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1.
Food Chem ; 336: 127688, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768904

RESUMO

The effects of carboxymethylation, hydroxypropylation and dual enzyme hydrolysis combined with heating on some physicochemical and functional properties, and antioxidant activity of coconut cake dietary fibre (CCDF) were studied. Results showed that both the hydroxypropylation and carboxymethylation could effectively improve (p < 0.05) the water retention capacity (WRC), oil retention capacity (ORC), viscosity, α-amylase inhibition activity (α-AAIR), glucose dialysis retardation index (GDRI), cation-exchange capacity, emulsifying capacity index (ECI) and bile adsorption capacity (BAC) of CCDF. Moreover, the cellulase and hemicellulase hydrolysis combination with heating significantly enhanced (p < 0.05) the soluble dietary fibre content, WRC, emulsion stability, GDRI, α-AAIR and BAC of CCDF; but caused decrease in ORC and browning of color. In addition, improvement of total phenol content, Fe2+ chelating ability, ABTS+· and O2-· scavenging activity were obtained in carboxymethylaticted CCDF. These effects were mainly attributed to the composition and structural modifications as evident from SEM, FT-IR and XRD analysis.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Celulase/metabolismo , Cocos/química , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Adsorção , Fenômenos Químicos , Glucose/química , Hidrólise , Metilação , Solubilidade , Viscosidade
2.
Food Chem ; 336: 127717, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763740

RESUMO

Continued industrialization and increasing environmental problems have highlighted the need to research new eco-friendly solvents, also known as deep eutectic solvents (DESs). To implement these solvents in industrial processes, the knowledge of their molecular organization and thermophysical properties must be enhanced. In this work, two DESs have been characterized: d-glucose:choline chloride:water (GCH) and d-glucose:citric acid:water (GCiH). NMR techniques were used to analyse both the supramolecular structure and the role of water and to calculate the diffusion coefficients. Moreover, seven thermophysical properties at several temperatures were evaluated. As a second aim, the solubility of quercetin was determined. NMR studies showed a stronger supramolecular structure of GCH and a high ratio of ß-glucose in both DESs. Based on the thermophysical results, the solvent with choline chloride had the most compact fluid structure. Finally, the solubility of quercetin in the DESs was higher than in water, especially for GCH.


Assuntos
Glucose/química , Solventes/química , Colina/química , Ácido Cítrico/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Quercetina/química , Solubilidade , Temperatura , Termodinâmica , Água/química
3.
Gene ; 766: 145157, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949697

RESUMO

Glycolytic potential (GP) calculated based on glucose, glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate, and lactate contents is a critical factor for multiple meat quality characteristics. However, the genetic basis of glycolytic metabolism is still unclear. In this study, we constructed six RNA-Seq libraries using longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles from pigs divergent for GP phenotypic values and generated the whole genome-wide gene expression profiles. Furthermore, we identified 25,880 known and 220 novel genes from these skeletal muscle libraries, and 222 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the higher and lower GP groups. Notably, we found that the Lactate dehydrogenase B (LDHB) and Fructose-2, 6-biphosphatase 3 (PFKFB3) expression levels were higher in the higher GP group than the lower GP group, and positively correlated with GP and lactic acid (LA), and reversely correlated with pH value at 45 min postmortem (pH45min). Besides, LDHB and PFKFB3 expression were positively correlated with drip loss measured at 48 h postmortem (DL48h) and drip loss measured at 24 h postmortem (DL24h). Collectively, we identified a serial of DEGs as the potential key candidate genes affecting GP and found that LDHB and PFKFB3 are closely related to GP and GP-related traits. Our results lay a solid basis for in-depth studies of the regulatory mechanisms on GP and GP-related traits in pigs.


