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1.
Food Chem ; 400: 134107, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087481

RESUMO

This study evaluated the inoculation of Meyerozyma guilliermondii and Bacillus licheniformis, separately or in co-culture, in wet-processed conilon coffee. Wet fermentation was conducted for 48 h. Mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi were counted during fermentation. The inoculation of B. licheniformis and M. guilliermondii stimulated the multiplication of lactic acid bacteria. Acetic, citric, lactic, oxalic, malic, succinic, tartaric acids, glucose, and fructose were identified in all treatments at different concentrations. Methyl salicylate, 2-heptanol, 2-nonanol, and heptanone were found during fermentation. Methylpyrazine, 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, and 3-ethyl-2,5-dimethylpyrazine identified after roasting assigned notes of "almond" and "chocolate" to the beverages. All treatments were classified as "premium," with the B. licheniformis treatment receiving the highest score. Bacillus licheniformis obtained better performance in fermentation, increasing coffee score and producing volatile compounds that provided positive sensory notes to the beverage.


Assuntos
Coffea , Lactobacillales , Bactérias/genética , Café/microbiologia , Frutose , Glucose , Heptanol , Leveduras
2.
Food Chem ; 398: 133951, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35987009

RESUMO

In this paper, we developed a sensor for on-site measuring beverage sucrose level based on cascade enzyme particles and a blood glucose meter. The cascade enzyme particles with sucrose hydrolyzing capability were prepared by co-precipitation of manganese carbonate, in which the stability of the enzymes was substantially enhanced by the particle encapsulation effect. The quantitative measurement of glucose produced by the hydrolysis of sucrose was performed using a commercial glucose meter, a commonly owned electrochemical device in homes, greatly improving detection accuracy and expanding applications. Actual sample testing demonstrated the high sensitivity and selectivity of the sensor, allowing for accurate detection of sucrose in beverages. This sensing strategy can also be further expanded to a variety of analytical assays, using blood glucose meters for portable quantitative testing.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Glicemia , Bebidas , Catálise , Glucose , Sacarose
3.
J Biomech Eng ; 145(2)2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114163

RESUMO

Insights into the transport mechanisms of nutrients are essential for understanding the pathophysiology of menisci. In the present work, we focus on the modeling and numerical simulation of the transport of glucose molecules in mechanically stressed meniscus tissue. Therefore, a multifield model based on the theory of porous media is created. Due to a biphasic approach, the major phases of the solid and the fluid are represented. The description of the transport processes of the uncharged nutrient molecules, such as convection and diffusion, is given by three coupled partial differential equations valid for large deformations. Numerical simulations are performed for everyday types of stress such as (I) lying, (II) two-legged stance, (III) one-legged stance, (IV) level walking, and (V) stair descending using the finite element method. The results show that diffusion is the dominant process. However, in parts of the meniscus, the delivery of glucose can be improved by convection due to mechanical loading. Based on these basic insights, the model can now be adapted to individual patient's meniscus geometries. The model can thus give insights into the suitability of loading scenarios for rehabilitation after meniscus damage.


Assuntos
Menisco , Simulação por Computador , Difusão , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Glucose , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Nutrientes
4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115750, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162547

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Different Physalis plants have been widely employed in traditional medicine for management of diabetes mellitus. Previous studies with respect to the in vivo antidiabetic activity of Physalis plants illustrated that they improved glucose and lipid metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ) -induced diabetic rats yet the mechanism of action of bioactive constituents of the different organs of Physalis plants on diabetes remains obscure. AIM OF STUDY: Our objective is to study the effects of the different organs of ground cherry (P. pruinosa) on diabetes in rat models and elucidate their mechanism of actions through serum pharmacochemistry combined to network pharmacology analyses and in-vivo testing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Characterization of the constituents in the drug-dosed serum samples relative to the blank serum after treatment with different extracts was performed by UPLC -MS/MS technique. The absorbed metabolites where then subjected to network pharmacology analysis to construct an interaction network linking "compound-target-pathway". In vivo verification was implemented to determine a hypothesized mechanism of action on a STZ and high fat diet induced type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) model based on functional and enrichment analyses of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome and Gene Ontology. RESULTS: Identification of a total of 73 compounds (22 prototypes and 51 metabolites) derived from P. pruinosa extracts was achieved through comparison of the serum samples collected from diabetic control group and extracts treated groups. The identified compounds were found to belong to different classes according to their structural type including withanolides, physalins and flavonoids. The absorbed compounds in the analyzed serum samples were considered as the potential bioactive components. The component-target network was found to have 23 nodes with 17 target genes including MAPK8, CYP1A1 and CYP1B1. Quercetin and withaferin A were found to possess the highest combined score in the C-T network. Integrated serum pharmacochemistry and network pharmacology analyses revealed the enrichment of leaves extract with the active constituents, which can be utilized in T2DM treatment. In the top KEGG pathways, lipid and atherosclerosis metabolic pathways in addition to T2DM pathways were found to be highly prioritized. The diabetic rats, which received leaves extract exhibited a substantial increment in GLUT2, INSR, IRS-1, PI3K-p85 and AKT-ser473 proteins by 105%, 142%, 109%, 81% and 73%, respectively relative to the untreated diabetic group. The immunoblotting performed for MAPK and ERK1/2 part of the inflammatory pathway studied in STZ induced diabetic rats revealed that leaves, calyces and stems extracts resulted in a substantial diminish in p38-MAPK, ERK 1/2, NF-κB, and TNF-α. Histopathological examination revealed that the hepatic histoarchitecture was substantially improved in the leaves, stems, and clayces-treated rats in comparison with untreated diabetic rats. Further, pancreatic injuries, which induced by STZ were dramatically altered by the treatment with P. pruinosa leaves, calyces and stems extracts. ß-cells in diabetic rats received leaves extract disclosed moderate insulin immunostaining with a notable increase in the mean insulin area%. CONCLUSIONS: The study in hand offers a comprehensive study to clarify the bioactive metabolites of the different organs of P. pruinosa. The basic pharmacological effects and underlying mechanism of actions in the management of STZ and high fat diet induced T2DM were specifically covered in this paper.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Physalis , Vitanolídeos , Animais , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1 , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/análise , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina , NF-kappa B , Farmacologia em Rede , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Quercetina/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Estreptozocina , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115724, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115599

