential in these populations had no correlation with the resistance index. These results suggest that some populations of E. colona are highly problematic; for example, population B17/34 was not only highly glyphosate-resistant, but also produced a high seed number (9300 seeds plant-1). This study demonstrated that there is a possibility of great risk with the increased use of glyphosate for managing E. colona in the NGR of Australia. The results warrant integrated weed management strategies and improved stewardship guidelines are required for managing glyphosate-resistant populations of E. colona and to restrict further movement of resistant populations to other regions of Australia.


Assuntos
Echinochloa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Resistência a Herbicidas/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Austrália , Echinochloa/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/farmacologia , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants ; 35(35): 197-206, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923303

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Numerous approaches have been proposed for the treatment of peri-implantitis, but to date, none has been identified as the most effective. This study compared the efficacy of implantoplasty and glycine air polishing for the surgical treatment of peri-implantitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective, randomized, parallel-group trial included 31 patients presenting with 42 implants with peri-implantitis. Patients underwent surgical treatment by implantoplasty (test group, n = 22) or glycine air polishing (control group, n = 20). Clinical parameters (Plaque Index), bleeding on probing (BOP), suppuration on probing (SOP), probing pocket depth (PPD), relative attachment level (RAL), and mucosal recession were assessed before surgery (baseline), and at 3 months and 6 months after surgery. Bone loss was recorded at baseline and 6 months. Two composite outcomes were also evaluated, according to the following definitions: (1) mean PPD reduction ≥ 0.5 mm + no further loss of bone; (2) PPD ≤ 5 mm, absence of BOP/SOP, and no additional mean bone loss ≥ 0.5 mm. RESULTS: Plaque Index remained low (< 0.5) in both groups for the duration of the study. Mean BOP, SOP, PPD, and RAL were greatly reduced at 3 months in both groups, and remained low between 3 months and 6 months. Bone loss was stable in the implantoplasty group, and slight bone gain (0.5 mm) was observed in the glycine air-polishing group. There were no significant differences between the two groups in any parameter, and composite treatment outcomes were similar in both groups, irrespective of the definition. CONCLUSION: Within the limitations of this 6-month follow-up study, implantoplasty is as effective as glycine air polishing for the surgical treatment of peri-implantitis.


Assuntos
Abrasão Dental por Ar , Glicina , Peri-Implantite , Seguimentos , Glicina/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Peri-Implantite/cirurgia , Índice Periodontal , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(3): 1030-1037, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967828

RESUMO

Very recently, the bulk synthesis of cyclo-N5- from arylpentazole through the treatment with m-chloroperbenzonic acid (m-CPBA) and ferrous bisglycinate ([Fe(Gly)2]) (Zhang, C., et al. Science 2017, 355, 374) has greatly promoted the application of pentazolate anion as a novel high-performance energetic material. Yet the mechanism for this reaction is still unexplored. Herein we perform mechanistic studies on the selective C-N bond cleavage in arylpentazole by using density functional theory methods. The direct C-N bond activation by m-CPBA was computed to be kinetically inaccessible. Instead, the oxidation of [Fe(Gly)2] by m-CPBA is much favorable, which leads to the generation of a high-valent iron(IV)-oxo product. The Fe(IV)-oxo intermediate has been examined by UV-vis absorption spectra experiments and further verified by excited-state calculations. It is found that the Fe(IV)-oxo serves as the key intermediate for the C-N bond activation of arylpentazole and the cyclo-N5- generation. Our calculations clarified the key mechanistic details of the cyclo-N5- generation, and the factors that affect the production yield are further discussed.


Assuntos
Clorobenzoatos/química , Compostos Ferrosos/química , Glicina/química , Modelos Moleculares , Pentilenotetrazol/química , Carbono/química , Nitrogênio/química , Oxirredução , Teoria Quântica , Espectrofotometria , Termodinâmica
12.
Chemosphere ; 241: 125016, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683446

