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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1202: 129-149, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034712

RESUMO

Tumor cell invasiveness is a critical challenge in the clinical management of glioma patients. In addition, there is accumulating evidence that current therapeutic modalities, including anti-angiogenic therapy and radiotherapy, can enhance glioma invasiveness. Glioma cell invasion is stimulated by both autocrine and paracrine factors that act on a large array of cell surface-bound receptors. Key signaling elements that mediate receptor-initiated signaling in the regulation of glioblastoma invasion are Rho family GTPases, including Rac, RhoA and Cdc42. These GTPases regulate cell morphology and actin dynamics and stimulate cell squeezing through the narrow extracellular spaces that are typical of the brain parenchyma. Transient attachment of cells to the extracellular matrix is also necessary for glioblastoma cell invasion. Interactions with extracellular matrix components are mediated by integrins that initiate diverse intracellular signalling pathways. Key signaling elements stimulated by integrins include PI3K, Akt, mTOR and MAP kinases. In order to detach from the tumor mass, glioma cells secrete proteolytic enzymes that cleave cell surface adhesion molecules, including CD44 and L1. Key proteases produced by glioma cells include uPA, ADAMs and MMPs. Increased understanding of the molecular mechanisms that control glioma cell invasion has led to the identification of molecular targets for therapeutic intervention in this devastating disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Glioma/metabolismo , Glioma/patologia , Invasividade Neoplásica , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Movimento Celular , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Integrinas/metabolismo
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1202: 223-241, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034716

RESUMO

Cannabinoids are a group of structurally heterogeneous but pharmacologically related compounds, including plant-derived cannabinoids, synthetic substances and endogenous cannabinoids, such as anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol. Cannabinoids elicit a wide range of central and peripheral effects mostly mediated through cannabinoid receptors. There are two types of specific Gi/o-protein-coupled receptors cloned so far, called CB1 and CB2, although an existence of additional cannabinoid-binding receptors has been suggested. CB1 and CB2 differ in their predicted amino acid sequence, tissue distribution, physiological role and signaling mechanisms. Significant alterations of a balance in the cannabinoid system between the levels of endogenous ligands and their receptors occur during malignant transformation in various types of cancer, including gliomas. Cannabinoids exert anti-proliferative action in tumor cells. Induction of cell death by cannabinoid treatment relies on the generation of a pro-apoptotic sphingolipid ceramide and disruption of signaling pathways crucial for regulation of cellular proliferation, differentiation or apoptosis. Increased ceramide levels lead also to ER-stress and autophagy in drug-treated glioblastoma cells. Beyond blocking of tumor cells proliferation cannabinoids inhibit invasiveness, angiogenesis and the stem cell-like properties of glioma cells, showing profound activity in the complex tumor microenvironment. Advances in translational research on cannabinoid signaling led to clinical investigations on the use of cannabinoids in treatments of glioblastomas.


Assuntos
Canabinoides/metabolismo , Glioma/metabolismo , Glioma/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Receptores de Canabinoides/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1202: 243-258, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034717

RESUMO

The observations that numerous cancers are characterized by impairment in arginine synthesis and that deficit of exogenous arginine specifically affects their growth and viability are the ground for arginine deprivation-based anticancer treatment strategy. This review addresses molecular mechanisms of the human glioblastoma cell response to arginine deprivation. Our earlier studies have shown that arginine deprivation specifically impairs glioblastoma cell motility, adhesion and invasiveness. These changes were evoked by alterations in the actin cytoskeleton organization resulting from a decreased arginylation of ß-actin isoform. Moreover, deficit of arginine induces prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activation of the unfolded protein response, not leading, however, to a massive apoptosis in glioblastoma cells. Our current research indicates that cell death could be augmented by other compounds such as modulators of ER stress, for example arginine analogue of plant origin, canavanine. Implication of these studies on the development of new anti-glioma metabolic therapeutic modalities are discussed.


