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1.
Acta Cir Bras ; 35(1): e202000101, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159587

RESUMO

Solid organ transplantation is a very complex process, in which the storage of the graft in a preservation solution is mandatory in order to extend ischemic times and contain further damage. The condition in which the organ is transplanted is critical for the outcome of the organ recipient. The recent emergence of generic versions of organ preservation solutions (solutions with the same composition and under the same legislation as the original versions, but with different brands) compelled us to study whether the standards are maintained when comparing the original and its generic counterpart. Along these lines, we discuss and comment on some aspects concerning this issue of general interest in the organ transplantation field.


Assuntos
Glutationa/química , Soluções para Preservação de Órgãos/química , Transplante de Órgãos/métodos , Cálcio/análise , Humanos , Soluções para Preservação de Órgãos/normas , Temperatura Ambiente , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Chem Biol Interact ; 318: 108974, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032594

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was the synthesis of ion doped silica-based nanoparticles and the evaluation of their toxic effect on erythrocytes. MATERIALS & METHODS: Their synthesis was performed using the sol-gel method, by the progressive addition of calcium, magnesium and copper ions on pure silica nanoparticles. The toxicity evaluation was based on hemolysis, lipid peroxidation, ROS, H2O2 species and antioxidant enzyme production. RESULTS: The addition of Mg and Cu in the SNs presented better hemocompatibility by protecting erythrocytes from oxidative stress. CONCLUSION: Ion doping with magnesium in the investigated calcium silicate system induces a protective effect in erythrocyte membrane in compare with pure silica nanoparticles.


Assuntos
Cobre/toxicidade , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Magnésio/toxicidade , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Dióxido de Silício/química , Células Cultivadas , Cobre/química , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Magnésio/química , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
3.
Chem Biol Interact ; 319: 108984, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061742

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: As one of the main active ingredients of Chinese herbal medicine Andrographis paniculate, andrographolide is used in domestic clinical treatment for respiratory infections and inflammation. This study was designed to investigate the effects of andrographolide as an antioxidant on the level of oxidative stress, neutrophil accumulation and infiltration in joints and synovial tissue of arthritis rats induced by complete freund's adjuvant. METHODS: A rat model of rheumatoid arthritis was induced by subcutaneous injection of complete Freund's adjuvant in the footpad. The model was established 14 days after induction. The treatment was performed from 14th day to 35th day with different doses of andrographolide (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) and positive control methotrexate (3 mg/kg). The effects of andrographolide on oxidative stress, neutrophil accumulation and infiltration were measured by the paw swelling, arthritis score, the hot plate test, biochemical analysis, and histology. RESULTS: The medium and high-dose andrographolide (50, 100 mg/kg) group declined the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and CXC chemokine ligand2, articular elastase and myeloperoxidase, and increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione. The activity of malondialdehyde and nitrite/nitrate in andrographolide (50, 100 mg/kg) group was weakened than the model group. The degree of swelling and arthritis score of andrographolide group was lower than the model group. The results of hot plate test showed that high dose of andrographolide significantly improved the anti-injury ability of rats; Radiological and histological results showed that the joint osteoporosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, synovial hyperplasia and other phenomena in the andrographolide group were significantly improved. CONCLUSIONS: Andrographolide acts as a protective agent for the treatment of complete freund's adjuvant induced rheumatoid arthritis by inhibiting lipid peroxidation and nitrite/nitrate levels in a dose-dependent manner, enhancing antioxidant enzyme activity, reducing levels of chemokines and inflammatory factors, preventing neutrophil accumulation and infiltration.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Adjuvante de Freund/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Artrite Experimental/metabolismo , Artrite Reumatoide/induzido quimicamente , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Edema/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Articulações/efeitos dos fármacos , Articulações/metabolismo , Masculino , Metotrexato/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Membrana Sinovial/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Sinovial/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
4.
Life Sci ; 246: 117400, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032645