RESUMO

2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is a herbicide that is used worldwide in agricultural and urban activities to control pests, reaching natural environments directly or indirectly. The research on 2,4-D toxicology and mutagenicity has advanced rapidly, and for this reason, this review summarizes the available data in Web of Science (WoS) to provide insights into the specific characteristics of 2,4-D toxicity and mutagenicity. Contrary to traditional reviews, this study uses a new method to quantitatively visualize and summarize information about the development of this field. Among all countries, the USA was the most active contributor with the largest publication and centrality, followed by Canada and China. The WoS categories 'Toxicology' and 'Biochemical and Molecular Biology' were the areas of greatest influence. 2,4-D research was strongly related to the keywords glyphosate, atrazine, water and gene expression. The studies trended to be focused on occupational risk, neurotoxicity, resistance or tolerance to herbicides, and to non-target species (especially aquatic ones) and molecular imprinting. In general, the authors have worked collaboratively, with concentrated efforts, allowing important advances in this field. Future research on 2,4-D toxicology and mutagenicity should probably focus on molecular biology, especially gene expression, assessment of exposure in human or other vertebrate bioindicators, and pesticide degradation studies. In summary, this scientometric analysis allowed us to make inferences about global trends in 2,4-D toxicology and mutagenicity, in order to identify tendencies and gaps and thus contribute to future research efforts.


Assuntos
Ácido 2,4-Diclorofenoxiacético/toxicidade , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Atrazina , Expressão Gênica , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Mutagênicos/toxicidade
13.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113334, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677874

RESUMO

The goal of this study was to assess biomarkers of exposure to glyphosate and assess potential associations with renal function in children. Glyphosate is used ubiquitously in agriculture worldwide. While previous studies have indicated that glyphosate may have nephrotoxic effects, few have examined potential effects on kidney function in children. We leveraged three cohorts across different phases of child development and measured urinary levels of glyphosate. We evaluated associations of glyphosate with three biomarkers of kidney injury: albuminuria (ACR), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), and kidney injury marker 1 (KIM-1). Multivariable regression analyses examined associations of glyphosate with kidney injury biomarkers controlling for covariates. We identified glyphosate in 11.1% of the total participants. The herbicide was detected more frequently in the neonate population (30%). Multivariable regression models failed to identify significant associations of log-transformed glyphosate with any of the kidney injury biomarkers, controlling for covariates age, sex, and maternal education. While we confirm detectability of glyphosate in children's urine at various ages and stages of life, there is no evidence in this study for renal injury in children exposed to low levels of glyphosate. Further studies of larger sample size are indicated to better understand putative deleterious effects of the herbicide after different levels of exposure.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Nefropatias/urina , Biomarcadores/urina , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Creatinina/urina , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Glicina/urina , Receptor Celular 1 do Vírus da Hepatite A/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Lipocalina-2/urina , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Prevalência , Albumina Sérica Humana/urina
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(1): 384-389, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804818

RESUMO

Our previous research showed that thioacetal and Schiff base formed between 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and cysteine or lysine considerably decreased the cytotoxicity of HMF. In this study, two adol condensation adducts, named 2ß-amino-3α-hydroxy-3-(5-(hydroxymethyl)furan-2-yl)propanoic acid (HGA) and 2α-amino-3ß-hydroxy-3-(5-(hydroxymethyl)furan-2-yl)propanoic acid (HGB), were prepared from the reaction products of glycine and HMF, and their cytotoxicities were investigated in Caco-2 cells. Compared with HMF, HGA and HGB displayed lower cytotoxicities against Caco-2 cells with IC50 values of 36.50 and 43.47 mM, respectively, versus 16.11 mM (HMF). In contrast to our findings in thioacetal and Schiff base products, HGA and HGB underwent a very high metabolism rate (99%) in Caco-2 cells. HGA and HGB may degrade to other products instead of HMF since no extracellular or intracellular HMF was detected.


Assuntos
Furaldeído/análogos & derivados , Glicina/química , Glicina/toxicidade , Adsorção , Células CACO-2 , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Furaldeído/química , Furaldeído/metabolismo , Furaldeído/toxicidade , Glicina/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Humanos
15.
Chemosphere ; 241: 125017, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605995

RESUMO

Glyphosate is the active ingredient in Roundup® formulations. While multiple studies have documented the toxicity, environmental persistence, and tendency to spread for glyphosate and Roundup®, few studies have compared the toxicity of glyphosate-based formulations to the toxicity of pure glyphosate for soil invertebrates, which contact both the herbicide and the formulations. Hundreds of formulations exist; their inert ingredients are confidential; and glyphosate persists in our food, water, and soil. In this experiment, we held glyphosate type and concentration constant, varying only formulation. Using Roundup Ready-to-Use III®, Roundup Super Concentrate®, and pure glyphosate, we delivered 26.3 mg glyphosate in the form of isopropylamine salt per kg of soil to compost worms (Eisenia fetida). We found that worms living in soil spiked with pure glyphosate lost 14.8-25.9% of their biomass and survived a stress test for 22.2-33.3% less time than worms living in uncontaminated soil. Worms living in soil spiked with Roundup Ready-to-Use III® and Roundup Super Concentrate® did not lose body mass and survived the stress test as well as worms living in uncontaminated soil. No contaminant affected soil microbial or fungal biomass over the 40-day period of this experiment. We suggest that the nitrates and phosphates in the formulations offset the toxic effects of glyphosate by spurring microbial growth and speeding glyphosate degradation. We also found a 26.5-41.3% reduction in fungal biomass across all treatments over the course of this experiment, suggesting that the worms consumed fungi and spores.