Assuntos
Arginina/deficiência , Arginina/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Arginina/análogos & derivados , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Anticancer Res ; 40(2): 1161-1166, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumor in adults and still carries a dismal prognosis. As several studies detected a connection between inflammation and GBM prognosis, we sought to explore possible associations between routinely investigated inflammatory parameters and GBM outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients treated for GBM at our Institution between 2004 and 2014 were included. White blood cell count (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP) and the ratio of platelets and WBC (Plt/WBC) were evaluated preoperatively. Medical records were reviewed for clinical parameters (age, sex, preoperative clinical condition, genetic alterations). Study endpoints were overall (OS) and 1- and 2-year survival. RESULTS: In the final cohort consisting of 565 individuals with GBM, univariate analysis showed significant associations for WBC, CRP and Plt/WBC ratio with OS. Kaplan-Meier survival plot confirmed significantly poorer OS in patients with WBC>12/nl and with CRP≥2.9 mg/dl. In multivariate analysis, a WBC of >12/nl was an independent prognostic factor for all three outcome parameters and CRP≥2.9 mg/dl for OS and 1-year survival. CONCLUSION: Preoperative WBC and CRP values were confirmed as independent predictors of GBM outcome. This emphasizes the need for further evaluation of the role of inflammation in the prognosis of GBM.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/etiologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Proteína C-Reativa , Feminino , Glioblastoma/etiologia , Glioblastoma/cirurgia , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pré-Operatório , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 213-220, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Kisspeptin produced from the KISS1 gene is secreted from the living cells, binds to endogenous receptor KISS1R (also called G protein-coupled receptor 54, GPR54), and has various functions in normal physiological conditions. Although an anti-metastatic role of kisspeptin in cancer is well known in several cancer types, its role in brain tumors is not yet understood. Herein, we investigated a the role of kisspeptin in glioblastoma cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Glioblastoma cells were treated with kisspeptin and subjected to proliferation, migration, and invasion assays. KISS1R dependency was tested by KISS1R silencing with KISS1R siRNAs. RESULTS: Kisspeptin inhibited migratory and invasive abilities of U87-MG, U-251-MG and U373-MG glioblastoma cells with no effect on cell viability. KISS1R gene silencing with KISS1R siRNAs blocked kisspeptin-induced glioblastoma cell invasiveness. Moreover, chemical inhibitors against Gq, PLC or PKC blocked kisspeptin-induced glioblastoma cell invasiveness. CONCLUSION: Kisspeptin induces glioblastoma cell invasiveness via the KISS1R-Gq-PLC-PKC signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Subunidades alfa Gq-G11 de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/patologia , Kisspeptinas/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fosfolipases Tipo C/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ativação Enzimática , Humanos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Metástase Neoplásica
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 550, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992716

RESUMO

Many cellular models aimed at elucidating cancer biology do not recapitulate pathobiology including tumor heterogeneity, an inherent feature of cancer that underlies treatment resistance. Here we introduce a cancer modeling paradigm using genetically engineered human pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) that captures authentic cancer pathobiology. Orthotopic engraftment of the neural progenitor cells derived from hiPSCs that have been genome-edited to contain tumor-associated genetic driver mutations revealed by The Cancer Genome Atlas project for glioblastoma (GBM) results in formation of high-grade gliomas. Similar to patient-derived GBM, these models harbor inter-tumor heterogeneity resembling different GBM molecular subtypes, intra-tumor heterogeneity, and extrachromosomal DNA amplification. Re-engraftment of these primary tumor neurospheres generates secondary tumors with features characteristic of patient samples and present mutation-dependent patterns of tumor evolution. These cancer avatar models provide a platform for comprehensive longitudinal assessment of human tumor development as governed by molecular subtype mutations and lineage-restricted differentiation.


