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1.
J Mol Neurosci ; 74(2): 52, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724832

RESUMO

Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains challenging. Unraveling the orchestration of glutamine metabolism may provide a novel viewpoint on GBM therapy. The study presented a full and comprehensive comprehending of the glutamine metabolism atlas and heterogeneity in GBM for facilitating the development of a more effective therapeutic choice. Transcriptome data from large GBM cohorts were integrated in this study. A glutamine metabolism-based classification was established through consensus clustering approach, and a classifier by LASSO analysis was defined for differentiating the classification. Prognosis, signaling pathway activity, tumor microenvironment, and responses to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) and small molecular drugs were characterized in each cluster. A combinational therapy of glutaminase inhibitor CB839 with dihydroartemisinin (DHA) was proposed, and the influence on glutamine metabolism, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and migration was measured in U251 and U373 cells. We discovered that GBM presented heterogeneous glutamine metabolism-based clusters, with unique survival outcomes, activity of signaling pathways, tumor microenvironment, and responses to ICB and small molecular compounds. In addition, the classifier could accurately differentiate the two clusters. Strikingly, the combinational therapy of CB839 with DHA synergistically attenuated glutamine metabolism, triggered apoptosis and ROS accumulation, and impaired migrative capacity in GBM cells, demonstrating the excellent preclinical efficacy. Altogether, our findings unveil the glutamine metabolism heterogeneity in GBM and propose an innovative combination therapy of CB839 with DHA for this malignant disease.


Assuntos
Artemisininas , Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioblastoma , Glutamina , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Glutamina/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Artemisininas/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Glutaminase/metabolismo , Glutaminase/antagonistas & inibidores , Microambiente Tumoral , Apoptose , Tiadiazóis/farmacologia , Tiadiazóis/uso terapêutico , Movimento Celular , Benzenoacetamidas/farmacologia , Benzenoacetamidas/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia
2.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303471, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718074

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia (PE) is a severe complication of unclear pathogenesis associated with pregnancy. This research aimed to elucidate the properties of immune cell infiltration and potential biomarkers of PE based on bioinformatics analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two PE datasets were imported from the Gene ExpressioOmnibus (GEO) and screened to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Significant module genes were identified by weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). DEGs that interacted with key module genes (GLu-DEGs) were analyzed further by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Gene Ontology (GO) analyses. The diagnostic value of the genes was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were constructed using GeneMANIA, and GSVA analysis was performed using the MSigDB database. Immune cell infiltration was analyzed using the TISIDB database, and StarBase and Cytoscape were used to construct an RBP-mRNA network. The identified hub genes were validated in two independent datasets. For further confirmation, placental tissue from healthy pregnant women and women with PE were collected and analyzed using both RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: A total of seven GLu-DEGs were obtained and were found to be involved in pathways associated with the transport of sulfur compounds, PPAR signaling, and energy metabolism, shown by GO and KEGG analyses. GSVA indicated significant increases in adipocytokine signaling. Furthermore, single-sample Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (ssGSEA) indicated that the levels of activated B cells and T follicular helper cells were significantly increased in the PE group and were negatively correlated with GLu-DEGs, suggesting their potential importance. CONCLUSION: In summary, the results showed a correlation between glutamine metabolism and immune cells, providing new insights into the understandingPE pathogenesis and furnishing evidence for future advances in the treatment of this disease.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Glutamina , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Humanos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/genética , Pré-Eclâmpsia/imunologia , Feminino , Gravidez , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , Glutamina/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Ontologia Genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Adulto , Placenta/metabolismo , Placenta/imunologia
3.
Mil Med Res ; 11(1): 28, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38711073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) is a multifaceted condition characterized by heterogeneity, wherein the balance between catabolism and anabolism in the extracellular matrix of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells plays a central role. Presently, the available treatments primarily focus on relieving symptoms associated with IVDD without offering an effective cure targeting its underlying pathophysiological processes. D-mannose (referred to as mannose) has demonstrated anti-catabolic properties in various diseases. Nevertheless, its therapeutic potential in IVDD has yet to be explored. METHODS: The study began with optimizing the mannose concentration for restoring NP cells. Transcriptomic analyses were employed to identify the mediators influenced by mannose, with the thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip) gene showing the most significant differences. Subsequently, small interfering RNA (siRNA) technology was used to demonstrate that Txnip is the key gene through which mannose exerts its effects. Techniques such as colocalization analysis, molecular docking, and overexpression assays further confirmed the direct regulatory relationship between mannose and TXNIP. To elucidate the mechanism of action of mannose, metabolomics techniques were employed to pinpoint glutamine as a core metabolite affected by mannose. Next, various methods, including integrated omics data and the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, were used to validate the one-way pathway through which TXNIP regulates glutamine. Finally, the therapeutic effect of mannose on IVDD was validated, elucidating the mechanistic role of TXNIP in glutamine metabolism in both intradiscal and orally treated rats. RESULTS: In both in vivo and in vitro experiments, it was discovered that mannose has potent efficacy in alleviating IVDD by inhibiting catabolism. From a mechanistic standpoint, it was shown that mannose exerts its anti-catabolic effects by directly targeting the transcription factor max-like protein X-interacting protein (MondoA), resulting in the upregulation of TXNIP. This upregulation, in turn, inhibits glutamine metabolism, ultimately accomplishing its anti-catabolic effects by suppressing the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. More importantly, in vivo experiments have further demonstrated that compared with intradiscal injections, oral administration of mannose at safe concentrations can achieve effective therapeutic outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, through integrated multiomics analysis, including both in vivo and in vitro experiments, this study demonstrated that mannose primarily exerts its anti-catabolic effects on IVDD through the TXNIP-glutamine axis. These findings provide strong evidence supporting the potential of the use of mannose in clinical applications for alleviating IVDD. Compared to existing clinically invasive or pain-relieving therapies for IVDD, the oral administration of mannose has characteristics that are more advantageous for clinical IVDD treatment.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular , Glutamina , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral , Manose , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/tratamento farmacológico , Manose/farmacologia , Manose/uso terapêutico , Animais , Ratos , Glutamina/farmacologia , Glutamina/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Humanos , Núcleo Pulposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Pulposo/metabolismo
4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 111(4): 729-741, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579670

