Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 12.496
Filtrar
2.
JAMA ; 331(13): 1085-1086, 2024 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38436997

RESUMO

This Viewpoint breaks down the myriad ways the Alabama Supreme Court decision to declare frozen embryos as legal equivalents to children harms the health of mothers and fetuses, limits reproductive decision-making based on genetics and out-of-reach costs, and impedes research.


Assuntos
Regulamentação Governamental , Jurisprudência , Medicina Reprodutiva , Governo Estadual , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Aborto Legal/legislação & jurisprudência , Alabama , Medicina Reprodutiva/legislação & jurisprudência , Estados Unidos
4.
Acad Med ; 99(4): 388-394, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38166333

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Indiana was the first state to pass legislation severely restricting access to abortion care following the Dobbs v. Jackson Women's Health Organization decision. Indiana Senate Enrolled Act 1 (SEA 1) outlaws all abortions with few exceptions. Indiana University Health (IU Health), the largest and only academic health system in the state, has a unique relationship with the Indiana University School of Medicine and a vision to improve the health of Indiana residents. IU Health employed the Hospital Incident Command System model to create a plan to ensure its patients continue to have access to safe, high-quality family planning, maternal, and neonatal care services and that clinicians are protected against criminal penalties and threats to personal safety. This article provides an overview of the Incident Command structure used to rapidly work across many disciplines, tackle complex issues, respond to concerns, and design and implement changes. The article also outlines the key considerations and decisions made by Incident Command leaders, such as where abortions that met the new law's criteria should be performed, changes to clinical workflows and protocols, and the creation of a rapid response team. The article then examines the operational, legal, and clinical challenges encountered by clinicians and health care team members, including a lack of peer support or idea sharing with other health systems in the state; accurate estimation of abortion, live birth, and neonatal intensive care unit volumes; and ambiguity in the law and lack of guidance from the state government. Recommendations regarding communication with clinicians and other health care team members and engaging information technology early are offered for health systems and medical schools that may face legislative barriers to health care delivery in the future. Finally, IU Health's commitment to tracking the impact of SEA 1 on patients, clinicians, employees, and the state is outlined.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Saúde da Mulher , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Humanos , Atenção à Saúde , Hospitais , Comunicação , Governo Estadual
5.
JAMA ; 330(24): 2337-2338, 2023 12 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38064223

RESUMO

This Viewpoint examines how US states are reforming legislation to allow access to psychedelics for therapeutic use, but federal laws consider these agents to be Schedule I drugs, and the discordance between state and federal law may create confusion and conflict.


Assuntos
Alucinógenos , Governo Estadual , United States Food and Drug Administration , Alucinógenos/farmacologia , Alucinógenos/uso terapêutico , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration/legislação & jurisprudência
6.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 11(Suppl 2)2023 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38110207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Challenge Initiative (TCI) works with state governments in Nigeria to scale high-impact family planning and reproductive health (FP/RH) interventions rapidly and sustainably. The Reflection and Action to Improve Self-reliance and Effectiveness (RAISE) tool is an innovative responsive feedback (RF) mechanism developed by TCI to periodically monitor governments' readiness to sustain implementation of their FP/RH interventions. RAISE DESCRIPTION: The RAISE tool-a facilitated, self-administered tool used quarterly to track program improvements, identify gaps, and provide feedback-contains FP/RH progress indicators across 4 pillars: political and financial commitment, government capacity, institutionalization, and sustained demand. As a maturity matrix that helps state governments to understand the extent of their self-reliance in leadership and program management, the tool measures the stages of capacity: "beginning" (54% and below), "developing" (55-69%), "expanding" (70-84%), and "mature" (85% and above). Participants self-administer the tool with a trained government facilitator, develop a remediation plan with timelines and responsible persons assigned to address identified gaps, and communicate the plan to the broader FP/RH program team. ASSESSMENT RESULTS: Thirteen supported states have completed 5 rounds of assessments between June 2020 and September 2022. Baseline results revealed that 4 states were at the developing stage, 8 were at the expanding stage, and 1 had a mature program. The most recent assessment revealed mature capacity for 9 states while the 4 others are in the expanding stage. Consequently, all the states demonstrated improved government self-reliance over the course of the year. CONCLUSION: To ensure objectivity, RAISE participants, who include government policymakers, program managers, and implementers, use available government data sources to complement assessment findings. As an RF mechanism, the RAISE tool contributed to governments' enhanced leadership and management of their FP/RH programs, with current considerations for modifications to serve other primary health care programs.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Humanos , Nigéria , Governo Estadual , Educação Sexual
7.
Healthc Policy ; 19(2): 6-14, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38105662

