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1.
J Transl Med ; 20(1): 388, 2022 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36058942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy is the primary therapeutic option for glioblastoma. Some studies proved that radiotherapy increased the release of exosomes from cells. The mechanism by which these exosomes modify the phenotype of microglia in the tumor microenvironment to further determine the fate of irradiated glioblastoma cells remains to be elucidated. METHODS: We erected the co-culture system of glioblastoma cells and microglia. After radiation, we analyzing the immunophenotype of microglia and the proliferation of radiated glioblastoma cells. By whole transcriptome sequencing, we analyzed of circRNAs in exosomes from glioblastoma cells and microglia. We used some methods, which included RT-PCR, dual-luciferase reporter, et al., to identify how circ_0012381 from radiated glioblastoma cell-derived exosomes regulated the immunophenotype of microglia to further affect the proliferation of radiated glioblastoma cells. RESULTS: Radiated glioblastoma cell-derived exosomes markedly induced M2 microglia polarization. These M2-polarized microglia promoted the proliferation of irradiated glioblastoma cells. Circ_0012381 expression was increased in the irradiated glioblastoma cells, and circ_0012381 entered the microglia via exosomes. Circ_0012381 induced M2 microglia polarization by sponging with miR-340-5p to increase ARG1 expression. M2-polarized microglia suppressed phagocytosis and promoted the growth of the irradiated glioblastoma cells by CCL2/CCR2 axis. Compared with the effects of radiotherapy alone, the inhibition of exosomes significantly inhibited the growth of irradiated glioblastoma cells in a zebrafish model. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggested that the inhibition of exosome secretion might represent a potential therapeutic strategy to increase the efficacy of radiotherapy in patients with glioblastoma.


Assuntos
Exossomos , Glioblastoma , MicroRNAs , Animais , Exossomos/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/radioterapia , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Microglia/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
2.
Med Oncol ; 39(12): 182, 2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071287

RESUMO

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are two major diseases in the nervous system with a similar peak age of onset, which has the typical characteristics of high cost, difficult treatment, and poor prognosis. Epidemiological studies and a few molecular biological studies have hinted at an opposite relationship between AD and GBM. However, there are few studies on their reverse relationship, and the regulatory mechanism is still unclear, indicating that further systematic research is urgently needed. Our study firstly employs advanced bioinformatics methods to explore the inverse relationship between them and find various target drugs. We obtained the gene expression dataset from public databases (GEO, TCGA, and GTEx). Then, we identified 122 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of AD and GBM. Four significant gene modules were identified through protein-protein interaction (PPI) and module construction, and 13 hub genes were found using cytoHubba. We constructed co-expression networks and found various target drugs through these hub genes. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that the AMPK pathway, cell cycle, and cellular senescence play important roles in AD and GBM. Our study may provide a potential direction for studying the opposite molecular mechanism of AD and GBM in the future.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Glioblastoma , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Humanos
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14982, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056123

RESUMO

Mechanical forces created by the extracellular environment regulate biochemical signals that modulate the inter-related cellular phenotypes of morphology, proliferation, and migration. A stiff microenvironment induces glioblastoma (GBM) cells to develop prominent actin stress fibres, take on a spread morphology and adopt trapezoid shapes, when cultured in 2D, which are phenotypes characteristic of a mesenchymal cell program. The mesenchymal subtype is the most aggressive among the molecular GBM subtypes. Recurrent GBM have been reported to transition to mesenchymal. We therefore sought to test the hypothesis that stiffer microenvironments-such as those found in different brain anatomical structures and induced following treatment-contribute to the expression of markers characterising the mesenchymal subtype. We cultured primary patient-derived cell lines that reflect the three common GBM subtypes (mesenchymal, proneural and classical) on polyacrylamide (PA) hydrogels with controlled stiffnesses spanning the healthy and pathological tissue range. We then assessed the canonical mesenchymal markers Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF) and yes-associated protein (YAP)/transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) expression, via immunofluorescence. Replating techniques and drug-mediated manipulation of the actin cytoskeleton were utilised to ascertain the response of the cells to differing mechanical environments. We demonstrate that CTGF is induced rapidly following adhesion to a rigid substrate and is independent of actin filament formation. Collectively, our data suggest that microenvironmental rigidity can stimulate expression of mesenchymal-associated molecules in GBM.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioblastoma , Biomarcadores , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Fator de Crescimento do Tecido Conjuntivo/genética , Fator de Crescimento do Tecido Conjuntivo/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral
4.
Int J Oncol ; 61(4)2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36069226