RESUMO

Glutamine synthetase (GS), encoded by GLUL, catalyzes the conversion of glutamate to glutamine. GS is pivotal for the generation of the neurotransmitters glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid and is the primary mechanism of ammonia detoxification in the brain. GS levels are regulated post-translationally by an N-terminal degron that enables the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of GS in a glutamine-induced manner. GS deficiency in humans is known to lead to neurological defects and death in infancy, yet how dysregulation of the degron-mediated control of GS levels might affect neurodevelopment is unknown. We ascertained nine individuals with severe developmental delay, seizures, and white matter abnormalities but normal plasma and cerebrospinal fluid biochemistry with de novo variants in GLUL. Seven out of nine were start-loss variants and two out of nine disrupted 5' UTR splicing resulting in splice exclusion of the initiation codon. Using transfection-based expression systems and mass spectrometry, these variants were shown to lead to translation initiation of GS from methionine 18, downstream of the N-terminal degron motif, resulting in a protein that is stable and enzymatically competent but insensitive to negative feedback by glutamine. Analysis of human single-cell transcriptomes demonstrated that GLUL is widely expressed in neuro- and glial-progenitor cells and mature astrocytes but not in post-mitotic neurons. One individual with a start-loss GLUL variant demonstrated periventricular nodular heterotopia, a neuronal migration disorder, yet overexpression of stabilized GS in mice using in utero electroporation demonstrated no migratory deficits. These findings underline the importance of tight regulation of glutamine metabolism during neurodevelopment in humans.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Generalizada , Glutamato-Amônia Ligase , Glutamina , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Epilepsia Generalizada/genética , Glutamato-Amônia Ligase/genética , Glutamato-Amônia Ligase/metabolismo , Glutamatos/metabolismo , Glutamina/genética , Glutamina/metabolismo
5.
Endocr Regul ; 58(1): 91-100, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38656254

RESUMO

Objective. Glucose and glutamine supply as well as serine synthesis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are important factors of glioblastoma growth. Previous studies showed that the knockdown of ERN1 (ER to nucleus signaling 1) suppressed glioblastoma cell proliferation and modified the sensitivity of numerous gene expressions to nutrient deprivations. The present study is aimed to investigate the impact of glucose and glutamine deprivations on the expression of serine synthesis genes in U87MG glioblastoma cells in relation to ERN1 knockdown with the intent to reveal the role of ERN1 signaling pathway on the ER stress-dependent regulation of these gene expressions. Clarification of the regulatory mechanisms of serine synthesis is a great significance for glioblastoma therapy. Methods. The control U87MG glioblastoma cells (transfected by empty vector) and ERN1 knockdown cells (transfected by dominant-negative ERN1) were exposed under glucose and glutamine deprivation conditions for 16 h. RNA was extracted from cells and reverse transcribed. The expression level of PHGDH (phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase), PSAT1 (phosphoserine amino-transferase 1), PSPH (phosphoserine phosphatase), ATF4 (activating transcription factor 4), and SHMT1 (serine hydroxymethyltransferase 1) genes was studied by real-time qPCR and normalized to ACTB. Results. It was found that the expression level of genes responsible for serine synthesis such as PHGDH, PSAT1, PSPH, and transcription factor ATF4 was up-regulated in U87MG glioblastoma cells under glucose and glutamine deprivations. Furthermore, inhibition of ERN1 significantly enhances the impact of glucose and especially glutamine deprivations on these gene expressions. At the same time, the expression of the SHMT1 gene, which is responsible for serine conversion to glycine, was down-regulated in both nutrient deprivation conditions with more significant changes in ERN1 knockdown glioblastoma cells. Conclusion. Taken together, the results of present study indicate that the expression of genes responsible for serine synthesis is sensitive to glucose and glutamine deprivations in gene-specific manner and that suppression of ERN1 signaling significantly modifies the impact of both glucose and glutamine deprivations on PHGDH, PSAT1, PSPH, ATF4, and SHMT1 gene expressions and reflects the ERN1-mediated genome reprograming introduced by nutrient deprivation condition.


