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1.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303392, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722887

RESUMO

This study explores the impact of farm households' social capital characteristics and local government policies on the selection of farmland transfer contracts in China's rural industrial revitalization context. Utilizing field research data from 1,979 households in ethnic areas of Hunan Province, this paper constructs an econometric model to assess how farm households' social capital and local governments' involvement in rural industrial revitalization influence farmland transfer contract selections. The findings indicate that, lacking government program support, farmers' social capital significantly affects contract type and duration, but not the rent. Specifically, farmers possessing extensive social capital prefer verbal and short-term contracts (coefficients of 0.525 and 0.643, significant at the 5% level), whereas their influence on rent (coefficient of 2.418, significant at the 5% level) manifests under government program support. These results challenge the conventional theory of farmland transfer contracts and offer substantial empirical support for the development of local government policies in rural industrial revitalization, underlining the critical role of government guidance and social capital in enhancing farmland transfer.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Capital Social , Humanos , China , Contratos , População Rural , Fazendeiros , Fazendas , Governo , Características da Família , Governo Local
2.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0301764, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728326

RESUMO

The current research project investigates the correlation between economic growth, government spending, and public revenue in seventeen Indian states spanning the years 1990 to 2020. An analysis of the relationship between key fiscal policy variables and economic growth was conducted utilising a panel data approach, the Generalised Method of Moments (GMM), and fully modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS & DOLS) estimation. In our investigation, we assessed the impacts of non-tax revenue, development plan expenditure, tax revenue, and development non-plan expenditure on (i) the net state domestic product (NSDP) and (ii) the NSDP per capita. The findings indicate that the selected fiscal variables are significantly related. The results indicate that expeditious expansion of the fiscal sector is obligatory to stimulate economic growth in India and advance the actual development of the economies of these states.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Índia , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/economia , Governo , Produto Interno Bruto , Modelos Econômicos , Despesas Públicas
3.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1350743, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566798

RESUMO

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic prompted new interest in non-traditional data sources to inform response efforts and mitigate knowledge gaps. While non-traditional data offers some advantages over traditional data, it also raises concerns related to biases, representativity, informed consent and security vulnerabilities. This study focuses on three specific types of non-traditional data: mobility, social media, and participatory surveillance platform data. Qualitative results are presented on the successes, challenges, and recommendations of key informants who used these non-traditional data sources during the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain and Italy. Methods: A qualitative semi-structured methodology was conducted through interviews with experts in artificial intelligence, data science, epidemiology, and/or policy making who utilized non-traditional data in Spain or Italy during the pandemic. Questions focused on barriers and facilitators to data use, as well as opportunities for improving utility and uptake within public health. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed using the framework analysis method. Results: Non-traditional data proved valuable in providing rapid results and filling data gaps, especially when traditional data faced delays. Increased data access and innovative collaborative efforts across sectors facilitated its use. Challenges included unreliable access and data quality concerns, particularly the lack of comprehensive demographic and geographic information. To further leverage non-traditional data, participants recommended prioritizing data governance, establishing data brokers, and sustaining multi-institutional collaborations. The value of non-traditional data was perceived as underutilized in public health surveillance, program evaluation and policymaking. Participants saw opportunities to integrate them into public health systems with the necessary investments in data pipelines, infrastructure, and technical capacity. Discussion: While the utility of non-traditional data was demonstrated during the pandemic, opportunities exist to enhance its impact. Challenges reveal a need for data governance frameworks to guide practices and policies of use. Despite the perceived benefit of collaborations and improved data infrastructure, efforts are needed to strengthen and sustain them beyond the pandemic. Lessons from these findings can guide research institutions, multilateral organizations, governments, and public health authorities in optimizing the use of non-traditional data.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Inteligência Artificial , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Governo , Saúde Pública
4.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 31: e2024010, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629659

RESUMO

This paper examines the development of the TECNO-ITINTEC museum, the first interactive science museum in Peru, which opened in 1979. The museum functioned under the Institute of Industrial Technology Research and Technical Standards (ITINTEC), a public institution established during the government of Velazco Alvarado. In 1975, Jorge Heraud became the president of ITINTEC's Board of Directors and proposed a science museum to inspire future generations of scientists. José Castro Mendívil joined as the exhibition's director and designer. Their motivation to open a museum coincided with the government's ideals for modernization and nationalization. This article analyzes various sources including newspapers, laws that regulated the institute, reports, and interviews with people involved in the museum to understand how science and politics intersected in TECNO-ITINTEC.


