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1.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207619

RESUMO

Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiologic agent for Chagas disease, which affects 6-7 million people worldwide. The biological diversity of the parasite reflects on inefficiency of benznidazole, which is a first choice chemotherapy, on chronic patients. ABC transporters that extrude xenobiotics, metabolites, and mediators are overexpressed in resistant cells and contribute to chemotherapy failure. An ABCC-like transport was identified in the Y strain and extrudes thiol-conjugated compounds. As thiols represent a line of defense towards reactive species, we aimed to verify whether ABCC-like transport could participate in the regulation of responses to stressor stimuli. In order to achieve this, ABCC-like activity was measured by flow cytometry using fluorescent substrates. The present study reveals the participation of glutathione and ceramides on ABCC-like transport, which are both implicated in stress. Hemin modulated the ABCC-like efflux which suggests that this protein might be involved in cellular detoxification. Additionally, all strains evaluated exhibited ABCC-like activity, while no ABCB1-like activity was detected. Results suggest that ABCC-like efflux is not associated with natural resistance to benznidazole, since sensitive strains showed higher activity than the resistant ones. Although benznidazole is not a direct substrate, ABCC-like efflux increased after prolonged drug exposure and this indicates that the ABCC-like efflux mediated protection against cell stress depends on the glutathione biosynthesis pathway.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Glutationa/metabolismo , Nitroimidazóis/farmacologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Resistência a Medicamentos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/metabolismo
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 221: 112469, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198190

RESUMO

Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is the key enzyme in glutathione (GSH) synthesis, and plays a crucial role in copper (Cu) detoxification. Nonetheless, its regulatory mechanisms remain largely unclear. In this study, we identified a Cu-induced glutathione S-transferase 1 (TaGST1) gene in wheat. Yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) screened out TaWRKY74, which was one member from the WRKY transcription factor family. The bindings between TaGST1 promoter and TaWRKY74 were further verified by using another Y1H and luciferase assays. Expression of TaWRKY74 was induced more than 30-folds by Cu stress. Functions of TaWRKY74 were tested by using transiently silence methods. In transiently TaWRKY74-silenced wheat plants, TaWRKY74 and TaGST1 expression, GST activity, and GSH content was significantly inhibited by 25.68%, 19.88%, 27.66%, and 12.68% in shoots, and 53.81%, 52.11%, 23.47%, and 17.11% in roots, respectively. However, contents of hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde, or Cu were significantly increased by 2.58%, 12.45%, or 37.74% in shoots, and 25.24%, 53.84%, and 103.99% in roots, respectively. Notably, exogenous application of GSH reversed the adverse effects of transiently TaWRKY74-silenced wheat plants during Cu stress. Taken together, our results suggesting that TaWRKY74 regulated TaGST1 expression and affected GSH accumulation under Cu stress, and could be useful to ameliorate Cu toxicity for crop food safety.


Assuntos
Cobre/toxicidade , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido , Leveduras/genética
3.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 4559-4577, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267513

RESUMO

Purpose: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a group of signaling biomolecules that play important roles in the cell cycle. When intracellular ROS homeostasis is disrupted, it can induce cellular necrosis and apoptosis. It is desirable to effectively cascade-amplifying ROS generation and weaken antioxidant defense for disrupting ROS homeostasis in tumor microenvironment (TME), which has been recognized as a novel and ideal antitumor strategy. Multifunctional nanozymes are highly promising agents for ROS-mediated therapy. Methods: This study constructed a novel theranostic nanoagent based on PEG@Cu2-xS@Ce6 nanozymes (PCCNs) through a facile one-step hydrothermal method. We systematically investigated the photodynamic therapy (PDT)/photothermal therapy (PTT) properties, catalytic therapy (CTT) and glutathione (GSH) depletion activities of PCCNs, antitumor efficacy induced by PCCNs in vitro and in vivo. Results: PCCNs generate singlet oxygen (1O2) with laser (660 nm) irradiation and use catalytic reactions to produce hydroxyl radical (•OH). Moreover, PCCNs show the high photothermal performance under NIR II 1064-nm laser irradiation, which can enhance CTT/PDT efficiencies to increase ROS generation. The properties of O2 evolution and GSH consumption of PCCNs achieve hypoxia-relieved PDT and destroy cellular antioxidant defense system respectively. The excellent antitumor efficacy in 4T1 tumor-bearing mice of PCCNs is achieved through disrupting ROS homeostasis-involved therapy under the guidance of photothermal/photoacoustic imaging. Conclusion: Our study provides a proof of concept of "all-in-one" nanozymes to eliminate tumors via disrupting ROS homeostasis.