Assuntos
Glicólise/genética , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Suínos/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Glucose/genética , Glicogênio/genética , Isoenzimas/genética , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/genética , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Carne , Fenótipo , Fosfofrutoquinase-2/genética , Suínos/metabolismo
4.
Gene ; 766: 145155, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950634

RESUMO

Expression of browning genes are lower in both humans and animals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study aims at determining effects of long-term nitrate administration on protein and mRNA levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), and PPAR-γ coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1-α) in epididymal adipose tissue (eAT) of rats with T2D. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 6/group): Control, diabetes, control + nitrate (CN), and diabetes + nitrate (DN). T2D was induced using high fat diet combined with a low-dose of streptozotocin (30 mg/kg body weight). Sodium nitrate was administrated at a dose of 100 mg/L for 6 months in nitrate-treated rats. Fasting serum glucose and insulin concentrations were measured at months 0 (i.e. at start of the protocol), 3, and 6. At month 6, protein and mRNA levels of UCP1, PPAR-γ, and PGC1-α were measured in eAT samples. In addition, tissue concentration of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) was measured and histological analyses were done at month 6. In rats with T2D, 6-month administration of nitrate decreased serum glucose and insulin concentrations by 13% and 23%, respectively and increased cGMP level by 85%. Rats with T2D had lower mRNA and protein levels of PPAR-γ (62%, P < 0.0001 and 18%, P = 0.0472), PGC1-α (49%, P = 0.0019 and 21%, P = 0.0482), and UCP1 (35%, P = 0.0613 and 30%, P = 0.0031) in eAT; 6-month nitrate administration restored these decreased levels to near control values. In addition, nitrate increased adipocyte density by 193% and decreased adipocyte area by 53% in rats with T2D. In conclusion, long-term low-dose nitrate administration increased mRNA and protein expressions of browning genes in white adipose tissue of male rats with T2D; these findings partly explain favorable metabolic effects of nitrate administration in diabetes.


Assuntos
Adipócitos Marrons/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Epididimo/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitratos/administração & dosagem , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipócitos Marrons/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Epididimo/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estreptozocina/farmacologia
5.
Gene ; 766: 145152, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979431

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cerebrovascular disease is one of the major diseases that seriously harm human health currently. The purpose of this study is to find an effective treatment and clarify its mechanism of action to provide a new idea and drug target for the clinical treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular disease. METHODS: The microglia cell line (BV2 cell line) was cultured in vitro. Prepare a hypoxia ischemia cell model by OGD and simulate the pathophysiological process of ischemic cerebrovascular disease in vivo. According to the techniques of LDH Cytotoxicity Assay Kit, flow cytometry of Annexin V-FITC Apoptosis Detection Kit, Laser Confocal Fluorescence Immunostaining (Double staining method), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Western blotting, BV2 cells are observed through morphology and function changes induced by OGD. Moreover, these techniques were used to analyze changes in key proteins expression of signal transduction pathway in ischemic cerebrovascular disease, to explore the mechanism of gastrodin on ischemic cerebrovascular disease, and to elucidate the available ways for cell protection following ischemia and hypoxia. RESULTS: Gastrodin has no obvious toxic effect on BV-2 cells under physiological conditions. The death rate of BV-2 cells increases as the time of hypoxia increase. In the absence of oxygen, Gastrodin has a protective effect on the survival of BV-2 cells. This protective effect is related to the reduction of apoptosis rate. It can also improve the hypoxic tolerance of BV-2 cells, and there is no obvious Gastrodin dose-dependence. Moreover, Gastrodin has dual effects on BV-2 cells. The dual role of Gastrodin is closely related to the expression of several proteins which can affect the MAPK signal transduction pathway. CONCLUSION: Gastrodin has a dual effect on microglia with OGD. On the one hand, Gastrodin can inhibit the inflammatory cytokines secreted by microglia and aggravate the inflammatory response; on the other hand, Gastrodin can promote the secretion of protective cytokines from microglia to reduce the inflammatory response.


