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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(14): e37706, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579031

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma is an aggressive vascular tumor that is often associated with life-threatening coagulopathies and Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon. Pathologic biopsies can provide a good basis for diagnosis and treatment. Therapy with srolimus combined with glucocorticoids may offer patients a favorable prognosis. PATIENT CONCERNS: A large purplish-red mass on the knee of a child with extremely progressive thrombocytopenia and refractory coagulation abnormalities. Conventional doses of glucocorticoids alone failed to improve coagulation abnormalities and the child developed large cutaneous petechiae and scalp hematomas. DIAGNOSIS: Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma combined with Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon. INTERVENTIONS: The patient received prednisolone 2.0 mg/kg*d for 4 days. Blood products were transfused to ensure vital signs and to complete the pathologic biopsy. Sirolimus combined with prednisolone was given after clarifying the diagnosis of Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma. OUTCOMES: The tumor basically disappeared on examination and the ultrasound showed a subcutaneous hyperechoic mass with normal blood flow. LESSONS: Sirolimus combined with glucocorticoids is effective in controlling Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon and pathologic biopsy is important for definitive diagnosis.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea , Hemangioendotelioma , Síndrome de Kasabach-Merritt , Sarcoma de Kaposi , Recém-Nascido , Criança , Humanos , Síndrome de Kasabach-Merritt/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Sirolimo/uso terapêutico , Hemangioendotelioma/complicações , Hemangioendotelioma/tratamento farmacológico , Hemangioendotelioma/diagnóstico , Sarcoma de Kaposi/patologia , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/complicações , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico
2.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 154: 3631, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579296

RESUMO

We report a 64-year-old patient with melanoma receiving ipilimumab and nivolumab therapy who presented with a periaortic soft tissue mass around the abdominal aorta on restaging fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging. Clinical, laboratory, and radiologic findings resulted in a diagnosis of immune checkpoint inhibitor-related periaortitis. Periaortitis is a rare disease presenting with fibro-inflammatory tissue around the aorta and may lead to serious complications. Immune checkpoint inhibitors were discontinued, and the patient was treated with glucocorticoids, leading to a complete resolution of the periaortitis. To our knowledge, this is only the third reported case of immune checkpoint inhibitor-related periaortitis.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Melanoma , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Ipilimumab/efeitos adversos
3.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 416, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580727

RESUMO

Exposure to excess glucocorticoid (GC) during early development is implicated in adult dysfunctions. Reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a well-known consequence of exposure to early life stress or elevated GC, however the effects on neurogenesis during development and effects on other brain regions are not well understood. Using an optogenetic zebrafish model, here we analyse the effects of GC exposure on neurogenesis during development in the whole brain. We identify that the hypothalamus is a highly GC-sensitive region where elevated GC causes precocious development. This is followed by failed maturation and early decline accompanied by impaired feeding, growth, and survival. In GC-exposed animals, the developmental trajectory of hypothalamic progenitor cells is strikingly altered, potentially mediated by direct regulation of transcription factors such as rx3 by GC. Our data provide cellular and molecular level insight into GC-induced alteration of the hypothalamic developmental trajectory, a process crucial for health across the life-course.


Assuntos
Glucocorticoides , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Hipotálamo , Neurogênese/fisiologia , Hipocampo
4.
Am J Case Rep ; 25: e943005, 2024 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND 21-hydroxylase deficiency, an essential enzyme for glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid synthesis, is the cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) in more than 95% of cases. It is an autosomal recessive disorder encoded by the CYP21A2 gene, categorized into classical forms, which encompass the salt-wasting (SW) and simple virilizing (SV) forms, as well as the nonclassical form (NC). The aim of medical treatment is to replace missing glucocorticoids and, if necessary, mineralocorticoids, while also reducing elevated adrenal androgens. CASE REPORT We present the case of a 42-year-old woman with CAH who discontinued therapy during adolescence and was admitted to hospital with fatigue, nausea, and severe abdominal pain. A CT scan showed an extreme enlargement of the adrenal glands. Laboratory tests revealed elevated levels of 17-hydroxyprogesterone and other adrenal androgens, along with normal plasma metanephrine levels. Decreased morning cortisol levels suggested partial adrenal insufficiency requiring glucocorticoid replacement therapy. Due to the development of several serious complications and clinical deterioration, the multidisciplinary team recommended bilateral removal of masses measuring 300×250×200 mm on the right side and 250×200×200 mm on the left side. Histological and immunochemical examination confirmed the presence of giant myelolipomas with adrenal cortex hyperplasia. CONCLUSIONS Adrenal tumors, particularly myelolipomas, have a higher prevalence in patients with CAH. Our case report provides further evidence of the suspected link between non-compliant CAH therapy and the development of myelolipomas, along with promotion of their pronounced growth.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita , Lipoma , Mielolipoma , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/complicações , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/diagnóstico , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/genética , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Mielolipoma/diagnóstico , Mielolipoma/cirurgia , Mielolipoma/complicações , Glândulas Suprarrenais , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/complicações , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico , Esteroide 21-Hidroxilase/genética
5.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 190(4): 284-295, 2024 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584335