RESUMO

Spending on healthcare is carefully scrutinized by the public, the media and academics because the amounts are so large and represent a very significant proportion of provincial budgets. Some quarters are calling for increases in spending, whereas others are focused on restraint owing to perceived inefficiencies and ineffectiveness. The debate over healthcare spending has continued for decades and is likely to heat up as new provincial labour agreements have locked in annual healthcare spending increases of at least five percent for 2023 (BC Nurses' Union 2023; ONA 2023).


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Governo Estadual , Orçamentos , Financiamento Governamental
9.
JAMA ; 330(13): 1227-1228, 2023 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37713181

RESUMO

This Viewpoint discusses the reasons why Medicaid has not been expanded in all US states and explains how expansion might finally be achieved in the 10 holdout states.


Assuntos
Cobertura do Seguro , Medicaid , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Política , Governo Estadual , Dissidências e Disputas , Estados Unidos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde
10.
Milbank Q ; 101(4): 1191-1222, 2023 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37706227

RESUMO

Policy Points The increasing political polarization of states reached new heights during the COVID-19 pandemic, when response plans differed sharply across party lines. This study found that states with Republican governors and larger Republican majorities in legislatures experienced higher death rates during the COVID-19 pandemic-and in preceding years-but these associations often lost statistical significance after adjusting for the average income and health status of state populations and for the policy orientations of the states. Future research may help clarify whether the higher death rates in these states result from policy choices or have other explanations, such as the tendency of voters with lower incomes or poorer health to elect Republican candidates. CONTEXT: Increasing polarization of states reached a high point during the COVID-19 pandemic, when the party affiliation of elected officials often predicted their policy response. The health consequences of these divisions are unclear. Prior studies compared mortality rates based on presidential voting patterns, but few considered the partisan orientation of state officials. This study examined whether the partisan orientation of governors or legislatures was associated with mortality outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Data on deaths and the partisan orientation of governors and legislators were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Conference of State Legislatures, respectively. Linear regression was used to measure the association between Republican representation (percentage of seats held) in legislatures and (1) age-adjusted, all-cause mortality rates (AAMRs) in 2015-2021 and (2) excess death rates during three phases of the COVID-19 pandemic, controlling for median household income, the prevalence of four risk factors (obesity, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart attack, stroke), and state policy orientation. Associations between excess death rates and the governor's party were also examined. FINDINGS: States with Republican governors or greater Republican representation in legislatures experienced higher AAMRs during 2015-2021, lower excess death rates during Phase 1 of the COVID-19 pandemic (weeks ending March 28, 2020, through June 13, 2020), and higher excess death rates in Phases 2 and 3 (weeks ending June 20, 2020, through April 30, 2022; p < 0.05). Most associations lost statistical significance after adjustment for control variables. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality was higher in states with Republican governors and greater Republican legislative representation before and during much of the pandemic. Observed associations could be explained by the adverse effects of policy choices, reverse causality (e.g., popularity of Republican candidates in states with lower socioeconomic and health status), or unmeasured factors that predominate in states with Republican leaders.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Governo Estadual , Pandemias , Política
11.
Public Health ; 222: 140-146, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37544124

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: State ceiling pre-emption laws effectively limit the authority of local governments to regulate numerous public health issues, including tobacco. While general trends in the number of state tobacco pre-emption laws have been well-documented, less is known about the specific content of these laws. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the content of current state tobacco pre-emption laws and captures the salient features of these laws. STUDY DESIGN: This was a comparative analysis of tobacco pre-emption laws in the United States. METHODS: The study team collected data about tobacco pre-emption laws from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation System. Trained legal researchers further verified and reviewed each law's content using the Westlaw database. A coding scheme was developed to capture and analyse these laws' most salient features. RESULTS: State tobacco pre-emption laws use various terms to indicate the pre-emption of a local authority, including supersede, pre-empt, uniform, exclusive, and consistent. State laws cover numerous general topics and vary widely in explicit terminology of authorities and fields pre-empted. Several state laws included grandfathering exceptions and a few allowed exceptions for particular local jurisdictions. CONCLUSIONS: State laws that undermine local tobacco control efforts from implementing more stringent laws pose a threat to public health. These laws vary widely in their scope across the U.S., and local jurisdictions should be empowered to enact and maintain tobacco control measures that protect their communities from the harms of tobacco use and exposure.


