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1.
Sci Data ; 8(1): 3, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398078

RESUMO

This N = 173,426 social science dataset was collected through the collaborative COVIDiSTRESS Global Survey - an open science effort to improve understanding of the human experiences of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic between 30th March and 30th May, 2020. The dataset allows a cross-cultural study of psychological and behavioural responses to the Coronavirus pandemic and associated government measures like cancellation of public functions and stay at home orders implemented in many countries. The dataset contains demographic background variables as well as measures of Asian Disease Problem, perceived stress (PSS-10), availability of social provisions (SPS-10), trust in various authorities, trust in governmental measures to contain the virus (OECD trust), personality traits (BFF-15), information behaviours, agreement with the level of government intervention, and compliance with preventive measures, along with a rich pool of exploratory variables and written experiences. A global consortium from 39 countries and regions worked together to build and translate a survey with variables of shared interests, and recruited participants in 47 languages and dialects. Raw plus cleaned data and dynamic visualizations are available.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Comparação Transcultural , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Governo , Humanos , Personalidade , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Confiança
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401512

RESUMO

Today's societies are connected to a level that has never been seen before. The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed the vulnerabilities of such an unprecedently connected world. As of 19 November 2020, over 56 million people have been infected with nearly 1.35 million deaths, and the numbers are growing. The state-of-the-art social media analytics for COVID-19-related studies to understand the various phenomena happening in our environment are limited and require many more studies. This paper proposes a software tool comprising a collection of unsupervised Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) machine learning and other methods for the analysis of Twitter data in Arabic with the aim to detect government pandemic measures and public concerns during the COVID-19 pandemic. The tool is described in detail, including its architecture, five software components, and algorithms. Using the tool, we collect a dataset comprising 14 million tweets from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) for the period 1 February 2020 to 1 June 2020. We detect 15 government pandemic measures and public concerns and six macro-concerns (economic sustainability, social sustainability, etc.), and formulate their information-structural, temporal, and spatio-temporal relationships. For example, we are able to detect the timewise progression of events from the public discussions on COVID-19 cases in mid-March to the first curfew on 22 March, financial loan incentives on 22 March, the increased quarantine discussions during March-April, the discussions on the reduced mobility levels from 24 March onwards, the blood donation shortfall late March onwards, the government's 9 billion SAR (Saudi Riyal) salary incentives on 3 April, lifting the ban on five daily prayers in mosques on 26 May, and finally the return to normal government measures on 29 May 2020. These findings show the effectiveness of the Twitter media in detecting important events, government measures, public concerns, and other information in both time and space with no earlier knowledge about them.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Governo , Pandemias , Mídias Sociais , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Arábia Saudita
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(1)2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443149

RESUMO

Effective states govern by some combination of enforcement and voluntary compliance. To contain the COVID-19 pandemic, a critical decision is the extent to which policy makers rely on voluntary as opposed to enforced compliance, and nations vary along this dimension. While enforcement may secure higher compliance, there is experimental and other evidence that it may also crowd out voluntary motivation. How does enforcement affect citizens' support for anti-COVID-19 policies? A survey conducted with 4,799 respondents toward the end of the first lockdown in Germany suggests that a substantial share of the population will support measures more under voluntary than under enforced implementation. Negative responses to enforcement-termed control aversion-vary across the nature of the policy intervention (e.g., they are rare for masks and frequent for vaccination and a cell-phone tracing app). Control aversion is less common among those with greater trust in the government and the information it provides, and among those who were brought up under the coercive regime of East Germany. Taking account of the likely effectiveness of enforcement and the extent to which near-universal compliance is crucial, the differing degrees of opposition to enforcement across policies suggest that for some anti-COVID-19 policies an enforced mandate would be unwise, while for others it would be essential. Similar reasoning may also be relevant for policies to address future pandemics and other societal challenges like climate change.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Aglomeração/psicologia , Política de Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Governo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Política , Quarentena , Confiança , Adulto Jovem
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435337

RESUMO

Little is understood of the social and cultural effects of coronaviruses such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV). This systematic review aims to synthesize existing findings (both qualitative and quantitative) that focus on the social and cultural impacts of coronaviruses in order to gain a better understanding of the COVID-19 pandemic. Utilizing a predetermined search strategy, we searched CINAHL, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science to identify existing (qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-methods) studies pertaining to the coronavirus infections and their intersection with societies and cultures. A narrative synthesis approach was applied to summarize and interpret findings of the study. Stemming from SARS outbreak in 2003, qualitative and quantitative findings (twelve adopted quantitative methods and eight exclusively used qualitative methods) were organized under five topical domains: governance, crisis communication and public knowledge, stigma and discrimination, social compliance of preventive measures, and the social experience of health workers. The selected studies suggest that current societies are not equipped for effective coronavirus response and control. This mixed-methods systematic review demonstrates that the effects of coronaviruses on a society can be debilitating.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Cultura , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Governo , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Pandemias , Cooperação do Paciente , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Discriminação Social
5.
J Environ Manage ; 280: 111840, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360550