RESUMO

AIMS: Comparative sub-acute toxicity, including tolerance and dependence potential of fentanyl and its three novel and potent analogues was determined in mice. MAIN METHODS: Comparative sub-acute (21 d, intraperitoneal; 1/10 LD50) toxicity of fentanyl and its three novel analogues viz., N-(1-(2-phenoxyethyl)-4-piperidinyl) propionanilide (2), N-isopropyl-3-(4-(N-phenylpropionamido)piperidin-1-yl)propanamide (5), and N-t-butyl-3-(4-(N-phenylpropionamido)piperidin-1-yl)propanamide (6) was determined in mice. Animals were observed for additional seven days to assess the recovery. The brain, liver and kidney toxicity was assessed on the basis of various biochemical, oxidative, histological, and neuroadaptive markers. The expression levels of key neuronal markers associated with drug tolerance and dependence were investigated by western blot and immunohistochemistry. KEY FINDINGS: Fentanyl and its analogues caused abnormal levels of liver and kidney specific biomarkers in plasma. Brain malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were raised by all the treatments and kidney MDA level by analogue 6 (21 d). Reduced glutathione levels in brain, liver, and kidney were diminished by all the treatments (21 & 28 d) and a significant change in the levels of antioxidant enzymes was also produced mainly after 21 d. The deleterious effects of fentanyl and its analogues were further substantiated by corresponding histopathological changes in brain, liver and kidney (21 & 28 d). These compounds were also found to produce neuroadaptive changes as evidenced by the increased expression levels of c-Fos, glucocorticoid receptor, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor1 and µ-opioid receptor (21 & 28 d). SIGNIFICANCE: Three novel analogues of fentanyl were envisaged to have alternative therapeutic potentials. However, their comparative sub-acute toxicity revealed undesirable side effects, thereby masking their therapeutic ability.


Assuntos
Fentanila/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Western Blotting , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Fentanila/análogos & derivados , Glutationa/análise , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/análise , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109747

RESUMO

Cd(II) is toxic to many species, including humans, because it inactivates a number of enzymes and induces cytopathic effects in the liver, kidney, and skeletal tissues in humans. Metallothionein and glutathione (GSH) play a major role in the protection against Cd(II)-induced toxicity in mammalian cells. In this study, a relatively simple method for detecting trace amounts of Cd(II) chelators was developed by using 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphinetetrasulfonic acid (TPPS). The TPPS-Cd(II) complex was added to the elutions of high-performance liquid chromatography. The Cd(II) chelators separated by column chromatography were mixed with Cd(II)-bound TPPS (TPPS-Cd(II)). Cd(II) from TPPS-Cd(II) was chelated by the eluted Cd(II) chelators, resulting in the formation of free TPPS. The absorbance of TPPS shifted from 434 nm (TPPS-Cd(II)) to 414 nm (TPPS), and this characteristic shift was used to estimate the quantity and affinity of the Cd(II) chelators. This new method was compared with the bathocuproine disulfonate (BCS) method developed in our previous study. Instead of BCS-Cu(I), TPPS-Cd(II) was used as the colorimetric reagent. The experimental setup of the TPPS-based method is more general, and the preparation of the colorimetric solution is also much simpler than the BCS method. To verify the efficacy of this new method, we determined the actual Cd(II)-chelating ability of GSH in horse blood; the obtained concentration was in good agreement with the previously reported value.


Assuntos
Aporfinas/química , Cádmio/química , Quelantes/análise , Quelantes/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Animais , Glutationa , Cavalos , Limite de Detecção , Estresse Oxidativo
6.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(20): 3081-3084, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051996

RESUMO

Surface CIEE based on Zn-HDS as host material and GSH-CuNCs as guest molecules was developed to produce fluorescence composite GSH-CuNCs/Zn-HDS for the first time. It displays high quantum yield, long fluorescence lifetime and good stability, and was applied to sensitive bioenzyme sensing and fabrication of a high performance light-emitting diode.


Assuntos
Cobre/química , Enzimas/análise , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Luz , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Zinco/química , Enzimas/metabolismo , Glutationa/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Sais/química , Propriedades de Superfície
7.
Life Sci ; 248: 117464, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097667