RESUMO

The copy number and mRNA expression of STAT5b were assessed in samples from the TCGA repository of glioblastomas (GBM). The activation of this transcription factor was analyzed on tissue microarrays comprising 392 WHO 2016 GBM samples from our clinical practice. These data were correlated with patient survival using multivariable Cox analysis and, for a subset of 167 tumors, with signs of tumor invasiveness on the MRI. The effects of STAT5b knockdown by siRNA were assessed on the growth, therapeutic resistance, invasion and migration of GBM cell lines U87, U87­EGFRVIII and LN18 and primary cultures GM2 and GM3. The activation, but not the copy number or the mRNA expression of nuclear transcription factor STAT5b expression correlated inversely with patient survival independently of IDH1R132H status, age, Karnofsky Performance Score, treatment and tumor volume. STAT5b inhibition neither altered the cell proliferation nor reduced the clonogenic proliferative potency of GBM cells, and did not sensitize them to the cytotoxic effect of ionizing radiation and temozolomide in vitro. STAT5b inhibition significantly increased GBM cell migration, but decreased the invasion of some GBM cells in vitro. There was no correlation between the activation of STAT5b in clinical tumors and the extent of invasion on MRI OF patients. In conclusion, STAT5b is frequently activated in GBM and correlates inversely with patient survival. It does not contribute to the growth and resistance of these tumors, and is thus rather a potential prognostic marker than a therapeutic target in these tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioblastoma , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Prognóstico , RNA Mensageiro , Fator de Transcrição STAT5/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT5/metabolismo
5.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 1614336, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36046687

RESUMO

Hypoxia-induced M2 phenotypes of tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) promote the development and chemoresistance of multiple types of cancers, including glioblastoma (GBM). However, the detailed molecular mechanisms have not been fully understood. In this study, we firstly reported that hypoxic pressure promoted M2 macrophage generation, which further promoted cancer progression and temozolomide (TMZ) resistance in GBM through secreting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Specifically, the clinical data suggested that M2 macrophages were significantly enriched in GBM tissues compared with the adjacent normal tissues, and the following in vitro experiments validated that hypoxic pressure promoted M2-polarized macrophages through upregulating hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). In addition, hypoxic M2 macrophages VEGF-dependently promoted cell proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), glioblastoma stem cell (GSC) properties, and TMZ resistance in GBM cells through activating the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 pathway. Also, M2 macrophages secreted VEGF to accelerate angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) through interacting with its receptor VEGFR. In general, we concluded that hypoxic M2 macrophages contributed to cancer progression, stemness, drug resistance, and angiogenesis in GBM through secreting VEGF, and our data supported the notion that targeting hypoxia-associated M2 macrophages might be an effective treatment strategy for GBM in clinical practices.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioblastoma , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Temozolomida/farmacologia , Temozolomida/uso terapêutico , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
6.
J Oleo Sci ; 71(9): 1375-1385, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36047243

