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1.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 73(9-10): 317-325, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035418

RESUMO

Background and purpose: Glioblastoma is the most common malignant CNS tumor, its surgical removal is hindered by the tumors invasive nature, while current anti-tumor therapies show limited effectiveness - mean overall survival is 16-24 months. Some patients show minimal response towards standard oncotherapy, however there are no routinely available prognostic and predictive markers in clinical practice to identify the background of mentioned differences in prognosis. This research aims to identify the prognostic significance of invasion-related extracellular (ECM) components. Methods: Patient groups with different prognoses were created (OS: group A <16 months, group B > 16 months), and internationally recognized prognostic markers (IDH1 mutation and MGMT promoter hyper-methylation) were tested in the flash-frozen tumor samples. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of 46 invasion-related ECM molecules were measured. Results: Clinical data of the patients who have been operated on at the University of Debrecen Clinical Center Department of Neurosurgery and treated at the Department of Clinical Oncology showed no significant differences except for survival data (OS and PFS), and reoperation rate. All samples were IDH wild type. MGMT promoter hypermethylation rate showed significant differences (28.6% vs 68.8%). The expressional pattern of the invasion-related ECM molecules, i.e. the invasion spectrum also showed major differences, integrin ß2, cadherin-12, FLT4/VEGFR-3 and versican molecules having signficantly different mRNA levels. The accuracy of the inivasion spectrum was tested by statistical classifier, 83.3% of the samples was sorted correctly, PPV was 0.93. Conclusion: The difference found in the reoperation rate when comparing different prognostic groups aligns with literature data. MGMG promoter region methylation data in Hungarian samples has not been published yet, and further confirming current knowledge urges the implementation of MGMT promoter analysis in clinical practice. Studying the invasion spectrum provides extra information on tumors, as a prognostic marker it helps recognizing more aggressive tumors, and calls attention to the necessity of using anti-invasive agents in GBM therapies in the future.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/metabolismo , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/fisiopatologia , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/cirurgia , Humanos , Prognóstico , RNA Mensageiro
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4997, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020472

RESUMO

Despite a deeper molecular understanding, human glioblastoma remains one of the most treatment refractory and fatal cancers. It is known that the presence of macrophages and microglia impact glioblastoma tumorigenesis and prevent durable response. Herein we identify the dual function cytokine IL-33 as an orchestrator of the glioblastoma microenvironment that contributes to tumorigenesis. We find that IL-33 expression in a large subset of human glioma specimens and murine models correlates with increased tumor-associated macrophages/monocytes/microglia. In addition, nuclear and secreted functions of IL-33 regulate chemokines that collectively recruit and activate circulating and resident innate immune cells creating a pro-tumorigenic environment. Conversely, loss of nuclear IL-33 cripples recruitment, dramatically suppresses glioma growth, and increases survival. Our data supports the paradigm that recruitment and activation of immune cells, when instructed appropriately, offer a therapeutic strategy that switches the focus from the cancer cell alone to one that includes the normal host environment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Glioma/metabolismo , Glioma/patologia , Interleucina-33/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Carcinogênese , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/mortalidade , Glioblastoma/patologia , Glioma/mortalidade , Humanos , Inflamação , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Microglia , Análise de Sobrevida , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4660, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938908

RESUMO

Intratumor spatial heterogeneity facilitates therapeutic resistance in glioblastoma (GBM). Nonetheless, understanding of GBM heterogeneity is largely limited to the surgically resectable tumor core lesion while the seeds for recurrence reside in the unresectable tumor edge. In this study, stratification of GBM to core and edge demonstrates clinically relevant surgical sequelae. We establish regionally derived models of GBM edge and core that retain their spatial identity in a cell autonomous manner. Upon xenotransplantation, edge-derived cells show a higher capacity for infiltrative growth, while core cells demonstrate core lesions with greater therapy resistance. Investigation of intercellular signaling between these two tumor populations uncovers the paracrine crosstalk from tumor core that promotes malignancy and therapy resistance of edge cells. These phenotypic alterations are initiated by HDAC1 in GBM core cells which subsequently affect edge cells by secreting the soluble form of CD109 protein. Our data reveal the role of intracellular communication between regionally different populations of GBM cells in tumor recurrence.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Glioblastoma/patologia , Histona Desacetilase 1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/mortalidade , Histona Desacetilase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Histona Desacetilase 1/genética , Histona Desacetilase 2/genética , Histona Desacetilase 2/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos SCID , Fenilbutiratos/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Microambiente Tumoral , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4855, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978390