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Danhong injection (DHI) is a renowned traditional Chinese medicine often used clinically to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Studies have shown that DHI can significantly alter microRNA (miRNA) expression in the brain tissue. Therefore, exploring specific miRNAs' regulatory mechanisms during treatment with DHI is essential. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate DHI's regulatory mechanism on cerebral autophagy in rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into the sham, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model, and DHI-treatment groups. The extent of brain damage was evaluated using triphenyl tetrazolium chloride and hematoxylin-eosin staining. Hippocampal cell autophagy was observed using transmission electron microscopy. Autophagy-related proteins were analyzed using western blotting. Differentially expressed miRNAs were screened using high-throughput and real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR. The relationship between miR-132-3p and ATG12 was confirmed using a dual-luciferase assay. The miR-132-3p mimics and inhibitors were transfected into PC12 cells subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in vitro and MCAO model rats in vivo. RESULTS: DHI significantly altered the miRNA expression profile in rat brain tissues. The pathological changes in the brain tissues were improved, and the autophagic hippocampal cell vehicles were significantly reduced after DHI treatment. miRNA-132-3p, one of the miRNAs with a significantly different expression, was screened. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes signal pathway analysis showed that its target genes were closely related to autophagy. Western blotting revealed that the p-PI3K, p-AKT, and mTOR expression increased significantly; AMPK, ULK1, ATG12, ATG16L1, and LC3II/I were downregulated in the DHI group. Dual-luciferase reporter gene experiments showed that miRNA-132-3p could target the ATG12 3'-UTR region directly. In vitro, miRNA-132-3p had a protective effect on OGD/R-induced oxidative stress injury in PC12 cells, improving cell viability, and affecting the expression of autophagy pathway-related proteins. In vivo transfection experiments showed that miR-132-3p could regulate ATG12 expression in CIRI rats' lateral brain tissue, affecting the autophagy signaling pathway. miR-132-3p overexpression reduces CIRI-induced autophagy and protects neurons. CONCLUSION: This study showed that DHI inhibits neuronal autophagy after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. This may have resulted from miR-132-3p targeting ATG12 and regulating the autophagy signaling pathway protein expression.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , MicroRNAs , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP , Animais , Apoptose , Autofagia , Proteína 12 Relacionada à Autofagia/metabolismo , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/genética , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Cloretos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Amarelo de Eosina-(YS)/farmacologia , Amarelo de Eosina-(YS)/uso terapêutico , Glucose/farmacologia , Hematoxilina/farmacologia , Hematoxilina/uso terapêutico , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/patologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Oxigênio/farmacologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Ratos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR
6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115626, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36049653