RESUMO

AIMS: The present study was carried out to investigate the influences of Selenium/Zinc-Enriched probiotics (SeZnP) on growth performance, serum enzyme activity, antioxidant capability, inflammatory factors and gene expression associated with Wistar rats inflated under high ambient thermal-stress. MAIN METHODS: Sixty male rates with six-weeks of age were randomly allocated into five groups (12 per group) and fed basal diet (Control), basal diet supplemented with probiotics (P), Zinc-Enriched probiotics (ZnP, 100 mg/L), Selenium-Enriched Probiotics (SeP, 0.3 mg/L) and Selenium/Zinc-Enriched probiotics (SeZnP, 0.3 mg + 100 mg/L). The experiment lasted 30 days. Blood and Tissues samples were taken to investigate serum enzyme activity, antioxidants capability and inflammatory factors by using of commercial kits and antioxidant, heat shock and inflammatory related molecules expressions were determined by qRT-PCR. KEY FINDINGS: Data analysis revealed that thermal stress significantly increased the level of Aspartate-aminotransferase, Alanine-aminotransferase, Lactate-dehydrogenase, Creatine-kinase, blood urea nitrogen, Creatinine and Alkaline phosphatase compared to P, ZnP, SeP or SeZnP groups (P < 0.01). However, supplementation of ZnP, SeP, and SeZnP significantly enhanced glutathione content, glutathione-peroxidase & superoxide-dismutase activity, and decreased malondialdehyde content (P < 0.05). Moreover, the concentration of IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly increased while IL-10 was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the expression of GPx1 and SOD1 genes were significantly increased, but COX-2, iNOS, HSP70 and 90 mRNA levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Finally, the highest influence of the mentioned parameters was observed in SeZnP supplemented group. SIGNIFICANCE: Our study suggests that SeZnP supplementation serves as possible and best nutritive than ZnP or SeP for Wistar rats raising under high ambient temperature.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Selênio/administração & dosagem , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Alanina Transaminase/genética , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Fosfatase Alcalina/genética , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/genética , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Creatina Quinase/genética , Creatina Quinase/metabolismo , Creatinina/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/genética , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
8.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 54(2): 161-179, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: We performed co-culture experiments between human RPE cells (ARPE-19) and human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) in order to evaluate how anti-VEGF drugs could affect NO release, mitochondrial function, the oxidative status, proliferation and migration of RPE cells through modulation of their cross talk with vascular endothelial cells. METHODS: The co-culture HUVEC/RPE, was exposed to Ranibizumab/Aflibercept in the absence/presence of the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K), the extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) blockers. Specific kits were used for cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, NO, ROS and GSH production. Western blot was performed for apoptosis markers, NOS isoforms, and others kinases detection. Cell migration was analyzed by scratch assay, whereas cell proliferation and cell cycle through xCELLigence and flow cytometry. RESULTS: In RPE cells co-cultured with HUVEC in physiological conditions, Aflibercept/Ranibizumab increased NO release in a dose and time-dependent way. Opposite results were obtained in peroxidative conditions. Both anti-VEGF agents were able to prevent the fall of cell viability and mitochondrial membrane potential, an effect which was reduced by various inhibitors, and increased cell migration. Aflibercept/Ranibizumab counteracted the changes of apoptosis markers, NOS expression/activation, PI3K and ERK1/2 activation caused by peroxidation. These results were confirmed by cell cycle analysis. CONCLUSION: This study has shown new mechanisms at the basis of protective effects elicited by Aflibercept/Ranibizumab in RPE cells. HUVEC stimulated with Aflibercept/Ranibizumab, could release some paracrine factors that can modulate the RPE cells response in both physiologic and peroxidative conditions.


Assuntos
Comunicação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ranibizumab/farmacologia , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/farmacologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Cocultura , Glutationa/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/citologia , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/metabolismo
9.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 29(1): 135-145, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anesthetics, such as isoflurane, sevoflurane, ketamine, and desflurane, are commonly used in clinics. Specifically, isoflurane is one of the most commonly used inhalational anesthetics, which can be used in surgery patients of all ages, including children. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the mechanisms of vitexin against isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Reference memory testing was performed for 5 days (4 trials, 2 per day) before anesthesia. Reversal testing was performed on the 3rd day after anesthesia. The cell viability and apoptosis of PC-12 cells were detected using MTT and TUNEL assays, respectively. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits were used to measure serum tumor necrosis factor α (TNF­α), interleukin 6 (IL­6), glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentrations. The concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected using ROS measurement. Expression of miR-409 was determined using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPT-PCR). Protein expression levels were detected using western blotting. RESULTS: Rats treated with isoflurane showed significant increases in the escape latency periods (ELP) and the apoptosis of hippocampus neuron cells; this effect was reversed by 3 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg of vitexin (p < 0.05). Further testing showed that isoflurane could significantly decrease the cell viability and increase the apoptosis of PC-12, the expression of inflammatory cytokines (TNF­α and IL­6) and ROS (p < 0.05). However, these results were reversed by 10/100 µM of vitexin. In addition, vitexin could significantly increase the expression of miR-409 (p < 0.05). Further studies showed that overexpression of miR-409 could significantly promote the effect of vitexin on isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity (p < 0.05). Finally, overexpression miR-409 could significantly increase the expression of p-AMPK/t-AMPK and p-GSK3ß/t-GSK3ß. CONCLUSIONS: Vitexin has protective effects against isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity by targeting miR-409 and the AMPK/GSK3ß pathway.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Inalatórios , Apigenina/farmacologia , Isoflurano/farmacologia , MicroRNAs/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Glutationa/sangue , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , MicroRNAs/genética , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
10.
Chemosphere ; 243: 125241, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995860