RESUMO

Glioblastoma multiforme or GBM is a destructive malignancy of the central nervous system and is accountable for leading cause of cancer related mortality. Inadequate success rate of surgical interventions and development of resistance towards the current therapeutical regime provides impetus for exploring novel therapeutical interventions against the disease. Recently, several epidemiological studies have explored the plausible utility of natural, dietary compounds in influencing the development, progression, and cancer metastasis. Recently, different phytoconstituents of Cassia angustifolia were found to be associated with anti-microbial, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-proliferative efficacy of ethanolic leaf extract of C. angustifolia (LCaEt-OH) against rat derived glioblastoma C6 cells. Briefly, the anti-proliferative potential of LCaEt-OH was assessed using MTT assay, quantitative estimation of ROS, and evaluation of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). Moreover, the activity of caspases involved in intrinsic apoptotic pathways was also investigated using colorimetric kit followed by quantitative RT-PCR evaluation of modulation in gene expressions triggered due to LCaEt-OH treatment. Treatment of LCaEt-OH on C6 cells elucidated substantial dose-dependent decline in cellular viability. Furthermore, LCaEt-OH showed its efficacy in substantially enhancing intracellular ROS. LCaEt-OH also incited apoptosis in C6 cells by instigating nuclear condensation and dissipation of ΔΨm. In addition, LCaEt-OH mediated instigation of apoptosis was directly influenced by increased activity of caspases indispensable for intrinsic apoptotic pathway. These conclusive evidences indicate towards anticancer efficacy of LCaEt-OH against C6 cells.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma , Animais , Apoptose , Caspases/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
7.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 895, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36050388

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumour for which both effective treatments and efficient tools for an early-stage diagnosis are lacking. Herein, we present curcumin-based fluorescent probes that are able to bind to aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A3 (ALDH1A3), an enzyme overexpressed in glioma stem cells (GSCs) and associated with stemness and invasiveness of GBM. Two compounds are selective versus ALDH1A3, without showing any appreciable interaction with other ALDH1A isoenzymes. Indeed, their fluorescent signal is detectable only in our positive controls in vitro and absent in cells that lack ALDH1A3. Remarkably, in vivo, our Probe selectively accumulate in glioblastoma cells, allowing the identification of the growing tumour mass. The significant specificity of our compounds is the necessary premise for their further development into glioblastoma cells detecting probes to be possibly used during neurosurgical operations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Curcumina , Glioblastoma , Aldeído Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Aldeído Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Curcumina/metabolismo , Curcumina/farmacologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Corantes Fluorescentes/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/cirurgia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076963

RESUMO

Gliomas are the most common primary malignant brain tumors. Glioblastoma, IDH-wildtype (GBM, CNS WHO grade 4) is the most aggressive form of glioma and is characterized by extensive hypoxic areas that strongly correlate with tumor malignancy. Hypoxia promotes several processes, including stemness, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, and radio- and chemoresistance, that have direct impacts on treatment failure. Thus, there is still an increasing need to identify novel targets to limit GBM relapse. Polysialic acid (PSA) is a carbohydrate composed of a linear polymer of α2,8-linked sialic acids, primarily attached to the Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (NCAM). It is considered an oncodevelopmental antigen that is re-expressed in various tumors. High levels of PSA-NCAM are associated with high-grade and poorly differentiated tumors. Here, we investigated the effect of PSA inhibition in GBM cells under low oxygen concentrations. Our main results highlight the way in which hypoxia stimulates polysialylation in U87-MG cells and in a GBM primary culture. By lowering PSA levels with the sialic acid analog, F-NANA, we also inhibited GBM cell migration and interfered with their differentiation influenced by the hypoxic microenvironment. Our findings suggest that PSA may represent a possible molecular target for the development of alternative pharmacological strategies to manage a devastating tumor like GBM.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma , Neuroblastoma , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Moléculas de Adesão de Célula Nervosa/genética , Moléculas de Adesão de Célula Nervosa/metabolismo , Neuroblastoma/metabolismo , Ácidos Siálicos/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral
9.
Clin Transl Med ; 12(9): e1042, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: NF-κB signaling is widely linked to the pathogenesis and treatment resistance in cancers. Increasing attention has been paid to its anti-oncogenic roles, due to its key functions in cellular senescence and the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Therefore, thoroughly understanding the function and regulation of NF-κB in cancers is necessary prior to the application of NF-κB inhibitors. METHODS: We established glioblastoma (GBM) cell lines expressing ectopic TCF4N, an isoform of the ß-catenin interacting transcription factor TCF7L2, and evaluated its functions in GBM tumorigenesis and chemotherapy in vitro and in vivo. In p65 knock-out or phosphorylation mimic (S536D) cell lines, the dual role and correlation of TCF4N and NF-κB signaling in promoting tumorigenesis and chemosensitivity was investigated by in vitro and in vivo functional experiments. RNA-seq and computational analysis, immunoprecipitation and ubiquitination assay, minigene splicing assay and luciferase reporter assay were performed to identify the underlying mechanism of positive feedback regulation loop between TCF4N and the p65 subunit of NF-κB. A eukaryotic cell-penetrating peptide targeting TCF4N, 4N, was used to confirm the therapeutic significance. RESULTS: Our results indicated that p65 subunit phosphorylation at Ser 536 (S536) and nuclear accumulation was a promising prognostic marker for GBM, and endowed the dual functions of NF-κB in promoting tumorigenesis and chemosensitivity. p65 S536 phosphorylation and nuclear stability in GBM was regulated by TCF4N. TCF4N bound p65, induced p65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, inhibited its ubiquitination/degradation, and subsequently promoted NF-κB activity. p65 S536 phosphorylation was essential for TCF4N-led senescence-independent SASP, GBM tumorigenesis, tumor stem-like cell differentiation and chemosensitivity. Activation of p65 was closely connected to alterative splicing of TCF4N, a likely positive feedback regulation loop between TCF4N and p65 in GBM. 4N increased chemosensitivity, highlighting a novel anti-cancer strategy. CONCLUSION: Our study defined key roles of TCF4N as a novel regulator of NF-κB through mutual regulation with p65 and provided a new avenue for GBM inhibition.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Penetradores de Células , Glioblastoma , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Luciferases , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , beta Catenina
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077380