Assuntos
Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertermia Induzida/métodos , Raios Infravermelhos , Nanomedicina/métodos , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Catálise , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cério/química , Cobre/química , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Sulfetos/química
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4336, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267196

RESUMO

Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant cellular antioxidant. As reactive oxygen species (ROS) are widely believed to promote aging and age-related diseases, and antioxidants can neutralize ROS, it follows that GSH and its precursor, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), are among the most popular dietary supplements. However, the long- term effects of GSH or NAC on healthy animals have not been thoroughly investigated. We employed C. elegans to demonstrate that chronic administration of GSH or NAC to young or aged animals perturbs global gene expression, inhibits skn-1-mediated transcription, and accelerates aging. In contrast, limiting the consumption of dietary thiols, including those naturally derived from the microbiota, extended lifespan. Pharmacological GSH restriction activates the unfolded protein response and increases proteotoxic stress resistance in worms and human cells. It is thus advantageous for healthy individuals to avoid excessive dietary antioxidants and, instead, rely on intrinsic GSH biosynthesis, which is fine-tuned to match the cellular redox status and to promote homeostatic ROS signaling.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Glutationa/farmacologia , Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Suplementos Nutricionais , Escherichia coli , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Paraquat/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Compostos de Sulfidrila/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas/fisiologia
5.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200606

RESUMO

Algae are potential and natural source of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids like eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The diatom Pinnularia borealis accumulates high levels of EPA and may be considered as a source for commercial production of dietary supplements. In this study we asked the question whether diet supplementation with P. borealis may augment antioxidant defense and ameliorate risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. We fed mice (Mus musculus) with lyophilized diatom solutions of different concentrations (1%, 3%, and 5%) for 7 days. Then we measured glutathione content and the activity of glutathione redox system enzymes, total cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations, and malondialdehyde concentration in the liver and kidney. We found that cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations in the liver and kidneys were the lowest in mice who were fed with the highest concentration of Pinnularia borealis, suggesting protective properties of algae. Additionally, the lowest concentration of Pinnularia borealis was sufficient to improve antioxidant capacity. Our results suggest that P. borealis may be used as a source for dietary supplements rich in EPA, but the amount supplied to the organism should be limited.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/química , Suplementos Nutricionais , Glutationa/metabolismo , Rim/enzimologia , Fígado/enzimologia , Animais , Liofilização , Masculino , Camundongos
6.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201185