RESUMO

The atypical chemokine receptor 3 (ACKR3) plays a pivotal role in directing the migration of various cellular populations and its over-expression in tumors promotes cell proliferation and invasiveness. The intracellular signaling pathways transducing ACKR3-dependent effects remain poorly characterized, an issue we addressed by identifying the interactome of ACKR3. Here, we report that recombinant ACKR3 expressed in HEK293T cells recruits the gap junction protein Connexin 43 (Cx43). Cx43 and ACKR3 are co-expressed in mouse brain astrocytes and human glioblastoma cells and form a complex in embryonic mouse brain. Functional in vitro studies show enhanced ACKR3 interaction with Cx43 upon ACKR3 agonist stimulation. Furthermore, ACKR3 activation promotes ß-arrestin2- and dynamin-dependent Cx43 internalization to inhibit gap junctional intercellular communication in primary astrocytes. These results demonstrate a functional link between ACKR3 and gap junctions that might be of pathophysiological relevance.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/metabolismo , Comunicação Celular/fisiologia , Conexina 43/metabolismo , Junções Comunicantes/patologia , Receptores CXCR/metabolismo , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Conexina 43/efeitos dos fármacos , Conexinas/metabolismo , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Receptores CXCR/agonistas , Receptores CXCR/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
5.
Life Sci ; 258: 118158, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750435

RESUMO

AIMS: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is characterized by aggressive infiltration and terrible lethality. The overwhelming majority of chemotherapeutic drugs fail to exhibit the desired treatment effects. Polydatin (PD), which was initially extracted from Polygonum cuspidatum, is distinguished for its outstanding cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, and renal protective effects, as well as significant anticancer activities. However, the anti-GBM effect of PD is unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell proliferation and apoptosis after PD intervention were estimated using MTT, colony formation and flow cytometry assays in vitro, while wound-healing and Transwell assays were applied to assess cell migration and invasion. In addition, the anti-GBM effects of PD in vivo were detected in the subcutaneous tumor model of nude mice. Moreover, Western blot, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical staining assays were employed to elaborate the relevant molecular mechanisms. KEY FINDINGS: The present study demonstrated that PD repressed cell proliferation, migration, invasion and stemness and promoted apoptosis in GBM cells. Moreover, by correlating the molecular characteristics of cancer cells with different sensitivities to PD and employing diverse analytical methods, we ultimately verified that the cytotoxicity of PD was related to EGFR-AKT/ERK1/2/STAT3-SOX2/Snail signaling pathway inhibition, in which multiple components were vital therapeutic targets of GBM. SIGNIFICANCE: This work demonstrated that PD could inhibit proliferation, migration, invasion and stemness and induce apoptosis by restraining multiple components of the EGFR-AKT/ERK1/2/STAT3-SOX2/Snail signaling pathway in GBM cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Estilbenos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição da Família Snail/metabolismo , Estilbenos/farmacologia
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4116, 2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807793

RESUMO

Glioblastoma contains a rare population of self-renewing brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs) which are endowed with properties to proliferate, spur the growth of new tumors, and at the same time, evade ionizing radiation (IR) and chemotherapy. However, the drivers of BTSC resistance to therapy remain unknown. The cytokine receptor for oncostatin M (OSMR) regulates BTSC proliferation and glioblastoma tumorigenesis. Here, we report our discovery of a mitochondrial OSMR that confers resistance to IR via regulation of oxidative phosphorylation, independent of its role in cell proliferation. Mechanistically, OSMR is targeted to the mitochondrial matrix via the presequence translocase-associated motor complex components, mtHSP70 and TIM44. OSMR interacts with NADH ubiquinone oxidoreductase 1/2 (NDUFS1/2) of complex I and promotes mitochondrial respiration. Deletion of OSMR impairs spare respiratory capacity, increases reactive oxygen species, and sensitizes BTSCs to IR-induced cell death. Importantly, suppression of OSMR improves glioblastoma response to IR and prolongs lifespan.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Radiação Ionizante , Receptores de Oncostatina M/metabolismo , Animais , Morte Celular/efeitos da radiação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos da radiação , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Células Cultivadas , Imunofluorescência , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , NADH Desidrogenase/genética , NADH Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos da radiação , Oncostatina M/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos da radiação , Receptores de Oncostatina M/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos da radiação
7.
Oncogene ; 39(36): 5902-5915, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737433