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GBM) is an obligatory lethal brain tumor with a median survival, even with the best standard of care therapy, of less than 20 months. In light of this fact, the evaluation of new GBM treatment approaches such as oncolytic virotherapy (OVT) is urgently needed. Based on our preliminary preclinical data, the YB-1 dependent oncolytic adenovirus (OAV) XVir-N-31 represents a promising therapeutic agent to treat, in particular, therapy resistant GBM. Preclinical studies have shown that XVir-N-31 prolonged the survival of GBM bearing mice. Now using an immunohumanized mouse model, we examined the immunostimulatory effects of XVir-N-31 in comparison to the wildtype adenovirus (Ad-WT). Additionally, we combined OVT with the inhibition of immune checkpoint proteins by using XVir-N-31 in combination with nivolumab, or by using a derivate of XVir-N-31 that expresses a PD-L1 neutralizing antibody. Although in vitro cell killing was higher for Ad-WT, XVir-N-31 induced a much stronger immunogenic cell death that was further elevated by blocking PD-1 or PD-L1. In vivo, an intratumoral injection of XVir-N-31 increased tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and NK cells significantly more than Ad-WT not only in the virus-injected tumors, but also in the untreated tumors growing in the contralateral hemisphere. This suggests that for an effective treatment of GBM, immune activating properties by OAVs seem to be of greater importance than their oncolytic capacity. Furthermore, the addition of immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) to OVT further induced lymphocyte infiltration. Consequently, a significant reduction in contralateral non-virus-injected tumors was only visible if OVT was combined with ICI. This strongly indicates that for an effective eradication of GBM cells that cannot be directly targeted by an intratumoral OV injection, additional ICI therapy is required.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma , Terapia Viral Oncolítica , Adenoviridae/genética , Adenoviridae/metabolismo , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Camundongos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1
11.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 90(4): 345-356, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36050497