RESUMO

High-protein diets (HPDs) are widely accepted as a way to stimulate muscle protein synthesis when combined with resistance training (RT). However, the effects of HPDs on adipose tissue plasticity and local inflammation are yet to be determined. This study investigated the impact of HPDs on glucose control, adipocyte size, and epididymal adipose inflammatory biomarkers in resistance-trained rats. Eighteen Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups: normal-protein (NPD; 17% protein total dietary intake) and HPD (26.1% protein) without RT and NPD and HPD with RT. Trained groups received RT for 12 weeks with weights secured to their tails. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests, adipocyte size, and an array of cytokines were determined. While HPD without RT induced glucose intolerance, enlarged adipocytes, and increased TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL1-ß levels in epididymal adipose tissue (p < 0.05), RT diminished these deleterious effects, with the HPD + RT group displaying improved blood glucose control without inflammatory cytokine increases in epididymal adipose tissue (p < 0.05). Furthermore, RT increased glutathione expression independent of diet (p < 0.05). RT may offer protection against adipocyte hypertrophy, pro-inflammatory states, and glucose intolerance during HPDs. The results highlight the potential protective effects of RT to mitigate the maladaptive effects of HPDs.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Dieta Rica em Proteínas , Inflamação/sangue , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/patologia , Treinamento de Força , Adipócitos/patologia , Animais , Tamanho Celular , Dieta , Epididimo/patologia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Ratos Wistar , Ganho de Peso
7.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) exacerbates the oxidative stress status of the pregnant women. Τo improve the oxidative stress status, several therapeutic interventions have been suggested. The aim of this network meta-analysis is to assess the effect of different dietary supplements on the oxidative stress status in pregnant women with GDM. METHODS: A network meta-analysis of randomized control trials was performed comparing the changes delta (Δ) in total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) as primary outcomes, following different therapeutic interventions with dietary supplements in pregnant women with GDM. Four electronic databases and grey literature sources were searched. The secondary outcomes were other markers of oxidative stress. RESULTS: The meta-analysis included 16 studies of 1173 women with GDM. Regarding ΔTAC: probiotics and omega-3 with vitamin E were superior to placebo/no intervention. Regarding ΔMDA: vitamin D with calcium, omega-3, vitamin D, omega-3 with vitamin E, magnesium with zinc and calcium, and probiotics were superior to placebo/no intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of dietary supplements in women with GDM can be helpful in limiting the oxidative stress which develop in these pregnancies.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/patologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Estresse Oxidativo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Feminino , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Gravidez , Gestantes , Viés de Publicação , Risco
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209958

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease whose pathophysiology is largely unknown. Despite the fact that motor neuron (MN) death is recognized as the key event in ALS, astrocytes dysfunctionalities and neuroinflammation were demonstrated to accompany and probably even drive MN loss. Nevertheless, the mechanisms priming astrocyte failure and hyperactivation are still obscure. In this work, altered pathways and molecules in ALS astrocytes were unveiled by investigating the proteomic profile and the secreted metabolome of primary spinal cord astrocytes derived from transgenic ALS mouse model overexpressing the human (h)SOD1(G93A) protein in comparison with the transgenic counterpart expressing hSOD1(WT) protein. Here we show that ALS primary astrocytes are depleted of proteins-and of secreted metabolites-involved in glutathione metabolism and signaling. The observed increased activation of Nf-kB, Ebf1, and Plag1 transcription factors may account for the augmented expression of proteins involved in the proteolytic routes mediated by proteasome or endosome-lysosome systems. Moreover, hSOD1(G93A) primary astrocytes also display altered lipid metabolism. Our results provide novel insights into the altered molecular pathways that may underlie astrocyte dysfunctionalities and altered astrocyte-MN crosstalk in ALS, representing potential therapeutic targets to abrogate or slow down MN demise in disease pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Astrócitos/citologia , Metabolômica/métodos , Proteômica/métodos , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Animais , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Camundongos , Cultura Primária de Células , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Transdução de Sinais , Medula Espinal/citologia , Medula Espinal/metabolismo
9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 322, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flexibility of plant metabolism is supported by redox regulation of enzymes via posttranslational modification of cysteine residues, especially in plastids. Here, the redox states of cysteine residues are partly coupled to the thioredoxin system and partly to the glutathione pool for reduction. Moreover, several plastid enzymes involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and damage repair draw electrons from glutathione. In addition, cysteine residues can be post-translationally modified by forming a mixed disulfide with glutathione (S-glutathionylation), which protects thiol groups from further oxidation and can influence protein activity. However, the evolution of the plastid glutathione-dependent redox network in land plants and the conservation of cysteine residues undergoing S-glutathionylation is largely unclear. RESULTS: We analysed the genomes of nine representative model species from streptophyte algae to angiosperms and found that the antioxidant enzymes and redox proteins belonging to the plastid glutathione-dependent redox network are largely conserved, except for lambda- and the closely related iota-glutathione S-transferases. Focussing on glutathione-dependent redox modifications, we screened the literature for target thiols of S-glutathionylation, and found that 151 plastid proteins have been identified as glutathionylation targets, while the exact cysteine residue is only known for 17% (26 proteins), with one or multiple sites per protein, resulting in 37 known S-glutathionylation sites for plastids. However, 38% (14) of the known sites were completely conserved in model species from green algae to flowering plants, with 22% (8) on non-catalytic cysteines. Variable conservation of the remaining sites indicates independent gains and losses of cysteines at the same position during land plant evolution. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the glutathione-dependent redox network in plastids is highly conserved in streptophytes with some variability in scavenging and damage repair enzymes. Our analysis of cysteine conservation suggests that S-glutathionylation in plastids plays an important and yet under-investigated role in redox regulation and stress response.