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Moxibustion is a traditional medical intervention of traditional Chinese medicine. It refers to the direct or indirect application of ignited moxa wool made of mugwort leaves to acupuncture points or other specific parts of the body for either treating or preventing diseases. Moxibustion has been proven to be effective in treating skin lesions of psoriasis. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was performed to elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of moxibustion treatment on imiquimod-induced psoriatic mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We established an imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriatic mice (Model) and assessed the effects of moxibustion (Moxi) treatment on skin lesions of psoriatic mice by the PASI scores and expressions of inflammation-related factors relative to normal control mice (NC). We then performed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic analysis on the skin tissues of the NC, Model and Moxi-treated mice to address metabolic differences among the three groups. RESULTS: Moxi mice showed reduced PASI scores and decreased expressions of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-8, IL-17A and IL-23 relative to Model mice. Compared with the Model group, the NC and Moxi groups shared 9 characteristic metabolites and 4 significantly altered metabolic pathways except for taurine and hypotaurine metabolism uniquely identified in the NC group. To a certain extent, moxibustion treatment improved metabolic disorders of skin lesions of psoriatic mice by decreasing glucose, valine, asparagine, aspartate and alanine-mediated cell proliferation and synthesis of scaffold proteins, alleviating histidine-mediated hyperproliferation of blood vessels, and promoting triacylglycerol decomposition. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of moxibustion treatment on the skin lesions of psoriasis, potentially improving the clinical efficacy of moxibustion.


Assuntos
Moxibustão , Psoríase , Alanina/metabolismo , Alanina/farmacologia , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Asparagina/metabolismo , Asparagina/farmacologia , Asparagina/uso terapêutico , Ácido Aspártico/metabolismo , Ácido Aspártico/farmacologia , Ácido Aspártico/uso terapêutico , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glucose/metabolismo , Histidina/metabolismo , Histidina/farmacologia , Histidina/uso terapêutico , Imiquimode , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Interleucina-23/metabolismo , Interleucina-23/farmacologia , Interleucina-23/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Psoríase/terapia , Pele , Taurina/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Valina/metabolismo , Valina/farmacologia , Valina/uso terapêutico
7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115680, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36058479

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of disease centered on obesity, which is the result of stagnation of liver qi according to traditional Chinese medicine. Panax notoginseng is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, entering liver and stomach meridians and dissipating blood stasis, in which panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) are the main active components. However, its effects and mechanism on metabolic syndrome has not been revealed yet. AIM OF STUDY: To evaluate the anti-MetS effect of PNS, including body weight and adiposity, glucose metabolism and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), as well as to explore the mechanism and signaling pathway of PNS on MetS effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HPLC was utilized to affirm the percentages of saponins in PNS. In vivo, normal C57BL/6J mice and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced MetS mice were used to evaluate anti-MetS effect of PNS. Body weight, food and water intake were recorded. NMR imager was used for NMR imaging and lipid-water analysis. Blood glucose detection, glucose and insulin tolerance test were performed to evaluate glucose metabolism. Biochemical indexes analysis and histopathological staining were used to evaluate the effect on NAFLD. The expressions of mRNA and proteins related to thermogenesis in adipose tissue were determined using real-time PCR and Western blot. In silico, network pharmacology was utilized to predict potential mechanism. In vitro, matured 3T3-L1 adipocyte was used as subject to confirm the signaling pathway by Western blot. RESULTS: We determined the content of PNS component by HPLC. In vivo, PNS could improve metabolic syndrome with weight loss, reduction of adiposity, improvement of adipose distribution, correction of glucose metabolism disorder and attenuation of NAFLD. Mechanismly, PNS boosted energy exhaustion and dramatically enhanced thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT), induced white adipose tissue (WAT) browning. In silico, utilizing network pharmacology strategy, we identified 307 candidate targets which were enriched in MAPK signaling pathway specifically in liver tissue and adipocyte. In vitro validation confirmed ERK and p38MAPK mediated anti-MetS effects of PNS, not JNK signaling pathway. CONCLUSION: PNS exerted protective effect on metabolic syndrome through MAPK-mediated adipose thermogenic activation, which may serve as a prospective therapeutic drug for metabolic syndrome.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Insulinas , Síndrome Metabólica , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Panax notoginseng , Saponinas , Animais , Glicemia , Peso Corporal , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Glucose , Lipídeos , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Farmacologia em Rede , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Panax notoginseng/química , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Saponinas/farmacologia , Saponinas/uso terapêutico , Água
8.
Food Chem ; 399: 134013, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037695

RESUMO

Ovalbumin (OVA)-glucose mixture was treated with Co-60 irradiation at 0-25 kGy, and effects of irradiation on the glycation and allergenicity of OVA were investigated. Irradiation induced glycation between OVA and glucose, reflected in the significant increase of glycation sites from 3 to 14. Interestingly, OVA irradiated at 25 kGy had three new glycated peptides (568.782+, 739.382+ and 509.752+). The degree of substitution per peptide molecule (DSP) of glycated peptides exhibited different trends with increasing irradiation dose. Particularly, glycated peptides 17-26, 55-60, 263-267 and 368-375 showed markedly decreased DSP values after irradiation at 20 and 25 kGy, which could be caused by the generation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs). MS/MS spectra suggested that neutral loss occurred in glycated arginine, whose structure was similar to MRPs. The IgG- and IgE-binding abilities of OVA significantly decreased with increasing irradiation dose, indicating that the protein allergenicity was reduced.