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The DNA alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ), is the first-line therapeutic for the treatment of glioblastoma (GBM). However, its use is confounded by the occurrence of drug resistance and debilitating adverse effects. Previously, we observed that letrozole (LTZ), an aromatase inhibitor, has potent activity against GBM in pre-clinical models. Here, we evaluated the effect of LTZ on TMZ activity against patient-derived GBM cells. METHODS: Employing patient-derived G76 (TMZ-sensitive), BT142 (TMZ-intermediately sensitive) and G43 and G75 (TMZ-resistant) GBM lines we assessed the influence of LTZ and TMZ on cell viability and neurosphere growth. Combination Index (CI) analysis was performed to gain quantitative insights of this interaction. We then assessed DNA damaging effects by conducting flow-cytometric analysis of Ë H2A.X formation and induction of apoptotic signaling pathways (caspase3/7 activity). The effects of adding estradiol on LTZ-induced cytotoxicity and DNA damage were also evaluated. RESULTS: Co-treatment with LTZ at a non-cytotoxic concentration (40 nM) reduced TMZ IC50 by 8, 37, 240 and 640 folds in G76, BT-142, G43 and G75 cells, respectively. The interaction was deemed to be synergistic based on CI analysis. LTZ co-treatment also significantly increased DNA damaging effects of TMZ. Addition of estradiol abrogated these LTZ effects. CONCLUSIONS: LTZ increases DNA damage and synergistically enhances TMZ activity in TMZ sensitive and TMZ-resistant GBM lines. These effects are abrogated by the addition of exogenous estradiol underscoring that the observed effects of LTZ may be mediated by estrogen deprivation. Our study provides a strong rationale for investigating the clinical potential of combining LTZ and TMZ for GBM therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioblastoma , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Aromatase/farmacologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Estradiol/farmacologia , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Letrozol/farmacologia , Letrozol/uso terapêutico , Temozolomida/farmacologia , Temozolomida/uso terapêutico
12.
BMC Mol Cell Biol ; 23(1): 38, 2022 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35982414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM) represents nearly one-half of primary brain tumors, and the median survival of patients with GBM is only 14.6 months. Surgery followed by radiation with concomitant temozolomide (TMZ) therapy is currently the standard of care. However, an increasing body of evidence suggests that GBM acquires resistance to TMZ, compromising the effect of the drug. Thus, further exploration into the mechanism underlying this resistance is urgently needed. Studies have demonstrated that TMZ resistance is associated with DNA damage, followed by altered reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in mitochondria. Studies have also showed that Ca2+-related transient receptor potential (TRP) channels participate in GBM cell proliferation and metastasis, but the detailed mechanism of their involvement remain to be studied. The present study demonstrates the role played by TRPA1 in TMZ resistance in GBM and elucidates the mechanism of resistance. METHODS: U251 and SHG-44 cells were analyzed in vitro. A CCK-8 assay was performed to verify the effect of TMZ toxicity on GBM cells. Intracellular ROS levels were detected by DCFH-DA assay. A MitoSOX Red assay was performed to determine the mitochondrial ROS levels. Intracellular Ca2+ levels in the cells were determined with a Fluo-4 AM calcium assay kit. Intracellular GSH levels were determined with GSH and GSSG Assay Kit. MGMT protein, Mitochondrial fission- and fusion-, apoptosis- and motility-related protein expression was detected by western blot assay. A recombinant lentiviral vector was used to infect human U251 cells to overexpress shRNA and generate TRPA1+/+ and negative control cells. All experiments were repeated. RESULTS: In the U251 and SHG-44 cells, TMZ induced a small increase in the apoptosis rate and intracellular and mitochondrial ROS levels. The expression of antioxidant genes and antioxidants in these cells was also increased by TMZ. However, pretreatment with a TRPA1 agonist significantly decreased the level of antioxidant gene and antioxidants expression and enhanced intracellular and mitochondrial ROS levels. Also TMZ induced the level of MGMT protein increased, and pretreatment with a TRPA1 agonist decreased the MGMT expression. Moreover, Ca2+ influx, mitochondrial damage and cell apoptosis were promoted, and the balance between mitochondrial fission and fusion protein expression was disrupted in these GBM cells. Pretreatment with a TRPA1 inhibitor slightly enhanced the level of antioxidant gene expression and reduced the apoptosis rate. TRPA1 gene overexpression in the U251 cells was similar to that after inhibitor intervention, confirming the aforementioned experimental results. CONCLUSION: The present study proved that activating TRPA1 in glioma cells, which leads to mitochondrial damage and dysfunction and ultimately to apoptosis, may decrease the TMZ resistance of GBM cells.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Dinâmica Mitocondrial , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Canal de Cátion TRPA1 , Temozolomida/farmacologia , Temozolomida/uso terapêutico
13.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(13): 5123-5135, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35982888