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Glucocorticoid resistance is a rare endocrine disease caused by variants of the NR3C1 gene encoding the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). We identified a novel heterozygous variant (GRR569Q) in a patient with uncommon reversible glucocorticoid resistance syndrome. METHODS: We performed ex vivo functional characterization of the variant in patient fibroblasts and in vitro through transient transfection in undifferentiated HEK 293T cells to assess transcriptional activity, affinity, and nuclear translocation. We studied the impact of the variant on the tertiary structure of the ligand-binding domain through 3D modeling. RESULTS: The patient presented initially with an adrenal adenoma with mild autonomous cortisol secretion and undetectable adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) levels. Six months after surgery, biological investigations showed elevated cortisol and ACTH (urinary free cortisol 114 µg/24 h, ACTH 10.9 pmol/L) without clinical symptoms, evoking glucocorticoid resistance syndrome. Functional characterization of the GRR569Q showed decreased expression of target genes (in response to 100 nM cortisol: SGK1 control +97% vs patient +20%, P < .0001) and impaired nuclear translocation in patient fibroblasts compared to control. Similar observations were made in transiently transfected cells, but higher cortisol concentrations overcame glucocorticoid resistance. GRR569Q showed lower ligand affinity (Kd GRWT: 1.73 nM vs GRR569Q: 4.61 nM). Tertiary structure modeling suggested a loss of hydrogen bonds between H3 and the H1-H3 loop. CONCLUSION: This is the first description of a reversible glucocorticoid resistance syndrome with effective negative feedback on corticotroph cells regarding increased plasma cortisol concentrations due to the development of mild autonomous cortisol secretion.


Assuntos
Glucocorticoides , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo , Receptores de Glucocorticoides , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/deficiência , Humanos , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona , Ligantes , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/genética , Síndrome , Mutação
6.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 190(4): 275-283, 2024 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584334

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) require life-long glucocorticoid replacement, including stress dosing (SD). This study prospectively assessed adrenal crisis (AC) incidence, frequency, and details of SD and disease knowledge in adult and paediatric patients and their parents. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study. METHODS: Data on AC and SD were collected via a patient diary. In case of AC, medical records were reviewed and patient interviews conducted. Adherence to sick day rules of the German Society of Endocrinology (DGE) and disease knowledge using the German version of the CAH knowledge assessment questionnaire (CAHKAQ) were assessed. RESULTS: In 187 adult patients, the AC incidence was 8.4 per 100 patient years (py) and 5.1 in 100 py in 38 children. In adults, 195.4 SD episodes per 100 py were recorded, in children 169.7 per 100 py. In children 72.3% and in adults 34.8%, SD was performed according to the recommendations. Children scored higher on the CAHKAQ than adults (18.0 [1.0] vs 16.0 [4.0]; P = .001). In adults, there was a positive correlation of the frequency of SD and the incidence of AC (r = .235, P = .011) and CAHKAQ score (r = .233, P = .014), and between the incidence of AC and CAHKAQ (r = .193, P = .026). CONCLUSION: The AC incidence and frequency of SD in children and adults with CAH are high. In contrast to the paediatric cohort, the majority of SD in adults was not in accordance with the DGE recommendations, underlining the need for structured and repeated education of patients with particular focus on transition.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita , Insuficiência Adrenal , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência Adrenal/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Adrenal/etiologia , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Doença Aguda
7.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1367048, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38585259