Assuntos
Alérgenos , Radioisótopos de Cobalto , Alérgenos/química , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Glucose , Ovalbumina/química , Peptídeos/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
9.
J Hazard Mater ; 441: 129792, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084470

RESUMO

Cooking Oil Fumes (COFs) contain carcinogenic organic substances such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic amines (HCAs), of which 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine (PhIP) is known as mainly meat-borne carcinogens. In this work, to identify the mechanisms to induce the inflammation response in human lung cells (A549) exposed to COFs, we investigated the physicochemical and biological characteristics of COFs generated with PhIP precursors (L-phenylalanine, creatinine, and glucose) at high cooking temperatures (300 °C and 600 °C). Interestingly, we found that PhIP was not formed both at 300 °C and 600 °C, while a large number of carbon nanoparticles were generated from soybean oil containing the PhIP precursors at 600 °C. From the biological analysis, COFs generated with the PhIP precursors at 600 °C induced the most significant pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-6). This result indicates that the particulate matter in COFs generated with the PhIP precursors above the smoke temperature is the primary factor directly affecting the lung inflammatory response rather than PhIP. This study demonstrates for the first time a novel principle of the inflammatory response that the PhIP precursors can aggravate lung injury by affecting the physical properties of COFs depending on cooking temperature. Therefore, our finding is a significant result of overcoming the bias in previous studies focusing only on the chemical toxicity of PhIP in the inflammatory response of COFs.


Assuntos
Material Particulado , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Aminas/análise , Carbono/análise , Carcinógenos/análise , Culinária , Creatinina/análise , Glucose , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Interleucina-6 , Pulmão , Carne/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Fenilalanina , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Fumaça/análise , Óleo de Soja/análise , Temperatura
10.
J Hazard Mater ; 441: 129824, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087529

RESUMO

The aerobic, lincomycin-degrading bacterial strain Conexibacter sp. LD01, belonging to the phylum Actinobacteria, was isolated from activated sludge. Both second- and third-generation sequencing technologies were applied to uncover the genomic characterization and high-quality genome with 99.2% completeness and 2.2% contamination was obtained. The biodegradation kinetics of lincomycin fit well with the modified Gompertz model (R2 > 0.97). Conexibacter sp. LD01 could subsist with lincomycin as the sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. When 500 mg/L of glucose was added as a co-substrate, the biodegradation rate improved significantly, whereas the addition of 500 mg/L sodium pyruvate had a slight inhibitory effect. Ammonia nitrogen was the best nitrogen source for Conexibacter sp. LD01 when growing and degrading lincomycin. In total, 17 metabolic products consisting of nine novel products were detected, and five biodegradation pathways, including N-demethylation, breakage of the amido bond, sulfoxidation, and oxidation of the pyrrolidine ring and propylamino chain, were proposed. This study significantly expands our understanding of the functional microorganisms and mechanism involved in lincomycin biodegradation at the phylum level.


Assuntos
Lincomicina , Esgotos , Amônia/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Carbono/metabolismo , Genômica , Glucose/metabolismo , Cinética , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Piruvatos , Esgotos/química , Sódio
11.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 124: 472-480, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182155

RESUMO

Antibiotics have been identified as obesogens contributing to the prevalence of obesity. Moreover, their environmental toxicity shows sex dependence, which might also explain the sex-dependent obesity observed. Yet, the direct evidence for such a connection and the underlying mechanisms remain to be explored. In this study, the effects of tetracycline, which is a representative antibiotic found in both environmental and food samples, on Drosophila melanogaster were studied with consideration of both sex and circadian rhythms (represented by the eclosion rhythm). Results showed that in morning-eclosed adults, tetracycline significantly stimulated the body weight of females (AM females) at 0.1, 1.0, 10.0 and 100.0 µg/L, while tetracycline only stimulated the body weight of males (AM males) at 1.0 µg/L. In the afternoon-eclosed adults, tetracycline significantly stimulated the body weight of females (PM females) at 0.1, 1.0 and 100.0 µg/L, while it showed more significant stimulation in males (PM males) at all concentrations. Notably, the stimulation levels were the greatest in PM males among all the adults. The results showed the clear sex dependence of the obesogenic effects, which was diminished by dysrhythmia. Further biochemical assays and clustering analysis suggested that the sex- and rhythm-dependent obesogenic effects resulted from the bias toward lipogenesis against lipolysis. Moreover, they were closely related to the preference for the energy storage forms of lactate and glucose and also to the presence of excessive insulin, with the involvement of glucolipid metabolism. Such relationships indicated potential bridges between the obesogenic effects of pollutants and other diseases, e.g., cancer and diabetes.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Compostos Heterocíclicos , Insulinas , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Peso Corporal , Ritmo Circadiano , Drosophila melanogaster , Feminino , Glucose , Insulinas/farmacologia , Lactatos/farmacologia , Masculino , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Tetraciclina/toxicidade
12.
Talanta ; 251: 123752, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35926414

