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2.
Lancet Glob Health ; 12(4): e685-e696, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38485432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gout is the most common cause of inflammatory arthritis worldwide, particularly in Pacific regions. We aimed to establish the prevalence of gout and hyperuricaemia in French Polynesia, their associations with dietary habits, their comorbidities, the prevalence of the HLA-B*58:01 allele, and current management of the disease. METHODS: The Ma'i u'u survey was epidemiological, prospective, cross-sectional, and gout-focused and included a random sample of adults from the general adult population of French Polynesia. It was conducted and data were collected between April 13 and Aug 16, 2021. Participants were randomly selected to represent the general adult population of French Polynesia on the basis of housing data collected during the 2017 territorial census. Each selected household was visited by a research nurse from the Ma'i u'u survey who collected data via guided, 1-h interviews with participants. In each household, the participant was the individual older than 18 years with the closest upcoming birthday. To estimate the frequency of HLA-B*58:01, we estimated HLA-B haplotypes on individuals who had whole-genome sequencing to approximately 5× average coverage (mid-pass sequencing). A subset of individuals who self-reported Polynesian ancestry and not European, Chinese, or other ancestry were used to estimate Polynesian-ancestry specific allele frequencies. Bivariate associations were reported for weighted participants; effect sizes were estimated through the odds ratio (OR) of the association calculated on the basis of a logistic model fitted with weighted observations. FINDINGS: Among the random sample of 2000 households, 896 participants were included, 140 individuals declined, and 964 households could not be contacted. 22 participants could not be weighted due to missing data, so the final weighted analysis included 874 participants (449 [51·4%] were female and 425 [48·6%] were male) representing the 196 630 adults living in French Polynesia. The estimated prevalence of gout was 14·5% (95% CI 9·9-19·2), representing 28 561 French Polynesian adults, that is 25·5% (18·2-32·8) of male individuals and 3·5% (1·0-6·0) of female individuals. The prevalence of hyperuricaemia was estimated at 71·6% (66·7-76·6), representing 128 687 French Polynesian adults. In multivariable analysis, age (OR 1·5, 95% CI 1·2-1·8 per year), male sex (10·3, 1·8-60·7), serum urate (1·6, 1·3-2·0 per 1 mg/dL), uraturia (0·8, 0·8-0·8 per 100 mg/L), type 2 diabetes (2·1, 1·4-3·1), BMI more than 30 kg/m2 (1·1, 1·0-1·2 per unit), and percentage of visceral fat (1·7, 1·1-2·7 per 1% increase) were associated with gout. There were seven heterozygous HLA-B*58:01 carriers in the full cohort of 833 individuals (seven [0·4%] of 1666 total alleles) and two heterozygous carriers in a subset of 696 individuals of Polynesian ancestry (two [0·1%]). INTERPRETATION: French Polynesia has an estimated high prevalence of gout and hyperuricaemia, with gout affecting almost 15% of adults. Territorial measures that focus on increasing access to effective urate-lowering therapies are warranted to control this major public health problem. FUNDING: Variant Bio, the French Polynesian Health Administration, Lille Catholic University Hospitals, French Society of Rheumatology, and Novartis.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Gota , Hiperuricemia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Hiperuricemia/epidemiologia , Hiperuricemia/genética , Ácido Úrico , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Prospectivos , Gota/epidemiologia , Gota/genética , Polinésia/epidemiologia , Antígenos HLA-B
3.
Clin Nutr ; 43(4): 1001-1012, 2024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38484526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Growing evidence has indicated a potential association between micronutrient levels, urate levels, and the risk of gout. However, the causal association underlying these associations still remains uncertain. Previous observational studies and randomized controlled trials investigating the association between micronutrients, urate levels, and the risk of gout have been limited in their scope and depth. The aim of this study was to utilize Mendelian randomization (MR) to investigate the causal associations between genetically predicted micronutrient levels, urate levels, and the risk of gout. METHODS: In this study, we conducted a comprehensive examination of 10 specific micronutrients (vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin D, folate, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, and selenium) as potential exposures. Two-sample MR analyses were performed to explore their causal associations with urate levels and the risk of gout. In these analyses, gout data were collected from the Global Biobank Meta-Analysis Initiative (N = 1,069,839, N cases = 30,549) and urate levels data from CKDGen Consortium (N = 288,649) by utilizing publicly available summary statistics from independent cohorts of European ancestry. We performed inverse-variance weighted MR analyses as main analyses, along with a range of sensitivity analyses, such as MR-Egger, weighted median, simple mode, weighted mode, Steiger filtering, MR-PRESSO, and Radial MR analysis, to ensure the robustness of our findings. RESULTS: The results of our study indicate that there were negative associations between serum vitamin B12 and urate levels, as well as serum folate and the risk of gout. Specifically, we found a negative association between vitamin B12 levels and urate levels, with a ß coefficient of -0.324 (95% CI -0.0581 to -0.0066, P = 0.0137) per one standard deviation (SD) increase. Similarly, a negative association was observed between folate levels and gout risk, with an odds ratio of 0.8044 (95% CI 0.6637 to 0.9750, P = 0.0265) per one SD increase. On the other hand, we identified positive associations between serum calcium levels and both urate levels and the risk of gout. Specifically, there was a positive association between serum calcium levels and urate levels (ß coefficient: 0.0994, 95% CI 0.0519 to 0.1468, P = 4.11E-05) per one SD increase. Furthermore, a positive association was found between serum calcium levels and the risk of gout, with an odds ratio of 1.1479 (95% CI 1.0460 to 1.2598, P = 0.0036) per one SD increase. These findings were robust in extensive sensitivity analyses. By employing MR-PRESSO and Radial MR to eliminate outliers, the observed associations have been reinforced. No clear associations were found between the other micronutrients and the urate levels, as well as the risk of gout. CONCLUSION: Our findings provided evidence that there were negative associations between serum vitamin B12 and urate levels, as well as serum folate and the risk of gout, while positive associations existed between the serum calcium levels and urate levels, as well as the risk of gout.