Assuntos
Uso de Tabaco , Humanos , Governo Local , Saúde Pública , Governo Estadual , Controle do Tabagismo , Estados Unidos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37297620

RESUMO

Preemptive statutory language within tobacco minimum legal sales age (MLSA) laws has prohibited localities from enacting stricter laws than state statutes. With the recent uptake of state Tobacco 21 laws in the US, the current landscape of preempted MLSA laws is unknown. This study sought to update the status of preemption in MLSA laws enacted in US states between 2015-2022. A public health attorney reviewed state tobacco MLSA laws (n = 50) and state tobacco control codes, searching for language regarding preemption. When statutes were unclear, case law was reviewed by examining local ordinances that were invalidated by state court decisions. Overall, 40 states enacted Tobacco 21 laws, seven of which expanded or introduced preemption when they increased the MLSA; a total of 26 states (52%) included preemption. Six states (12%) retained 'savings clauses' included in the MLSA prior to Tobacco 21, and 18 states (36%) did not mention preemption. Based on the precedent set by state courts, eight of these 18 states may preempt localities from raising their MLSA. Historically, preemption has slowed the diffusion of best practices in tobacco control, and once implemented, the laws are difficult to repeal. The recent expansion of preemption could inhibit the evolution, development, and implementation of effective tobacco control policies.


Assuntos
Formulação de Políticas , Estados Unidos , Governo Estadual , Saúde Pública , Controle do Tabagismo
13.
J Emerg Manag ; 21(7 (Spec Issue: Research and Applied Science: COVID-19 Pandemic Response)): 19-35, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37154443

RESUMO

The first 2 years of combatting the COVID-19 pandemic necessitated an unprecedented use of emergency powers. States responded with an equally unprecedented flurry of legislative changes to the legal underpinnings of emergency response and public health authorities. In this article, we provide a brief background on the framework and use of governors and state health officials' emergency powers. We then analyze several key themes, including both the enhancement and restriction of powers, emerging from emergency management and public health legislation introduced in state and territorial legislatures. During the 2020 and 2021 state and territorial legislative sessions, we tracked legislation related to the emergency powers of governors and state health officials. Legislators introduced hundreds of bills impacting these powers, some enhancing and others restricting emergency powers. Enhancements included increasing vaccine access and expanding the pool of eligible medical professions that could administer vaccinations, strengthening public health investigation and enforcement authority for state agencies, and preclusion of local orders by orders at the state level. Restrictions included establishing oversight mechanisms for executive actions, limits on the duration of the emergency, limiting the scope of emergency powers allowed during a declared emergency, and other restraints. By -describing these legislative trends, we hope to inform governors, state health officials, -policymakers, and emergency managers about how changes in the law may impact future public health and emergency response capabilities. Understanding this new legal landscape is critical to effectively preparing for future threats.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Pública , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Governo Estadual
14.
Science ; 379(6639): 1277, 2023 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36996211

RESUMO

Societies generally have reacted to deadly epidemics by strengthening health systems, including laws. Under American federalism (the constitutional division of power between states and the federal government), individual states hold primary public health powers. State legislatures have historically granted health officials wide-ranging authority. After the anthrax attacks in the United States in 2001, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) supported the Model State Emergency Health Powers Act, which granted public health officials even more expansive powers to declare a health emergency and respond swiftly. But all that ended with COVID-19, as state legislatures and courts gutted this authority. The next pandemic could be far deadlier than COVID-19, but when the public looks to federal and state governments to protect them, they may find that health officials have their hands tied behind their backs.