RESUMO

Objective: In the defense against microorganisms like Candida albicans, macrophages recruit LC3(Microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3) to the periplasm, engaging in the elimination process through the formation of a single-membrane phagosome known as LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP). Building on this, we propose the hypothesis that glucocorticoids may hinder macrophage phagocytosis of Candida glabrata by suppressing LAP, and rapamycin could potentially reverse this inhibitory effect. Methods: RAW264.7 cells were employed for investigating the immune response to Candida glabrata infection. Various reagents, including dexamethasone, rapamycin, and specific antibodies, were utilized in experimental setups. Assays, such as fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay), Western blot, and confocal microscopy, were conducted to assess phagocytosis, cytokine levels, protein expression, viability, and autophagy dynamics. Results: Glucocorticoids significantly inhibited macrophage autophagy, impairing the cells' ability to combat Candida glabrata. Conversely, rapamycin exhibited a dual role, initially inhibiting and subsequently promoting phagocytosis of Candida glabrata by macrophages. Glucocorticoids hinder macrophage autophagy in Candida glabrata infection by suppressing the MTOR pathway(mammalian target of rapamycin pathway), while the activation of MTOR pathway by Candida glabrata diminishes over time. Conclusion: Our study elucidates the intricate interplay between glucocorticoids, rapamycin, and macrophage autophagy during Candida glabrata infection. Understanding the implications of these interactions not only sheds light on the host immune response dynamics but also unveils potential therapeutic avenues for managing fungal infections.


Assuntos
Candida glabrata , Candidíase , Animais , Camundongos , Candida glabrata/fisiologia , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Autofagia , Macrófagos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Mamíferos
8.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1342530, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38586457

RESUMO

Introduction: The aim of this study was to better understand the efficacy of various drugs, such as glucocorticoids and anti-vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF), in the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME), and to evaluate various clinical treatment regimens consisting of different therapeutic measures. Methods: This study included randomized controlled trials up to February 2023 comparing the efficacy of corticosteroid-related therapy and anti-VEGF therapy. PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Embase were searched, and the quality of the studies was carefully assessed. Finally, 39 studies were included. Results: Results at 3-month followup showed that intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (IVB) + triamcinolone acetonide (TA) was the most beneficial in improving best-corrected visual acuity and reducing the thickness of macular edema in the center of the retina in patients with DME. Results at 6-month follow-up showed that intravitreal dexamethasone (DEX) was the most effective in improving patients' bestcorrected visual acuity and reducing the thickness of central macular edema. Discussion: Overall, IVB+TA was beneficial in improving best-corrected visual acuity and reducing central macular edema thickness over a 3-month follow-up period, while DEX implants had a better therapeutic effect than anti-VEGF agents at 6 months, especially the patients with severe macular edema and visual acuity impaired. Systematic review registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.php?RecordID=397100, identifier CRD42023397100.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Retinopatia Diabética , Edema Macular , Humanos , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Edema Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Edema Macular/etiologia , Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Triancinolona Acetonida , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7844, 2024 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570726

RESUMO

Obesity, a worldwide epidemic, leads to various metabolic disorders threatening human health. In response to stress or fasting, glucocorticoid (GC) levels are elevated to promote food intake. This involves GC-induced expression of the orexigenic neuropeptides in agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) via the GC receptor (GR). Here, we report a selective GR modulator (SGRM) that suppresses GR-induced transcription of genes with non-classical glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) such as Agrp-GRE, but not with classical GREs, and via this way may serve as a novel anti-obesity agent. We have identified a novel SGRM, 2-O-trans-p-coumaroylalphitolic acid (Zj7), a triterpenoid extracted from the Ziziphus jujube plant, that selectively suppresses GR transcriptional activity in Agrp-GRE without affecting classical GREs. Zj7 reduces the expression of orexigenic genes in the ARC and exerts a significant anorexigenic effect with weight loss in both high fat diet-induced obese and genetically obese db/db mouse models. Transcriptome analysis showed that Zj7 represses the expression of a group of orexigenic genes including Agrp and Npy induced by the synthetic GR ligand dexamethasone (Dex) in the hypothalamus. Taken together, Zj7, as a selective GR modulator, showed beneficial metabolic activities, in part by suppressing GR activity in non-classical GREs in orexigenic genes. This study demonstrates that a potential anorexigenic molecule may allow GRE-specific inhibition of GR transcriptional activity, which is a promising approach for the treatment of metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Doenças Metabólicas , Receptores de Glucocorticoides , Camundongos , Animais , Humanos , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Proteína Relacionada com Agouti/metabolismo , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/metabolismo
10.
Immunol Allergy Clin North Am ; 44(2): 157-171, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575215