RESUMO

PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway activity is highly elevated in glioblastoma (GBM). Although rapamycin is known to inhibit this pathway, GBM patients are resistant to rapamycin monotherapy. This may be related to mutations of tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). Here, we show that higher expression of E3 ligase Smad ubiquitylation regulatory factor 1 (Smurf1) in GBM is correlated with poor prognosis. Smurf1 promotes cell growth and colony formation by accelerating cell cycle and aberrant signaling pathways. In addition, we show that Smurf1 ubiquitylates and degrades PTEN. We further demonstrate that the oncogenic role of Smurf1 is dependent on PTEN. Upregulated Smurf1 impairs PTEN activity, leading to consistent activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway; and depletion of Smurf1 dramatically inhibits cell proliferation and tumor growth. Moreover, loss of Smurf1 abolishes the aberrant regulation of PTEN, causing negative feedback on PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, and thus leading to rescue of tumor sensitivity to rapamycin in an orthotopic GBM model. Taken together, we show that Smurf1 promotes tumor progression via PTEN, and combined treatment of Smurf1 knockdown with mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition reduces tumor progression. These results identify a unique role of Smurf1 in mTOR inhibitor resistance and provide a strong rationale for combined therapy targeting GBM.


Assuntos
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Oncogenes , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Deleção de Genes , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , Glioblastoma/mortalidade , Glioblastoma/patologia , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Camundongos , Mutação , Prognóstico , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Mutações Sintéticas Letais , Ubiquitinação
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3288, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620753

RESUMO

The prognostic and therapeutic relevance of molecular subtypes for the most aggressive isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 (IDH) wild-type glioblastoma (GBM) is currently limited due to high molecular heterogeneity of the tumors that impedes patient stratification. Here, we describe a distinct binary classification of IDH wild-type GBM tumors derived from a quantitative proteomic analysis of 39 IDH wild-type GBMs as well as IDH mutant and low-grade glioma controls. Specifically, GBM proteomic cluster 1 (GPC1) tumors exhibit Warburg-like features, neural stem-cell markers, immune checkpoint ligands, and a poor prognostic biomarker, FKBP prolyl isomerase 9 (FKBP9). Meanwhile, GPC2 tumors show elevated oxidative phosphorylation-related proteins, differentiated oligodendrocyte and astrocyte markers, and a favorable prognostic biomarker, phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH). Integrating these proteomic features with the pharmacological profiles of matched patient-derived cells (PDCs) reveals that the mTORC1/2 dual inhibitor AZD2014 is cytotoxic to the poor prognostic PDCs. Our analyses will guide GBM prognosis and precision treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Proteogenômica/métodos , Proteômica/métodos , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/terapia , Humanos , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/classificação , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/antagonistas & inibidores , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 2 de Rapamicina/antagonistas & inibidores , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 2 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Mutação , Prognóstico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3457, 2020 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651364

RESUMO

Glioblastoma is a deadly cancer, with no effective therapies. Better understanding and identification of selective targets are urgently needed. We found that advillin (AVIL) is overexpressed in all the glioblastomas we tested including glioblastoma stem/initiating cells, but hardly detectable in non-neoplastic astrocytes, neural stem cells or normal brain. Glioma patients with increased AVIL expression have a worse prognosis. Silencing AVIL nearly eradicated glioblastoma cells in culture, and dramatically inhibited in vivo xenografts in mice, but had no effect on normal control cells. Conversely, overexpressing AVIL promoted cell proliferation and migration, enabled fibroblasts to escape contact inhibition, and transformed immortalized astrocytes, supporting AVIL being a bona fide oncogene. We provide evidence that the tumorigenic effect of AVIL is partly mediated by FOXM1, which regulates LIN28B, whose expression also correlates with clinical prognosis. AVIL regulates the cytoskeleton through modulating F-actin, while mutants disrupting F-actin binding are defective in its tumorigenic capabilities.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/patologia , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Animais , Western Blotting , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/genética , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Imunofluorescência , Glioblastoma/genética , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Microscopia Confocal , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
10.
Life Sci ; 257: 118027, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622951