RESUMO

The Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) program has provided policy innovation for global environmental affairs. China, the largest developing country in the world, is also faced with serious environmental problems. China developed a unique environmental policy - ecological compensation (Eco-compensation), which combined the flexibility of the PES mechanism with efficient government management. The paper studies the efficiency of eco-compensation policy in a large-scale region and the stability of policy in a long-time. We use the counterfactual method - Synthetic Control Method (SCM) to analyze the eco-compensation policy. Zhejiang province, China, which is the first province to implement Eco-compensation policy, chose as study case. We run several robustness checks to discuss the influence of other factors, including economy, politics and geology. The result shows that the eco-compensation policy improve the region's environment significantly. And it never has negative impact for the economy of Zhejiang. We discuss some experiences and challenges of this policy. The paper thinks that localization and the hybrid of government and market could provide successful experience for this policy.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , China , Política Ambiental , Governo
6.
Int J Health Serv ; 51(1): 101-106, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076739

RESUMO

When a new infectious disease emerges as an epidemic or pandemic, strict and appropriate mitigation strategies are critical. Appropriate steps that facilitate defining of cases, carrying out accurate clinical diagnoses, and forming a powerful health surveillance that addresses public health policies and procedures are necessary. Tracking the number of COVID-19 cases over time and flattening the curve is another important element to establish research settings and identify therapeutic components to expedite and develop effective interventions. Addressing the various sections of the society in a philanthropic way is crucial to acquiring the public cooperation that is essential to controlling a disease like COVID-19. In this study, we discuss various strategies and measures adopted by Kerala, an Indian state, to combat the COVID-19 outbreak. Regular and timely updates by government public relations and health departments were used in many of the adopted strategies. The engagement of health information systems, together with the application of decentralized governance and community engagement, has contributed to effective population health management and surveillance of the pandemic.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , /epidemiologia , Governo , Gestão da Informação em Saúde/normas , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos
7.
Acad Med ; 96(1): 62-67, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520750

RESUMO

The COVID-19 outbreak has sown clinical and administrative chaos at academic health centers throughout the country. As COVID-19-related burdens on the health care system and medical schools piled up, questions from medical students far outweighed the capacity of medical school administrators to respond in an adequate or timely manner, leaving students feeling confused and without clear guidance. In this article, incoming and outgoing executive leaders of the University of Michigan Medical School Student Council and medical school deans outline the specific ways they were able to bridge the gap between medical students and administrators in a time of crisis. To illustrate the value of student government during uncertain times, the authors identify the most pressing problems faced by students at each phase of the curriculum-preclerkship, clerkship, and postclerkship-and explain how Student Council leadership partnered with administrators to find creative solutions to these problems and provide guidance to learners. They end by reflecting on the role of student government more broadly, identifying 3 guiding principles of student leadership and how these principles enable effective student representation.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Estágio Clínico/organização & administração , Currículo/normas , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Governo , Liderança , Faculdades de Medicina/organização & administração , Humanos
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(1): 915-935, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820450

RESUMO

To accelerate the transformation and application of basic research results, the Chinese government has repeatedly mentioned in a government work report that it is necessary to support research and innovation collaborations between knowledge research institutions and enterprises. However, few studies have focused on the evolution of collaborations between these organizations and the impact of collaborations on innovation performance (IP) in the field of renewable energy under the background of government-funded support (GFS). Based on scientific publications, we construct a GFS collaboration network in the wind power field to investigate the evolution of network structure characteristics, attribute proximity variables, and applied research collaboration (ARC), and we study the impact of network evolution on the IP of actors. The results show that the focal actor of the collaboration network prefers to engage in ARC with partners who are familiar and have the same knowledge base in different provinces. This collaboration tendency will reduce geographical proximity and increase the direct ties, indirect ties, technological proximity, and ARC of the ego network. Among them, direct ties have an inverted U-shaped effect on IP, geographical proximity has a significantly negative impact on IP, and the remaining variables have positive impacts on IP. Taken together, when the direct ties is within a certain range, these collaboration tendencies in a GFS collaboration network positively affect the IP of research institutions and enterprises.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Vento , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Governo , Humanos , Organizações
9.
J Environ Manage ; 277: 111470, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069146