RESUMO

The diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is based on clinical symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and eosinophil predominant esophageal inflammation. Clinical symptoms in children with EoE vary based on age and may be nonspecific. EoE has a male predominance with the majority having comorbid atopic disorders. At present, treatment options include medications (proton pump inhibition, swallowed topical steroids), dietary therapy or biologic therapy (dupilumab, approved for those ≥12 years of age). Outside of EoE in the context of oral immunotherapy, EoE is typically chronic requiring lifelong therapy. Long-term complications including feeding difficulties, malnutrition, and fibrostenotic disease.


Assuntos
Enterite , Eosinofilia , Esofagite Eosinofílica , Gastrite , Criança , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Esofagite Eosinofílica/diagnóstico , Esofagite Eosinofílica/terapia , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Enterite/tratamento farmacológico
11.
Immunol Allergy Clin North Am ; 44(2): 245-264, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575221

RESUMO

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), swallowed topical corticosteroids (STSs), and dupilumab are highly effective therapies for the treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis. Shared decision-making informs the choice of therapy and factors such as ease of use, safety, cost, and efficacy should be addressed. PPIs are the most common medication utilized early in the disease course; however, for nonresponders, STSs are an excellent alternative. Dupilumab is unlikely to replace PPIs or STSs as first-line therapy, except in highly specific circumstances. Identification of novel biologic pathways and the development of small molecules may lead to a wider range of treatment options in the future.


Assuntos
Enterite , Eosinofilia , Esofagite Eosinofílica , Gastrite , Humanos , Esofagite Eosinofílica/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Enterite/tratamento farmacológico
12.
BMC Pulm Med ; 24(1): 166, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, the emergence of immunotherapy has renewed therapeutic modality. Different from traditional anti-tumor therapy, immune-related adverse events of skin, gastrointestinal tract, liver, lung, endocrine glands commonly occurred. At present, only one case of immune-related adverse event of Behcet's-like syndrome following pembrolizumab treatment was reported in USA, and no one is reported in China. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report a rare case of Behcet's-like symptom following pembrolizumab treatment. A 43-year-old female was diagnosed as lymph node and bone metastasis of adenocarcinoma with unknown primary lesion, probably being of pulmonary origin. She was treated with pembrolizumab 200 mg every three weeks in combination with chemotherapy for 6 cycles, followed by pembrolizumab monotherapy maintenance. However, she developed Behcet's-like syndrome with oral ulcer, genital uler, phlebitis, and vision loss after 9 cycles of pembrolizumab treatment. She was treated with prednisone 5 mg orally three times a day. Two weeks later, dose of glucocorticoid gaven to the patient gradually decreased with improved symptoms. After a treatment-free withdrawal period, the patient requested to continue pembrolizumab treatment. Unfortunately, the above symptoms recurred on the second day following pembrolizumab treatment, and glucocorticoid was taken once again. The symptoms improved and the condition was under control. CONCLUSIONS: In view of the exponential growth of immunocheckpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in a variety of tumors, we should be alert to related adverse events, especially the rare rheumatic manifestations.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Behçet , Glucocorticoides , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Síndrome de Behçet/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Behçet/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome de Behçet/diagnóstico
13.
Cleve Clin J Med ; 91(4): 245-255, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561211

RESUMO

Diseases of the adrenal glands can lead to primary adrenal insufficiency, and suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis can cause secondary adrenal insufficiency (adrenal suppression). The most common cause of adrenal suppression is exogenous steroids, a condition recently termed glucocorticoid-induced adrenal insufficiency (GIAI). Similarly, weaning from high doses of glucocorticoids or giving insufficient glucocorticoid replacement after curative surgery for endogenous hypercortisolism (Cushing syndrome) can lead to glucocorticoid withdrawal syndrome, which overlaps with GIAI.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Adrenal , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias , Humanos , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal , Insuficiência Adrenal/induzido quimicamente
14.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 63(4): 394-400, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561285