Assuntos
Álcoois Benzílicos/farmacologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipóxia Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Camundongos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Neuroproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Food Chem ; 335: 127505, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739823

RESUMO

Dysregulation of glucose homeostasis result in hyperglycemia and pigmented rice, unique combination of high quality starch and phenolics has the potential in regulating it. In this study, pigmented rice was characterized in terms of nutraceutical starch (NS) and phenolic content. Further the effect of rice phenolics on carbolytic enzyme inhibition, glucose uptake, hepatic glucose homeostasis and anti-glycation ability was analyzed in vitro. The most relevant effect on enzyme inhibition (α-amylase: IC50-42.34 µg/mL; α-glucosidase: IC50:63.89 µg/mL), basal uptake of glucose (>39.5%) and anti-glycation ability (92%) was found in red rice (RR), than black rice (BR). The role of RR phenolics in regulating glucose homeostasis was deciphered using hepatic cell line system, which found up-regulation of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) and glycogen synthase 2 (GYS2); while expression of gluconeogenic genes were found down regulated. To our knowledge this study is the first report validating the role of starch-phenolic quality towards anti-hyperglycemic effect of RR.


Assuntos
Glucose/metabolismo , Homeostase , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Oryza/química , Proantocianidinas/análise , Amido/análise , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenol/análise , Fenol/farmacologia , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores
7.
Food Chem ; 335: 127513, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745838

RESUMO

Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar is a famous traditional fermented cooking ingredient in China, with multiple nutritional and medicinal applications. Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar extract (100-400 µg/mL) is rich in polyphenols increased the glucose uptake and glucose consumption in high glucose-induced insulin resistant HepG2 (IR-HepG2) cells. Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar extract enhanced glycogen synthesis and attenuated gluconeogenesis by regulating key enzymes in IR-HepG2 cells. In addition, Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar extract ameliorated high glucose-induced IR by inhibiting phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) expression and activating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway in IR-HepG2 cells. Moreover, Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar extract reduced reactive oxygen species generation and phosphorylated c-Jun NH2 terminal kinase (JNK) expression in IR-HepG2 cells. The attenuation of the high glucose is owned to the PI3K/Akt pathway activation, glycogen synthesis induction and gluconeogenesis suppression in IR-HepG2 cells.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/farmacologia , Glucose/farmacologia , Resistência à Insulina , Polifenóis/análise , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Acético/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo
8.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(11): 1213-1219, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147919

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the interaction between shift work and psychological capital on abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism. Methods: A convenient sampling survey of demographics characteristics, shift work and psychological capital was conducted on 1 415 natural gas field workers by questionnaire in October 2018,and their physiological and biochemical indexes were measured according to standard norms. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the interaction between shift work and psychological capital on abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism. Results: For 1 415 subjectsthe prevalence of abnormal blood glucose was 21.2%, the prevalence of diabetes was 8.3%.The prevalence of abnormal total cholesterol was 40.4%, the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia was 11.3%.The prevalence of abnormal triglyceride was 41.6%, the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia was 24.7%.The detection rate of Low-density Lipoprotein was 17.3%, the detection rate of Low-density Lipoprotein was 4.0%, and the detection rate of high-density Lipoprotein was 1.3%. Multiple logistic regression model analysis showed that shift work, the low level of self-efficacy and the low level of optimism was positively associated with abnormal blood glucose, respectively (P<0.05). Shift work was positively associated with abnormal triglyceride (P<0.05). However, there was no interaction between shift work, low self-efficacy, low hope, low resilience, and low optimism on abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism. Conclusion: Shift work was a risk factor of abnormal blood glucose and triglyceride, self-efficacy and optimism were protective factors of abnormal blood glucose. There was no multiplicative interaction between shift work and psychological capital on abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism in the study population.