RESUMO

Increasing evidence suggests that circular RNAs (circRNAs) are involved in regulating tumor biological activity. Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most lethal diseases characterized by highly aggressive proliferative and invasive behaviors. We aimed to explore how circRNAs influenced GBM biological activity. By circRNA array analysis we found that circARID1A was significantly up-regulated in GBM. Next, we found that circARID1A was up-regulated in GBM tissues and cell lines. Interfering with circARID1A inhibited the migration and invasion of a human GBM cell line U87. By performing dual-luciferase reporter assays, RNA pull-down and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), we determined that circARID1A directly bound to miR-370-3p. Moreover, we confirmed that transforming growth factor beta receptor 2 (TGFBR2) was the target gene of miR-370-3p by performing RNA pull-down, dual-luciferase reporter assays and western blotting. Further experiments verified that circARID1A promoted GBM cell migration and invasion by modulating miR-370-3p/ TGFBR2 pathway. In addition, we demonstrated that silencing circARID1A restrain the growth of GBM in vivo. Finally, we showed that circARID1A was abundant in GBM cell derived exosomes. In conclusion, circARID1A participated in regulating migration and invasion of GBM via modulation of miR-370-3p/ TGFBR2 and thus may be a potential serum biomarker of GBM.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma , MicroRNAs , RNA Circular , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo II , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Circular/genética , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo II/genética , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo II/metabolismo
14.
Cells ; 11(16)2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36010607

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and highly lethal type of brain tumor, with poor survival despite advances in understanding its complexity. After current standard therapeutic treatment, including tumor resection, radiotherapy and concomitant chemotherapy with temozolomide, the median overall survival of patients with this type of tumor is less than 15 months. Thus, there is an urgent need for new insights into GBM molecular characteristics and progress in targeted therapy in order to improve clinical outcomes. The literature data revealed that a number of different signaling pathways are dysregulated in GBM. In this review, we intended to summarize and discuss current literature data and therapeutic modalities focused on targeting dysregulated signaling pathways in GBM. A better understanding of opportunities for targeting signaling pathways that influences malignant behavior of GBM cells might open the way for the development of novel GBM-targeted therapies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioblastoma , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais , Temozolomida/farmacologia , Temozolomida/uso terapêutico
15.
Cells ; 11(16)2022 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36010664

RESUMO

A first-line therapeutic for high-grade glioma, notably glioblastoma (GBM), is the DNA methylating drug temozolomide (TMZ). Previously, we showed that TMZ induces not only apoptosis and autophagy, but also cellular senescence (CSEN). We presented the hypothesis that GBM cells may escape from CSEN, giving rise to recurrent tumors. Furthermore, the inflammatory phenotype associated with CSEN may attenuate chemotherapy and drive tumor progression. Therefore, treatments that specifically target senescent cells, i.e., senolytic drugs, may lead to a better outcome of GBM therapy by preventing recurrences and tumor inflammation. Here, we tested Bcl-2 targeting drugs including ABT-737, ABT-263 (navitoclax), several natural substances such as artesunate, fisetin and curcumin as well as lomustine (CCNU) and ionizing radiation (IR) for their senolytic capacity in GBM cells. Additionally, several proteins involved in the DNA damage response (DDR), ATM, ATR, Chk1/2, p53, p21, NF-kB, Rad51, PARP, IAPs and autophagy, a pathway involved in CSEN induction, were tested for their impact in maintaining CSEN. Treatment of GBM cells with a low dose of TMZ for 8-10 days resulted in >80% CSEN, confirming CSEN to be the major trait induced by TMZ. To identify senolytics, we treated the senescent population with the compounds of interest and found that ABT-737, navitoclax, chloroquine, ATMi, ATRi, BV-6, PX-866 and the natural compounds fisetin and artesunate exhibit senolytic activity, inducing death in senescent cells more efficiently than in proliferating cells. Curcumin showed the opposite effect. No specific effect on CSEN cells was observed by inhibition of Chk1/Chk2, p21, NF-kB, Rad51 and PARP. We conclude that these factors neither play a critical role in maintaining TMZ-induced CSEN nor can their inhibitors be considered as senolytics. Since IR and CCNU did not exhibit senolytic activity, radio- and chemotherapy with alkylating drugs is not designed to eliminate TMZ-induced senescent cancer cells.