RESUMO

In lakes and reservoirs, harmful algal blooms and high pH have been deemed to be two important stressors related to eutrophication, especially in the case of CO2 depletion caused by dense blooms. However, the effects of these stressors on the economically important shellfish that inhabit these waters are still not well-understood. This study evaluated the combined effects of the harmful algae Microcystis aeruginosa (0%, 50%, and 100% of total dietary dry weight) and high pH (8.0, 8.5 and 9.0) on the antioxidant responses of the triangle sail mussel H. cumingii. The mussels were exposed to algae and high pH for 14 d, followed by a 7-day depuration period. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mussel hemolymph, antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes, such as glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the digestive glands were analyzed during the experimental period. GST, SOD and GPx activity levels and the content of GSH increased following exposure to toxic M. aeruginosa, whereas CAT activity was inhibited. pH showed no significant effects on the immune defense mechanisms and detoxification processes. However, a high pH could cause increased ROS and MDA levels, resulting in oxidative injury. After a 7-day depuration period, exposure to toxic M. aeruginosa or high pH resulted in latent effects for most of the examined parameters. The treatment group exposed to the highest pH (9.0) displayed an increased oxidation state compared with the other pH treatments (8.0 and 8.5) for the same concentrations of toxic M. aeruginosa. The trends observed for ROS, MDA, GPx, GST, SOD and GSH levels indicated that a high density of toxic algae could result in severe and continuous effects on mussel health.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Água Doce , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Microcystis , Unionidae/fisiologia , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Ecotoxicologia , Eutrofização , Água Doce/química , Água Doce/microbiologia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 190: 110119, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891835

RESUMO

Chlorothalonil is an effective fungicide used in agriculture and formulations of antifouling paints, which use and possible toxicity has been generating great concern. Thus, the present study investigated the effects of chlorothalonil on the antioxidant defense system (ADS) of the mussel Perna perna. The ADS was evaluated in gills and digestive gland after 24 h and 96 h of exposure to environmental relevant levels of chlorothalonil (0.1 and 10 µg/L). The activity of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutamate cysteine-ligase (GCL) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), levels of non-enzymatic defenses, represented by glutathione (GSH), and lipoperoxidation (LPO) and protein carbonyls (PCO) were evaluated. Results indicated that exposure to chlorothalonil is affecting the ADS in both tissues. While the activity of SOD increased and GST and GSH were not altered in gills, they decreased in digestive gland after 24 h of exposure to 10 µg/L of chlorothalonil. The contrasting results indicate that gills and digestive gland presented different patterns of responses after exposure to chlorothalonil. Moreover, a tissue-specific response to chlorothalonil was observed. Gills could be acting as the first line of defense, presenting higher enzymatic levels with minor effects on the parameters analyzed. On the other hand, digestive gland, with lower levels of antioxidant defenses, was the most affect organ by chlorothalonil. It also should be highlighted that the fungicide reduced the glutathione metabolism in the digestive gland, which can lead to an imbalance of the redox state within the cells of animals.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Nitrilos/toxicidade , Perna (Organismo)/fisiologia , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Fungicidas Industriais/metabolismo , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Perna (Organismo)/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 190: 110107, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901814