Assuntos
Gota , Micronutrientes , Humanos , Ácido Úrico , Cálcio , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Vitaminas , Vitamina B 12 , Ácido Fólico , Gota/epidemiologia , Gota/genética
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 924: 171565, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38461984

RESUMO

Gout is a metabolic arthritis caused by hyperuricemia. In recent years, the prevalence of gout has been increased significantly in China due to the improvement of the living standards, and gout has become another common metabolic disease following diabetes mellitus. Gout severely affects the health status and life quality of human. In order to monitor the near real-time prevalence of gout, a wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) approach was carried out in 257 Chinese cities using febuxostat as the biomarker. Febuxostat in wastewater was measured by a LC-MS/MS method with satisfactory results of method validation. The average concentration of febuxostat in wastewater was 53.05 ± 31.76 ng/L, with the estimated per capita consumption of 124.40 ± 73.37 mg/day/1000 inhabitant. The calculated prevalence of febuxostat was 0.41 % ± 0.24 %, and the prevalence of gout was finally estimated to be 1.30 % ± 0.77 % (0.60 % to 2.11 %), which was nearly consistent with value of 1.10 % obtained from the Guideline for the diagnosis and management of hyperuricemia and gout in China (2019). The results indicated that the febuxostat-based WBE approach might be reasonable to assess the near real-time gout prevalence in China.


Assuntos
Gota , Hiperuricemia , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/epidemiologia , Hiperuricemia/diagnóstico , Febuxostat/uso terapêutico , Vigilância Epidemiológica Baseada em Águas Residuárias , Prevalência , Cromatografia Líquida , Águas Residuárias , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Gota/epidemiologia , Gota/diagnóstico , China/epidemiologia
6.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 42(1): 1-9, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306017

RESUMO

Gout is a chronic joint disease caused by the deposition of monosodium urate crystals into and around the articular tissues. In the last two years, new insights regarding diagnosis, genetic involvement, pathogenesis, comorbidities, and clinical data, have allowed the identification of new strategies to improve the control of the disease and its flares. In keeping, the discover of new mechanisms concerning crystal-induced inflammation have suggested new ways for the management not only of gout, but also other systemic diseases, mainly including renal and cardiovascular disorders. In this context it is very representative the case of colchicine which, given the surprising results obtained both in laboratory and clinical experiments, has recently received by FDA the approval for the prevention of cardiovascular disorders.