Assuntos
Hipertrigliceridemia , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos , Glicemia , Glucose , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Gás Natural
9.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 36(10): 877-883, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148381

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the expression levels of microRNA-186-5p (miR-186-5p) and Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and their relationships with the apoptosis in high-glucose (HG)-treated AC16 cardiomyocytes. Methods Target Scan7.1 database predicted that miR-186-5p could act directly on TLR3. Diabetic cardiomyopathy model was established in cardiomyocytes stimulated by HG. The expression of miR-186-5p was detected by real-time quantitative PCR and the expression of TLR3 was detected by Western blot analysis. The expression of miR-186-5p or TLR3 was enhanced or reduced by cell transfection. The apoptosis of cardiomyocytes was detected by flow cytometry. The expression of cleaved caspase-3(c-caspase-3) was detected by Western blot analysis, and the interaction between miR-186-5p and TLR3 was analyzed by luciferase activity assay. Results The bioinformatics analysis and luciferase activity assay showed that TLR3 was a direct target gene of miR-186-5p. The expression of miR-186-5p was down-regulated in HG-treated cardiomyocytes, and the over-expression of miR-186-5p reversed HG-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and reduced the protein level of c-caspase-3. Down-regulation of TLR3 inhibited HG-induced apoptosis and reduced protein level of c-caspase-3 in cardiomyocytes. Over-expression of TLR3 increased HG-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and reversed the effect of miR-186-5p. Conclusion The miR-186-5p can inhibit the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes induced by HG via down-regulating TLR3 expression.


Assuntos
Apoptose , MicroRNAs/genética , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Glucose/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(10): e2023934, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125498

RESUMO

Importance: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has placed unprecedented stress on health systems across the world, and reliable estimates of risk for adverse hospital outcomes are needed. Objective: To quantify admission laboratory and comorbidity features associated with critical illness and mortality risk across 6 Eastern Massachusetts hospitals. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of all individuals admitted to the hospital who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by polymerase chain reaction across these 6 hospitals through June 5, 2020, using hospital course, prior diagnoses, and laboratory values in emergency department and inpatient settings from 2 academic medical centers and 4 community hospitals. The data were extracted on June 11, 2020, and the analysis was conducted from June to July 2020. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2. Main Outcomes and Measures: Severe illness defined by admission to intensive care unit, mechanical ventilation, or death. Results: Of 2511 hospitalized individuals who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (of whom 50.9% were male, 53.9% White, and 27.0% Hispanic, with a mean [SD ]age of 62.6 [19.0] years), 215 (8.6%) were admitted to the intensive care unit, 164 (6.5%) required mechanical ventilation, and 292 (11.6%) died. L1-regression models developed in 3 of these hospitals yielded an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.807 for severe illness and 0.847 for mortality in the 3 held-out hospitals. In total, 212 of 292 deaths (72.6%) occurred in the highest-risk mortality quintile. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort, specific admission laboratory studies in concert with sociodemographic features and prior diagnosis facilitated risk stratification among individuals hospitalized for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Estado Terminal , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Sob a Curva , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/urina , Creatinina/análise , Creatinina/sangue , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Eosinófilos , Contagem de Eritrócitos/métodos , Feminino , Glucose/análise , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hidroliases/análise , Hidroliases/sangue , Contagem de Linfócitos/métodos , Masculino , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos , Neutrófilos , Pandemias , Contagem de Plaquetas/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Troponina T/análise , Troponina T/sangue
11.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239720, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women with hyperglycaemia first detected in pregnancy (HFDP), including those with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), should undergo a glucose evaluation 4-12 weeks after delivery. Globally, suboptimal postpartum return rates limit the opportunity to intervene in women with sustained hyperglycaemia and pragmatic solutions should be sought to bridge this gap. OBJECTIVE: To assess the utility of postpartum in-hospital glucose evaluation to predict the outcome of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) performed 4-12 weeks after delivery. METHODS: The study was performed prospectively at Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. Women with HFDP, classified as GDM based on the modified National Institute for Health and Care Excellence criteria, who delivered between November 2018 and June 2019 were included in the study. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was performed 24-72 hours after delivery (t1) in the postnatal ward, provided glucose lowering medication was discontinued at delivery. An OGTT 4-12 weeks postpartum (t2) was scheduled for the total cohort. We compared glucose values and glucose categories at t1 and t2 and evaluated antenatal characteristics of women who returned, compared to the group that was lost to follow-up. RESULTS: In-hospital post-delivery glucose assessment (t1) was performed in 115 women. Glucose levels were significantly lower at t1 compared to antenatal diagnostic values (t0) and assessment at t2. Of the fourteen women with hyperglycaemia at t2, none had abnormal fasting glucose concentrations at t1. Women with HFDP who fulfilled criteria for overt diabetes at t0, all (24/115) had normal fasting glucose levels at t1 except for IFG in one (1/24). The antenatal characteristics of women with HFDP who returned at t2, were similar to the women who did not return. CONCLUSION: Based on this study, in-hospital fasting glucose 24-72 hours postpartum cannot replace the OGTT 4-12 weeks postpartum. Pragmatic solutions for low postpartum return rates in women with HFDP should be pursued.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Glucose/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Jejum/sangue , Jejum/fisiologia , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/sangue , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Período Pós-Parto/sangue , Gravidez , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul
12.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4097-4100, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018899