Assuntos
Glutationa/metabolismo , Plastídeos/metabolismo , Embriófitas/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Oxirredução , Filogenia , Estreptófitas/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201191

RESUMO

The role of oxidative stress (OS) in cancer is a matter of great interest due to the implication of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their oxidation products in the initiation of tumorigenesis, its progression, and metastatic dissemination. Great efforts have been made to identify the mechanisms of ROS-induced carcinogenesis; however, the validation of OS byproducts as potential tumor markers (TMs) remains to be established. This interventional study included a total of 80 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and 60 controls. By measuring reduced glutathione (GSH), its oxidized form (GSSG), and the glutathione redox state in terms of the GSSG/GSH ratio in the serum of CRC patients, we identified significant changes as compared to healthy subjects. These findings are compatible with the effectiveness of glutathione as a TM. The thiol redox state showed a significant increase towards oxidation in the CRC group and correlated significantly with both the tumor state and the clinical evolution. The sensitivity and specificity of serum glutathione levels are far above those of the classical TMs CEA and CA19.9. We conclude that the GSSG/GSH ratio is a simple assay which could be validated as a novel clinical TM for the diagnosis and monitoring of CRC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Glutationa/química , Glutationa/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxirredução
11.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 139: 111660, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243628

RESUMO

The current study investigates the biochemical and histopathological effects of taxifolin on acrylamide-induced kidney damage. A 50 mg/kg dose of taxifolin was administered via oral gavage to the taxifolin + acrylamide (TACR) group (n-6) consisting of male albino Wistar rats. The same volume of distilled water used as solvent was orally administered to the acrylamide (ACR) (n-6) and healthy (HG) (n-6) groups. One hour after the administration of taxifolin and distilled water, a 20 mg/kg dose of acrylamide was orally administered to the TACR and ACR groups. This procedure was repeated once a day for 30 days. In the acrylamide group, malondialdehyde (MDA), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß) levels were found to be high, total glutathione (tGSH) levels were found to be low, and there was severe interstitial haemorrhage; additionally, tubular necrosis, tubular atrophy, leucocyte infiltration, and glomerular structures with expanded Bowman's space were observed. In the taxifolin group, where the increase of MDA, IL-1ß, and TNF-α and the decrease of tGSH associated with acrylamide have been prevented, any histopathological finding other than mild necrosis and atrophic tubules was not found. This suggests that Taxifolin would prevent kidney tissue from acrylamide-induced damage would be effective in treating acrylamide-induced nephrotoxicity, inhibiting the increase of MDA, IL-1ß and TNF-α, and decreasing tGSH associated with acrylamide.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Quercetina/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
12.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2276: 113-127, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060036