Assuntos
Curcumina , Glioblastoma , Artesunato/farmacologia , Senescência Celular , Curcumina/farmacologia , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Lomustina/farmacologia , Lomustina/uso terapêutico , NF-kappa B , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Senoterapia , Temozolomida/farmacologia , Temozolomida/uso terapêutico
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13362, 2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922651

RESUMO

The RNA binding protein ADAR3 is expressed exclusively in the brain and reported to have elevated expression in tumors of patients suffering from glioblastoma compared to adjacent brain tissue. Yet, other studies have indicated that glioblastoma tumors exhibit hemizygous deletions of the genomic region encompassing ADAR3 (10p15.3). As the molecular and cellular consequences of altered ADAR3 expression are largely unknown, here we directly examined the impacts of elevated ADAR3 in a glioblastoma cell line model. Transcriptome-wide sequencing revealed 641 differentially expressed genes between control and ADAR3-expressing U87-MG glioblastoma cells. A vast majority of these genes belong to pathways involved in glioblastoma progression and are regulated by NF-κB signaling. Biochemical and molecular analysis indicated that ADAR3-expressing U87-MG cells exhibit increased NF-κB activation, and treatment with an NF-κB inhibitor abrogated the impacts of ADAR3 on gene expression. Similarly, we found that increased cell survival of ADAR3-expressing cells to temozolomide, the preferred chemotherapeutic for glioblastoma, was due to increased NF-κB activity. Aberrant constitutive NF-κB activation is a common event in glioblastoma and can impact both tumor progression and resistance to treatment. Our results suggest that elevated ADAR3 promotes NF-κB activation and a gene expression program that provides a growth advantage to glioblastoma cells.


Assuntos
Adenosina Desaminase/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioblastoma , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Humanos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Temozolomida/farmacologia , Temozolomida/uso terapêutico
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13928, 2022 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35977996

RESUMO

The treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is challenging owing to its localization in the brain, the limited capacity of brain cells to repair, resistance to conventional therapy, and its aggressiveness. Curcumin has anticancer activity against aggressive cancers, such as leukemia, and GBM; however, its application is limited by its low solubility and bioavailability. Chemoprevention curcumin analog 1.1 (CCA-1.1), a curcumin analog, has better solubility and stability than those of curcumin. In this study, we explored potential targets of CCA-1.1 in GBM (PTCGs) by an integrated computational analysis and in vitro study. Predicted targets of CCA-1.1 obtained using various databases were subjected to comprehensive downstream analyses, including functional annotation, disease and drug association analyses, protein-protein interaction network analyses, analyses of genetic alterations, expression, and associations with survival and immune cell infiltration. Our integrative bioinformatics analysis revealed four candidate targets of CCA-1.1 in GBM: TP53, EGFR, AKT1, and CASP3. In addition to targeting specific proteins with regulatory effects in GBM, CCA-1.1 has the capacity to modulate the immunological milieu. Cytotoxicity of CCA-1.1 was lower than TMZ with an IC50 value of 9.8 µM compared to TMZ with an IC50 of 40 µM. mRNA sequencing revealed EGFR transcript variant 8 was upregulated, whereas EGFRvIII was downregulated in U87 cells after treatment with CCA-1.1. Furthermore, a molecular docking analysis suggested that CCA-1.1 inhibits EGFR with various mutations in GBM, which was confirmed using molecular dynamics simulation, wherein the binding between CCA-1.1 with the mutant EGFR L861Q was stable. For successful clinical translation, the effects of CCA-1.1 need to be confirmed in laboratory studies and clinical trials.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Curcumina , Glioblastoma , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quimioprevenção , Curcumina/farmacologia , Curcumina/uso terapêutico , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13990, 2022 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35978012