Assuntos
Endorribonucleases , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioblastoma , Glucose , Glutamina , Fosfoglicerato Desidrogenase , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases , Serina , Transaminases , Humanos , Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/genética , Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Endorribonucleases/genética , Endorribonucleases/metabolismo , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Glutamina/metabolismo , Glicina Hidroximetiltransferase/genética , Glicina Hidroximetiltransferase/metabolismo , Fosfoglicerato Desidrogenase/genética , Fosfoglicerato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/genética , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Serina/metabolismo , Serina/biossíntese , Transdução de Sinais
6.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3445, 2024 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38658533

RESUMO

Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDH) are oncogenic events due to the generation of oncogenic metabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate. However, the role of wild-type IDH in cancer development remains elusive. Here we show that wild-type IDH2 is highly expressed in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells and promotes their proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Genetic silencing or pharmacological inhibition of wt-IDH2 causes a significant increase in α-ketoglutarate (α-KG), indicating a suppression of reductive tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The aberrant accumulation of α-KG due to IDH2 abrogation inhibits mitochondrial ATP synthesis and promotes HIF-1α degradation, leading to suppression of glycolysis. Such metabolic double-hit results in ATP depletion and suppression of tumor growth, and renders TNBC cells more sensitive to doxorubicin treatment. Our study reveals a metabolic property of TNBC cells with active utilization of glutamine via reductive TCA metabolism, and suggests that wild-type IDH2 plays an important role in this metabolic process and could be a potential therapeutic target for TNBC.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico , Isocitrato Desidrogenase , Ácidos Cetoglutáricos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Humanos , Feminino , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Cetoglutáricos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutamina/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Mutação
7.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 320, 2024 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38664663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 1H-MRS is increasingly used in basic and clinical research to explain brain function and alterations respectively. In psychosis research it is now one of the main tools to investigate imbalances in the glutamatergic system. Interestingly, however, the findings are extremely variable even within patients of similar disease states. One reason may be the variability in analysis strategies, despite suggestions for standardization. Therefore, our study aimed to investigate the extent to which the basis set configuration- which metabolites are included in the basis set used for analysis- would affect the spectral fit and estimated glutamate (Glu) concentrations in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and whether any changes in levels of glutamate would be associated with psychotic-like experiences and autistic traits. METHODS: To ensure comparability, we utilized five different exemplar basis sets, used in research, and two different analysis tools, r-based spant applying the ABfit method and Osprey using the LCModel. RESULTS: Our findings revealed that the types of metabolites included in the basis set significantly affected the glutamate concentration. We observed that three basis sets led to more consistent results across different concentration types (i.e., absolute Glu in mol/kg, Glx (glutamate + glutamine), Glu/tCr), spectral fit and quality measurements. Interestingly, all three basis sets included phosphocreatine. Importantly, our findings also revealed that glutamate levels were differently associated with both schizotypal and autistic traits depending on basis set configuration and analysis tool, with the same three basis sets showing more consistent results. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights that scientific results may be significantly altered depending on the choices of metabolites included in the basis set, and with that emphasizes the importance of carefully selecting the configuration of the basis set to ensure accurate and consistent results, when using MR spectroscopy. Overall, our study points out the need for standardized analysis pipelines and reporting.