Assuntos
Engenharia Genética , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/patologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/patologia , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Genoma , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioma/genética , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Mutação , Transplante de Neoplasias , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Neurofibromina 1/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Transplante Heterólogo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
7.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(1): 117-126, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844979

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a poorly curable disease due to its profound chemoresistance. Despite recent advances in surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the efficient treatment of GBMs is still a clinical challenge. Beside others, AT101, the R-(-) enantiomer of gossypol, and demethoxycurcumin (DMC), a curcumin-related demethoxy compound derived from Curcuma longa, were considered as possible alternative drugs for GBM therapy. METHODS: Using different human primary GBM cell cultures in a long-term stimulation in vitro model, the cytotoxic and anti-proliferative effects of single and combined treatment with 5 µM AT101 and 5 µM or 10 µM DMC were investigated. Furthermore, western blots on pAkt and pp44/42 as well as JC-1 staining and real-time RT-PCR were performed to understand the influence of the treatment at the molecular and gene level. RESULTS: Due to enhanced anti-proliferative effects, we showed that combined therapy with both drugs was superior to a single treatment with AT101 or DMC. Here, by determination of the combination index, a synergism of the combined drugs was detectable. Phosphorylation and thereby activation of the kinases p44/42 and Akt, which are involved in proliferation and survival processes, were inhibited, the mitochondrial membrane potential of the GBM cells was altered, and genes involved in dormancy-associated processes were regulated by the combined treatment strategy. CONCLUSION: Combined treatment with different drugs might be an option to efficiently overcome chemoresistance of GBM cells in a long-term treatment strategy.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Diarileptanoides/farmacologia , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Gossipol/análogos & derivados , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Diarileptanoides/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/patologia , Gossipol/administração & dosagem , Gossipol/farmacologia , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
8.
Anticancer Res ; 39(12): 6635-6643, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) triggers apoptosis of cancer cells and, when used in combination with other anticancer drugs, is regarded as an effective strategy for anticancer treatment. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of combination treatment with TRAIL-secreting human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-TRAIL) and compound C, an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK inhibitor), on glioblastoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The anticancer effect using MSC-TRAIL and compound C on glioma was evaluated in vitro and on in vivo models. RESULTS: Combination treatment of MSC-TRAIL and compound C increased apoptosis by enhancing expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2)-associated X protein (BAX) and reducing that of anti-apoptotic proteins cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (FLIP), X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), and BCL2 in glioma. In addition, MSC-TRAIL and compound C combination increased caspase-3 cleavage and apoptotic cells in a mouse glioma model compared with the group treated with the agents alone. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that MSC-TRAIL and compound C are a novel combination for treatment of glioma.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Glioblastoma/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Apoptose , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Proteína Reguladora de Apoptosis Semelhante a CASP8 e FADD/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Terapia Combinada , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/metabolismo , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
9.
Anticancer Res ; 39(12): 6743-6750, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive type of primary malignant brain tumour. The interaction between high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is important for tumour cell growth. Previously, we identified an anticancer candidate, papaverine, that inhibited the HMGB1-RAGE interaction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our study assessed the anticancer effects of papaverine alone or in combination with temozolomide on U87MG and T98G human GBM cells using clonogenicity assays, as well as in a U87MG xenograft mouse model. The radiosensitizing efficacy of papaverine was measured based on the clonogenicity of T98G cells. RESULTS: Papaverine significantly inhibited the clonogenicity of U87MG and T98G cells. Compared with single treatment, the combination of papaverine and temozolomide more highly suppressed the clonogenicity of T98G cells and delayed tumour growth in the U87MG xenograft mouse model. Furthermore, papaverine increased the radiosensitivity of T98G cells. CONCLUSION: Papaverine is a potential anticancer drug in GBM treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Papaverina/uso terapêutico , Temozolomida/uso terapêutico , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/patologia , Glioblastoma/radioterapia , Proteína HMGB1/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Tolerância a Radiação/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
10.
Anticancer Res ; 39(11): 5983-5990, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: DJ-1, an oncogenic molecule, helps to maintain somatic stem cells by reducing the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study investigated the role of DJ-1 in glioma stem cells (GSCs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: U87-MG (U87) and U251-MG (U251) glioblastoma cell lines that express wild-type and mutant p53, respectively, were used. These were cultured with DJ-1-targeting siRNA and subjected to a variety of in vitro experiments or intracranial transplantation into nude mice. RESULTS: Knockdown of DJ-1 reduced clonogenicity only in U87 cells, which was rescued by p53 depletion. ROS accumulated in DJ-1-depleted cells, although treatment with N-acetyl cysteine, which quenches ROS, did not affect exhaustion of CSCs among U87 cells by DJ-1 knockdown. In a serial transplantation study, DJ-1 knockdown prolonged the survival of mice in secondary transplantation. CONCLUSION: DJ-1 plays a pivotal role in maintenance of stem cell self-renewal in the U87 cell line.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Autorrenovação Celular , Glioblastoma/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Proteína Desglicase DJ-1/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Proteína Desglicase DJ-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Desglicase DJ-1/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Taxa de Sobrevida , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
11.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(12): 2098-2110, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740814