RESUMO

AIM: Glioblastoma is an extremely aggressive glioma, resistant to radio and chemotherapy usually performed with temozolomide. One of the main reasons for glioblastoma resistance to conventional therapies is due to the presence of cancer stem-like cells. These cells could recapitulate some signaling pathways important for embryonic development, such as Sonic hedgehog. Here, we investigated if the inhibitor of the Sonic hedgehog pathway, cyclopamine, could potentiate the temozolomide effect in cancer stem-like cells and glioblastoma cell lines in vitro. MAIN METHODS: The viability of glioblastoma cells exposed to cyclopamine and temozolomide treatment was evaluated by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay while the induction of apoptosis was assessed by western blot. The stemness properties of glioma cells were verified by clonogenic and differentiation assay and the expression of stem cell markers were measured by fluorescence microscopy and western blot. KEY FINDINGS: The glioblastoma viability was reduced by cyclopamine treatment. Cyclopamine potentiated temozolomide treatment in glioblastoma cell lines by inducing apoptosis through activation of caspase-3 cleaved. Conversely, the combined treatment of cyclopamine and temozolomide potentiated the stemness properties of glioblastoma cells by inducing the expression of SOX-2 and OCT-4. SIGNIFICANCE: Cyclopamine plays an effect on glioblastoma cell lines but also sensibilize them to temozolomide treatment. Thus, first-line treatment with Sonic hedgehog inhibitor followed by temozolomide could be used as a new therapeutic strategy for glioblastoma patients.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Alcaloides de Veratrum/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Hedgehog/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Hedgehog/fisiologia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Fator 3 de Transcrição de Octâmero , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Temozolomida/farmacologia , Alcaloides de Veratrum/metabolismo
11.
Adv Cancer Res ; 148: 1-26, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723561

RESUMO

As a unique subpopulation of cancer cells, cancer stem cells (CSCs) acquire the resistance to conventional therapies and appear to be the prime cause of cancer recurrence. Like their normal counterparts, CSCs can renew themselves and generate differentiated progenies. Cancer stem cells are distinguished among heterogenous cancer cells by molecular markers and their capacity of efficiently forming new tumors composed of diverse and heterogenous cancer cells. Tumor heterogeneity can be inter- or intra-tumor, molecularly resulting from the accumulation of genetic and non-genetic alterations. Non-genetic alterations are mainly changes on epigenetic modifications of DNA and histone, and chromatin remodeling. As tumor-initiating cells and contributing to the tumor heterogeneity in the brain, glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) attract extensive research interests. Epigenetic modifications confer on tumor cells including CSCs reversible and inheritable genomic changes and affect gene expression without alteration in DNA sequence. Here, we will review recent advances in histone demethylation, DNA methylation, RNA methylation and ubiquitination in glioblastomas and their impacts on tumorigenesis with a focus on CSCs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo
12.
Am J Pathol ; 190(10): 2165-2176, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693062

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain cancer in adults. A hallmark of GBM is aggressive invasion of tumor cells into the surrounding normal brain. Both the current standard of care and targeted therapies have largely failed to specifically address this issue. Therefore, identifying key regulators of GBM cell migration and invasion is important. The leukemia-associated Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (LARG) has previously been implicated in cell invasion in other tumor types; however, its role in GBM pathobiology remains undefined. Herein, we report that the expression levels of LARG and ras homolog family members C (RhoC), and A (RhoA) increase with glial tumor grade and are highest in GBM. LARG and RhoC protein expression is more prominent in invading cells, whereas RhoA expression is largely restricted to cells in the tumor core. Knockdown of LARG by siRNA inhibits GBM cell migration in vitro and invasion ex vivo in organotypic brain slices. Moreover, siRNA-mediated silencing of RhoC suppresses GBM cell migration in vitro and invasion ex vivo, whereas depletion of RhoA enhances GBM cell migration and invasion, supporting a role for LARG and RhoC in GBM cell migration and invasion. Depletion of LARG increases the sensitivity of GBM cells to temozolomide treatment. Collectively, these results suggest that LARG and RhoC may represent unappreciated targets to inhibit glioma invasion.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Proteína rhoA de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação a GTP rhoC/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2935, 2020 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32523045

RESUMO

Personalized cancer treatments using combinations of drugs with a synergistic effect is attractive but proves to be highly challenging. Here we present an approach to uncover the efficacy of drug combinations based on the analysis of mono-drug effects. For this we used dose-response data from pharmacogenomic encyclopedias and represent these as a drug atlas. The drug atlas represents the relations between drug effects and allows to identify independent processes for which the tumor might be particularly vulnerable when attacked by two drugs. Our approach enables the prediction of combination-therapy which can be linked to tumor-driving mutations. By using this strategy, we can uncover potential effective drug combinations on a pan-cancer scale. Predicted synergies are provided and have been validated in glioblastoma, breast cancer, melanoma and leukemia mouse-models, resulting in therapeutic synergy in 75% of the tested models. This indicates that we can accurately predict effective drug combinations with translational value.