Assuntos
Ácido Glutâmico , Giro do Cíngulo , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Humanos , Giro do Cíngulo/metabolismo , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adulto Jovem , Personalidade/fisiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Glutamina/metabolismo
8.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 158: 101-114, 2024 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38661141

RESUMO

Snakehead vesiculovirus (SHVV) is a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus that infects snakehead fish. This virus leads to illness and mortality, causing significant economic losses in the snakehead aquaculture industry. The replication and spread of SHVV in cells, which requires glutamine as a nitrogen source, is accompanied by alterations in intracellular metabolites. However, the metabolic mechanisms underlying the inhibition of viral replication by glutamine deficiency are poorly understood. This study utilized liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to measure the differential metabolites between the channel catfish Parasilurus asotus ovary cell line infected with SHVV under glutamine-containing and glutamine-deprived conditions. Results showed that the absence of glutamine regulated 4 distinct metabolic pathways and influenced 9 differential metabolites. The differential metabolites PS(16:0/16:0), 5,10-methylene-THF, and PS(18:0/18:1(9Z)) were involved in amino acid metabolism. In the nuclear metabolism functional pathway, differential metabolites of guanosine were observed. In the carbohydrate metabolism pathway, differential metabolites of UDP-d-galacturonate were detected. In the signal transduction pathway, differential metabolites of SM(d18:1/20:0), SM(d18:1/22:1(13Z)), SM(d18:1/24:1(15 Z)), and sphinganine were found. Among them, PS(18:0/18:1(9Z)), PS(16:0/16:0), and UDP-d-galacturonate were involved in the synthesis of phosphatidylserine and glycoprotein. The compound 5,10-methylene-THF provided raw materials for virus replication, and guanosine and sphingosine are related to virus virulence. The differential metabolites may collectively participate in the replication, packaging, and proliferation of SHVV under glutamine deficiency. This study provides new insights and potential metabolic targets for combating SHVV infection in aquaculture through metabolomics approaches.


Assuntos
Glutamina , Vesiculovirus , Replicação Viral , Animais , Glutamina/metabolismo , Vesiculovirus/fisiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Metabolômica , Linhagem Celular , Ictaluridae
9.
J Anim Sci ; 1022024 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622951

RESUMO

We determined apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) values of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in fermented soybean meal from five different sources (FSBM 1 to 5) in China when fed to mid and late-gestating sows. Twenty-four parity four sows (12 at 30 d in gestation and 12 at 80 d in gestation) were fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and used in this experiment. Sows were randomly assigned to a replicated 6 × 3 Youden square design including six diets and three periods. Six diets were provided for sows in mid and late gestation, including a nitrogen-free diet and five test diets containing 26% FSBM from different sources. Results showed that there were differences in AID and SID of CP among the different FSBM samples, but no differences between sow physiological stages were observed. Specifically, when mid-gestating sows were fed FSBM 2, the AID of CP was the lowest, whereas FSBM 3 exhibited a greater AID of CP when compared to the other FSBM samples (P < 0.01). Furthermore, during late gestation, FSBM 3 consistently had greater SID of CP when compared to other FSBM samples (P < 0.01). The ileal digestibility of most AA varied with different FSBM samples. In both mid and late gestation, differences (P < 0.05) were observed for AID of lysine, tryptophan, histidine, and arginine across different FSBM samples. Similarly, the AID of dispensable AA (cysteine, glutamine, and serine) also exhibited differences (P < 0.05) across different FSBM samples in both mid and late-gestating sows. For mid-gestating sows, SID differences relating to lysine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, threonine, and arginine were observed among different diets (P < 0.05). In late-gestating sows, SID values for lysine, tryptophan, leucine, and arginine differed across diets (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the ileal digestibility of some dispensable AA was influenced by physiological stage, as evidenced by greater AID and SID values for glycine, glutamine, cysteine, and serine in late-gestating sows when compared to mid-gestating sows (P < 0.01). In summary, our study determined AA ileal digestibility of different FSBM fed to mid and late-gestating sows. We observed that the AA ileal digestibility differed among five FSBM samples, but the physiological stage of sows did not affect the ileal digestibility of CP and most AA. Additionally, when formulating diets for sows, it is crucial to consider the nutritional value differences of FSBM.