RESUMO

Microglia are tissue-resident macrophages of the CNS that orchestrate local immune responses and contribute to several neurological and psychiatric diseases. Little is known about human microglia and how they orchestrate their highly plastic, context-specific adaptive responses during pathology. Here we combined two high-dimensional technologies, single-cell RNA-sequencing and time-of-flight mass cytometry, to identify microglia states in the human brain during homeostasis and disease. This approach enabled us to identify and characterize a previously unappreciated spectrum of transcriptional states in human microglia. These transcriptional states are determined by their spatial distribution, and they further change with aging and brain tumor pathology. This description of multiple microglia phenotypes in the human CNS may open promising new avenues for subset-specific therapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Microglia/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Adulto Jovem
12.
Life Sci ; 236: 116917, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614149

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the underlying mechanism by which glioblastoma (GBM) cells gain temozolomide (TMZ) resistance and to clarify novel therapeutic targets and new prognostic biomarkers for GBM. MAIN METHODS: A genome-wide hierarchical bi-clustering based on previously published microarray databases identified Nuclear Factor I A (NFIA) as one of the most significantly upregulated genes correlated to TMZ resistance in GBM. Then, the potential biological functions of NFIA in oncogenesis and chemoresistance were clarified by qRT-PCR, Western blotting and in vivo xenograft models with artificially induced TMZ-resistant U87 cells. Additionally, immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays were performed to explore the clinical significance of NFIA in glioma patients. Last, luciferase reporter assay was performed to study the transcriptional regulation of NFIA on the nuclear factor κb (NF-kB) pathway. KEY FINDINGS: NFIA was correlated with TMZ resistance in GBM. Clinically, elevated NFIA expression was significantly correlated with adverse outcomes of glioma patients, especially in GBM patients. Moreover, NFIA contributed to the acquired TMZ resistance of GBM cells, while suppression of NFIA via lentivirus reduced cell proliferation, tumorigenesis and resistance to TMZ of GBM. Additionally, NFIA promoted transcription activity that regulated the expression of NF-kB. Last, NFIA induced phosphorylation of NF-kB p65 at serine 536, thus inducing TMZ resistance in GBM cells. Altogether, our study suggests that NFIA-dependent transcriptional regulation of NF-kB contributes to acquired TMZ resistance in GBM. SIGNIFICANCE: Abnormally activated NFIA-NF-kB signaling was strongly correlated with acquired TMZ resistance and poor prognosis in GBM, and it could be a new therapeutic target for TMZ-resistant GBM.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glioblastoma/patologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição NFI/metabolismo , Temozolomida/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/farmacologia , Apoptose , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , NF-kappa B/genética , Fatores de Transcrição NFI/genética , Prognóstico , Transdução de Sinais , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
13.
Chem Biol Interact ; 314: 108849, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610157