RESUMO

Improving air quality is an era task for China to transform its economic development model and enhance its environmental governance capabilities. This article take the Chinese government's Three-year Action Plan to Win the Blue Sky Defense War (abbreviated as the Blue Sky Defense War) as a quasi-natural experiment and use regression discontinuity design (RDD) to evaluate the governance effect of this policy. The study found that the Blue Sky Defense War reduced the monthly average concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 in cities by 14.49 and 23.43, respectively. Heterogeneity analysis shows that the Blue Sky Defence War has a more prominent effect on urban air quality management based on PM10 assessment; Jing-Jin-Ji region and surrounding areas are the key points to ensure the achievement of air management. Consistent and effective environmental governance policies, transparent and timely information disclosure and structural adjustment are all powerful guarantees for the effectiveness of the Blue Sky Defense War. These research conclusions provide new ideas for developing countries to formulate practical environmental pollution control policies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , China , Cidades , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Política Ambiental , Governo , Material Particulado/análise
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33379205

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic imposes new challenges on the capability of governments in intervening with the information dissemination and reducing the risk of infection outbreak. To reveal the complexity behind government intervention decision, we build a bi-layer network diffusion model for the information-disease dynamics that were intervened in and conduct a full space simulation to illustrate the trade-off faced by governments between information disclosing and blocking. The simulation results show that governments prioritize the accuracy of disclosed information over the disclosing speed when there is a high-level medical recognition of the virus and a high public health awareness, while, for the opposite situation, more strict information blocking is preferred. Furthermore, an unaccountable government tends to delay disclosing, a risk-averse government prefers a total blocking, and a low government credibility will discount the effect of information disclosing and aggravate the situation. These findings suggest that information intervention is indispensable for containing the outbreak of infectious disease, but its effectiveness depends on a complicated way on both external social/epidemic factors and the governments' internal preferences and governance capability, for which more thorough investigations are needed in the future.


Assuntos
Governo , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Pandemias , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Análise de Sistemas
13.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0239549, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270678

RESUMO

Environmental protection regulations adopted by governments affect the microeconomic behavior of enterprises. The Chinese government began piloting the outgoing leading officials' accountability audit of natural resources assets (OANRA) in some regions in 2014. Based on this quasi-natural experimental setting, this paper chose heavy-polluting and resource-based enterprises in pilot regions of China from 2011 to 2016 as examples for studying the impact of the OANRA on enterprise innovation and further examines the role of government subsidies in this process. The study finds that the OANRA has no significant impact on enterprise innovation. However, with support from government subsidies, the OANRA dramatically accelerates enterprise innovation investment. The results are still seen after applying propensity matching analysis (PSM), balancing panel data and deleting special provinces. Further analysis shows that this effect is more obvious among small-scale, state-owned enterprises that are located in areas with high degrees of marketization and high bank credit constraints. This study advances the research of the OANRA's effects on the microeconomic behavior of enterprises. Moreover, the adjustment effect of government subsidies also provides great reference value to making rational use of policy to cooperate with the OANRA.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Poluição Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , China , Eficiência , Governo , Indústrias/legislação & jurisprudência , Investimentos em Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência
14.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243094, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318710

RESUMO

Recent research suggests that democratic presidential elections held using a runoff rule produce presidents that are more likely to protect human rights, in comparison to those elected under plurality rule; with this follow-up article, I seek to highlight the importance of advancing to a runoff round for those elections held using a runoff rule. I find that for presidential democracies that already have a runoff rule in place, country-years where the president has been elected after a runoff round are more likely to be associated with high government respect for human rights, in comparison to country-years where the president has been elected after only one round (that could have advanced to a runoff round, but did not). This article provides decision-makers with more information regarding the human rights consequences of runoff rounds, so that the costs and benefits of adopting (or retaining) variations of a runoff rule can be better weighed.


Assuntos
Direitos Humanos , Política , Tomada de Decisões , Governo , Humanos
15.
Soc Sci Med ; 265: 113549, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277070

RESUMO

Governments around the world have made data on COVID-19 testing, case numbers, hospitalizations and deaths openly available, and a breadth of researchers, media sources and data scientists have curated and used these data to inform the public about the state of the coronavirus pandemic. However, it is unclear if all data being released convey anything useful beyond the reputational benefits of governments wishing to appear open and transparent. In this analysis we use Ontario, Canada as a case study to assess the value of publicly available SARS-CoV-2 positive case numbers. Using a combination of real data and simulations, we find that daily publicly available test results probably contain considerable error about individual risk (measured as proportion of tests that are positive, population based incidence and prevalence of active cases) and that short term variations are very unlikely to provide useful information for any plausible decision making on the part of individual citizens. Open government data can increase the transparency and accountability of government, however it is essential that all publication, use and re-use of these data highlight their weaknesses to ensure that the public is properly informed about the uncertainty associated with SARS-CoV-2 information.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Governo , Comunicação em Saúde/normas , Incerteza , Coleta de Dados/normas , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Ontário/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Medição de Risco
16.
Indian J Med Ethics ; V(3): 219-221, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295290