Fermented soybean meal (FSBM) is obtained from the microbial fermentation of soybean meal, which reduces anti-nutritional factor levels and enhances other nutrient content. Substituting soybean meal with FSBM in piglet and growing pig diets improves nutrient digestibility. However, its nutritional value for sows remains unclear. Therefore, five sources of FSBM were fed to sows in mid and late gestation to evaluate apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) values of amino acids (AA). We found that different FSBM samples impacted the SID value of AA when fed to gestating sows. Additionally, sow physiological stage influenced the SID of some dispensable AA. These findings provide valuable insights into the incorporation of FSBM into sow diets.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Alimentos Fermentados , Suínos , Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Digestão/fisiologia , Glutamina/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo , Cisteína/metabolismo , Lisina/metabolismo , Glycine max , Dieta/veterinária , Arginina/metabolismo , Serina , Ração Animal/análise , Íleo/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
10.
Biol Res ; 57(1): 13, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endometrial fibrosis, a significant characteristic of intrauterine adhesion (IUA), is caused by the excessive differentiation and activation of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs). Glutaminolysis is the metabolic process of glutamine (Gln), which has been implicated in multiple types of organ fibrosis. So far, little is known about whether glutaminolysis plays a role in endometrial fibrosis. METHODS: The activation model of ESCs was constructed by TGF-ß1, followed by RNA-sequencing analysis. Changes in glutaminase1 (GLS1) expression at RNA and protein levels in activated ESCs were verified experimentally. Human IUA samples were collected to verify GLS1 expression in endometrial fibrosis. GLS1 inhibitor and glutamine deprivation were applied to ESCs models to investigate the biological functions and mechanisms of glutaminolysis in ESCs activation. The IUA mice model was established to explore the effect of glutaminolysis inhibition on endometrial fibrosis. RESULTS: We found that GLS1 expression was significantly increased in activated ESCs models and fibrotic endometrium. Glutaminolysis inhibition by GLS1 inhibitor bis-2-(5-phenylacetamido-1,2,4-thiadiazol-2-yl) ethyl sulfide (BPTES or glutamine deprivation treatment suppressed the expression of two fibrotic markers, α-SMA and collagen I, as well as the mitochondrial function and mTORC1 signaling in ESCs. Furthermore, inhibition of the mTORC1 signaling pathway by rapamycin suppressed ESCs activation. In IUA mice models, BPTES treatment significantly ameliorated endometrial fibrosis and improved pregnancy outcomes. CONCLUSION: Glutaminolysis and glutaminolysis-associated mTOR signaling play a role in the activation of ESCs and the pathogenesis of endometrial fibrosis through regulating mitochondrial function. Glutaminolysis inhibition suppresses the activation of ESCs, which might be a novel therapeutic strategy for IUA.


Assuntos
Glutamina , Mitocôndrias , Feminino , Camundongos , Humanos , Animais , Glutamina/metabolismo , Fibrose , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , RNA/metabolismo , Endométrio/metabolismo , Endométrio/patologia
11.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3534, 2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38670989

RESUMO

Glutamine synthetase (GS) is vital in maintaining ammonia and glutamate (Glu) homeostasis in living organisms. However, the natural enzyme relies on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to activate Glu, resulting in impaired GS function during ATP-deficient neurotoxic events. To date, no reports demonstrate using artificial nanostructures to mimic GS function. In this study, we synthesize aggregation-induced emission active polyP-Mn nanosheets (STPE-PMNSs) based on end-labeled polyphosphate (polyP), exhibiting remarkable GS-like activity independent of ATP presence. Further investigation reveals polyP in STPE-PMNSs serves as phosphate source to activate Glu at low ATP levels. This self-feeding mechanism offers a significant advantage in regulating Glu homeostasis at reduced ATP levels in nerve cells during excitotoxic conditions. STPE-PMNSs can effectively promote the conversion of Glu to glutamine (Gln) in excitatory neurotoxic human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) and alleviate Glu-induced neurotoxicity. Additionally, the fluorescence signal of nanosheets enables precise monitoring of the subcellular distribution of STPE-PMNSs. More importantly, the intracellular fluorescence signal is enhanced in a conversion-responsive manner, allowing real-time tracking of reaction progression. This study presents a self-sustaining strategy to address GS functional impairment caused by ATP deficiency in nerve cells during neurotoxic events. Furthermore, it offers a fresh perspective on the potential biological applications of polyP-based nanostructures.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina , Glutamato-Amônia Ligase , Ácido Glutâmico , Glutamina , Manganês , Nanoestruturas , Neurônios , Polifosfatos , Glutamato-Amônia Ligase/metabolismo , Humanos , Polifosfatos/química , Polifosfatos/metabolismo , Polifosfatos/farmacologia , Nanoestruturas/química , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Ácido Glutâmico/toxicidade , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutamina/metabolismo , Manganês/metabolismo , Manganês/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química
12.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 418, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580938