RESUMO

To provide novel insight into approaches designed to combat glioblastoma, the molecular details of the cytotoxicity of gamabufotalin, were investigated in the human glioblastoma cell line U-87. A dose-dependent cytotoxicity was observed in the cells, whereas no detectable toxicity was confirmed in mouse primary astrocytes. LDH leakage was only observed in the cells treated with a relatively high concentration (>80 ng/ml). Downregulation of the expression levels of Aurora B, cdc25A, cdc25C, cdc2, Cyclin B1 and survivin, and upregulation of the expression level of p21 were observed in treated cells and occurred in parallel with G2/M phase arrest. Treatment with gamabufotalin also downregulated the expression level of uPA, CA9, and upregulated the expression level of TIMP3, all of which are closely associated with invasion/metastasis. Autophagy induction was observed in the treated cells and the addition of wortmannin, a potent autophagy inhibitor, significantly rescued U-87 cells. These results indicate that gamabufotalin exhibits cytotoxicity against cancerous glial cells with high potency and selectivity through multiple cytotoxic signaling pathways. The activation of p38 MAPK pathway along with the upregulation of VEGF/VEGFR2 was observed in the treated cells, both of which are likely to be compensatory changes in response to gamabufotalin treatment. Intriguingly, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK enhanced the cytotoxicity of the drug, suggesting an important prosurvival role for p38 MAPK. We thus suggest that developing a new combination regimen of gamabufotalin plus a p38 MAPK inhibitor and/or inhibitors for VEGF/VEGFR could improve the efficacy of the drug, and may provide more therapeutic benefits to patients with glioblastoma.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Bufanolídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Astrócitos/citologia , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Bufanolídeos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Wortmanina/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
15.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 80: 101896, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541850

RESUMO

Glioblastomas are intrinsic brain tumors thought to originate from neuroglial stem or progenitor cells. More than 90% of glioblastomas are isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-wildtype tumors. Incidence increases with age, males are more often affected. Beyond rare instances of genetic predisposition and irradiation exposure, there are no known glioblastoma risk factors. Surgery as safely feasible followed by involved-field radiotherapy plus concomitant and maintenance temozolomide chemotherapy define the standard of care since 2005. Except for prolonged progression-free, but not overall survival afforded by the vascular endothelial growth factor antibody, bevacizumab, no pharmacological intervention has been demonstrated to alter the course of disease. Specifically, targeting cellular pathways frequently altered in glioblastoma, such as the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the p53 and the retinoblastoma (RB) pathways, or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene amplification or mutation, have failed to improve outcome, likely because of redundant compensatory mechanisms, insufficient target coverage related in part to the blood brain barrier, or poor tolerability and safety. Yet, uncommon glioblastoma subsets may exhibit specific vulnerabilities amenable to targeted interventions, including, but not limited to: high tumor mutational burden, BRAF mutation, neurotrophic tryrosine receptor kinase (NTRK) or fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) gene fusions, and MET gene amplification or fusions. There is increasing interest in targeting not only the tumor cells, but also the microenvironment, including blood vessels, the monocyte/macrophage/microglia compartment, or T cells. Improved clinical trial designs using pharmacodynamic endpoints in enriched patient populations will be required to develop better treatments for glioblastoma.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
16.
Chem Biol Interact ; 312: 108816, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505164