RESUMO

A low-cost and enzyme-free glucose paper sensor is presented as a promising alternative to glucose test strips. This paper-based glucose sensor is prepared with molecularly imprinted (MIP) polyaniline (PANI) electrode. The determination of glucose concentrations was studied by the impedance change of the paper sensor before and after the blood samples dispensing at a low frequency. A comparison of the linear and polynomial regression was applied to analyze the impedance ratio as a function of glucose concentrations. The proposed glucose paper sensor showed a limit of detection (LoD) of 1.135 mM. This novel and non-enzymatic paper sensor suggests a low-cost glucose test assay and can improve the quality of routine testing for diabetic patients.


Assuntos
Impressão Molecular , Eletrodos , Glucose , Humanos , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina , Limite de Detecção
13.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4208-4211, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018925

RESUMO

In this paper, a label-free biosensor is developed for monitoring the glucose level in the solution. A wireless passive inductor integrated cavity (IIC)-based biosensor is studied. The proposed IIC consists of a passive spiral inductor integrated cavity resonator for continuous monitoring of capillary blood glucose. The proposed method is based on the cavity perturbation theory, where the solution with different glucose levels perturbs and interacts with the passive IIC-based biosensor. The variation in the effective permittivity εeff and permeability µeff of the cavity resonator due to different glucose levels changes the equivalent capacitance and inductance of the proposed IIC. In turn, the corresponding resonance frequency changes. The in-vitro measurements are performed on deionized water glucose solutions of various glucose concentrations within the range of 75 mg/dL to 250 mg/dL. The results demonstrate that the sensor's resonant frequency increases with the increase in glucose level in the solution with a sensitivity of 32 kHz/mgdL-1.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Glicemia , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Glucose , Próteses e Implantes
14.
Anticancer Res ; 40(11): 6075-6081, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the most prevalent causes of cancer fatalities is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which has been linked to metabolic syndrome. Circulating levels of the saturated fatty acid palmitate are elevated in metabolic syndrome and lead to cellular stress. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, flow cytometry, and migration assays, we characterized the response of rat hepatoma cells to palmitate treatment. RESULTS: We detected a 60% increase in secretion of C-X-C motif ligand 1 (CXCL1) which was dose-dependent and coincided with apoptosis. We measured expression of C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) and observed a 4.5-fold increase on apoptotic hepatoma cells. Furthermore, we assayed migration of hepatoma cells and saw a 2-fold increase in the number of migrating cells towards CXCL1. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that HCC cells secrete CXCL1 in response to metabolic syndrome signals and may promote the progression of cancer through apoptosis recovery or metastasis.