Assuntos
Sinergismo Farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Biologia Computacional , Combinação de Medicamentos , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Melanoma/metabolismo
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2978, 2020 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532977

RESUMO

The interplay between glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) promotes progression of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). However, the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying the relationship between these two cell types remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that ARS2 (arsenite-resistance protein 2), a zinc finger protein that is essential for early mammalian development, plays critical roles in GSC maintenance and M2-like TAM polarization. ARS2 directly activates its novel transcriptional target MGLL, encoding monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), to regulate the self-renewal and tumorigenicity of GSCs through production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which stimulates ß-catenin activation of GSC and M2-like TAM polarization. We identify M2-like signature downregulated by which MAGL-specific inhibitor, JZL184, increased survival rate significantly in the mouse xenograft model by blocking PGE2 production. Taken together, our results suggest that blocking the interplay between GSCs and TAMs by targeting ARS2/MAGL signaling offers a potentially novel therapeutic option for GBM patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Monoacilglicerol Lipases/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Autorrenovação Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/terapia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Ativação de Macrófagos/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Monoacilglicerol Lipases/genética , Neoplasias Experimentais/genética , Neoplasias Experimentais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Experimentais/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Interferência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos
15.
Mol Carcinog ; 59(9): 1064-1075, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567728

RESUMO

The aggressive nature of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) may be attributed to the dysregulation of pathways driving both proliferation and invasion. EphrinB2, a membrane-bound ligand for some of the Eph receptors, has emerged as a critical target regulating these pathways. In this study, we investigated the role of ephrinB2 in regulating proliferation and invasion in GBM using intracranial and subcutaneous xenograft models. The Cancer Genome Atlas analysis suggested high transcript and low methylation levels of ephrinB2 as poor prognostic indicators in GBM, consistent with its role as an oncogene. EphrinB2 knockdown, however, increased tumor growth, an effect that was reversed by ephrinB2 Fc protein. This was associated with EphB4 receptor activation, consistent with the data showing a significant decrease in tumor growth with ephrinB2 overexpression. Mechanistic analyses showed that ephrinB2 knockdown has anti-invasive but pro-proliferative effects in GBM. EphB4 stimulation following ephrinB2 Fc treatment in ephrinB2 knockdown tumors was shown to impart strong anti-proliferative and anti-invasive effects, which correlated with decrease in PCNA, p-ERK, vimentin, Snail, Fak, and increase in the E-cadherin levels. Overall, our study suggests that ephrinB2 cannot be used as a sole therapeutic target. Concomitant inhibition of ephrinB2 signaling with EphB4 activation is required to achieve maximal therapeutic benefit in GBM.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Efrina-B2/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioblastoma/patologia , Receptor EphB4/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Movimento Celular , Efrina-B2/genética , Feminino , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Invasividade Neoplásica , Fosforilação , Prognóstico , Receptor EphB4/genética , Taxa de Sobrevida , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
16.
Environ Toxicol ; 35(10): 1058-1069, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485087

RESUMO

Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain tumor with poor survival rate and without effective treatment strategy. Notably, amplification and active mutation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) occur frequently in glioblastoma patient that may be a potential treatment target. Several studies indicated that various type of herbal compounds not only regulate anti-depressant effect but also shown capacity to suppress glioblastoma growth via inducing apoptosis and inhibiting oncogene signaling transduction. Hyperforin, an herb compound derived from St. John's wort was used to treat depressive disorder by inhibiting neuronal reuptake of several neurotransmitters. Although hyperforin can reduce matrix metallopeptidases-2 (MMPs) and -9-mediated metastasis of glioblastoma, the detail mechanism of hyperforin on glioblastoma is remaining unclear. Here, we suggested that hyperforin may induce extrinsic/intrinsic apoptosis and suppress anti-apoptotic related proteins expression of glioblastoma. We also indicated that hyperforin-mediated anti-apoptotic potential of glioblastoma was correlated to inactivation of EGFR/extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)/nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Floroglucinol/análogos & derivados , Terpenos/farmacologia , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Hypericum/química , Floroglucinol/isolamento & purificação , Floroglucinol/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação , Fator de Transcrição RelA/genética
17.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 689: 108462, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590068