RESUMO

Indirubins E804 (indirubin-3'-(2,3 dihydroxypropyl)-oximether) and 7BIO (7-Bromoindirubin-3'-oxime) are synthetic derivatives of natural indirubin, the active compound in Danggui Longhui Wan, a traditional Chinese remedy for cancer and inflammation. Herein, we explore E804 and 7BIO for their potential to modulate key pro-inflammatory genes and cytokines in LN-18 and T98G glioblastoma cells. High grade gliomas typically secrete large amounts of inflammatory cytokines and growth factors that promote tumor growth in an autocrine fashion. Inflammation is emerging as a key concern in the success of new treatment modalities for glioblastomas. Studies indicate that select indirubin derivatives bind and activate signaling of the AHR pathway, as well as inhibit cyclin-dependent kinases and STAT3 signaling. AHR signaling is involved in hematopoiesis, immune function, cell cycling, and inflammation, and thus may be a possible target for glioma treatment. To determine the significance of the AHR pathway in LN-18 and T98G glioma inflammatory profiles, and on the effects of E804 and 7BIO on these profiles, we used 6,2',4'-trimethoxyflavone (TMF), a putative selective AHR antagonist. It was confirmed that E804 and 7BIO activates the AHR leading to cyp1b1 expression, and that TMF antagonizes expression. We then employed a commercial cancer inflammation and immunity crosstalk qRT-PCR array to screen for anti-inflammatory related properties. TMF alone inhibited expression of ifng, ptsg2, il12b, tnfa, il10, il13, the balance between pd1 and pdl1, and even expression of mhc1a/b. E804 was very potent in suppressing many pro-inflammatory genes, including il1a, il1b, il12a, ptgs2, tlr4, and others. E804 also affected expression of il6, vegfa, and stat3. Conversely, 7BIO induced cox2, but suppressed a different selection of pro-inflammatory genes including nos2, tnfa, and igf1. Secretion of IL-6 protein, an iconic inflammatory cytokine, was decreased by E804. VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) protein secretion was upregulated by 7BIO, yet downregulated by E804 and E804 plus TMF. Thus, E804 is both an AHR ligand and regulator of important pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and oncogene STAT3, among others. Our results point to the use of E804 and TMF in combination as a promising new treatment for glioblastoma.


Assuntos
Indóis/farmacologia , Oximas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Indóis/química , Oximas/química , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4013, 2019 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488827

RESUMO

Despite the development of adjuvant therapies, glioblastoma (GBM) patients remain incurable, thus justifying the urgent need of new therapies. CDK5 plays a critical role in GBM and is a potential target for GBM. However, the mechanism by which CDK5 promotes GBM tumorigenicity remains largely unknown. Here, we identify TRIM59 as a substrate of CDK5. EGFR-activated CDK5 directly binds to and phosphorylates TRIM59, a ubiquitin ligase at serine 308, which recruits PIN1 for cis-trans isomerization of TRIM59, leading to TRIM59 binding to importin α5 and nuclear translocation. Nuclear TRIM59 induces ubiquitination and degradation of the tumor suppressive histone variant macroH2A1, leading to enhanced STAT3 signaling activation and tumorigenicity. These findings are confirmed by inhibition of CDK5-activated TRIM59 activity that results in suppression of intracranial tumor growth. Correlative expressions of the components of this pathway are clinically prognostic. Our findings suggest targeting CDK5/TRIM59 signaling axis as a putative strategy for treating GBM.


Assuntos
Quinase 5 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Metaloproteínas/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação/fisiologia , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/terapia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Peptidilprolil Isomerase de Interação com NIMA/genética , Peptidilprolil Isomerase de Interação com NIMA/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , alfa Carioferinas/metabolismo
18.
Molecules ; 24(18)2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489879

RESUMO

To increase treatment efficiency for glioblastoma, we have developed a system to selectively deliver chemotherapeutic doxorubicin (Dox) to Glioblastoma (GBM) tumors. This carrier is based on elastin-like polypeptide (ELP), which is soluble at physiological temperatures but undergoes a phase transition and accumulates at tumor sites with externally applied, mild (40-41 °C) hyperthermia. The CPP-ELP-Dox conjugate consists of a cell penetrating peptide (CPP), which facilitates transcytosis through the blood brain barrier and cell entry, and a 6-maleimidocaproyl hydrazone derivative of doxorubicin at the C-terminus of ELP. The acid-sensitive hydrazone linker ensures release of Dox in the lysosomes/endosomes after cellular uptake of the drug conjugate. We have shown that CPP-ELP-Dox effectively inhibits cell proliferation in three GBM cell lines. Both the free drug and CPP-ELP-Dox conjugate exhibited similar in vitro cytotoxicity, although their subcellular localization was considerably different. The Dox conjugate was mainly dispersed in the cytoplasm, while free drug had partial nuclear accumulation in addition to cytoplasmic distribution. The intracellular Dox concentration was increased in the CPP-ELP-Dox cells compared to that in the cells treated with free Dox, which positively correlates with cytotoxic activity. In summary, our findings demonstrate that CPP-ELP-Dox effectively kills GBM cells. Development of such a drug carrier has the potential to greatly improve current therapeutic approaches for GBM by increasing the specificity and efficacy of treatment and reducing cytotoxicity in normal tissues.