Assuntos
Gota , Ácido Úrico , Humanos , Gota/diagnóstico , Gota/tratamento farmacológico , Gota/epidemiologia , Supressores da Gota/uso terapêutico , Colchicina/uso terapêutico , Comorbidade
7.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 370, 2024 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggested inconclusive associations between bisphenols exposure and hyperuricemia risk. Our objective was to assess the potential association of bisphenol A (BPA) and its substitutes bisphenol S and F (BPS and BPF) exposure with serum uric acid (SUA) levels, hyperuricemia, and gout prevalence among US adults within the NHANES 2013-2016 datasets. METHODS: Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used to explore the associations of urinary bisphenols concentrations with SUA levels, hyperuricemia, and gout prevalence, in total population and different sex groups. The restricted cubic spline (RCS) model was used to explore the dose-response relationship. RESULTS: In total population, doubling of urinary BPS and ∑BPs concentrations showed associations with an increase of 2.64 µmol/L (95% CI: 0.54, 4.74) and 3.29 µmol/L (95% CI: 0.59, 5.99) in SUA levels, respectively. The RCS model indicated a significantly "J"-shaped dose-response relationship between BPS exposure and SUA levels. Compared to the reference group of urinary BPS, males in the highest quartile displayed a 13.06 µmol/L (95% CI: 0.75, 25.37) rise in SUA levels. For females, doubling of urinary BPS concentrations was associated with a 3.30 µmol/L (95% CI: 0.53, 6.07) increase in SUA levels, with a significant linear dose-response relationship. In total population, doubling of urinary BPA concentrations showed a 1.05-fold (95% CI: 0.97, 1.14) adjusted risk of having hyperuricemia, with an inverted "U" curve. Doubling of urinary ∑BPs concentrations was associated with a 1.05-fold (95% CI: 0.96, 1.14) adjusted risk of hyperuricemia in total population, with a significant monotonic dose-response relationship. In females, doubling of urinary BPS concentrations was associated with a 1.45-fold (95% CI: 1.01, 2.08) adjusted increased risk of having gout, with a "J" shaped relationship. CONCLUSIONS: BPA and BPS exposure to some extent were associated with elevated SUA levels and increased risk of hyperuricemia, with different dose-response relationships and sex differences.


Assuntos
Gota , Hiperuricemia , Fenóis , Sulfonas , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Hiperuricemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperuricemia/epidemiologia , Ácido Úrico , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Gota/epidemiologia , Compostos Benzidrílicos
8.
BMJ Open ; 14(2): e074391, 2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38346893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arthritis is thought to be closely related to serum uric acid. The study aims to assess the association between asymptomatic hyperuricemia (AH) and arthritis. METHODS: A multistage, stratified cluster was used to conduct a cross-sectional study of adult US civilians aged≥20 years from the 2007-2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants with hyperuricemia and without hyperuricemia prior to gout were included. A questionnaire was used to determine whether participants had arthritis and the type of arthritis. Logistic regression was used to investigate the association between hyperuricemia and arthritis. RESULT: During the past 12 years, the percentage of participants with arthritis changed from 25.95% (22.53%-29.36%) to 25.53% (21.62%-29.44%). The prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) increased from 8.70% (95% CI: 6.56% to 10.85%) to 12.44% (95% CI: 9.32% to 15.55%), the prevalence of AH changed from 16.35% (95% CI: 14.01% to 18.40%) to 16.39% (95% CI: 13.47% to 19.30%). Participants with AH were associated with onset of arthritis (OR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.07 to 1.69), but the association was muted after adjusting demographic and socioeconomic factors. For participants aged 40-49 years, AH is associated with incident arthritis (OR=1.96, 95% CI: 1.23 to 2.99) and the relationship remained after adjusting for education level, income to poverty ratio, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension and smoking (OR=2.00, 95% CI: 1.94 to 3.36). Compared with male, female participants with AH are more likely to develop arthritis, especially in OA (OR=1.35, 95% CI: 1.14 to 1.60). CONCLUSION: Our data identified AH as the risk factor for incident arthritis, especially for OA, which might be exaggerated in aged population and female population.