Assuntos
Museus , Política , Humanos , Peru , Governo , Tecnologia
5.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1373747, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38628846

RESUMO

The quality and safety of agricultural products are related to people's lives and health, economic development, and social stability, and have always been a hot issue of concern to the government and society. The rapid development of digital traceability technology in the digital environment has brought new opportunities for the supervision of agricultural product quality and safety, but the frequent occurrence of agricultural product safety incidents in recent years has exposed many problems such as the lack of governmental supervision, unstandardized production process of enterprises, and weak consumer awareness. To improve the cooperation efficiency of stakeholders and ensure the quality and safety of agricultural products, this paper proposes a dynamic model based on evolutionary game theory. The model incorporates the government, agricultural product producers, and farmers, and evaluates the stability and effectiveness of the system under different circumstances. The results of the study show that there are multiple evolutionary stabilization strategies in the tripartite evolutionary game model of agricultural product quality and safety supervision, and there are corresponding evolutionary stabilization conditions. There are several factors affecting the stability of the system, the most important of which are government regulation, severe penalties for agricultural product producers, and incentives. When these factors reach a certain threshold, the stakeholder cooperation mechanism can establish an evolutionarily stable strategy. This study contributes to the understanding of the operational mechanism of stakeholder cooperation in agricultural product quality and safety regulation in the digital environment and provides decision support and policy recommendations for stakeholders to promote the sustainable development and optimization of agricultural product quality and safety regulation.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Teoria dos Jogos , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Governo
6.
Implement Sci ; 19(1): 31, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38610039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There has been a proliferation of frameworks with a common goal of bridging the gap between evidence, policy, and practice, but few aim to specifically guide evaluations of academic-policy engagement. We present the modification of an action framework for the purpose of selecting, developing and evaluating interventions for academic-policy engagement. METHODS: We build on the conceptual work of an existing framework known as SPIRIT (Supporting Policy In Health with Research: an Intervention Trial), developed for the evaluation of strategies intended to increase the use of research in health policy. Our aim was to modify SPIRIT, (i) to be applicable beyond health policy contexts, for example encompassing social, environmental, and economic policy impacts and (ii) to address broader dynamics of academic-policy engagement. We used an iterative approach through literature reviews and consultation with multiple stakeholders from Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) and policy professionals working at different levels of government and across geographical contexts in England, alongside our evaluation activities in the Capabilities in Academic Policy Engagement (CAPE) programme. RESULTS: Our modifications expand upon Redman et al.'s original framework, for example adding a domain of 'Impacts and Sustainability' to capture continued activities required in the achievement of desirable outcomes. The modified framework fulfils the criteria for a useful action framework, having a clear purpose, being informed by existing understandings, being capable of guiding targeted interventions, and providing a structure to build further knowledge. CONCLUSION: The modified SPIRIT framework is designed to be meaningful and accessible for people working across varied contexts in the evidence-policy ecosystem. It has potential applications in how academic-policy engagement interventions might be developed, evaluated, facilitated and improved, to ultimately support the use of evidence in decision-making.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Organizações , Humanos , Política de Saúde , Governo , Instituições Acadêmicas
7.
Nutrients ; 16(7)2024 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612952

RESUMO

Food security is a concept with evolving definitions and meanings, shaped by contested knowledge and changing contexts. The way in which food security is understood by governments impacts how it is addressed in public policy. This research investigates the evolution of discourses and practices in Tasmanian food and nutrition policies from 1994 to 2023. Four foundational documents were analysed using qualitative document analysis, revealing persistent food insecurity issues over three decades. The analysis identified a duality in addressing the persistent policy challenges of nutrition-related health issues and food insecurity: the balancing act between advancing public health improvements and safeguarding Tasmania's economy. The research revealed that from 1994 to 2023, Tasmania's food and nutrition policies and strategies have been characterised by various transitions and tensions. Traditional approaches, predominantly emphasising food availability and, to a limited extent, access, have persisted for over thirty years. The transition towards a more contemporary approach to food security, incorporating dimensions of utilisation, stability, sustainability, and agency, has been markedly slow, indicating systemic inertia. This points to an opportunity for future policy evolution, to move towards a dynamic and comprehensive approach. Such an approach would move beyond the narrow focus of food availability to address the complex multi-dimensional nature of food security.