Assuntos
Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Oligoquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Biomassa , Fungos , Glicina/toxicidade , Herbicidas/química , Nitratos , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Fosfatos , Solo/química
16.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 135: 110888, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629789

RESUMO

Glyphosate is used for cereal, vegetable and fruit crops for reducing or inhibiting the growth of weeds as well as a desiccant for various grain crops. That is why, glyphosate has been shown to be accumulated in humans and animals through ingestion of food of both plant and animal origin. The study aimed to assessed the effect of glyphosate, its metabolites: aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), methylphosphonic acid and its impurities: PMIDA, N-methylglyphosate, hydroxymethylphosphonic acid and bis(phosphonomethyl)amine on apoptosis induction in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). PBMCs were exposed to the compounds studied at the concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 5 mM for 4 h. We have observed an increase in reactive oxygen species (including hydroxyl radical) and cytosolic calcium ions levels as well as reduction of transmembrane mitochondrial potential (ΔΨm) in PBMCs exposed to the compounds examined. All substances studied changed PBMCs membrane permeability, activated caspase-8, -9, -3 and caused chromatin condensation, which showed that they were capable of inducing apoptosis both via extrinsic and particularly intrinsic pathway. Generally the study demonstrated that there were no differences between apoptotic changes induced by glyphosate, its metabolites or impurities, and observed changes were provoked by high concentrations of investigated compounds.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio/sangue , Caspases/metabolismo , Cromatina/metabolismo , Ativação Enzimática , Glicina/metabolismo , Glicina/toxicidade , Herbicidas/metabolismo , Humanos , Radical Hidroxila/metabolismo , Técnicas In Vitro , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
17.
Food Chem ; 310: 125813, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757486

RESUMO

A flow injection - mass spectrometry method for rapid glyphosate detection in food commodities was developed and validated. The sample preparation protocol included a simple and rapid extract purification step through polymeric solid phase extraction cartridges followed by addition of isotopically labeled glyphosate to the final test sample. The optimized method was subjected to intra-laboratory validation (spiking range 0.5-100 mg/kg) in chickpeas, grapes and apples, as representatives of three different commodity groups as defined in SANTE/11813/2017 guidelines. Recoveries were in the range 60-111%, repeatability and within laboratory reproducibility were ≤17%.The trueness of the results generated with the developed method was evaluated by analysis of a set of incurred chickpea and wheat samples (glyphosate range 0.5-36 mg/kg) and comparison with the reference method (Quick Polar Pesticides Method), confirming the method fitness-for-purpose of rapid compliance testing.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Frutas/química , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Praguicidas/análise , Cicer/química , Análise de Injeção de Fluxo/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Glicina/análise , Malus/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Triticum/química
18.
Plant Mol Biol ; 102(1-2): 143-158, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782079

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Zinc finger protein transcription factor ZFP5 positively regulates root hair elongation in response to Pi and potassium deficiency by mainly activating the expression of EIN2 in Arabidopsis. Phosphate (Pi) and potassium (K+) are major plant nutrients required for plant growth and development, and plants respond to low-nutrient conditions via metabolic and morphology changes. The C2H2 transcription factor ZFP5 is a key regulator of trichome and root hair development in Arabidopsis. However, its role in regulating root hair development under nutrient deprivations remains unknown. Here, we show that Pi and potassium deficiency could not restore the short root hair phenotype of zfp5 mutant and ZFP5 RNAi lines to wild type level. The deprivation of either of these nutrients also induced the expression of ZFP5 and the activity of an ethylene reporter, pEBS:GUS. The significant reduction of root hair length in ein2-1 and ein3-1 as compared to wild-type under Pi and potassium deficiency supports the involvement of ethylene in root hair elongation. Furthermore, the application of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) significantly enhanced the expression level of ZFP5 while the application of 2-aminoethoxyvinyl glycine (AVG) had the opposite effect when either Pi or potassium was deprived. Further experiments reveal that ZFP5 mainly regulates transcription of ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 2 (EIN2) to control deficiency-mediated root hair development through ethylene signaling. Generally, these results suggest that ZFP5 regulates root hair elongation by interacting with ethylene signaling mainly through regulates the expression of EIN2 in response to Pi and potassium deficiency in Arabidopsis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Etilenos/metabolismo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Deficiência de Potássio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Aminoácidos Cíclicos/farmacologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Etilenos/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/farmacologia , Desnutrição/tratamento farmacológico , Mutação , Fenótipo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Deficiência de Potássio/tratamento farmacológico , Interferência de RNA , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição
19.
Theriogenology ; 141: 82-90, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518732