RESUMO

Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has become widely used for identification, quantification and providing structural information about molecular structure in low concentrations as it allows signal Raman enhancement using metallic nanoparticles (NPs). Controlling interaction between analyte and NPs is a major point for the optimization of signal exaltation in SERS analysis. The objective of this study is the improvement and the control of SERS analysis by aggregation/self-assembly optimization of AuNPs using quaternized chitosan. The interest of this approach is to allow stable and reliable measurements with a simple and low cost approach compatible with a massive use in the field. In this work, we used design of experiments by Box-Behnken design to fix optimized conditions to increase signal sensibility of epinephrine water solutions. We also tested SERS signal stability in isotonic sodium chloride 0.9% and glucose 5% matrices. Our results demonstrate that globally neutral AuNPs aggregates were stabilized at a nanometric size by the subsequent addition of polyelectrolyte chains and allows for significant Raman signal enhancement of epinephrine. We succeed to prepare the SERS active material and measure a stable signal of epinephrine at a concentration as down as 0.1 µg mL-1 in less than 5 min. The signal remained stable and exploitable for at least 2 h. Our results reveal a strong correlation between intensity and logarithm of the concentration (concentration before dilution from 0.1 to 10 µg mL-1) suggesting a possible quantification. Furthermore, the signal of epinephrine at 10 µg mL-1 were also exploitable and stable in complex media as isotonic sodium chloride 0.9% and glucose 5%. This represents a particularly interesting application that would allow direct analysis of drugs complex media and open the way to analysis in biological samples.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Epinefrina , Glucose , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Polieletrólitos , Cloreto de Sódio , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Água
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250179, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339372

RESUMO

Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a non-communicable disease throughout the world in which there is persistently high blood glucose level from the normal range. The diabetes and insulin resistance are mainly responsible for the morbidities and mortalities of humans in the world. This disease is mainly regulated by various enzymes and hormones among which Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a principle enzyme and insulin is the key hormone regulating it. The GSK-3, that is the key enzyme is normally showing its actions by various mechanisms that include its phosphorylation, formation of protein complexes, and other cellular distribution and thus it control and directly affects cellular morphology, its growth, mobility and apoptosis of the cell. Disturbances in the action of GSK-3 enzyme may leads to various disease conditions that include insulin resistance leading to diabetes, neurological disease like Alzheimer's disease and cancer. Fluoroquinolones are the most common class of drugs that shows dysglycemic effects via interacting with GSK-3 enzyme. Therefore, it is the need of the day to properly understand functions and mechanisms of GSK-3, especially its role in glucose homeostasis via effects on glycogen synthase.


Resumo O diabetes mellitus (DM) é uma doença não transmissível em todo o mundo, na qual existe nível glicêmico persistentemente alto em relação à normalidade. O diabetes e a resistência à insulina são os principais responsáveis ​​pelas morbidades e mortalidades de humanos no mundo. Essa doença é regulada principalmente por várias enzimas e hormônios, entre os quais a glicogênio sintase quinase-3 (GSK-3) é uma enzima principal e a insulina é o principal hormônio que a regula. A GSK-3, que é a enzima-chave, normalmente mostra suas ações por vários mecanismos que incluem sua fosforilação, formação de complexos de proteínas e outras distribuições celulares e, portanto, controla e afeta diretamente a morfologia celular, seu crescimento, mobilidade e apoptose do célula. Perturbações na ação da enzima GSK-3 podem levar a várias condições de doença que incluem resistência à insulina que leva ao diabetes, doenças neurológicas como a doença de Alzheimer e câncer. As fluoroquinolonas são a classe mais comum de drogas que apresentam efeitos disglicêmicos por meio da interação com a enzima GSK-3. Portanto, é necessário hoje em dia compreender adequadamente as funções e mecanismos da GSK-3, principalmente seu papel na homeostase da glicose via efeitos na glicogênio sintase.