RESUMO

Disruptions in mitochondrial redox activity are implicated in maladies ranging from those in which cells degenerate to those in which cell division is unregulated. This is not surprising given the pivotal role of mitochondria as ATP producers, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generators, and gatekeepers of apoptosis. While increased ROS are implicated in such a wide variety of disorders, pinpointing the cause of their hyperproduction is challenging. Elevated levels of ROS can result from increases in their production and/or decreases in their turnover. Disruptions in and/or hyperactivity of NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase or ubiquinone-cytochrome c oxidoreductase can cause excessive ROS generation. Alternatively, if respiration is functioning in a homeostatic manner, decreases in levels or activity of antioxidants like glutathione, CuZn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase, and catalase could result in excessive ROS. Because of the diversity of disorders in which oxidative damage occurs, the most effective therapeutic strategies may be those that address the putatively diverse causes of increased ROS. Strategies for determining antioxidant activity typically involve semiquantitative measurement of relative protein levels using immunochemistry and mass spectrometry. These methods can be applied to a variety of samples, but they do not lend themselves to detection of cell-specific analyses within tissue like brain.Because we are interested in elucidating the cause of oxidative stress in selectively vulnerable brain neurons, we have taken advantage of the easily manipulatable genetics and high fecundity of the fly. Using a cell type-targeting approach, we have driven redox sensitive green fluorescent proteins (roGFP2 ) into the mitochondria of tyrosine hydroxylase-producing (dopaminergic) neurons. In oxidizing conditions, the fluorophore's maximal excitation wavelength reversibly shifts. Therefore, the relative amount of mitochondrial protein oxidation can be determined by taking the ratio of fluorescence excited with two different lasers. In addition, these GFPs have been independently fused to human glutaredoxin-1 (mito-roGFP2-Grx1) and yeast oxidant receptor peroxidase (mito-roGFP2-Orp1), facilitating measurements of relative mitochondrial glutathione redox potential and H2O2 levels, respectively. In order to obtain a more comprehensive observation of redox states, we capture 3D images of roGFP2 excited by two different lasers. Mito- and cytoplasmic-roGFP2 -Grx1 and -Orp1 expression can be driven by hundreds of genetic drivers in Drosophila , facilitating fixed or living whole organism or tissue- and cell-specific redox measurements.


Assuntos
Glutationa/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Drosophila , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Glutarredoxinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Oxirredução , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
13.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2276: 249-257, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060047

RESUMO

Protein glutathionylation is a posttranslational process that regulates protein function in response to redox cellular changes. Furthermore, carbon monoxide-induced cellular pathways involve reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling and mitochondrial protein glutathionylation. Herein, it is described as a technique to assess mitochondrial glutathionylation due to low concentrations of CO exposure. Mitochondria are isolated from cell culture or tissue, followed by an immunoprecipitation assay, which allows the capture of any glutathionylated mitochondrial protein using a specific antibody coupled to a solid matrix that binds to glutathione antigen. The precipitated protein is further identified and quantified by immunoblotting analysis.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Monóxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Animais , Immunoblotting/métodos , Masculino , Proteínas Mitocondriais/química , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073510

RESUMO

Broad industrial application of zeolites increases the opportunity of inhalation. However, the potential impact of different types and compositions of zeolite on cytotoxicity is still unknown. Four types of synthetic zeolites have been prepared for assessing the effect on lung fibroblast: two zeolite L (LTL-R and LTL-D), ZSM-5 (MFI-S), and faujasite (FAU-S). The cytotoxicity of zeolites on human lung fibroblast (IMR-90) was assessed using WST1 cell proliferation assay, mitochondrial function, membrane leakage of lactate dehydrogenase, reduced glutathione levels, and mitochondrial membrane potential were assessed under control. Intracellular changes were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Toxicity-related gene expressions were evaluated by PCR array. The result showed significantly higher toxicity in IMR-90 cells with FAU-S than LTL-R, LTL-D and MFI-S exposure. TEM showed FAU-S, spheroidal zeolite with a low Si/Al ratio, was readily internalized forming numerous phagosomes in IMR-90 cells, while the largest and disc-shaped zeolites showed the lowest toxicity and were located in submembranous phagosomes in IMR-90 cells. Differential expression of TNF related genes was detected using PCR arrays and confirmed using qRT-PCR analysis of selected genes. Collectively, the exposure of different zeolites shows different toxicity on IMR-90 cells.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial , Zeolitas/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , Nanoestruturas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Difração de Raios X , Zeolitas/farmacologia
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069402