RESUMO

Objective: To deepen understanding of IgG4-related diseases (RDs), we analyzed the associated lymphocyte subtypes, and explored the pathogenesis and potential immunotherapeutic targets. Methods: Eighty-six patients with IgG4-RDs were enrolled, and their clinical characteristics, peripheral lymphocyte subtypes, and disease course were analyzed. Results: The mean age of the participants was 36-87(62±11) years; 51 were male (59.3%) and 35 were women (40.7%); and 34.9% had a history of allergy. Follow-up lasted 4.8 (0.4, 14.1) months. The most common symptoms were abdominal pain, and submandibular gland and lacrimal gland swelling (each 20.9%). Sixty-five (75.6%) participants had multiple organ involvement, and the most frequently affected organs were the pancreas (52.3%), submandibular gland (51.2%), and lacrimal gland (34.9%). A high eosinophil count; high IgE, IgG, IgG1, and IgG4 concentrations; and low complement C3 and C4 concentrations were present in 18.8% (16/85), 30.0% (24/80), 72.9% (62/85), 58.3% (28/48), 89.5% (77/86), 61.2% (52/85), and 50.0% (42/84), respectively, of the participants. In addition, 64.7% (55/85) were positive for autoantibodies, and the most frequent was anti-nuclear antibody (63.5%). The proportion of CD4+T lymphocytes increased in 25.7% (9/35) of the participants, which was accompanied by an increase in the ratio of CD4+/CD8+T lymphocytes (22.9%, 8/35). Importantly, most participants (90.0%, 18/20) had a high proportion of regulatory T (Treg) cells. High interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, and IL-10 concentrations were present in 50.0% (11/22), 33.3% (10/30), and 16.7% (5/30), respectively, of the participants. Substantial lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, fibrosis, IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration, and lymphoid follicle hyperplasia or ectopic formation were present in 79.2% (42/53), 67.9%(36/53), 35.8%(19/53) and 30.2% (16/53), respectively, of the participants. Fifty-three participants with detailed pathologic data were also further evaluated, of whom 24.5% (13/53), 3.8% (2/53), and 67.9% (36/53) had definite, probable, and possible diagnoses; and 3.8% (2/53) could not be diagnosed. Compared with baseline, the percentage of eosinophils and the IgE, IgG, and IgG4 concentrations decreased significantly; and the complement C3 and C4 concentrations had increased significantly after 6 months of treatment (all P<0.05). The IgG4 concentration after 6 months of treatment negatively correlated with that of C4, and positively correlated with the baseline concentration of IgE and the IgG4/IgG ratio. Conclusion: IgG4-RDs are a group of diseases characterized by male predisposition; multiple organ involvement; a high eosinophil count; high IgE, IgG, IgG1, and IgG4 concentrations; and a low C3 concentration. Peripheral CD4+T cells and Treg cells are also more abundant. The diseases can be controlled with glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive drugs in the majority of instances. The IgG4 concentration after 6 months of treatment negatively correlates with the baseline complement C4 concentration and positively correlates with the IgE concentration and IgG4/IgG ratio, which suggests that IgG4/IgG, IgE, and complement should be closely monitored to evaluate disease activity and the efficacy of treatment in such patients.


Assuntos
Complemento C3 , Imunoglobulina G , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos , Imunoglobulina E
15.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 26(3): 269-274, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557379