RESUMO

Increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels are commonly considered an indicator of lipid peroxidation derived from oxidative stress insults promoted by exposure of fish to pollutants. However, a decrease in MDA levels after xenobiotic exposure has been also reported, an effect that is mostly attributed to enhanced antioxidant defenses. In this study, we assessed whether pollutant-mediated MDA decrease would be associated with antioxidant enhancement or with its metabolism by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in the liver and gills of lambari (Astyanax altiparanae) exposed to diesel oil (0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 mL/L). MDA levels were decreased in the liver of lambari exposed to diesel. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), were unchanged in the liver, while that of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) was decreased. In contrast, levels of total glutathione (tGSH) and the activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) were increased in the liver, which partly support antioxidant protection against lipid peroxidation. More importantly, ALDH activity increased in a concentration-dependent manner, being negatively correlated with MDA levels, indicating MDA metabolism by ALDH. In the gills, diesel exposure increased MDA and lipid hydroperoxide levels, and promoted increases in antioxidant defenses, indicating oxidative stress. Curiously, ALDH activity was undetectable in the gills, supporting the possibility of direct MDA excretion in the water by the gills. Analyses of MDA in the water revealed increased levels of MDA in the aquaria in which the fish were exposed to diesel, compared to control aquaria. A second experiment was carried out in which the fish were intraperitoneally injected with MDA (10 mg/kg) and analyzed after 1, 6, and 12 h. MDA injection caused a time-dependent decrease in hepatic MDA levels, did not alter ALDH, CAT, GPx, and GST activities, and decreased G6PDH activity and tGSH levels. In the gills, MDA injection caused a slight increase in MDA levels after 1 h, but did not alter GPx, G6PDH, and GST activities. MDA injection also enhanced CAT activity and tGSH levels in the gills. MDA concentration in water increased progressively after 1, 6, and 12 h, supporting the hypothesis of direct MDA excretion as an alternative route for MDA elimination in fish. Our results suggest that the decreased MDA levels after exposure of lambari to diesel oil pollutant probably reflects an association between enhanced antioxidant protection, MDA metabolism, and MDA excretion in water.


Assuntos
Aldeído Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Peixes/metabolismo , Gasolina/toxicidade , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Characidae/metabolismo , Brânquias/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Alimentos Marinhos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(6): 1571-1578, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927886

RESUMO

Diallyl trisulfide (DATS) is a secondary metabolite of allicin, a volatile organosulfur flavoring compound generated by the crushing of garlic. These compounds have various medicinal effects such as antiplatelet activity. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time the cellular mechanism involved in the inhibition of platelet aggregation by DATS and dipropyl trisulfide (DPTS), which is a saturated analogue of DATS. Washed murine platelets were incubated with these sulfides, and platelet aggregation was evaluated by light transmission aggregometry. The amount of reaction products produced by DATS, DPTS, and glutathione (GSH) was measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Compared with DPTS, DATS potently inhibited platelet aggregation induced by thrombin, U46619, and collagen. N-Ethylmaleimide (NEM), which is commonly used to modify sulfhydryl groups, also suppressed platelet aggregation. The reactivity of DATS with GSH was higher than that of DPTS. These data suggested that DATS inhibited platelet aggregation through the reaction of sulfhydryl groups.


Assuntos
Compostos Alílicos/química , Compostos Alílicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Compostos de Sulfidrila/farmacologia , Sulfetos/química , Sulfetos/farmacologia , Animais , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plaquetas/fisiologia , Dissulfetos/química , Dissulfetos/farmacologia , Alho/química , Glutationa/química , Camundongos , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química
14.
Toxicol Lett ; 322: 131-139, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953209