Assuntos
Comunicação Autócrina , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Quimiocina CXCL1/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Comunicação Autócrina/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/farmacologia , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/patologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Ácido Palmítico/toxicidade , Ratos , Receptores de Interleucina-8B/metabolismo
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5385, 2020 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097726

RESUMO

High titer, rate, yield (TRY), and scalability are challenging metrics to achieve due to trade-offs between carbon use for growth and production. To achieve these metrics, we take the minimal cut set (MCS) approach that predicts metabolic reactions for elimination to couple metabolite production strongly with growth. We compute MCS solution-sets for a non-native product indigoidine, a sustainable pigment, in Pseudomonas putida KT2440, an emerging industrial microbe. From the 63 solution-sets, our omics guided process identifies one experimentally feasible solution requiring 14 simultaneous reaction interventions. We implement a total of 14 genes knockdowns using multiplex-CRISPRi. MCS-based solution shifts production from stationary to exponential phase. We achieve 25.6 g/L, 0.22 g/l/h, and ~50% maximum theoretical yield (0.33 g indigoidine/g glucose). These phenotypes are maintained from batch to fed-batch mode, and across scales (100-ml shake flasks, 250-ml ambr®, and 2-L bioreactors).


Assuntos
Piperidonas/metabolismo , Pseudomonas putida/metabolismo , Biologia Sintética/métodos , Técnicas de Cultura Celular por Lotes , Biomassa , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Carbono/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura , Fermentação , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Engenharia Genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Glucose/metabolismo , Microbiologia Industrial , Pseudomonas putida/genética
16.
Biol Res ; 53(1): 45, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle has an important role in regulating whole-body energy homeostasis, and energy production depends on the efficient function of mitochondria. We demonstrated previously that AT-rich interactive domain 5b (Arid5b) knockout (Arid5b-/-) mice were lean and resistant to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. While a potential role of Arid5b in energy metabolism has been suggested in adipocytes and hepatocytes, the role of Arid5b in skeletal muscle metabolism has not been studied. Therefore, we investigated whether energy metabolism is altered in Arid5b-/- skeletal muscle. RESULTS: Arid5b-/- skeletal muscles showed increased basal glucose uptake, glycogen content, glucose oxidation and ATP content. Additionally, glucose clearance and oxygen consumption were upregulated in Arid5b-/- mice. The expression of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and 4 (GLUT4) in the gastrocnemius (GC) muscle remained unchanged. Intriguingly, the expression of TBC domain family member 1 (TBC1D1), which negatively regulates GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane, was suppressed in Arid5b-/- skeletal muscle. Coimmunofluorescence staining of the GC muscle sections for GLUT4 and dystrophin revealed increased GLUT4 localization at the plasma membrane in Arid5b-/- muscle. CONCLUSIONS: The current study showed that the knockout of Arid5b enhanced glucose metabolism through the downregulation of TBC1D1 and increased GLUT4 membrane translocation in skeletal muscle.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/genética , Glucose , Músculo Esquelético , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Regulação para Baixo , Glucose/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo
17.
Cell Prolif ; 53(11): e12918, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025691

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Reprogramming of cellular metabolism is profoundly implicated in tumorigenesis and can be exploited to cancer treatment. Cancer cells are known for their propensity to use glucose-dependent glycolytic pathway instead of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation for energy generation even in the presence of oxygen, a phenomenon known as Warburg effect. The type II beta regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA), PRKAR2B, is highly expressed in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and contributes to tumour growth and metastasis. However, whether PRKAR2B regulates glucose metabolism in prostate cancer remains largely unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Loss-of-function and gain-of-function studies were used to investigate the regulatory role of PRKAR2B in aerobic glycolysis. Real-time qPCR, Western blotting, luciferase reporter assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation were employed to determine the underlying mechanisms. RESULTS: PRKAR2B was sufficient to enhance the Warburg effect as demonstrated by glucose consumption, lactate production and extracellular acidification rate. Mechanistically, loss-of-function and gain-of-function studies showed that PRKAR2B was critically involved in the tumour growth of prostate cancer. PRKAR2B was able to increase the expression level of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), which is a key mediator of the Warburg effect. Moreover, we uncovered that HIF-1α is a key transcription factor responsible for inducing PRKAR2B expression in prostate cancer. Importantly, inhibition of glycolysis by the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) or replacement of glucose in the culture medium with galactose (which has a much lower rate than glucose entry into glycolysis) largely compromised PRKAR2B-mediated tumour-promoting effect. Similar phenomenon was noticed by genetic silencing of HIF-1α. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified that PRKAR2B-HIF-1α loop enhances the Warburg effect to enable growth advantage in prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Subunidade RIIbeta da Proteína Quinase Dependente de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Glicólise , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Subunidade RIIbeta da Proteína Quinase Dependente de AMP Cíclico/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia
18.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 7951-7965, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116511