Assuntos
Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Diabetes Mellitus , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase , Glucose , Homeostase
14.
J Proteomics ; 270: 104741, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174955

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the main causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Sporadic CRC develops from normal mucosa via adenoma to adenocarcinoma, which provides a long screening window for clinical detection. However, early diagnosis of sporadic colorectal adenoma (CRA) and CRC using serum metabolic screening remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify some promising signatures for distinguishing the different pathological metabolites of colorectal mucosal malignant transformation. A total of 238 endogenous metabolites were elected. We found that CRA and CRC patients had 72 and 73 different metabolites compared with healthy controls, respectively. There were 20 different metabolites between CRA and CRC patients. The potential metabolites of tumor growth (including patients with CRA and CRC) were found, such as A-d-glucose, D-mannose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, L-cystine, Sarcosine, TXB 2, 12-Hete, and chenodeoxycholic acid. Compared with CRA, 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid was significantly higher in CRC patients. There results prompt us to use the potential serum signatures to screen CRC as the novel strategy. Serum metabolite screening is useful for early detection of mucosal intestinal malignancy. We will further investigate the roles of these promising biomarkers during intestinal tumorigenesis in future. SIGNIFICANCE: CRC is one of the main causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Sporadic CRC develops from normal mucosa via adenomas to adenocarcinoma, which provides a long screening window for about 5-10 years. We adopt the metabolic analysis of extensive targeted metabolic technology. The main purpose of the metabolic group analysis is to detect and screen the different metabolites, thereby performing related functional prediction and analysis of the differential metabolites. In our study, 30 samples are selected, divided into 3 groups for metabolic analysis, and 238 metabolites are elected. In 238 metabolites, we find that CRA patients have 72 different metabolites compared with health control. Compared with health control, CRC have 73 different metabolites. Compared with CRA and CRC patients, there are 20 different metabolites. The annotation results of the significantly different metabolites are classified according to the KEGG pathway type. The potential metabolites of tumor growth stage (including patients with CRA and CRC) are found, such as A-d-glucose, D-mannose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, L-cystine, sarcosine, TXB 2, 12-Hete and chenodeoxycholic acid. Compared with CRA patients, CRC patients had significantly higher 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid level. It is prompted to use serum different metabolites to screen CRC to provide new possibilities.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Adenoma , Neoplasias Colorretais , Humanos , Cromatografia Líquida , Manose , Ácido 12-Hidroxi-5,8,10,14-Eicosatetraenoico , Sarcosina , Cistina , Acetilglucosamina , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Adenoma/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Ácido Quenodesoxicólico , Glucose
15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115764, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183951

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ligusticum striatum DC., also known as Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (LCH), is widely used in China for its excellent effect in ischaemic stroke (IS) patients, and borneol (BO) has been confirmed to maintain the blood‒brain barrier (BBB) after stroke. They are often used as a combination in the prescriptions of IS patients. Although the advantage of their combined treatment in improving brain ischaemia has been verified, their synergistic mechanism on BBB maintenance is still unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was designed to evaluate the synergistic effect of maintaining the BBB between LCH and BO against IS and to further explore the potential mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After primary mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) were extracted and identified, the duration of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and the doses of LCH and BO were optimized. Then, the cells were divided into five groups: control, model, LCH, BO, and LCH + BO. Cell viability, injury degree, proliferation and migration were detected by CCK-8, LDH, EdU and wound-healing assays, respectively. Hoechst 33342 staining was adopted to detect the apoptosis rate, and western blotting was employed to observe the expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-3. The TEER value and NaF permeability were measured to assess tight junction (TJ) function, while ZO-1, occludin and claudin-5 were also probed by western blotting. Moreover, the HIF-1α/VEGF pathway was observed to explore the underlying mechanism of BBB maintenance. In vivo, global cerebral ischaemia/reperfusion (GCIR) surgery was performed to establish an IS model. After treatment with LCH (200 mg/kg) and/or BO (160 mg/kg), histopathological structure and BMECs repair were observed by HE staining and immunohistochemistry of vWF. Meanwhile, TJ-associated proteins in vivo were also detected by western blotting. RESULTS: Basically, LCH and BO had different emphases. LCH significantly attenuated the vacuolar structure, nuclear pyknosis and neuronal loss of GCIR mice, while BO focused on promoting BMECs proliferation and angiogenesis and inhibiting the degradation of TJ-associated proteins in vivo after IS. Interestingly, their combination further enhanced these effects. OGD injury markedly reduced the viability, proliferation and migration of primary BMECs; decreased the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, TEER value, and the expressions of ZO-1, occludin and claudin-5; induced LDH release and apoptosis; and increased the cleaved caspase-3/caspase-3 ratio and NaF permeability. Meanwhile, BO might be the main contributor to the combinative treatment in ameliorating OGD-induced damage of BMECs and degradation of TJ-related proteins, and the potential mechanism might be involved in upregulating the HIF-1α/VEGF signalling pathway. Although LCH showed no obvious improvement, it could enhance the therapeutic effect of BO. Interestingly, their combination even produced some new improvements, including the reduction of cleaved caspase-3 and increase in TEER value, none of which were exhibited in their monotherapies. CONCLUSIONS: LCH and BO exhibited complementary therapeutic features in alleviating cerebral ischaemic injury by inhibiting BMECs apoptosis, maintaining the BBB and attenuating the loss of neurons. LCH preferred to protect ischaemic neurons, while BO played a key role in protecting BMECs, maintaining the BBB and TJs by activating the HIF-1α/VEGF signalling pathway.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Ligusticum , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Animais , Camundongos , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo , Barreira Hematoencefálica , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Claudina-5/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais , Glucose/metabolismo , Ocludina/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Junções Íntimas , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115821, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36220510