RESUMO

Forkhead Box M1 (FOXM1) is known to regulate cell proliferation, apoptosis and tumorigenesis. The lignan, (-)-(2R,3R)-1,4-O-diferuloylsecoisolariciresinol (DFS), from Alnus japonica has shown anti-cancer effects against colon cancer cells by suppressing FOXM1. The present study hypothesized that DFS can have anti-cancer effects against glioblastoma (GBM) tumorspheres (TSs). Immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays were performed to evaluate the ability of DFS to suppress nuclear translocation of ß-catenin through ß-catenin/FOXM1 binding. DFS-pretreated GBM TSs were evaluated to assess the ability of DFS to inhibit GBM TSs and their transcriptional profiles. The in vivo efficacy was examined in orthotopic xenograft models of GBM. Expression of FOXM1 was higher in GBM than in normal tissues. DFS-induced FOXM1 protein degradation blocked ß-catenin translocation into the nucleus and consequently suppressed downstream target genes of FOXM1 pathways. DFS inhibited cell viability and ATP levels, while increasing apoptosis, and it reduced tumorsphere formation and the invasiveness of GBM TSs. And DFS reduced the activities of transcription factors related to tumorigenesis, stemness, and invasiveness. DFS significantly inhibited tumor growth and prolonged the survival rate of mice in orthotopic xenograft models of GBM. It suggests that DFS inhibits the proliferation of GBM TSs by suppressing FOXM1. DFS may be a potential therapeutic agent to treat GBM.


Assuntos
Alnus , Glioblastoma , Lignanas , Animais , Carcinogênese/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Proteína Forkhead Box M1/genética , Proteína Forkhead Box M1/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Lignanas/farmacologia , Lignanas/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , beta Catenina/metabolismo
19.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 780, 2022 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918402

RESUMO

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most frequent and aggressive form of primary brain tumor in the adult population; its high recurrence rate and resistance to current therapeutics urgently demand a better therapy. Regulation of protein stability by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) represents an important control mechanism of cell growth. UPS deregulation is mechanistically linked to the development and progression of a variety of human cancers, including GBM. Thus, the UPS represents a potentially valuable target for GBM treatment. Using an integrated approach that includes proteomics, transcriptomics and metabolic profiling, we identify praja2, a RING E3 ubiquitin ligase, as the key component of a signaling network that regulates GBM cell growth and metabolism. Praja2 is preferentially expressed in primary GBM lesions expressing the wild-type isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IDH1). Mechanistically, we found that praja2 ubiquitylates and degrades the kinase suppressor of Ras 2 (KSR2). As a consequence, praja2 restrains the activity of downstream AMP-dependent protein kinase in GBM cells and attenuates the oxidative metabolism. Delivery in the brain of siRNA targeting praja2 by transferrin-targeted self-assembling nanoparticles (SANPs) prevented KSR2 degradation and inhibited GBM growth, reducing the size of the tumor and prolonging the survival rate of treated mice. These data identify praja2 as an essential regulator of cancer cell metabolism, and as a potential therapeutic target to suppress GBM growth.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioblastoma , Adulto , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Ubiquitina
20.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 781, 2022 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918603

RESUMO

Males exhibit higher incidence and worse prognosis for the majority of cancers, including glioblastoma (GBM). Disparate survival may be related to sex-biased responses to treatment, including radiation. Using a mouse model of GBM, we show that female cells are more sensitive to radiation, and that senescence represents a major component of the radiation therapeutic response in both sexes. Correlation analyses revealed that the CDK inhibitor p21 and irradiation induced senescence were differentially regulated between male and female cells. Indeed, female cellular senescence was more sensitive to changes in p21 levels, a finding that was observed in wildtype and transformed murine astrocytes, as well as patient-derived GBM cell lines. Using a novel Four Core Genotypes model of GBM, we further show that sex differences in p21-induced senescence are patterned during early development by gonadal sex. These data provide a rationale for the further study of sex differences in radiation response and how senescence might be enhanced for radiation sensitization. The determination that p21 and gonadal sex are required for sex differences in radiation response will serve as a foundation for these future mechanistic studies.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma , Animais , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Senescência Celular/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , Feminino , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos
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