RESUMO

Cyanotoxins, among which >200 variants of Microcystins (MC), constitute an emerging issue in food safety. Microcystins (MC) toxicity is congener-specific; however, the in vitro inhibition of PP1/PP2A (the key molecular event of MC toxicity) by single MC variants is comparable and MC toxicokinetics seems to be the critical point. Here, the variability in GSH conjugation catalysed by human recombinant enzymes and human hepatic cytosol has been compared between hydrophilic (MC-LR and MC-RR) and hydrophobic (MC-LW, MC-YR and MC-LF) variants, according to measured logPow. In vitro detoxication reaction (spontaneous plus enzymatic) is favored by the variant hydrophilicity, with MC-LF very poorly detoxified. With MC-YR and -LW the spontaneous reaction always gave the major contribution, whereas with MC-LR and -RR the enzymatic reaction became by far predominant when GSH was depleted. Consequently, the well-known GST polymorphisms seems not to be the major driver for potential human variability in susceptibility towards the MC-toxicity, except for MC-RR and -LR when GSH is depleted. Looking at these results and literature data, MC-RR (the least cytotoxic and acutely toxic in rodents) is the more hydrophilic, has the lowest OATP-mediated hepatic uptake and the highest detoxication efficiency. The opposite is true for the most lipophilic MC-LF: once entered in the cells with the highest uptake, it is very poorly detoxified, and resulted as the most toxic in various cell types. MC-dependent TK should be considered in order to estimate the variability in toxicity and to support the use of quantitative in vitro-in vivo extrapolation models of single toxins and their mixtures co-occurring in the environment.


Assuntos
Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Fígado/enzimologia , Microcistinas/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Inativação Metabólica , Isoenzimas , Masculino , Microcistinas/química , Microcistinas/toxicidade , Estrutura Molecular , Polimorfismo Genético , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Especificidade por Substrato , Toxicocinética
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 567, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992692

RESUMO

Since the discovery of metal nanoparticles (NPs) in the 1960s, unknown toxicity, cost and the ethical hurdles of research in humans have hindered the translation of these NPs to clinical use. In this work, we demonstrate that Pt NPs with protein coronas are generated in vivo in human blood when a patient is treated with cisplatin. These self-assembled Pt NPs form rapidly, accumulate in tumors, and remain in the body for an extended period of time. Additionally, the Pt NPs are safe for use in humans and can act as anti-cancer agents to inhibit chemotherapy-resistant tumor growth by consuming intracellular glutathione and activating apoptosis. The tumor inhibitory activity is greatly amplified when the Pt NPs are loaded in vitro with the chemotherapeutic drug, daunorubicin, and the formulation is effective even in daunorubicin-resistant models. These in vivo-generated metal NPs represent a biocompatible drug delivery platform for chemotherapy resistant tumor treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/sangue , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Platina/sangue , Platina/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Daunorrubicina/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Feminino , Glutationa/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Células K562 , Glomérulos Renais/efeitos dos fármacos , Glomérulos Renais/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Nus , Tamanho da Partícula , Coroa de Proteína , Fatores de Tempo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Peixe-Zebra
16.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 29(1): 5-11, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Methotrexate (MTX) is an antineoplastic agent, which increases the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreases the level of antioxidants. Lycopene, is a potent antioxidant, which is used because of its protective effect against tissue damage. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of lycopene on ovarian MTX-induced injury in rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Rats (n = 36) were randomly divided into 3 equal groups: a group with MTX only (MG, n = 12), a group with lycopene and MTX (LMG, n = 12), and a healthy control group (HCG, n = 12). Then, malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and total glutathione (tGSH) levels and histopathological findings were examined in the ovaries of rats. Apart from the histopathological and biochemical evaluation, the reproductive performance of the experimental groups was also examined. RESULTS: Our study demonstrated that, in ovarian tissues of rats administered MTX, there was a decrease in the levels of tGSH, while MDA and MPO were increased, but it is observed that these ratios are reversed in the LMG (p < 0.05). It also has been proven that a single, high-dose use of MTX causes infertility in female rats, prolongs the gestation period and reduces the number of offspring. CONCLUSIONS: Lycopene pretreatment ameliorates the MTX induced ovarian injury and infertility in rats through its antioxidative activities.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos , Antioxidantes , Infertilidade Feminina , Licopeno , Metotrexato , Animais , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Glutationa , Infertilidade Feminina/induzido quimicamente , Infertilidade Feminina/prevenção & controle , Licopeno/uso terapêutico , Malondialdeído , Metotrexato/efeitos adversos , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
17.
Int J Occup Environ Med ; 11(1): 41-52, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arsenic, an environmental pollutant, is a carcinogenic metalloid and also an anticancer agent. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the toxicity of arsenic nanoparticles in rat hepatocytes. METHODS: Freshly isolated rat hepatocytes were exposed to 0, 20, 40, and 100 µM of arsenic nanoparticles and its bulk counterpart. Their viability, reactive oxygen species level, glutathione depletion, mitochondrial and lysosomal damage, and apoptosis were evaluated. RESULTS: By all concentrations, lysosomal damage and apoptosis were clearly evident in hepatocytes exposed to arsenic nanoparticles. Evaluation of mitochondria and lysosomes revealed that lysosomes were highly damaged. CONCLUSION: Exposure to arsenic nanoparticles causes apoptosis and organelle impairment. The nanoparticles have potentially higher toxicity than the bulk arsenic. Lysosomes are highly affected. It seems that, instead of mitochondria, lysosomes are the first target organelles involved in the toxicity induced by arsenic nanoparticles.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Arsênico/toxicidade , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lisossomos/patologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Glutationa/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/citologia , Humanos , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
18.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(9): 1397-1400, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912815