Assuntos
Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Elastina/química , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/química , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos Penetradores de Células/química , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Doxorrubicina/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Solubilidade
19.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; 33(11): e22392, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503386

RESUMO

Ganoderic acid A (GA-A), recognized as a lanostanetriterpene isolated from Ganoderma lucidum, demonstrates an efficient antitumor activity in multiple cancers. To date, it is unclear whether and how GA-A functions on human glioblastoma (GBM). To unravel the functional significance of GA-A on human glioblastoma (GBM), the cell-counting kit-8 and transwell assays were used to detect proliferation, migration, and invasion of human GBM cell after GA-A treatment. Then, we utilized the flow cytometry and western blot to further evaluate the effect of GA-A on GBM cell. Further, activities of autophagy and PI3K/AKT signaling were assessed by Western blot assay. We found that GA-A significantly inhibited proliferation, migration, and invasion of GBM cell. Additionally, GA-A markedly triggered cell apoptosis, which incarnated an elevation trend in apoptotic percentage, simultaneously, an increased level of proapoptosis protein (Bax and active caspase-3) and a decreased level of antiapoptosis protein (Bcl-2), induced by GA-A treatment. Meanwhile, levels of two well-known autophagy markers (beclin 1 and LC3 II) increased while another autophagic substrate (P-62) was reduced. Moreover, the expressions levels of phosphorylated AKT, mTOR, p-P70S6K, and cyclin D1 in the PI3K/AKT pathway were significantly reduced, which revealed GA-A repressed the activation of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Collectively, these results indicate that GA-A may encourage U251 cell growth and invasion/migration inhibition, apoptosis, and autophagy through the inactivation of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in human GBM. Hence, GA-A may be a potent antitumorigenic agent for human GBM in future clinical practice.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Ácidos Heptanoicos/farmacologia , Lanosterol/análogos & derivados , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclina D1/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Lanosterol/farmacologia , Invasividade Neoplásica , Fosforilação , Reishi/química , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 70-kDa/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
20.
Cancer Sci ; 110(11): 3486-3496, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483918

RESUMO

Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling plays important roles in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a lethal form of brain tumor. BMP reduces GBM tumorigenicity through its differentiation- and apoptosis-inducing effects on glioma-initiating cells (GIC). However, some GIC do not respond to the tumor suppressive effects of BMP. Using a phosphoreceptor tyrosine kinase array, we found that EPHA6 (erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular carcinoma receptor A6) phosphorylation was regulated by BMP-2 signaling in some GIC. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas showed that EPHA6 expression was lower in patients with GBM than in the normal brain, and that high EPHA6 expression was correlated with better prognosis. EPHA6 receptor increased the susceptibility of both sensitive and resistant GIC to BMP-2-induced apoptosis. The cooperative effect on apoptosis induction depended on the kinase activity of BMP type I receptor but was independent of EPHA6 kinase function. Overexpression of the EPHA6 receptor in GIC resulted in the formation of a protein complex of EPHA6 receptor and the BMP type I receptor ALK-2, which was associated with BMP-induced apoptosis in GIC. Intracranial injection of GIC into nude mice showed that gain-of-function of EPHA6 together with BMP-2 pretreatment slowed GBM tumor progression in the mouse brain and promoted mouse survival. In summary, EPHA6 together with BMP-2 signaling led to apoptotic cell death in GIC, and thus is a putative tumor suppressor in GBM.


Assuntos
Receptores de Ativinas Tipo I/metabolismo , Apoptose , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Receptor EphA6/metabolismo , Animais , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/farmacologia , Receptores de Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas Tipo I/metabolismo , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/metabolismo , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Progressão da Doença , Glioblastoma/mortalidade , Glioblastoma/patologia , Glioma/metabolismo , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Transplante de Neoplasias , Fosforilação , Prognóstico , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo
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