Assuntos
Distúrbios Nutricionais , Política Nutricional , Humanos , Alimentos , Governo , Conhecimento
8.
J Med Internet Res ; 26: e49163, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38602718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health apps are increasingly recognized as crucial tools for enhancing health care delivery. Many countries, particularly those in sub-Saharan Africa, can substantially benefit from using health apps to support self-management and thus help to achieve universal health coverage and the third sustainable development goal. However, most health apps published in app stores are of unknown or poor quality, which poses a risk to patient safety. Regulatory standards and guidance can help address this risk and promote patient safety. OBJECTIVE: This review aims to assess the regulatory standards and guidance for health apps supporting evidence-based best practices in sub-Saharan Africa with a focus on self-management. METHODS: A methodological framework for scoping reviews was applied. A search strategy was built and applied across the following databases, gray literature sources, and institutional websites: PubMed, Scopus, World Health Organization (WHO) African Index Medicus, OpenGrey, WHO Regional Office for Africa Library, ICTworks, WHO Directory of eHealth policies, HIS Strengthening Resource Center, International Telecommunication Union, Ministry of Health websites, and Google. The search covered the period between January 2005 and January 2024. The findings were analyzed using a deductive descriptive content analysis. The policy analysis framework was adapted and used to organize the findings. The Reporting Items for Stakeholder Analysis tool guided the identification and mapping of key stakeholders based on their roles in regulating health apps for self-management. RESULTS: The study included 49 documents from 31 sub-Saharan African countries. While all the documents were relevant for stakeholder identification and mapping, only 3 regulatory standards and guidance contained relevant information on regulation of health apps. These standards and guidance primarily aimed to build mutual trust; promote integration, inclusion, and equitable access to services; and address implementation issues and poor coordination. They provided guidance on systems quality, software acquisition and maintenance, security measures, data exchange, interoperability and integration, involvement of relevant stakeholders, and equitable access to services. To enhance implementation, the standards highlight that legal authority, coordination of activities, building capacity, and monitoring and evaluation are required. A number of stakeholders, including governments, regulatory bodies, funders, intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations, academia, and the health care community, were identified to play key roles in regulating health apps. CONCLUSIONS: Health apps have huge potential to support self-management in sub-Saharan Africa, but the lack of regulatory standards and guidance constitutes a major barrier. Hence, for these apps to be safely and effectively integrated into health care, more attention should be given to regulation. Learning from countries with effective regulations can help sub-Saharan Africa build a more robust and responsive regulatory system, ensuring the safe and beneficial use of health apps across the region. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025714.


Assuntos
Autogestão , Humanos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Governo , Literatura Cinzenta , África Subsaariana
9.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0299842, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625922

RESUMO

Although PPP(Public-private partnership) mode has been applied for a long time in infrastructural project, the success rate is not very high. The sustainability of PPP projects is still influenced by many factors. In order to examine the evolutionary stable strategies (ESSs) of social capital, government, and paying consumers, a tripartite evolutionary game model is established in this work. In order to further promote consumer participation, it is necessary to make the assumption that customer oversight and review can have an impact on service prices. The results show: i)The strategy choice of consumer depends on the comparison between supervision cost of consumer and price coefficient for consumer to social capital. ii)Consumer supervision can promote the provision of high-quality services by social capital. iii)The difference between high-quality cost and low-quality cost, subsidy coefficient, price coefficient and supervision cost of consumer are critical factors influencing both evolutionary results and trajectories. This paper also puts forward policy implications for the three stakeholders to promote social capital's high-quality strategy so as to maintain the sustainability of PPP projects.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade , Parcerias Público-Privadas , Humanos , Governo , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão
10.
Global Health ; 20(1): 32, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Historically in Australia, all levels of government created collective wealth by owning and operating infrastructure, and managing natural assets, key public goods and essential services while being answerable to the public. This strong state tradition was challenged in the 1980s when privatisation became a widespread government approach globally. Privatisation involves displacing the public sector through modes of financing, ownership, management and product or service delivery. The Australian literature shows that negative effects from privatisation are not spread equitably, and the health and equity impacts appear to be under-researched. This narrative overview aims to address a gap in the literature by answering research questions on what evidence exists for positive and negative outcomes of privatisation; how well societal impacts are evaluated, and the implications for health and equity. METHODS: Database and grey literature were searched by keywords, with inclusion criteria of items limited to Australia, published between 1990 and 2022, relating to any industry or government sector, including an evaluative aspect, or identifying positive or negative aspects from privatisation, contracting out, or outsourcing. Thematic analysis was aided by NVivo qualitative data software and guided by an a-priori coding frame. RESULTS: No items explicitly reflected on the relationship between privatisation and health. Main themes identified were the public cost of privatisation, loss of government control and expertise, lack of accountability and transparency, constraints to accessing social determinants of health, and benefits accruing to the private sector. DISCUSSION: Our results supported the view that privatisation is more than asset-stripping the public sector. It is a comprehensive strategy for restructuring public services in the interests of capital, with privatisation therefore both a political and commercial determinant of health. There is growing discussion on the need for re-nationalisation of certain public assets, including by the Victorian government. CONCLUSION: Privatisation of public services is likely to have had an adverse impact on population health and contributed to the increase in inequities. This review suggests that there is little evidence for the benefits of privatisation, with a need for greater attention to political and commercial determinants of health in policy formation and in research.