Assuntos
Gota , Hiperuricemia , Osteoartrite , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Hiperuricemia/complicações , Hiperuricemia/epidemiologia , Ácido Úrico , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estudos Transversais , Gota/epidemiologia , Gota/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Osteoartrite/complicações
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(7): e36436, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363901

RESUMO

This study aimed to analyze the distribution of gout patients and the utilization of healthcare services in South Korea to provide valuable recommendations to clinicians and policymakers. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Claims data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service spanning 2010 to 2019 were utilized, and a sample of 69,680 patients was included in the study. The incidence of gout was observed to be high in male patients over the age of 40, with most patients receiving outpatient care for gout management. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and urate-lowering agents were the most frequently prescribed medications, with prescriptions for colchicine and febuxostat increasing among urate-lowering agents. Musculoskeletal disorders were found to be the most common comorbidities among gout patients. Although the total costs of gout management increased, there was no significant increase in cost per patient. This study provides insights into the current state of healthcare utilization for gout patients in South Korea and trends in the disease burden and use of medications. The findings have crucial implications for clinicians and policymakers involved in decision-making regarding the management and treatment of gout.


Assuntos
Supressores da Gota , Gota , Humanos , Masculino , Supressores da Gota/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Ácido Úrico , Gota/tratamento farmacológico , Gota/epidemiologia , Febuxostat/uso terapêutico , Seguro Saúde , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde
10.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 65: 152382, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308930

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the risk and temporal relationship of cardiovascular (CV) comorbidities in rheumatic diseases. METHODS: Patients in the FinnGen study diagnosed between 2000 and 2014 with seropositive (n = 2368) or seronegative (n = 916) rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS, n = 715), psoriatic arthritis (PsA, n = 923), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, n = 190), primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS, n = 412) or gout (n = 2034) were identified from healthcare registries. Each patient was matched based on age, sex, and birth region with twenty controls without any rheumatic conditions. Overall risk ratios (RR) were calculated by comparing the prevalence of seven CV diseases between patients and controls. Logistic regression models were used for estimating odds ratios (OR) for CV comorbidities before and after the onset of rheumatic diseases. RESULTS: The RR for 'any CVD' varied from 1.14 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.26) in PsA to 2.05 (95 % CI 1.67-2.52) in SLE. Patients with SLE or gout demonstrated over two-fold risks for several CV comorbidities. Among CV comorbidities, venous thromboembolism (VTE) showed the highest effect sizes in several rheumatic diseases. The ORs for CV comorbidities were highest within one year before and/or after the onset of the rheumatic disease. However, in gout the excess risk of CV disease was especially high before gout diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of CV comorbidities was elevated in all studied rheumatic diseases, with highest risks observed in SLE and gout. The risk for CV diseases was highest immediately before and/or after rheumatic disease diagnosis, highlighting the increased risk for CV comorbidities across all rheumatic diseases very early on the disease course.


Assuntos
Artrite Psoriásica , Artrite Reumatoide , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Gota , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Doenças Reumáticas , Humanos , Artrite Psoriásica/epidemiologia , Doenças Reumáticas/epidemiologia , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Gota/epidemiologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia
11.
JAMA ; 331(5): 417-424, 2024 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38319333

RESUMO

Importance: Approximately 12 million adults in the US have a history of gout, but whether serum urate levels can help predict recurrence is unclear. Objective: To assess associations of a single serum urate measurement with subsequent risk of acute gout flares and subsequent risk of hospitalizations for gout among patients in the UK with a history of gout. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective study included patients with a history of gout identified from the UK between 2006 and 2010 who were followed up through Primary Care Linked Data medical record linkage until 2017 and through the Hospital Episode Statistics database until 2020. Exposures: Serum urate levels at enrollment. Main Outcome and Measure: Rate of recurrent acute gout, ascertained by hospitalization, outpatient, and prescription/procedure records, and adjusted rate ratios using negative binomial regressions. Results: Among 3613 patients with gout (mean age, 60 years; 3104 [86%] men), 1773 gout flares occurred over a mean follow-up of 8.3 years. Of these, 1679 acute gout flares (95%) occurred in people with baseline serum urate greater than or equal to 6 mg/dL and 1731 (98%) occurred in people with baseline serum urate greater than or equal to 5 mg/dL. Rates of acute gout flares per 1000 person-years were 10.6 for participants with baseline urate levels less than 6 mg/dL, 40.1 for levels of 6.0 to 6.9 mg/dL, 82.0 for levels of 7.0 to 7.9 mg/dL, 101.3 for levels of 8.0 to 8.9 mg/dL, 125.3 for urate levels of 9.0 to 9.9 mg/dL, and 132.8 for levels greater than or equal to 10 mg/dL. Rate ratio of flares were 1.0, 3.37, 6.93, 8.67, 10.81, and 11.42, respectively, over 10 years (1.61 [1.54-1.68] per mg/dL). Rates of hospitalization per 1000 person-years during follow-up were 0.18 for those with baseline serum urate less than 6 mg/dL, 0.97 for serum urate of 6.0 to 6.9 mg/dL, 1.8 for serum urate of 7.0 to 7.9 mg/dL, 2.2 for serum urate of 8.0 to 8.9 mg/dL, 6.7 for serum urate of 9.0 to 9.9 mg/dL, and 9.7 for serum urate greater than or equal to 10 mg/dL. Rate ratios of hospitalization for gout, adjusting for age, sex, and race were 1.0, 4.70, 8.94, 10.37, 33.92, and 45.29, respectively (1.87 [1.57-2.23] per mg/dL). Conclusions and Relevance: In this retrospective study of patients with a history of gout, serum urate levels at baseline were associated with the risk of subsequent gout flares and rates of hospitalization for recurrent gout. These findings support using a baseline serum urate level to assess risk of recurrent gout over nearly 10 years of follow-up.