RESUMO

The total damage inflicted on the liver before transplantation is associated with several surgical manipulations, such as organ recovery, washout of the graft, cold conservation in organ preservation solutions (UW, Celsior, HTK, IGL-1), and rinsing of the organ before implantation. Polyethylene glycol 35 (PEG35) is the oncotic agent present in the IGL-1 solution, which is an alternative to UW and Celsior solutions in liver clinical transplantation. In a model of cold preservation in rats (4 °C; 24 h), we evaluated the effects induced by PEG35 on detoxifying enzymes and nitric oxide, comparing IGL-1 to IGL-0 (which is the same as IGL-1 without PEG). The benefits were also assessed in a new IGL-2 solution characterized by increased concentrations of PEG35 (from 1 g/L to 5 g/L) and glutathione (from 3 mmol/L to 9 mmol/L) compared to IGL-1. We demonstrated that PEG35 promoted the mitochondrial enzyme ALDH2, and in combination with glutathione, prevented the formation of toxic aldehyde adducts (measured as 4-hydroxynonenal) and oxidized proteins (AOPP). In addition, PEG35 promoted the vasodilator factor nitric oxide, which may improve the microcirculatory disturbances in steatotic grafts during preservation and revascularization. All of these results lead to a reduction in damage inflicted on the fatty liver graft during the cold storage preservation. In this communication, we report on the benefits of IGL-2 in hypothermic static preservation, which has already been proved to confer benefits in hypothermic oxygenated dynamic preservation. Hence, the data reported here reinforce the fact that IGL-2 is a suitable alternative to be used as a unique solution/perfusate when hypothermic static and preservation strategies are used, either separately or combined, easing the logistics and avoiding the mixture of different solutions/perfusates, especially when fatty liver grafts are used. Further research regarding new therapeutic and pharmacological insights is needed to explore the underlying mitochondrial mechanisms exerted by PEG35 in static and dynamic graft preservation strategies for clinical liver transplantation purposes.


Assuntos
Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Preservação de Órgãos/métodos , Polietilenoglicóis/farmacologia , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Criopreservação/métodos , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Fígado/citologia , Masculino , Microcirculação/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Soluções para Preservação de Órgãos/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Zucker , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos
16.
Life Sci ; 279: 119669, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081988

RESUMO

AIMS: Acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity is one of the leading causes of acute liver injury-related death and liver failure worldwide. In many studies, mitochondrial dysfunction has been identified as an important cause of damage in APAP toxicity. Therefore, our study aimed to investigate the possible effects of mitochondrial transplantation on liver damage due to APAP toxicity. MAIN METHODS: APAP toxicity model was implemented by administering a toxic dose of APAP. To demonstrate the efficiency of mitochondria transplantation, it was compared with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) application, which is now clinically accepted. Mitochondrial transplantation was carried out by delivering mitochondria to the liver via the portal circulation, which was injected into the spleen. In our study, the rats were randomly divided into 6 groups as Sham, APAP, Control 1, APAP+mito, Control 2, and APAP+NAC. In the end of the experiment, histological and biochemical analysis were performed and the biodistribution of the transplanted mitochondria to target cells were also shown. KEY FINDINGS: Successful mitochondrial transplantation was confirmed and mitochondrial transplantation improved the liver histological structure to a similar level with healthy rats. Moreover, plasma ALT levels, apoptotic cells, and total oxidant levels were decreased. It was also observed that NAC treatment increased GSH levels to the highest level among the groups. However, mitochondrial transplantation was more effective than NAC application in terms of histological and functional improvement. SIGNIFICANCE: It has been evaluated that mitochondrial transplantation can be used as an important alternative or adjunctive treatment method in liver damage caused by toxic dose APAP intake.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/terapia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Mitocôndrias/transplante , Analgésicos não Narcóticos/toxicidade , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
17.
Redox Biol ; 44: 102012, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090244

RESUMO

Low molecular weight (LMW) thiols contain reducing sulfhydryl groups that are important for maintaining antioxidant defense in the cell. Aside from the traditional roles of LMW thiols as redox regulators in bacteria, glutathione (GSH) has been reported to affect virulence and bacterial pathogenesis. The role of GSH in virulence is diverse, including the activation of virulence gene expression and contributing to optimal biofilm formation. GSH can also be converted to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) which is important for the pathogenesis of certain bacteria. Besides GSH, some bacteria produce other LMW thiols such as mycothiol and bacillithiol that affect bacterial virulence. We discuss these newer reported functions of LMW thiols modulating bacterial pathogenesis either directly or indirectly and via modulation of the host immune system.