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To observe the correlation between growth impairment induced by long-term oral glucocorticoids (GC) therapy and the ratio of FGF23/Klotho in children with primary nephrotic syndrome (PNS). METHODS: A prospective study was conducted on 56 children with GC-sensitive PNS who had discontinued GC therapy for more than 3 months and revisited the Department of Pediatrics of the First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine between June 2022 and December 2022. After monitoring qualitative and quantitative urine protein levels upon admission, the children with proteinuria relapse were treated with GC (GC group; n=29), while those without relapse did not receive GC treatment (non-GC group; n=27). In addition, 29 healthy children aged 3 to prepuberty were selected as the control group. Height, bone age, growth rate, and the FGF23/Klotho ratio were compared among the groups. The correlations of the FGF23/Klotho ratio with height, bone age, and growth rate were analyzed. RESULTS: The FGF23/Klotho ratio in the GC group was significantly higher than that in the non-GC group after 1 month of GC therapy (P<0.05), and the height and bone age growth rates within 6 months were lower than those in the non-GC group (P<0.05). Correlation analysis showed significant negative correlations between the FGF23/Klotho ratio after 1 month of treatment and the growth rates of height and bone age within 6 months in children with PNS (r=-0.356 and -0.436, respectively; P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The disturbance in FGF23/Klotho homeostasis is one of the mechanisms underlying the growth impairment caused by long-term oral GC therapy.


Assuntos
Glucocorticoides , Glucuronidase , Humanos , Criança , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos , Recidiva
17.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD013271, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains an important complication of prematurity. Pulmonary inflammation plays a central role in the pathogenesis of BPD, explaining the rationale for investigating postnatal corticosteroids. Multiple systematic reviews (SRs) have summarised the evidence from numerous randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating different aspects of administrating postnatal corticosteroids. Besides beneficial effects on the outcome of death or BPD, potential short- and long-term harms have been reported. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this overview was to summarise and appraise the evidence from SRs regarding the efficacy and safety of postnatal corticosteroids in preterm infants at risk of developing BPD. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and Epistemonikos for SRs in April 2023. We included all SRs assessing any form of postnatal corticosteroid administration in preterm populations with the objective of ameliorating pulmonary disease. All regimens and comparisons were included. Two review authors independently checked the eligibility of the SRs comparing corticosteroids with placebo, and corticosteroids with different routes of administration and regimens. The included outcomes, considered key drivers in the decision to administer postnatal corticosteroids, were the composite outcome of death or BPD at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA), its individual components, long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae, sepsis, and gastrointestinal tract perforation. We independently assessed the methodological quality of the included SRs by using AMSTAR 2 (A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews) and ROBIS (Risk Of Bias In Systematic reviews) tools. We assessed the certainty of the evidence using GRADE. We provided a narrative description of the characteristics, methodological quality, and results of the included SRs. MAIN RESULTS: We included nine SRs (seven Cochrane, two non-Cochrane) containing 87 RCTs, 1 follow-up study, and 9419 preterm infants, investigating the effects of postnatal corticosteroids to prevent or treat BPD. The quality of the included SRs according to AMSTAR 2 varied from high to critically low. Risk of bias according to ROBIS was low. The certainty of the evidence according to GRADE ranged from very low to moderate. Early initiated systemic dexamethasone (< seven days after birth) likely has a beneficial effect on death or BPD at 36 weeks' PMA (risk ratio (RR) 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81 to 0.95; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 16, 95% CI 10 to 41; I2 = 39%; 17 studies; 2791 infants; moderate-certainty evidence) and on BPD at 36 weeks' PMA (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.82; NNTB 13, 95% CI 9 to 21; I2 = 39%; 17 studies; 2791 infants; moderate-certainty evidence). Early initiated systemic hydrocortisone may also have a beneficial effect on death or BPD at 36 weeks' PMA (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.99; NNTB 18, 95% CI 9 to 594; I2 = 43%; 9 studies; 1376 infants; low-certainty evidence). However, these benefits are likely accompanied by harmful effects like cerebral palsy or neurosensory disability (dexamethasone) or gastrointestinal perforation (both dexamethasone and hydrocortisone). Late initiated systemic dexamethasone (≥ seven days after birth) may have a beneficial effect on death or BPD at 36 weeks' PMA (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.84; NNTB 5, 95% CI 4 to 9; I2 = 61%; 12 studies; 553 infants; low-certainty evidence), mostly contributed to by a beneficial effect on BPD at 36 weeks' PMA (RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.87; NNTB 6, 95% CI 4 to 13; I2 = 14%; 12 studies; 553 infants; low-certainty evidence). No harmful side effects were shown in the outcomes chosen as key drivers to the decision to start or withhold late systemic dexamethasone. No effects, either beneficial or harmful, were found in the subgroup meta-analyses of late hydrocortisone studies. Early initiated inhaled corticosteroids probably have a beneficial effect on death and BPD at 36 weeks' PMA (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.99; NNTB 19, 95% CI not applicable; I2 = 0%; 6 studies; 1285 infants; moderate-certainty evidence), with no apparent adverse effects shown in the SRs. In contrast, late initiated inhaled corticosteroids do not appear to have any benefits or harms. Endotracheal instillation of corticosteroids (budesonide) with surfactant as a carrier likely has a beneficial effect on death or BPD at 36 weeks' PMA (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.74; NNTB 4, 95% CI 3 to 6; I2 = 0%; 2 studies; 381 infants; moderate-certainty evidence) and on BPD at 36 weeks' PMA. No evidence of harmful effects was found. There was little evidence for effects of different starting doses or timing of systemic corticosteroids on death or BPD at 36 weeks' PMA, but potential adverse effects were observed for some comparisons. Lowering the dose might result in a more unfavourable balance of benefits and harms. Moderately early initiated systemic corticosteroids, compared with early systemic corticosteroids, may result in a higher incidence of BPD at 36 weeks' PMA. Pulse dosing instead of continuous dosing may have a negative effect on death and BPD at 36 weeks' PMA. We found no differences for the comparisons of inhaled versus systemic corticosteroids. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This overview summarises the evidence of nine SRs investigating the effect of postnatal corticosteroids in preterm infants at risk for BPD. Late initiated (≥ seven days after birth) systemic administration of dexamethasone is considered an effective intervention to reduce the risk of BPD in infants with a high risk profile for BPD, based on a favourable balance between benefits and harms. Endotracheal instillation of corticosteroids (budesonide) with surfactant as a carrier is a promising intervention, based on the beneficial effect on desirable outcomes without (so far) negative side effects. Pending results of ongoing large, multicentre RCTs investigating both short- and long-term effects, endotracheal instillation of corticosteroids (budesonide) with surfactant as a carrier is not appropriate for clinical practice at present. Early initiated (< seven days after birth) systemic dexamethasone and hydrocortisone and late initiated (≥ seven days after birth) hydrocortisone are considered ineffective interventions, because of an unfavourable balance between benefits and harms. No conclusions are possible regarding early and late inhaled corticosteroids, as more research is needed.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar , Glucocorticoides , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Humanos , Displasia Broncopulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Displasia Broncopulmonar/prevenção & controle , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Hidrocortisona/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Budesonida , Tensoativos
18.
Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 7(3): e00476, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597588