Assuntos
Gota , Ácido Úrico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Gota/sangue , Gota/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Recidiva , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Seguimentos , Exacerbação dos Sintomas
12.
Environ Pollut ; 345: 123540, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341067

RESUMO

Gout is a chronic disorder characterized by the accumulation of uric acid in the body, leading to recurrent episodes of joint inflammation and pain. There remains a lack of studies investigating the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and the incidence of gout. We conducted this prospective cohort study involving participants aged 38-70 from the UK Biobank who were enrolled in 2006-2010 and followed until 2023. Baseline residential concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), inhalable particulate matter (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) were predicted using land-use regression models. Cox proportional hazards models were employed to examine the relationship between air pollution and incident gout events. A total of 443,587 individuals were included in the analyses and a total of 6589 incident gout cases were identified over a follow-up of 6,130,439 person-years. There were significant associations between higher levels of air pollution and an increased incidence risk of gout. Higher risk of incident gout was associated with each interquartile range increase in concentrations of PM2.5 (hazard ratio:1.05, 95% confidence intervals: 1.02-1.09), PM10 (1.04, 1.00-1.07), NO2 (1.08, 1.05-1.12) and NOx (1.04, 1.02-1.07). The magnitude of associations was larger at higher concentrations. The association was more prominent among older adults, smokers, and individuals with lower and moderate physical activity. This prospective cohort study provides novel and compelling evidence of increased risk of incident gout associated with long-term air pollution exposures.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Gota , Humanos , Idoso , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Estudos Prospectivos , 60682 , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Gota/epidemiologia , Gota/induzido quimicamente
13.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 87(4): 393-399, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38380911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vegetarian diets have been shown to lower the risks of hyperuricemia and gout. Little is known about the risk factors of hyperuricemia in vegetarians. METHODS: This community-based retrospective case-control study was conducted to establish prediction models for hyperuricemia. From September 5, 2005, to December 31, 2016, 7331 adult vegetarians were recruited at Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital. Hyperuricemia was defined as a serum uric acid concentration greater than 7 mg/dL. RESULTS: There were 593 (8.1%) vegetarians with hyperuricemia and 6738 (91.9%) without hyperuricemia. We stepwise built up three models for predicting hyperuricemia in vegetarians. The full model (model 3) has the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC, 85.52%). Additionally, the AUROC of model 3 is 77.97% and 84.85% in vegetarians with or without prior gout history, respectively. Moreover, male gender, hyperlipidemia, body mass index, and serum albumin are independent risk factors for hyperuricemia in vegetarians. In contrast, estimated glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria are independently associated with lower risks of hyperuricemia in vegetarians. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed that risk factors for hyperuricemia, which includes clinical characteristics, account for more than 85% of discriminatory performance in Taiwanese vegetarians. This model may be helpful for monitoring and preventing hyperuricemia in the population.