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease (Covid-19), which originated in China, is now a full-blown pandemic which has thrown governments and societies off-track in an unprecedented manner. War metaphors have been used widely to describe the scenario, but many critics decry them as harmful narratives. In this piece, we discuss the utility of the war metaphor to build solidarity and fraternity, which will be essential to get through the crisis. We also explain how concerns regarding increased authoritarianism and state excesses due to the use of these narratives are misplaced. We then tease out the colonial era concept of war that guides the arguments against the use of war metaphors in pandemics. We argue that in the post-modern world and in South Asian and African philosophies, wars are seen through the prism of the larger cause of dharma or ubuntu and that individual losses or gains in these contexts are part of a larger cause. The use of war metaphors reflects the need to get together for a societal cause. These metaphors are largely understood across societies while other alternatives are exclusionary, poetic and tangential in nature.

Keywords : Covid-19, pandemics, war metaphors, communication, philosophy, SARS-CoV-2

.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Metáfora , Princípios Morais , Pandemias , Comportamento Social , Conflitos Armados , Ásia , Compreensão , Governo , Humanos , Pandemias/ética , Filosofia , Sistemas Políticos , África do Sul
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322428

RESUMO

The COVID-19 epidemic has crashed on the social and economic stability of China and even the world, and raised the question: how has the Chinese government done with public health in recent years? The purpose of this paper is to clarify the definition and items of Chinese public-health expenditure, then to objectively evaluate the Chinese government's performance, so as to help the government to perform better in public health. To achieve this goal, we measure the Chinese public-health expenditure at national and provincial levels based on our definition, and then compare it with the expenditures of other countries. The results show that: (1) the level of public-health expenditure in China is relatively low and far lower than that in developed countries; (2) Chinese governments have not paid enough attention to the prevention and control of major public-health emergencies, which may be an important reason for the outbreak of COVID-19; (3) Chinese public-health expenditure shows a fluctuating growth trend, but the growth rate is so slow that it is lower than that of GDP and fiscal expenditure; (4) although the Chinese government inclines the public-health expenditure to the poor provinces in central and western regions, the imbalance and inequity of public-health resource allocation are still expanding among provinces; (5) there is a lot of waste of resources in the public-health system, which seriously reduces the efficiency of public-health expenditure in China. Therefore, the Chinese government should improve the quantity and quality of public-health expenditure in the above aspects.


Assuntos
Governo , Gastos em Saúde , Saúde Pública/economia , China , Humanos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339119

RESUMO

This article synthesizes the results of case studies on the development of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and control measures by governments in 16 countries. When this work was conducted, only 6 months had passed since the pandemic began, and only 4 months since the first events were recognized outside of China. It was too early to draw firm conclusions about the effectiveness of measures in each of the selected countries; however, the authors present some efforts to identify and classify response and containment measures, country-by-country, for future comparison and analysis. There is a significant variety of policy tools and response measures employed in different countries, and while it is still hard to directly compare the different approaches based on their efficacy, it will definitely provide many inputs for the future data analysis efforts.


Assuntos
Governo , Pandemias , Saúde Pública/métodos , Humanos , Internacionalidade
20.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1853, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In late January, a worldwide crisis known as COVID-19 was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the WHO. Within only a few weeks, the outbreak took on pandemic proportions, affecting over 100 countries. It was a significant issue to prevent and control COVID-19 on both national and global scales due to the dramatic increase in confirmed cases worldwide. Government guidelines provide a fundamental resource for communities, as they guide citizens on how to protect themselves against COVID-19, however, they also provide critical guidance for policy makers and healthcare professionals on how to take action to decrease the spread of COVID-19. We aimed to identify the differences and similarities between six different countries' (US, China, South Korea, UK, Brazil and Haiti) government-provided community and healthcare system guidelines, and to explore the relationship between guideline issue dates and the prevalence/incidence of COVID-19 cases. METHODS: To make these comparisons, this exploratory qualitative study used document analysis of government guidelines issued to the general public and to healthcare professionals. Documents were purposively sampled (N = 55) and analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS: The major differences in the evaluation and testing criteria in the guidelines across the six countries centered around the priority of testing for COVID-19 in the general population, which was strongly dependent on each country's healthcare capacity. However, the most similar guidelines pertained to the clinical signs and symptoms of COVID-19, and methods to prevent its contraction. CONCLUSION: In the initial stages of the outbreak, certain strategies were universally employed to control the deadly virus's spread, including quarantining the sick, contact tracing, and social distancing. However, each country dealt with differing healthcare capacities, risks, threats, political and socioeconomic challenges, and distinct healthcare systems and infrastructure. Acknowledging these differences highlights the importance of examining the various countries' response to the COVID-19 pandemic with a nuanced view, as each of these factors shaped the government guidelines distributed to each country's communities and healthcare systems.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Governo , Guias como Assunto , Brasil/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Haiti/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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