Assuntos
Propriedade , Privatização , Humanos , Austrália , Setor Privado , Governo
11.
BMJ Glob Health ; 9(4)2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589044

RESUMO

National public health institutes (NPHIs) are crucial to the effectiveness of public health systems, including delivering essential public health functions and generating evidence for national health policies, strategies and plans. Currently, there is a significant lack of information regarding NPHI or NPHI-like organisations in Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) countries, including how they fit into their broader health systems governance landscape. NPHIs exist in 12 out of 22 EMR countries, yet there is no official International Association of National Public Health Institutes (IANPHI) regional network for the EMR, despite established IANPHI networks in four other regions. In 2022, the WHO's Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office led a study comprising an online survey and key informant interviews, which synthesised expert insights and summarised recommendations to strengthen the health systems governance-related role of NPHIs in EMR countries. Study participants included current and former high-level representatives of NPHIs, the government (eg, Ministries of Health, health regulatory authorities), multilateral organisations or non-governmental organisations focusing on health, and others identified as senior health systems governance experts from EMR. Insights and recommendations from experts varied widely, but there were also many common elements and overlaps. These included the need for enhancing NPHI functionalities and collaborative efforts with the public health sector (eg, Ministry of Health, Health Council) in health policy and decision-making formulation and implementation. This, in turn, requires advancing NPHI's fit-for-purpose and sustainable governance and financing arrangements, improving the accessibility and transparency of health data for NPHIs, strengthening engagement and collaboration between NPHIs and other health system actors (including the private sector), and promoting a more prominent role for NPHIs in the development and implementation of public health-related policies and legislation. While many excellent insights and thoughtful strategic guidance are provided, further adaptation may be needed to implement the proposed recommendations in different EMR country contexts going forward.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Saúde Pública , Humanos , Governo , Região do Mediterrâneo , Programas Governamentais
12.
BMJ Glob Health ; 9(4)2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38599663

RESUMO

Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a leading health and development challenge worldwide. Since 2015, WHO and the United Nations Development Programme have provided support to governments to develop national NCD investment cases to describe the socioeconomic dimensions of NCDs. To assess the impact of the investment cases, semistructured interviews and a structured process for gathering written feedback were conducted between July and October 2022 with key informants in 13 countries who had developed a national NCD investment case between 2015 and 2020. Investment cases describe: (1) the social and economic costs of NCDs, including their distribution and projections over time; (2) priority areas for scaled up action; (3) the cost and returns from investing in WHO-recommended measures to prevent and manage NCDs; and (4) the political dimensions of NCD responses. While no country had implemented all the recommendations set out in their investment case reports, actions and policy changes attributable to the investment cases were identified, across (1) governance; (2) financing; and (3) health service access and delivery. The pathways of these changes included: (1) stronger collaboration across government ministries and partners; (2) advocacy for NCD prevention and control; (3) grounding efforts in nationally owned data and evidence; (4) developing mutually embraced 'language' across health and finance; and (5) elevating the priority accorded to NCDs, by framing action as an investment rather than a cost. The assessment also identified barriers to progress on the investment case implementation, including the influence of some private sector entities on sectors other than health, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, and changes in senior political and technical government officials. The results suggest that national NCD investment cases can significantly contribute to catalysing the prevention and control of NCDs through strengthening governance, financing, and health service access and delivery.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Política de Saúde , Formulação de Políticas , Governo
13.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0302285, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38635589