Assuntos
Gota , Hiperuricemia , Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/epidemiologia , Hiperuricemia/etiologia , Ácido Úrico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Gota/epidemiologia , Vegetarianos
14.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 6(3): e156-e167, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38383089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gout, a common crystal arthropathy, is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We aimed to identify how this risk varies by individual cardiovascular disease across a broad spectrum of conditions. METHODS: In this matched case-control study, we used linked primary and secondary electronic health records from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink to assemble a cohort of individuals with a first-time diagnosis of gout between Jan 1, 2000 and Dec 31, 2017, who were aged 80 years or younger at diagnosis, and free of cardiovascular diseases up to 12 months after diagnosis. The control cohort comprised up to five control individuals per patient with gout, matched on age, sex, socioeconomic status, geographical region, and calendar time, randomly selected among individuals free of gout at any time before and during the study period. The cohorts were followed up until June 30, 2019. We investigated the incidence of 12 cardiovascular diseases and used Cox proportional hazards models to examine differences in people with and without gout, overall and by subgroups of sex, age, socioeconomic status, and year of study inclusion. We further adjusted models for known cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, BMI, smoking status, cholesterol, type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and history of hypertension). FINDINGS: We identified 152 663 individuals with gout (mean age 56·2 years [SD 13·3]; 120 324 [78·8%] men and 32 339 [21·2%] women) and 709 981 matched controls (mean age 56·5 years [13·2]; 561 002 [79·0%] men and 148 979 [21·0%] women). Of these individuals, 31 479 (20·6%) with gout and 106 520 (15·0%) without gout developed cardiovascular disease during a median follow-up of 6·5 years (IQR 3·1-10·5). Patients with gout had higher risk of cardiovascular diseases than matched controls (hazard ratio [HR] 1·58 [95% CI 1·52-1·63]). Excess risk of cardiovascular disease in gout was greater in women than men (women: HR 1·88 [1·75-2·02]; men: HR 1·49 [1·43-1·56]), and, among all age groups, was highest in younger individuals (HR in people aged <45 years: 2·22 [1·92-2·57]). Excess risk was observed across all 12 cardiovascular diseases investigated. Patients with gout had higher BMI than matched controls (mean difference 2·90 kg/m2 [95% CI 2·87-2·93]) and higher prevalence of chronic kidney disease, dyslipidaemia, history of hypertension, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Adjusting for known cardiovascular risk factors attenuated but did not eliminate the excess risk of cardiovascular disease related to gout (adjusted HR 1·31 [1·27-1·36]). INTERPRETATION: Patients with gout had an excess risk of developing a broad range of cardiovascular diseases that extend beyond atherosclerotic diseases and include heart failure, arrhythmias, valve disease, and thromboembolic diseases. Excess risk was highest in women and younger individuals. These findings suggest that strategies to reduce cardiovascular risk in patients with gout need to evolve and be implemented in clinical practice. FUNDING: Research Foundation Flanders.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Gota , Hipertensão , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Gota/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Incidência
15.
BMJ Open ; 14(1): e079665, 2024 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38286703

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The incidence of gout in the UK appears to have declined since 2013; however, whether such a trend occurred across participants born in different years (ie, birth cohort) is unknown. We aimed to examine the effects of the birth cohort on gout incidence using an age-period-cohort (APC) model. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Nationwide data from the UK primary care database. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals between 30 and 89 years of age were included. We excluded individuals who had gout history when entering the database and individuals with less than 1 year of continuous follow-up between 1 January 1999 and 31 December 2019. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Gout was identified using READ codes assigned by general practitioners. The incidence of gout between 1999-2013 and 2011-2019 was analysed with APC model. RESULTS: The incidence of gout between 1999 and 2013 increased with birth cohorts. Compared with those born in 1949-1953 (reference), the age-adjusted and period-adjusted rate ratios (RRs) of incident gout increased from 0.39 (95% CI 0.34 to 0.46) in participants born in 1910-1914 to 2.36 (95% CI 2.09 to 2.66) in participants born in 1979-1983 (p for trend <0.001). In contrast, the incidence of gout between 2011 and 2019 decreased with birth cohorts. Compared with those born in 1949-1953 (reference), the age-adjusted and period-adjusted RRs of incident gout declined from 2.75 (95% CI 2.30 to 3.28) in participants born in 1922-1926 to 0.75 (95% CI 0.65 to 0.87) in participants born in 1976-1980 but then increased slightly to 0.95 (95% CI 0.77 to 1.17) in participants born in 1985-1989. CONCLUSIONS: The gout incidence between 1999 and 2013 in the UK increased with the birth cohorts and then decreased between 2011 and 2019 except for those born after 1980. Future monitoring is needed to help identify aetiological factors and guide preventive and treatment strategies for gout.