RESUMO

Relative to alanine and serine amino acid levels, glutamine is highly abundant in follicular fluid, and is an important source of energy required for oocyte maturation and embryo development. Thus, glutamine is an essential component of in vitro embryo culture media. However, glutamine has poor stability and degrades spontaneously in solution to form ammonia and pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid. In the present study, we aimed to explore the effect of substituting l-glutamine with glycine-glutamine, a more stable glutamine, on development of early parthenogenetic embryos and in vitro fertilization (IVF) embryos in bovine. Results revealed that glycine-glutamine can significantly increase cleavage rate (parthenogenetic embryos:87.24% vs. 72.61%, IVF embryos:89.33% vs. 83.79%, P < 0.01), blastocyst number (parthenogenetic embryos:24.98% vs. 18.07%, IVF embryos:33.53% vs. 27.29%, P < 0.01), and blastocyst number (parthenogenetic embryos:96 vs. 76, IVF embryos:114 vs. 109, P < 0.01), reduce blastocyst apoptosis (parthenogenetic embryos:3.72% vs. 6.65%, IVF embryos:2.53% vs.6.23%, P < 0.01), alleviate embryo ammonia toxicity, and reduce the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) compared with the l-glutamine. In addition, glycine-glutamine can alter epigenetic reprogramming by increasing the expression of HDAC1 (Histone Deacetylase 1) and decreasing the relative expression levels of H3K9 acetylation in early parthenogenetic embryos and IVF embryos. From our present study, we concluded that glycine-glutamine is an effective substitute of glutamine in modified synthetic oviduct fluid with amino acids (mSOFaa).


Assuntos
Bovinos/embriologia , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária/veterinária , Fertilização In Vitro/veterinária , Glutamina/química , Glicina/química , Partenogênese/fisiologia , Acetilação , Amônia/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Meios de Cultura , Dipeptídeos/química , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Glutamina/farmacologia , Glicina/farmacologia , Histonas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 190: 110086, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864119

RESUMO

Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH), including Roundup®, are the most used herbicides in agricultural and non-agricultural areas, which can reach aquatic environments through drift during application or surface runoff. Some studies, mostly in fish, demonstrated that GBH caused oxidative stress in non-target animals. However, only few information is available on the GBH effects in the antioxidant and stress proteins of many other organisms, such as freshwater crustaceans. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of environmentally relevant GBH concentrations on the relative transcript expression (RTE) of the superoxide dismutase (sod1), catalase (cat), selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (gpx), glutathione-S-transferase (gst), thioredoxin (txn), heat shock protein (hsp70 and hsp90) in the hepatopancreas of the ecologically important freshwater prawn Macrobrachium potiuna. Moreover, this study aimed to assess the gender-differences responses to GBH exposure. Male and female prawns were exposed to three Roundup WG® concentrations (0.0065, 0.065 and 0.28 mg of glyphosate/L) and a control group (0.0 mg/L) for 7 and 14 days. In general, males had an under-expression of the studied genes, indicating an oxidative stress and possible accumulation of ROS in the hepatopancreas. In the opposite, females had an overexpression of the same genes, indicating a more robust antioxidant system, in order to cope with the possible ROS increase after Roundup WG® exposure. Therefore, results confirmed that gender could be a confounding factor in ecotoxicological assessment of GBH effects. Additionally, this work highlights that sod1, cat, gpx, gst, txn, hsp70 and hsp90 gene expressions seem to be useful biomarkers to investigate the oxidative stress caused by Roundup WG® in Macrobrachium sp.


Assuntos
Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Palaemonidae/fisiologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Feminino , Água Doce , Expressão Gênica , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Glicina/toxicidade , Hepatopâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbicidas/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Palaemonidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Selênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
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