RESUMO

Digitally enabled higher education involves the in-depth use of new-generation digital technology, which has subverted and innovated the traditional teaching mode, driven the development of high-quality teaching and learning, and improved teachers' teaching experience, and increased efficiency. Based on ecosystem theory, this paper constructs a higher education ecosystem with the government, enterprises, and universities as the core participating subjects. It considers the participating subjects' effort level and the ecosystem's overall benefits under the three scenarios of noncooperative research and development (R&D), cost sharing, and cooperative R&D. The results show that (1) the service innovation effort level of the three parties increases with increasing human resource level and technology maturity, and the government's benefit decreases with increasing cost of fulfilling social responsibility. (2) The government's cost subsidies to universities and enterprises can enhance the service innovation level of both parties and increase the optimal returns of the three parties and the ecosystem as a whole. (3) In the cooperative R&D game scenario, the effort level of the three parties and the total ecosystem returns are greater than those in the noncollaborative R&D scenario, and after determining the subsidy coefficients of the government, Pareto optimality of the three parties and the ecosystem as a whole can be achieved. The conclusions of this study can aid in understanding the dynamic evolution mechanism of digitally enabled higher education and provide a realistic decision-making reference for higher education ecosystem managers.


Assuntos
Custo Compartilhado de Seguro , Ecossistema , Humanos , Tecnologia Digital , Governo , Aprendizagem , China
14.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301627, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38635791

RESUMO

Unfair competition on internet platforms (UCIP) has become a critical issue restricting the platform economy's healthy development. This paper applies evolutionary game theory to study how to utilize multiple subjects' synergy to supervise UCIP effectively. First, the "multi-agent co-governance" mode of UCIP is constructed based on the traditional "unitary supervision" mode. Second, the government and internet platform evolutionary game models are built under two supervision modes. Finally, MATLAB is used to simulate and analyze the evolutionary stage and parameter sensitivity. In addition, we match the model's evolutionary stage with China's supervisory process. The results show that (1) the Chinese government's supervision of UCIP is in the transitional stage from "campaign-style" to "normalization." (2) Moderate government supervision intensity is essential to guide the game system to evolve toward the ideal state. If the supervision intensity is too high, it will inhibit the enthusiasm for supervision. If the supervision intensity is too low, it cannot form an effective deterrent to the internet platforms. (3) When the participation of industry associations and platform users is low, it can only slow down the evolutionary speed of the game system's convergence to the unfavorable state. Nevertheless, it cannot reverse the evolutionary result. (4) Maintaining the participation level of industry associations and platform users above a specific threshold value while increasing punishment intensity will promote the transition of government supervision from the "campaign-style" to the "normalization" stage. This paper provides ideas and references for the Chinese government to design a supervision mechanism for UCIP.


Assuntos
Povo Asiático , Evolução Biológica , Humanos , Impulso (Psicologia) , Emoções , Teoria dos Jogos , Governo , Internet , China
15.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 33(4): e5789, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629216

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The first paper to specify the core content of pharmacoepidemiology as a profession was published by an ISPE (International Society for Pharmacoepidemiology) workgroup in 2012 (Jones JK et al. PDS 2012; 21[7]:677-689). Due to the broader and evolving scope of pharmacoepidemiology, ISPE considers it important to proactively identify, update and expand the list of core competencies to inform curricula of education programs; thus, better positioning pharmacoepidemiologists across academic, government (including regulatory), and industry positions. The aim of this project was to update the list of core competencies in pharmacoepidemiology. METHODS: To ensure applicability of findings to multiple areas, a working group was established consisting of ISPE members with positions in academia, industry, government, and other settings. All competencies outlined by Jones et al. were extracted from the initial manuscript and presented to the working group for review. Expert-based judgments were collated and used to identify consensus. It was noted that some competencies could contribute to multiple groups and could be directly or indirectly related to a group. RESULTS: Five core domains were proposed: (1) Epidemiology, (2) Clinical Pharmacology, (3) Regulatory Science, (4) Statistics and data science, and (5) Communication and other professional skills. In total, 55 individual competencies were proposed, of which 25 were new competencies. No competencies from the original work were dropped but aggregation or amendments were made where considered necessary. CONCLUSIONS: While many core competencies in pharmacoepidemiology have remained the same over the past 10 years, there have also been several updates to reflect new and emerging concepts in the field.