Assuntos
Gota , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Transversais , Gota/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
16.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 63(1): 165-173, 2024 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37129545

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the interactions between ultraprocessed food (UPF) consumption and genetic predisposition with the risk of gout. METHODS: This prospective cohort study analysed 181 559 individuals from the UK Biobank study who were free of gout at baseline. UPF was defined according to the NOVA classification. Assessment of genetic predisposition for gout was developed from a genetic risk score of 33 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Cox proportional hazards were used to estimate the associations between UPF consumption, genetic predisposition and the risk of gout. RESULTS: Among the 181 559 individuals in the study, 1558 patients developed gout over 1 648 167 person-years of follow-up. In the multivariable adjustment model, compared with the lowest quartile of UPF consumption, the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CI of the highest UPF consumption was 1.16 (1.01, 1.33) for gout risk, and there was a non-linear correlation between UPF consumption and the development of gout. In substitution analyses, replacing 20% of the weight of UPF in the daily intake with an equal amount of unprocessed or minimally processed food resulted in a 13% lower risk of gout (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.95). In the joint-effect analysis, the HR (95% CI) for gout was 1.90 (1.39, 2.60) in participants with high genetic predisposition and high UPF consumption, compared with those with low genetic predisposition and low UPF consumption. CONCLUSION: In summary, UPF consumption was found to be associated with a higher risk of gout, particularly in those participants with genetic predisposition to gout. Our study indicated that reducing UPF consumption is crucial for gout prevention.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Gota , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Gota/epidemiologia , Gota/genética , Dieta
17.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 27(1): e14959, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37984452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The co-disease of depression and gout is becoming more common in the modern era. However, the relationship between the severity of depressive symptoms and gout prevalence and treatment rate was still unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the relationship between the prevalence, treatment rate of gout, and the severity of depression in the United States. METHOD: The cross-sectional analysis of the 2007-2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for participants with depression was performed. According to their Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scores, participants were categorized as none, mild, moderate, moderately severe, and severe. To learn the correlation between the severity of depressive symptoms and the prevalence and treatment rate of gout using multivariate logistic regression to control for confounder interference. RESULTS: A total of 25 022 patients were included in this study. As the severity of the depressive symptoms worsened (Mild, Moderate and Moderately severe), the risk of gout increased in non-adjusted model and model 1,2,3 (p-value for trend =.01 in non-adjusted model, <.0001 in model 1, <.01 in models 2 and 3; prevalence group in Model 1, aOR1.71, 95% CI (1.40, 2.08) in the mild group, aOR1.68, 95% CI (1.19, 2.39) in the moderate group, aOR1.31,95% CI (0.82, 2.11) in the moderately severe group, aOR1.21, 95% CI (0.62, 2.38) in the severe group). However, the lower gout prevalence trend has no statistical significance after adjusting all factors in Model 4(p-value for trend =.98). Compared with patients without depression, only a few patients received treatment, especially patients with severe depression (none, 80.1%; severe, 0.2%). The more severe the depression, the lower the treatment rate (p-value for trend: non-adjusted model, p < .001; model 1, p = .05; model 2, p = .02; model 3, p = .03). CONCLUSION: Compared with patients without depression, the patients with depression had a higher risk of gout. With the aggravation of depression, the prevalence of gout and the rate of treatment both were decreased. Patients with gout and depression need to receive multidisciplinary care after diagnosis. However, currently, treatment cannot meet the needs of the current patients.


Assuntos
Depressão , Gota , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Gota/diagnóstico , Gota/tratamento farmacológico , Gota/epidemiologia
18.
Am J Med Sci ; 367(2): 119-127, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37984737