RESUMO

Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) emerged as a promising reagent for cancer therapy with oxidative stress implicated in the toxicity. Meanwhile, studies reported cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species has selectivity towards cancer cells. Gold nanoparticles display synergistic cytotoxicity when combined with CAP against cancer cells but there is a paucity of information using AgNP, prompting to investigate the combined effects of CAP using dielectric barrier discharge system (voltage of 75 kV, current is 62.5 mA, duty cycle of 7.5kVA and input frequency of 50-60Hz) and 10 nm PVA-coated AgNP using U373MG Glioblastoma Multiforme cells. Cytotoxicity in U373MG cells was >100-fold greater when treated with both CAP and PVA-AgNP compared with either therapy alone (IC50 of 4.30 µg/mL with PVA-AgNP alone compared with 0.07 µg/mL after 25s CAP and 0.01 µg/mL 40s CAP). Combined cytotoxicity was ROS-dependent and was prevented using N-Acetyl Cysteine. A novel darkfield spectral imaging method investigated and quantified AgNP uptake in cells determining significantly enhanced uptake, aggregation and subcellular accumulation following CAP treatment, which was confirmed and quantified using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results indicate that CAP decreases nanoparticle size, decreases surface charge distribution of AgNP and induces uptake, aggregation and enhanced cytotoxicity in vitro.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Glioblastoma/terapia , Gases em Plasma/farmacologia , Prata/farmacologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/análise , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Prata/farmacocinética
18.
Anticancer Res ; 40(6): 3265-3270, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of our study was to examine miRNA-221 as a candidate biomarker to define prognosis and/or classification for glial tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 39 patients who underwent glial tumor surgery and 40 healthy individuals as the control group. miRNA expression levels were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used for analyzing the predictive ability of miRNA-221. RESULTS: The levels of miRNA-221 expression were determined by comparing the ΔCT values of miRNAs and the internal control. When the expression levels of miRNA-221 were compared according to the ΔCT method, miRNA-221 was found to be significantly increased in the patient group compared to the control group (p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: Increased expression levels of miRNA-221 could be a biomarker for glial tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Glioblastoma/genética , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Adulto , Biomarcadores Tumorais/biossíntese , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/sangue , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Glioblastoma/sangue , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/sangue , MicroRNAs/genética , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
J Med Chem ; 63(13): 7410-7421, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524814

RESUMO

This paper emphasizes the synthesis of novel hybrid drug nanoparticles (Hyb-D-AuNPs) based on gold-temozolomide (TMZ) complexes combined with gemcitabine (GEM) and decitabine (DAC) to improve the efficiency and reduce the resistance of U87 malignant glial cells against TMZ. All products were evaluated by several spectroscopic techniques (Raman, UV-Vis) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Besides, for therapeutic purposes, the effect of these nanoparticles on cell proliferation and toxicity was evaluated, which clearly showed a synergic action of TMZ and GEM. Through the analysis of the exometabolome by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the metabolic changes in the culture medium were measured in glial cells. Moreover, these nanoparticles are especially appropriated to the thermal destruction of cancer in the case of photothermal therapy due to their photothermal heating properties. This study presents an original chemical approach that it could play a central role in the field of nanomedicine, with novel perspectives for the development of new drugs and active targeting in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Decitabina/farmacologia , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Nanoconjugados/administração & dosagem , Temozolomida/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Decitabina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/patologia , Ouro/química , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanoconjugados/química , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Temozolomida/administração & dosagem
20.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 77(24): 5101-5119, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506168

RESUMO

The metabolic complexity and flexibility commonly observed in brain tumors, especially glioblastoma, is fundamental for their development and progression. The ability of tumor cells to modify their genetic landscape and adapt metabolically, subverts therapeutic efficacy, and inevitably instigates therapeutic resistance. To overcome these challenges and develop effective therapeutic strategies targeting essential metabolic processes, it is necessary to identify the mechanisms underlying heterogeneity and define metabolic preferences and liabilities of malignant cells. In this review, we will discuss metabolic diversity in brain cancer and highlight the role of cancer stem cells in regulating metabolic heterogeneity. We will also highlight potential therapeutic modalities targeting metabolic vulnerabilities and examine how intercellular metabolic signaling can shape the tumor microenvironment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Heterogeneidade Genética , Glioblastoma/genética , Metabolismo/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/patologia , Glicólise/genética , Humanos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Microambiente Tumoral
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