RESUMO

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common head and neck malignancy. The oncometabolites have been studied in OSCC, but the mechanism of metabolic reprogramming remains unclear. To identify the potential metabolic markers to distinguish malignant oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tissue from adjacent healthy tissue and study the mechanism of metabolic reprogramming in OSCC. We compared the metabolites between cancerous and paracancerous tissues of OSCC patients by 1HNMR analysis. We established OSCC derived cell lines and analyzed their difference of RNA expression by RNA sequencing. We investigated the metabolism of γ-aminobutyrate in OSCC derived cells by real time PCR and western blotting. Our data revealed that much more γ-aminobutyrate was produced in cancerous tissues of OSCC patients. The investigation based on OSCC derived cells showed that the increase of γ-aminobutyrate was promoted by the synthesis of glutamate beyond the mitochondria. In OSCC cancerous tissue derived cells, the glutamate was catalyzed to glutamine by glutamine synthetase (GLUL), and then the generated glutamine was metabolized to glutamate by glutaminase (GLS). Finally, the glutamate produced by glutamate-glutamine-glutamate cycle was converted to γ-aminobutyrate by glutamate decarboxylase 2 (GAD2). Our study is not only benefit for understanding the pathological mechanisms of OSCC, but also has application prospects for the diagnosis of OSCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias Bucais , Humanos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Glutamina/genética , Glutamina/metabolismo , Reprogramação Metabólica , Glutamatos/genética , Glutamatos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
13.
Discov Med ; 36(183): 836-841, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38665031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over 80% of lung cancer cases constitute non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), making it the most prevalent type of lung cancer globally and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. The treatment of NSCLC patients with gefitinib has demonstrated promising initial efficacy. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study aims to investigate how gefitinib affects the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) signaling pathway-mediated growth and death of NSCLC cells. METHODS: In this study, the NSCLC cell line A549 was cultured in vitro and divided into a control group and a gefitinib group. The viability of the A549 cells was assessed using the methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Flow cytometry was employed to detect apoptosis in A549 cells, and the expression of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH1) mRNA in these cells was determined using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR). Western blotting was utilized to evaluate the protein expression levels of key components in the MEK/ERK signaling pathway, including phospho-MEK1/2, MEK1/2, phospho-ERK1/2, and ERK1/2. Additionally, intracellular glutamine content in A549 cells was measured using a colorimetric method. RESULTS: In contrast to the control group, the proliferation of A549 cells, the transcription level of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH1), the intracellular glutamine content, and the protein expression levels of phospho-MEK1/2 and phospho-ERK1/2 were significantly lower in the gefitinib group. Moreover, apoptosis markedly increased. CONCLUSIONS: Gefitinib expedites apoptosis and diminishes proliferation in the NSCLC cell line A549 by downregulating the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/MEK/ERK signaling pathway. This effect is accomplished by fostering the expression of GDH1 to augment glutaminolysis in A549 cells.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Gefitinibe , Glutamina , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Humanos , Gefitinibe/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Células A549 , Glutamina/metabolismo , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Quinazolinas/uso terapêutico , Glutamato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
14.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 150(4): 211, 2024 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38662258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circular ribose nucleic acids (circRNAs), an abundant type of noncoding RNAs, are widely expressed in eukaryotic cells and exert a significant impact on the initiation and progression of various disorders, including different types of cancer. However, the specific role of various circRNAs in colorectal cancer (CRC) pathology is still not fully understood. METHODS: The initial step involved the use of quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to assess the expression levels of circRNAs and messenger RNA (mRNA) in CRC cell lines and tissues. Subsequently, functional analyses of circCOL1A1 knockdown were conducted in vitro and in vivo through cell counting kit (CCK)-8, colony formation and transwell assays, as well as xenograft mouse model of tumor formation. Molecular expression and interactions were investigated using luciferase reporter assays, Western blot analysis, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), and immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: The RT-qPCR results revealed elevated levels of circCOL1A1 expressions in CRC tissues and cell lines as compared to the normal counterparts. In addition, circCOL1A1 expression level was found to be correlated with TNM stage, lymph node metastases, distant metastases, and invasion. Knockdown of circCOL1A1 resulted in impaired invasion, migration, and proliferation of CRC cells, and suppressed tumor generation in the animal model. We further demonstrated that circCOL1A1 could act as a sponge for miR-214-3p, suppressing miR-214-3p activity and leading to the upregulation of GLS1 protein to promote glutamine metabolism. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that circCOL1A1 functions as an oncogenic molecule to promote CRC progression via miR-214-3p/GLS1 axis, hinting on the potential of circCOL1A1 as a therapeutic target for CRC.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Colorretais , Glutaminase , Glutamina , MicroRNAs , Invasividade Neoplásica , RNA Circular , Regulação para Cima , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glutaminase/genética , Glutaminase/metabolismo , Glutamina/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Circular/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
15.
Exp Mol Med ; 56(4): 1013-1026, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38684915