RESUMO

NAMI-A is highly reactive to Sp1, a tumor metastasis related protein, resulting in the perturbation of the protein structure and disruption of the DNA recognition of Sp1. Interestingly, Sp1 is more susceptible than other zinc finger proteins to NAMI-A, suggesting that Sp1 could be the anti-metastasis target of NAMI-A.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Dimetil Sulfóxido/análogos & derivados , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Compostos de Rutênio/química , Fator de Transcrição Sp1/química , DNA/metabolismo , Dimetil Sulfóxido/química , Glutationa/química , Ligação Proteica , Multimerização Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína/efeitos dos fármacos , Desdobramento de Proteína/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Transcrição Sp1/metabolismo
19.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 121(1): 22-30, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950836

RESUMO

AIM: Cornus mas L is commonly used due to its anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic and anti-oxidant properties. In the study, the effects of C. mas L extract on a solid tumor were examined in the Ehrlich solid tumor model developed in Balb/C type mice. METHODS: Ehrlich acid tumor (EAT) cells (1x106 EAT cell) from the stock animal were injected subcutaneously (s.c.) through the nape of the mice. Treatment groups of solid tumor-induced animals received 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of C. mas L extract intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 14 days. RESULTS: Tumor volumes and animal weights were found to be statistically significant compared to the control group (p < 0.05). AgNOR staining was performed in tumor tissues. Statistically significant differences were observed between the groups in terms of TAA/NA ratio (p < 0.05). Immunohistochemical and biochemical parameters were also evaluated. An estimation of tumor proliferation of the lung, liver, brain, kidney, testis and tumor antioxidant parameters viz. lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) was made. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that the anti-tumor effect of C. mas L in assisted tumor development with EAT cells, was mediated by the enhancement of oxidative stress with multiple mechanisms (Tab. 6, Fig. 12, Ref. 38).


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Ehrlich , Cornus , Extratos Vegetais , Animais , Antioxidantes , Carcinoma de Ehrlich/tratamento farmacológico , Catalase , Glutationa , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Fígado , Masculino , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Superóxido Dismutase
20.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 412(5): 1215-1234, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940090

RESUMO

Acute lung injury (ALI) is a clinically common and serious disease, underscoring the urgent need for clarification of its pathogenesis. According to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theories on the "lung-spleen-intestine axis" and its correlation with ALI, a high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF-MS) metabolomic platform was applied to identify biomarkers from five bio-samples of control and model rats challenged with intratracheally administered lipopolysaccharide (LPS) based on multivariate mathematical statistical analysis. As a result, 19, 24, 24, 15 and 29 altered metabolites were identified in serum, lung, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), spleen and feces samples, respectively. Metabolic pathway analysis showed that linoleic acid, sphingolipid, glycerophospholipid and bile acid metabolism pathways were mainly altered by ALI. Additionally, ROC curves were applied to assess the specificity and sensitivity of the biomarkers. ALI characteristic metabolomic spectra were then established to differentiate the control from the model group with a similarity discriminative threshold of 0.7. Additionally, to compare the metabolomic profiles of the five bio-samples and establish metabolic similarities and differences among them, correlation analysis was conducted in order to delineate an objective law of endogenous linkage along the lung-spleen-intestine axis. Therefore, this study provides insights into the mechanisms involved in ALI from a metabolomics perspective, which can be applied in characterization of the mechanism and early disease detection. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/metabolismo , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Fezes , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Pulmão/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Baço/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/sangue , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Citocinas/biossíntese , Enzimas/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
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