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been used frequently in the treatment of asthma. Previous studies demonstrated the dichloromethane fraction of Stir-Frying RPA (FDCM) enhanced the effect of anti-allergic asthma compared with the dichloromethane fraction of RPA (DCM). AIM OF THE STUDY: The significant increasing of Paeoniflorin (PF), ethyl gallate (EG), 1,2,3,4,6-pentagalloylglucose (PGG) had been observed in FDCM. This study aimed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of these compounds from FDCM in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma mouse model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The significant difference contents compounds fraction (FB-40) and other fractions in FDCM were enriched by Medium Pressure Liquid Chromatography (MPLC). The pharmacodynamics was verified among all fractions in OVA-induced allergic asthma mice. Moreover, the drug dose dependence of FB-40 (0.42 mg/kg, 0.21 mg/kg, and 0.07 mg/kg), which were the most active fraction from FDCM for anti-allergic asthma, was explored. The expression of IL-6, p-STAT3, and STAT3 was analyzed by Western blot analysis. In addition, the main components of FB-40 were identified by UPLC with standards. Finally, the anti-inflammatory effects of the main components from FB-40 were detected by LPS-stimulated BEAS-2B cells using an Elisa assay. RESULTS: The results showed that FB-40 was the most active fraction from FDCM, which could significantly improve the lung tissue pathological condition, and decrease the number of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). It had greater pharmacological activity than its main component PF. FB-40 also showed dose dependence and regulated the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway in allergic asthma mice. Besides, PF, Albiflorin (AF), PGG, EG, and 1,2,3,6-Tetra-O-galloyl-ß-D-glucose (TGG) from FB-40 were identified by UPLC with the standard. At last, in the LPS-induced BEAS-2B cell experiments, EG, PGG, 1,2,3,6-Tetra-O-galloyl-ß-D-glucose (TGG) showed stronger inhibiting activities of cytokine than the monoterpenoid glycosides (PF and AF). CONCLUSION: The research proved that FB-40 was an active fraction in FDCM, which regulates IL-6/STAT3 Signaling Pathway to ameliorate allergic asthma. Gallic acids including TGG and PGG, and EG also play a role in the treatment of allergic asthma in FB-40.


Assuntos
Antialérgicos , Asma , Animais , Camundongos , Antialérgicos/uso terapêutico , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/patologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Glucose , Interleucina-6 , Lipopolissacarídeos , Cloreto de Metileno , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ovalbumina , Transdução de Sinais
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115784, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36206870

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Taohong Siwu Decoction (THSWD) is a traditional Chinese medicine formula used to invigorate blood circulation and resolve blood stasis. It consists of Paeonia lactiflora Pall., Conioselinum anthriscoides (H.Boissieu) Pimenov & Kljuykov, Rehmannia glutinosa (Gaertn.) DC., Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, and Carthamus creticus L. in the ratio of 3:2:4:3:3:2. THSWD is a common prescription for the treatment of ischemic stroke. AIM OF THE STUDY: To study the protective effect and mechanism of Taohong Siwu Decoction (THSWD) on PC12 cells damaged by oxygen glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R). MATERIALS AND METHODS: OGD/R model of PC12 cells was used to simulate ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury of nerve cells in vitro. The experiment was grouped as follows: control, OGD/R and OGD/R + THSWD (5%, 10% and 15%) group. Oxygen and glucose was restored for 24 h after 4-6 h of deprivation. The severity of damage to PC12 cells was evaluated by CCK8, flow cytometry and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Mitochondrial morphology and function were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ATP and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) assay kits. Cellular autophagy and NLRP3 inflammasome-associated proteins were detected by Western blot and immunofluorescence staining. RESULTS: THSWD treatment improved the survival rate of PC12 cells injured by OGD/R, reduced cell damage and apoptosis. Moreover, ATP, MMP and the expression of autophagy marker proteins (LC3-II/LC3-I, Beclin1, Atg5) and mitophagy marker proteins (Parkin and PINK-1) was significantly elevated. The reactive oxygen species (ROS), NLRP3 inflammasome and pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by OGD/R were distinctly reduced. In contrast, these above beneficial effects of THSWD on mitochondrial autophagy and NLRP3 inflammasome were reversed by mitochondrial division inhibitory factor 1 (Mdivi-1). CONCLUSION: THSWD protects PC12 cells against OGD/R injury by heightening mitophagy and suppressing the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome.