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Onset and exacerbation of autoimmune, inflammatory or steroid-responsive conditions have been reported following the remission of Cushing syndrome, leading to challenges in distinguishing a new condition versus expected symptomatology following remission. We describe a case of a 42-year-old man presenting with new-onset sarcoidosis diagnosed 12 months following the surgical cure of Cushing syndrome and synthesise existing literature reporting on de novo conditions presenting after Cushing syndrome remission. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted in Medline, Epub, Ovid and PubMed. Case reports and case series detailing adult patients presenting with new-onset conditions following Cushing syndrome remission were included. RESULTS: In total, 1641 articles were screened, 138 full-text studies were assessed for eligibility, and 43 studies were included, of which 84 cases (including our case) were identified. Most patients were female (85.7%), and the median reported age was 39.5 years old (IQR = 13). Thyroid diseases were the most commonly reported conditions (48.8%), followed by sarcoidosis (15.5%). Psoriasis, lymphocytic hypophysitis, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and seronegative arthritis were reported in more than one case. The median duration between Cushing remission and de novo condition diagnosis was 4.1 months (IQR = 3.75). Of those patients, 59.5% were receiving corticosteroid therapy at the time of onset. CONCLUSION: Our scoping review identified several cases of de novo conditions emerging following the remission of Cushing syndrome. They occurred mostly in women and within the year following remission. Clinicians should remain aware that new symptoms, particularly in the first year following the treatment of Cushing syndrome, may be manifestations of a wide range of conditions aside from adrenal insufficiency or glucocorticoid withdrawal syndrome.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Adrenal , Síndrome de Cushing , Sarcoidose , Masculino , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Síndrome de Cushing/cirurgia , Síndrome de Cushing/complicações , Glucocorticoides , Sarcoidose/complicações , Sarcoidose/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Adrenal/complicações
19.
J Transl Med ; 22(1): 337, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mesenchymal subtype of colorectal cancer (CRC), associated with poor prognosis, is characterized by abundant expression of the cellular prion protein PrPC, which represents a candidate therapeutic target. How PrPC is induced in CRC remains elusive. This study aims to elucidate the signaling pathways governing PrPC expression and to shed light on the gene regulatory networks linked to PrPC. METHODS: We performed in silico analyses on diverse datasets of in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo models of mouse CRC and patient cohorts. We mined ChIPseq studies and performed promoter analysis. CRC cell lines were manipulated through genetic and pharmacological approaches. We created mice combining conditional inactivation of Apc in intestinal epithelial cells and overexpression of the human prion protein gene PRNP. Bio-informatic analyses were carried out in two randomized control trials totalizing over 3000 CRC patients. RESULTS: In silico analyses combined with cell-based assays identified the Wnt-ß-catenin and glucocorticoid pathways as upstream regulators of PRNP expression, with subtle differences between mouse and human. We uncover multiple feedback loops between PrPC and these two pathways, which translate into an aggravation of CRC pathogenesis in mouse. In stage III CRC patients, the signature defined by PRNP-CTNNB1-NR3C1, encoding PrPC, ß-catenin and the glucocorticoid receptor respectively, is overrepresented in the poor-prognosis, mesenchymal subtype and associates with reduced time to recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: An unleashed PrPC-dependent vicious circle is pathognomonic of poor prognosis, mesenchymal CRC. Patients from this aggressive subtype of CRC may benefit from therapies targeting the PRNP-CTNNB1-NR3C1 axis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Proteínas Priônicas/genética , Proteínas Priônicas/metabolismo , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Glucocorticoides , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Via de Sinalização Wnt , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
20.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 56(2): 279-283, 2024 Apr 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38595245