Assuntos
Glutationa , Compostos de Sulfidrila , Antioxidantes , Glutationa/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Virulência
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074015

RESUMO

TP53 gene mutations occur in 70% of oesophageal adenocarcinomas (OACs). Given the central role of p53 in controlling cellular response to therapy we investigated the role of mutant (mut-) p53 and SLC7A11 in a CRISPR-mediated JH-EsoAd1 TP53 knockout model. Response to 2 Gy irradiation, cisplatin, 5-FU, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, and endoxifen was assessed, followed by a TaqMan OpenArray qPCR screening for differences in miRNA expression. Knockout of mut-p53 resulted in increased chemo- and radioresistance (2 Gy survival fraction: 38% vs. 56%, p < 0.0001) and in altered miRNA expression levels. Target mRNA pathways analyses indicated several potential mechanisms of treatment resistance. SLC7A11 knockdown restored radiosensitivity (2 Gy SF: 46% vs. 73%; p = 0.0239), possibly via enhanced sensitivity to oxidative stress. Pathway analysis of the mRNA targets of differentially expressed miRNAs indicated potential involvement in several pathways associated with apoptosis, ribosomes, and p53 signaling pathways. The data suggest that mut-p53 in JH-EsoAd1, despite being classified as non-functional, has some function related to radio- and chemoresistance. The results also highlight the important role of SLC7A11 in cancer metabolism and redox balance and the influence of p53 on these processes. Inhibition of the SLC7A11-glutathione axis may represent a promising approach to overcome resistance associated with mut-p53.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Sistema y+ de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Neoplasias Esofágicas/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Sistema y+ de Transporte de Aminoácidos/genética , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias Esofágicas/genética , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Ontologia Genética , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos da radiação , Tolerância a Radiação/efeitos dos fármacos , Tolerância a Radiação/genética , Ribossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065042

RESUMO

Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant non-protein thiol, and plays crucial roles in the antioxidant defense system and the maintenance of redox homeostasis in neurons. GSH depletion in the brain is a common finding in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, and can cause neurodegeneration prior to disease onset. Excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1), a sodium-dependent glutamate/cysteine transporter that is selectively present in neurons, plays a central role in the regulation of neuronal GSH production. The expression of EAAC1 is posttranslationally controlled by the glutamate transporter-associated protein 3-18 (GTRAP3-18) or miR-96-5p in neurons. The regulatory mechanism of neuronal GSH production mediated by EAAC1 may be a new target in therapeutic strategies for these neurodegenerative diseases. This review describes the regulatory mechanism of neuronal GSH production and its potential therapeutic application in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Transportador 3 de Aminoácido Excitatório/genética , Transportador 3 de Aminoácido Excitatório/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Transporte de Glutamato da Membrana Plasmática/metabolismo , Glutationa/farmacologia , Glutationa/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Microglia/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/etiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
20.
Mar Environ Res ; 169: 105383, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116384

RESUMO

The activities of the key antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GP) and glutathione reductase (GR) as well as levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and integral antioxidant activity (IAA), were studied in the digestive glands and gills of 14 bivalve species. Species and tissue differences of the antioxidant (AO) systems of the investigated mollusks were discussed in connection with their physiological and biochemical peculiarities. This article describes the role of the AO system of mollusks in adaptation to natural habitat conditions and shows the relationship of AO activity with the maximum habitat depth (MHD) and maximum lifespan (MLS) of these species.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Bivalves , Animais , Bivalves/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
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