Assuntos
Inflamassomos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Ratos , Animais , Células PC12 , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Mitofagia , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Apoptose , Reperfusão , Trifosfato de Adenosina
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115788, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36223844

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Antidesma acidum Retz, a perennial herb is known for its anti-diabetic potential among the traditional health care providers of the tribal communities of Manipur, India. Scientific validation of the ancient knowledge on traditional use of this plant with the help of modern tools and techniques can promote further research and its use in health care. AIM OF THE STUDY: Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is a complex metabolic disorder and linked with hyperglycemia occurring from insufficiency in insulin secretion, action, or both. The aim of this study was to scientifically validate the traditional myth behind the uses of this plant material against diabetes. More specifically, it was aimed to determine the effect of methanolic extract of A. acidum leaves and/or any of its bioactive phytochemical(s), in enhancing insulin sensitization and subsequently stimulating the insulin signaling cascade of glucose metabolism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Methanol was used for extraction from the leaf powder of A. acidum followed by bioactivity guided fractionation and isolation of most active component. Biological evaluation was performed to determine the glucose uptake ability against insulin resistance in skeletal muscle (L6) cells. To understand the detailed mechanism of actions of the purified compound, several molecular biology and structural biology experiments such as Western blot, siRNA transfection assay and molecular docking study were performed. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Bioactivity guided isolation of pure compound and spectral data analysis led us to identify the active component as Kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside (KOR) for the first time from the leaf of A. acidum. Over expression of NAD-dependent histone deacetylase, Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) was observed following KOR treatment. SIRT1 plays an important role in the metabolic pathway and over expression of SIRT implies that it involves in insulin signaling directly or indirectly. Molecular docking and simulation study showed the strong involvement between KOR and SIRT1.Treatment with KOR resulted in significant over expression of SIRT1followed by upregulation of insulin-dependent p-IRS, AKT and AMPK signaling molecules, and stimulation of the GLUT4 translocation, which ultimately enhanced the glucose uptake in sodium palmitate-treated insulin resistant L6 myotubes. Further, the effect of KOR on IRS1, AKT and AMPK phosphorylation, GLUT4 translocation, and glucose uptake was attenuated in SIRT1-knockdown myotubes. CONCLUSION: Overall, the results of this study suggest that Kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside is the active component presents in the leaf of A. acidum which increases glucose consumption by inducing SIRT1 activation and consequently improves insulin sensitization. These results may find future applications in drug discovery research against T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Sirtuína 1 , Humanos , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Quempferóis/farmacologia , Quempferóis/uso terapêutico , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Índia , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas , Insulina/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/metabolismo
19.
Food Chem ; 403: 134322, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36166922

RESUMO

Acerola (Malpighia emarginata) by-product (ABP) has various bioactive compounds with hypoglycaemic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. The ABP effects on the biochemical changes in the enterohepatic axis caused by a high-fat diet (HFD) remains unclear. This study assessed whether the ABP or fenofibrate administration for 28 days interferes in lipid, glucose, or inflammatory changes in the enterohepatic axis of rats fed HFD. ABP induced in the rats fed HFD a reduction in body weight, serum lipids, blood glucose, and liver fat accumulation; increased insulin tolerance, and faecal bile acid excretion; regulated organic acid synthesis, faecal and colonic microbial growth; reduced M1 macrophage and increased M2 macrophage infiltration in the colon and liver, respectively. The fenofibrate did not improve the lipid or glucose alterations in enterohepatic axis of rats fed HFD. ABP has functional/nutraceutical potential in treating HFD-induced metabolic disorders with beneficial effects on lipid and glucose metabolism, and reduction of inflammation.


Assuntos
Fenofibrato , Malpighiaceae , Ratos , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Glucose/metabolismo , Fenofibrato/análise , Fenofibrato/metabolismo , Fenofibrato/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Malpighiaceae/química , Lipídeos/análise , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos
20.
Food Chem ; 403: 134334, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182856

RESUMO

In our previous study, two crude polysaccharides from red kidney bean and small black soybean (RK, SB) have shown the alleviative effect on type 2 diabetic mice. Meanwhile, hepatic dysfunction usually accompanied with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and closely related to glucose and lipid homeostasis. Therefore, this time we further investigated the protective effect on hepatic dysfunction of RK and SB. Results found that both crude polysaccharides had the protective effects. In addition, investigation on purified polysaccharides identified that the polysaccharide was the biofunctional component basis in crude RK and SB. Subsequently, further research investigated the regulating mechanism of two pure polysaccharides (RKPH and SBPH) on hepatic metabolism and lipid metabolism. The results showed the improved different metabolites of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) by RKPH and SBPH to affect glycerophospholipid metabolism pathway might be involved in the improvement of the glucose, lipids homeostasis and liver function in T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Phaseolus , Camundongos , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Glucose/metabolismo
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