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: The clinical data of RA patients who were hospi-talized in the Department of Rheumatology and Immunology of Aerospace Center Hospital from May 2015 to September 2021 was retrospectively analyzed, including demographic characteristics, concomitant diseases, laboratory examinations (blood routine, biochemistry, coagulation, inflammatory markers, rheumatoid factor, antiphospholipid antibodies and lupus anticoagulant, etc.) and treatment regimens. The patients were compared according to the presence or absence of DVT, and the t test, Mann-Whitney U test or Chi-square test were applied to screen for relevant factors for DVT, followed by Logistic regression analysis to determine risk factors for DVT in patients with RA. RESULTS: The incidence of DVT in the RA patients was 9.6% (31/322); the median age of RA in DVT group was significantly older than that in non-DVT group [64 (54, 71) years vs. 50 (25, 75) years, P < 0.001]; the level of disease activity score using 28 joints (DAS28)-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in DVT group was higher than that in non-DVT group [5.2 (4.5, 6.7) vs. 4.5(4.5, 5.0), P < 0.001]; the incidence of hypertension, chronic kidney disease, fracture or surgery history within 3 months, and varicose veins of the lower extremities in DVT group was higher than that in non-DVT group (P < 0.001). The levels of hemoglobin and albumin in DVT group were significantly lower than that in non-DVT group (P=0.009, P=0.004), while the D-dimer level and rheumatoid factor positive rate in DVT group were significantly higher than that in non-DVT group (P < 0.001). The use rate of glucocorticoid in DVT group was higher than that in non-DVT group (P=0.009). Logistic regression analysis showed that the age (OR=1.093, P < 0.001), chronic kidney disease (OR=7.955, P=0.005), fracture or surgery history within 3 months (OR=34.658, P=0.002), DAS28-ESR (OR=1.475, P=0.009), and the use of glucocorticoid (OR=5.916, P=0.003) were independent risk factors for DVT in RA patients. CONCLUSION: The incidence of DVT in hospitalized RA patients was significantly increased, in addition to traditional factors, such as age and chronic kidney disease, increased DAS28-ESR level and the use of glucocorticoid were also independent risk factors for DVT.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Fraturas Ósseas , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Trombose Venosa , Humanos , Fator Reumatoide , Estudos Retrospectivos , Incidência , Glucocorticoides , Trombose Venosa/etiologia , Trombose Venosa/complicações , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Artrite Reumatoide/cirurgia , Fatores de Risco
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