Assuntos
Administração em Saúde Pública , Saúde Pública , Governo Estadual , Humanos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Governo Federal , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Estados Unidos , Administração em Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência
15.
Soc Sci Med ; 322: 115809, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36893503

RESUMO

Although a growing body of literature recommends strategies for improving racial equity in organizations and populations, little is known about how racial equity goals are operationalized in actuality, particularly in the context of state health and mental health authorities (SH/MHAs) attempting to promote population wellness while navigating bureaucratic and political constraints. This article seeks to examine the number of states engaging in racial equity work in mental health care, what strategies SH/MHAs use to improve their state's racial equity in mental health care, and how the workforce understands these strategies. A brief survey of 47 states found that all but one state (98%) is enacting racial equity interventions in mental health care. Through qualitative interviews with 58 SH/MHA employees in 31 states, I created a taxonomy of activities within six overarching strategies: 1) running a racial equity group; 2) gathering information and data about racial equity; 3) facilitating training and learning for staff and providers; 4) collaborating with partners and engaging with communities; 5) offering information or services to communities and organizations of color; and 6) promoting workforce diversity. I describe specific tactics within each of the strategies as well as the perceived benefits and challenges of the strategies. I argue that strategies bifurcate into development activities, which are activities creating higher-quality racial equity plans, and equity-advancing activities, which are actions directly impacting racial equity. The results have implications for how government reform efforts can impact mental health equity.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde , Humanos , Antirracismo , Governo Estadual , Organizações
16.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 363, 2023 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36803579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomically disadvantaged children are disproportionately affected by oral disease. Mobile dental services help underserved communities overcome barriers to accessing health care, including time, geography, and trust. The NSW Health Primary School Mobile Dental Program (PSMDP) is designed to provide diagnostic and preventive dental services to children at their schools. The PSMDP is mainly targeted toward high-risk children and priority populations. This study aims to evaluate the program's performance across five local health districts (LHDs) where the program is being implemented. METHODS: The evaluation will use routinely collected administrative data, along with other program-specific data sources, from the district public oral health services to conduct a statistical analysis that determines the reach and uptake of the program, its effectiveness, and the associated costs and cost-consequences. The PSMDP evaluation program utilises data from Electronic Dental Records (EDRs) and other data sources, including patient demographics, service mix, general health, oral health clinical data and risk factor information. The overall design includes cross-sectional and longitudinal components. The design combines comprehensive output monitoring across the five participating LHDs and investigates the associations between socio-demographic factors, service patterns and health outcomes. Time series analysis using difference-in-difference estimation will be conducted across the four years of the program, involving services, risk factors, and health outcomes. Comparison groups will be identified via propensity matching across the five participating LHDs. An economic analysis will estimate the costs and cost-consequences for children who participate in the program versus the comparison group. DISCUSSION: The use of EDRs for oral health services evaluation research is a relatively new approach, and the evaluation works within the limitations and strengths of utilising administrative datasets. The study will also provide avenues to improve the quality of data collected and system-level improvements to better enable future services to be aligned with disease prevalence and population needs.


Assuntos
Saúde Bucal , Instituições Acadêmicas , Criança , Humanos , New South Wales , Estudos Transversais , Governo Estadual , Austrália
17.
Health Place ; 80: 102985, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36804680

RESUMO

Transgender individuals globally face varying policy contexts that can influence their health. In the United States (US), a patchwork of exclusionary and inclusive policies exists, creating potentially different social and political contexts that shape transgender health depending on the state. In this article, we consider how recent legislation introduced in US states focused on transgender people may be a political determinant of health and affect health equity goals. To advance this aim, we employed the perspective of legal epidemiology to systematically search a US legal database (Westlaw) for policies focused on transgender individuals proposed between January of 2017 and September of 2021.698 policies were analyzed as affirming or exclusionary of transgender identities and categorized by content. We calculated a ratio of affirming versus exclusionary bills to create "exclusionary density" and "affirming density" measures. Those measures were used to calculate an inclusivity score and corresponding maps of inclusivity and exclusionary contexts by US state. Exclusionary and affirming density measures showed deeply polarized policy responses to transgender individuals depending on US state. Further, we observed differences in magnitude regarding the laws being proposed. Exclusionary laws largely focused on criminalization while inclusionary laws focused on representation in government agencies. These findings highlight that transgender individuals in the US can experience vastly different political contexts depending on where they live.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde , Pessoas Transgênero , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Políticas , Governo Estadual , Geografia
18.
Prev Med ; 170: 107462, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36842562