RESUMO

Introduction: Glioma is the primary malignant brain tumor with poor prognosis. Berberine (BBR) was the potential drug for anti-tumor in glioma cells. Based on its limitation of poor aqueous solubility and instability, little information of BBR nanoparticles is reported in glioma. Methods: Different solutions including 5% glucose, 1*PBS, ddH2O, 0.9% NaCl, cell culture medium were selected, and only 5% glucose and ddH2O exhibited BBR-related nanoparticles. After heating for a longer time or adding a higher concentration of glucose solution, BBR nanoparticles were detected by TEM analysis. The uptake of BBR-Glu or BBR-Water nanoparticles were detected by immunofluorescence analysis for BBR autofluorescence. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay and Western blotting analysis. Apoptosis was performed with flow cytometric analysis and was detected by cleaved caspase-3 immuno-fluorescent staining. Cell cycle was used by flow cytometric analysis. Cytoskeleton was observed by confocal analysis using the neuron specific Class III ß-tubulin and ß-tubulin antibodies. Mitochondrial-related proteins were detected by Western blotting analyses and mito-tracker staining in live cells. Mitochondrion structures were observed by TEM analysis. ROS generation and ATP production were detected by related commercial kits. The tracking of BBR-Glu or BBR-Water nanoparticles into blood-brain barrier was observed in primary tumor-bearing models. The fluorescence of BBR was detected by confocal analyses in brains and gliomas. Results: BBR-Glu nanoparticles became more homogenized and smaller with dose- and time-dependent manners. BBR-Glu nanoparticles were easily absorbed in glioma cells. The IC50 of BBR-Glu in U87 and U251 was far lower than that of BBR-Water. BBR-Glu performed better cytotoxicity, with higher G2/M phase arrest, decreased cell viability by targeting mitochondrion. In primary U87 glioma-bearing mice, BBR-Glu exhibited better imaging in brains and gliomas, indicating that more BBR moved across the blood-brain tumor barrier. Discussion: BBR-Glu nanoparticles have better solubility and stability, providing a promising strategy in glioma precision treatment.


Assuntos
Berberina/química , Berberina/farmacologia , Glioma/patologia , Glucose/química , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Berberina/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pontos de Checagem da Fase M do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo
19.
Brain Nerve ; 72(10): 1097-1103, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051399

RESUMO

Many studies in recent years have reported cell therapies using embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells for cerebral ischemia. However, obtaining these cells is challenging, and these cell therapies require complicated procedures to prepare cells for administration. Notably, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are a useful cell source for clinical applications because cell collection is easier. In this review, we report the therapeutic effects of PBMCs preconditioned by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD-PBMCs) on cerebral ischemia. Cell therapies using tissue-protective OGD-PBMCs might be a simple and ideal therapeutic strategy against ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Glucose , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Oxigênio , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5226, 2020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067463

RESUMO

Signs of proteostasis failure often entwine with those of metabolic stress at the cellular level. Here, we study protein sequestration during glucose deprivation-induced ATP decline in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using live-cell imaging, we find that sequestration of misfolded proteins and nascent polypeptides into two distinct compartments, stress granules, and Q-bodies, is triggered by the exhaustion of ATP. Both compartments readily dissolve in a PKA-dependent manner within minutes of glucose reintroduction and ATP level restoration. We identify the ATP hydrolase activity of Hsp104 disaggregase as the critical ATP-consuming process determining compartments abundance and size, even in optimal conditions. Sequestration of proteins into distinct compartments during acute metabolic stress and their retrieval during the recovery phase provide a competitive fitness advantage, likely promoting cell survival during stress.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/química , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Hidrólise , Agregados Proteicos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Solubilidade
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