RESUMO

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising anticancer agent because it kills cancer cells while sparing normal cells. However, many cancers, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), exhibit intrinsic or acquired resistance to TRAIL, and the molecular mechanisms underlying TRAIL resistance in cancers, particularly in PDAC, remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that glutamine (Gln) endows PDAC cells with resistance to TRAIL through KDM4C-mediated epigenetic regulation of cFLIP. Inhibition of glutaminolysis significantly reduced the cFLIP level, leading to TRAIL-mediated formation of death-inducing signaling complexes. Overexpression of cFLIP dramatically rescued PDAC cells from TRAIL/Gln deprivation-induced apoptosis. Alpha-Ketoglutarate (aKG) supplementation significantly reversed the decrease in the cFLIP level induced by glutaminolysis inhibition and rescued PDAC cells from TRAIL/Gln deprivation-induced apoptosis. Knockdown of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2, which facilitates the conversion of oxaloacetate and glutamate into aspartate and aKG, decreased aKG production and the cFLIP level and activated TRAIL-induced apoptosis. AKG-mediated epigenetic regulation was necessary for maintaining a high level of cFLIP. Glutaminolysis inhibition increased the abundance of H3K9me3 in the cFLIP promoter, indicating that Gln-derived aKG production is important for Jumonji-domain histone demethylase (JHDM)-mediated cFLIP regulation. The JHDM KDM4C regulated cFLIP expression by binding to its promoter, and KDM4C knockdown sensitized PDAC cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. The present findings suggest that Gln-derived aKG production is required for KDM4C-mediated epigenetic regulation of cFLIP, which leads to resistance to TRAIL.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Proteína Reguladora de Apoptosis Semelhante a CASP8 e FADD , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Epigênese Genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glutamina , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF , Humanos , Proteína Reguladora de Apoptosis Semelhante a CASP8 e FADD/metabolismo , Proteína Reguladora de Apoptosis Semelhante a CASP8 e FADD/genética , Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/metabolismo , Glutamina/metabolismo , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/metabolismo , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Cetoglutáricos/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Aspartato Aminotransferase Citoplasmática/metabolismo , Aspartato Aminotransferase Citoplasmática/genética , Animais , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
16.
Chembiochem ; 25(8): e202300865, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442082

RESUMO

Mono-ADP-ribosylation is a dynamic post-translational modification (PTM) with important roles in cell signalling. This modification occurs on a wide variety of amino acids, and one of the canonical modification sites within proteins is the side chain of glutamic acid. Given the transient nature of this modification (acylal linkage) and the high sensitivity of ADP-ribosylated glutamic acid, stabilized isosteres are required for structural and biochemical studies. Here, we report the synthesis of a mimic of ADP-ribosylated peptide derived from histone H2B that contains carba-ADP-ribosylated glutamine as a potential mimic for Glu-ADPr. We synthesized a cyclopentitol-ribofuranosyl derivative of 5'-phosphoribosylated Fmoc-glutamine and used this in the solid-phase synthesis of the carba-ADPr-peptide mimicking the ADP-ribosylated N-terminal tail of histone H2B. Binding studies with isothermal calorimetry demonstrate that the macrodomains of human MacroD2 and TARG1 bind to carba-ADPr-peptide in the same way as ADPr-peptides containing the native ADP-riboside moiety connected to the side chain of glutamine in the same peptide sequence.


Assuntos
Glutamina , Histonas , Humanos , Glutamina/química , Glutamina/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Peptídeos/química , ADP-Ribosilação , Glutamatos/metabolismo
17.
J Bone Miner Res ; 39(2): 150-160, 2024 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38477776

RESUMO

Skeletal stem and progenitor cells (SSPCs) are crucial for bone development, homeostasis, and repair. SSPCs are considered to reside in a rather hypoxic niche in the bone, but distinct SSPC niches have been described in different skeletal regions, and they likely differ in oxygen and nutrient availability. Currently it remains unknown whether the different SSPC sources have a comparable metabolic profile and respond in a similar manner to hypoxia. In this study, we show that cell proliferation of all SSPCs was increased in hypoxia, suggesting that SSPCs can indeed function in a hypoxic niche in vivo. In addition, low oxygen tension increased glucose consumption and lactate production, but affected pyruvate metabolism cell-specifically. Hypoxia decreased tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle anaplerosis and altered glucose entry into the TCA cycle from pyruvate dehydrogenase to pyruvate carboxylase and/or malic enzyme. Finally, a switch from glutamine oxidation to reductive carboxylation was observed in hypoxia, as well as cell-specific adaptations in the metabolism of other amino acids. Collectively, our findings show that SSPCs from different skeletal locations proliferate adequately in hypoxia by rewiring glucose and amino acid metabolism in a cell-specific manner.


Skeletal stem and progenitor cells provide a lifelong cell source for bone-forming osteoblasts and these cells reside in unique microenvironments in different regions of the bone, often characterized by low oxygen levels. It was still unknown whether these regional differences resulted in diverse metabolic profiles. In this study, we show that all types of skeletal stem and progenitor cells can proliferate in low oxygen levels by adapting their metabolism of glucose and amino acids, but they differ in how they modify pyruvate metabolism.