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC) depends on multiple factors. Identifying risk factors for CRC may facilitate the early prevention of the disease. We aimed to assess whether existing evidence suggests that serum uric acid (SUA) levels and gout are associated with CRC incidence. METHODS: The study was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42022371591). Searches of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library were conducted from the establishment to November 11, 2022. Pooled relative risk (RR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) was derived to evaluate the effect of SUA or gout on CRC incidence. Non-linear trend analysis was conducted to explore the relationship between SUA level and CRC incidence. RESULTS: Twelve eligible studies with 22 reports were included. A meta-analysis of the included studies showed that when the highest and lowest SUA level categories were compared, an association between SUA level and CRC incidence was revealed (RR, 1.35; 95 % CI: 1.27-1.43; P < 0.001). Non-linear relationship between SUA level and CRC incidence was found. Further meta-analysis indicated that gout was associated with CRC incidence (RR, 1.22; 95 % CI: 1.08-1.36; P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Both SUA level and gout were associated with an increased risk of CRC. Maintaining low SUA levels may be beneficial in reducing the incidence of CRC. Further studies evaluating the precise mechanisms underlying this association are needed to establish whether SUA/gout causes CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Gota , Humanos , Ácido Úrico , Incidência , Gota/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia
19.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 33(1): e5684, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37654015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine whether integrating concepts from the notes from the electronic health record (EHR) data using natural language processing (NLP) could improve the identification of gout flares. METHODS: Using Medicare claims linked with EHR, we selected gout patients who initiated the urate-lowering therapy (ULT). Patients' 12-month baseline period and on-treatment follow-up were segmented into 1-month units. We retrieved EHR notes for months with gout diagnosis codes and processed notes for NLP concepts. We selected a random sample of 500 patients and reviewed each of their notes for the presence of a physician-documented gout flare. Months containing at least 1 note mentioning gout flares were considered months with events. We used 60% of patients to train predictive models with LASSO. We evaluated the models by the area under the curve (AUC) in the validation data and examined positive/negative predictive values (P/NPV). RESULTS: We extracted and labeled 839 months of follow-up (280 with gout flares). The claims-only model selected 20 variables (AUC = 0.69). The NLP concept-only model selected 15 (AUC = 0.69). The combined model selected 32 claims variables and 13 NLP concepts (AUC = 0.73). The claims-only model had a PPV of 0.64 [0.50, 0.77] and an NPV of 0.71 [0.65, 0.76], whereas the combined model had a PPV of 0.76 [0.61, 0.88] and an NPV of 0.71 [0.65, 0.76]. CONCLUSION: Adding NLP concept variables to claims variables resulted in a small improvement in the identification of gout flares. Our data-driven claims-only model and our combined claims/NLP-concept model outperformed existing rule-based claims algorithms reliant on medication use, diagnosis, and procedure codes.


Assuntos
Gota , Idoso , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Gota/diagnóstico , Gota/epidemiologia , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Medicare , Exacerbação dos Sintomas , Algoritmos
20.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 42(1): 138-144, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37650317

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Gout patients are at high risk of carotid atherosclerosis, which could be convincingly reflected by common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCAIMT) and carotid plaque. The current study aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of thick CCAIMT and carotid plaque in gout patients. METHODS: Comprehensive demographic characteristics, chronic comorbidities, disease features, and biochemical indexes (42 parameters) were obtained from 237 gout patients. CCAIMT and carotid plaque were evaluated by bilateral carotid artery ultrasound in gout patients and 80 healthy controls. RESULTS: The CCAIMT and carotid plaque percentage were increased in gout patients compared to healthy controls (both p<0.001). In detail, the prevalence of thick CCAIMT (>0.9 mm) and carotid plaque was 22.4% and 34.6% in gout patients, respectively. Forward-stepwise multivariate logistic regression model revealed that age (p<0.001, odds ratio (OR)=1.143], disease duration (p=0.001, OR=1.176), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (p=0.002, OR=1.037), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) (p=0.039, OR=2.144) were independently associated with elevated thick CCAIMT risk, while serum uric acid (SUA) (p=0.002, OR=0.992) exhibited an opposite trend; their combination well-identified thick CCAIMT risk [area under the curve (AUC)=0.910] by receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve. Meanwhile, age (p<0001, OR=1.116), tophus (p=0.009, OR=3.523), and triglycerides (TG) (p=0.014, OR=1.323) were independently associated with a higher risk of carotid plaque, while SUA (p=0.008, OR=0.995) showed an opposite trend; their combination also well-identified carotid plaque risk (AUC=0.886) by ROC curve. CONCLUSIONS: Thick CCAIMT and carotid plaque are prevalent in gout patients, whose occurrence relates to age, disease duration, ALP, LDLC, SUA, TG, and tophus.


Assuntos
Doenças das Artérias Carótidas , Gota , Placa Aterosclerótica , Humanos , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Prevalência , Ácido Úrico , Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores de Risco , Artéria Carótida Primitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Placa Aterosclerótica/epidemiologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/epidemiologia , Gota/diagnóstico por imagem , Gota/epidemiologia
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