RESUMO

E-cigarette use is prevalent among youth in the United States. Historically, local communities have been a catalyst for adopting evidence-based tobacco control policies. However, some states have ceiling preemption laws that prevent more stringent statutes from being enacted at the city or county level and inhibit tobacco control efforts. The current study documents state preemption laws regarding e-cigarette advertising, licensure, indoor clean air, and youth access. We conducted a systematic synthesis of state statutes to identify states with e-cigarette preemption laws. Data were collected on four policy categories being preempted: advertising, licensure, clean indoor air, and youth access. Laws were compiled, and the content was verified using the Westlaw legal database. In the US, 25 states preempt stricter local e-cigarette regulations in 55 laws. Of these states, 19 preempt advertising regulations, 11 preempt licensure requirements, four preempt ordinances for indoor clean air, and 21 preempt youth access. A broad range of terms was employed to describe preemption, yet few states explicitly used the term "preempt." E-cigarette ceiling preemption laws inhibit public health progress and prevent local authorities from addressing the popularity of e-cigarettes among adolescents.States without preemption laws should be encouraged to adopt language that expressly saves local authority.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Estados Unidos , Adolescente , Humanos , Fumar , Saúde Pública , Governo Estadual
19.
Am J Prev Med ; 64(5): 642-649, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36621384

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Firearm violence is a public health crisis. Municipalities are frequently prevented from adopting firearm-related laws because of state preemption-when the state limits local authority to enact laws on a specific topic. Yet, it is unknown the extent to which municipalities enact firearm-related laws under varying preemption regimes, the content of such laws, and how municipal laws relate to the state's firearm-policy framework. METHODS: A purposeful sample of 6 states with diverse preemption laws were chosen; 3 with robust preemption: South Carolina, Maryland, and Arizona; 1 with moderate preemption: Nebraska; and 2 without preemption: Connecticut and New York. Using Lexis+, municipal codes as of December 31, 2020 were identified, and the policy topics were evaluated and compared with the state's policy framework. Counties representing the municipalities identified were characterized using public use data. RESULTS: In total, 613 municipal policies were identified, covering 56 topics. The number of policy topics enacted by at least 1 municipality in the state included 18 for Arizona, 21 for Connecticut, 24 for Maryland, 25 for Nebraska, 40 for New York, and 28 for South Carolina. The most common policy identified was restricting public discharge in community-centered locations. Local laws in preemption states replicated state requirements or were consistent with savings clauses expressly allowing local action. New York City, a municipality in a state without preemption, enacted laws covering the most policy topics of the municipalities identified. CONCLUSIONS: When not constrained by state preemption, local lawmakers actively passed firearm-related legislation. Many such laws are specific to local contexts and may reflect local lawmakers' responsiveness to constituent concerns.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo , Políticas , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Cidades , Governo Estadual , Arizona , Cidade de Nova Iorque
20.
Am J Prev Med ; 64(4): 459-467, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658021

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is limited evidence on how government spending is associated with maternal death. This study investigates the associations between state and local government spending on social and healthcare services and pregnancy-related mortality among the total, non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White populations. METHODS: State-specific total population and race/ethnicity-specific 5-year (2015-2019) pregnancy-related mortality ratios were estimated from annual natality and mortality files provided by the National Center for Health Statistics. Data on state and local government spending and population-level characteristics were obtained from U.S. Census Bureau surveys. Generalized linear Poisson regression models with robust SEs were fitted to estimate adjusted rate ratios and 95% CIs associated with proportions of total spending allocated to social services and healthcare domains, adjusting for state-level covariates. All analyses were completed in 2021-2022. RESULTS: State and local government spending on transportation was associated with 11% lower overall pregnancy-related mortality (adjusted rate ratio=0.89, 95% CI=0.83, 0.96) and 9%-12% lower pregnancy-related mortality among the racial/ethnic groups. Among spending subdomains, expenditures on higher education, highways and roads, and parks and recreation were associated with lower pregnancy-related mortality rates in the total population (adjusted rate ratio=0.90, 95% CI=0.86, 0.94; adjusted rate ratio=0.87, 95% CI=0.81, 0.94; and adjusted rate ratio=0.68, 95% CI=0.49, 0.95, respectively). These results were consistent among the racial/ethnic groups, but patterns of associations with pregnancy-related mortality and other spending subdomains differed notably between racial/ethnic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Investing more in local- and state-targeted spending in social services may decrease the risk for pregnancy-related mortality, particularly among Black women.


Assuntos
Etnicidade , Financiamento Governamental , Governo Local , Mortalidade Materna , Governo Estadual , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Hispânico ou Latino , Grupos Raciais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Materna/etnologia , Negro ou Afro-Americano , Brancos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...