Assuntos
Glucose , Glutamina , Ácido Pirúvico , Células-Tronco , Glucose/metabolismo , Glutamina/metabolismo , Animais , Ácido Pirúvico/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Hipóxia Celular , Camundongos , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico
18.
Brain Res ; 1833: 148852, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38494099

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to examine N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr) and glutamate, glutamine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid complex (Glx)/Cr levels in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and healthy controls' orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and caudate nucleus (CN) by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) method and to investigate their relationship with oxidative stress markers glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). METHODS: This study included patients with OCD (n = 25) and healthy controls (n = 25) ranging in age from 18 to 65. We used the ELISA method to evaluate serum SOD and GPx levels. Levels of NAA/Cr and Glx/Cr in the orbitofrontal cortex and caudate nucleus were measured using the 1H-MRS method. RESULTS: Our study did not detect statistically significant differences in the orbitofrontal cortex Glx/Cr and NAA/Cr levels between the OCD patients and the control group. OCD patients exhibited a decrease in NAA/Cr levels, consistent with impaired neuronal integration, and an increase in Glx/Cr levels, consistent with hyperactivation, in the caudate nucleus compared to the control group. We observed a negative correlation between NAA/Cr levels in the caudate nucleus and the levels of SOD and GPx. CONCLUSIONS: Our study is the first to assess CN and OFC together in OCD patients using 3 T MR, investigating the relationship between neurometabolite concentrations and oxidative stress parameters. The negative correlation we observed between NAA/Cr levels and SOD and GPx in the caudate nucleus suggests that increased oxidative stress in this brain region in OCD patients may contribute to impaired neuronal integration and functionality.


Assuntos
Ácido Aspártico , Ácido Aspártico/análogos & derivados , Creatina , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo , Estresse Oxidativo , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Superóxido Dismutase , Humanos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Ácido Aspártico/metabolismo , Adolescente , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Creatina/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Núcleo Caudado/metabolismo , Núcleo Caudado/diagnóstico por imagem , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Glutamina/metabolismo , Idoso , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem
19.
Cell Rep ; 43(4): 113975, 2024 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38507411

RESUMO

The intestine is a highly metabolic tissue, but the metabolic programs that influence intestinal crypt proliferation, differentiation, and regeneration are still emerging. Here, we investigate how mitochondrial sirtuin 4 (SIRT4) affects intestinal homeostasis. Intestinal SIRT4 loss promotes cell proliferation in the intestine following ionizing radiation (IR). SIRT4 functions as a tumor suppressor in a mouse model of intestinal cancer, and SIRT4 loss drives dysregulated glutamine and nucleotide metabolism in intestinal adenomas. Intestinal organoids lacking SIRT4 display increased proliferation after IR stress, along with increased glutamine uptake and a shift toward de novo nucleotide biosynthesis over salvage pathways. Inhibition of de novo nucleotide biosynthesis diminishes the growth advantage of SIRT4-deficient organoids after IR stress. This work establishes SIRT4 as a modulator of intestinal metabolism and homeostasis in the setting of DNA-damaging stress.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Intestinais , Intestinos , Sirtuínas , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Glutamina/metabolismo , Homeostase , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Neoplasias Intestinais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Intestinais/patologia , Neoplasias Intestinais/genética , Intestinos/metabolismo , Intestinos/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Mitocondriais , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Organoides/metabolismo , Sirtuínas/metabolismo
20.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 43(1): 74, 2024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38459595

RESUMO

Glutamine metabolism plays a pivotal role in cancer progression, immune cell function, and the modulation of the tumor microenvironment. Dysregulated glutamine metabolism has been implicated in cancer development and immune responses, supported by mounting evidence. Cancer cells heavily rely on glutamine as a critical nutrient for survival and proliferation, while immune cells require glutamine for activation and proliferation during immune reactions. This metabolic competition creates a dynamic tug-of-war between cancer and immune cells. Targeting glutamine transporters and downstream enzymes involved in glutamine metabolism holds significant promise in enhancing anti-tumor immunity. A comprehensive understanding of the intricate molecular mechanisms underlying this interplay is crucial for developing innovative therapeutic approaches that improve anti-tumor immunity and patient outcomes. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of recent advances in unraveling the tug-of-war of glutamine metabolism between cancer and immune cells and explore potential applications of basic science discoveries in the clinical setting. Further investigations into the regulation of glutamine metabolism in cancer and immune cells are expected to yield valuable insights, paving the way for future therapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
Glutamina , Neoplasias , Humanos , Glutamina/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Metabolismo Energético , Microambiente Tumoral
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