Assuntos
Academia , Farmacoepidemiologia , Humanos , Currículo , Competência Clínica , Governo
16.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301698, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626026

RESUMO

The objective of the study is to explore the relationship between country governance practices along with political stability and Economic policy uncertainty, and stock market performance of two different economies, Pakistan and Kurdistan region of Iraq. To meet our objectives, we used the 25 years past data from 1996 to 2021. Data is collected from the DataStream database. The regression analysis is used as the method of estimation for linear and moderation effect. Our results show that regulatory quality, rules of law and political stability has significant positive relationship with stock market performance of Pakistan, but all the governance indicators have significant positive relationship with stock market performance of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Moreover, political stability has significant moderating impact between the governance practices and the performance of the stock markets of both economies indicating that the governance practices perform well with the political stability that leads to rise in the stock market indices of selected countries. Economic policy uncertainty has significant negative moderation impact due to creating the risk in both economies that decrease the performance of the stock markets of the selected economies. Finally, our study advocated some implications for the investors to increase their confidence on the stock of high political stability and low economic policy uncertainty economies. Government can take significant measures to control the uncertainty of the policy and portfolio managers can adjust their risk on the ground of the political stability and efficient governance practices countries.


Assuntos
Governo , Iraque , Paquistão , Incerteza , Bases de Dados Factuais
17.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0299076, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626088

RESUMO

Incidents of monopolies among Internet platforms have seriously endangered the development of the market economy, public interest, and social fairness, making it a highly discussed topic of broad public concern. Preventing such incidents requires not only a comprehensive supervision system by governments, but also contributions from other relevant parties. The new media environment has provided a new platform to support such joint supervision from multiple parties. As such, this study constructed an evolutionary game model involving the government, Internet platforms, new media, and the public to explore the stable equilibrium point of players' strategy selections. The stability of the strategy combinations was tested using Lyapunov's first stability method, and MATLAB 2021b was used to conduct simulation analysis of the impact of each decision variable on players' strategy selection. The results showed that (1) new media participation in co-governance and public complaints/reports facilitated government supervision; (2) government's application of co-governance and supervision and public complaints/reports promotes compliance by Internet platforms; (3) new media plays a supplementary role when government supervision is lacking; the greater the impact of new media, the greater its supervisory effect on Internet platforms; and (4) effective reduction of costs stimulates the enthusiasm of the government and new media, and increases the success of the anti-monopoly co-governance and supervision system. Measures and suggestions to improve supervision of monopolistic behaviors among Internet platforms are proposed.


Assuntos
Governo , Internet , China
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(4): e246805, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625702

RESUMO

Importance: Genetic researchers must have access to databases populated with data from diverse ancestral groups to ensure research is generalizable or targeted for historically excluded communities. Objective: To determine genetic researchers' interest in doing research with diverse ancestral populations, which database stewards offer adequate samples, and additional facilitators for use of diverse ancestral data. Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study was conducted from June to December 2022 and was part of an exploratory sequential mixed-methods project in which previous qualitative results informed survey design. Eligible participants included genetic researchers who held US academic affiliations and conducted research using human genetic databases. Exposure: Internet-administered survey to genetic research professionals. Main Outcomes and Measures: The survey assessed respondents' experience and interest in research with diverse ancestral data, perceptions of adequacy of diverse data across database stewards (ie, private, government, or consortia), and identified facilitators for encouraging use of diverse ancestral data. Descriptive statistics, χ2 tests, and z tests were used to describe respondents' perspectives and experiences. Results: A total of 294 researchers (171 men [58.5%]; 121 women [41.2%]) were included in the study, resulting in a response rate of 20.4%. Across seniority level, 109 respondents (37.1%) were senior researchers, 85 (28.9%) were mid-level researchers, 71 (24.1%) were junior researchers, and 27 (9.2%) were trainees. Significantly more respondents worked with data from European ancestral populations (261 respondents [88.8%]) compared with any other ancestral population. Respondents who had not done research with Indigenous ancestral groups (210 respondents [71.4%]) were significantly more likely to report interest in doing so than not (121 respondents [41.2%] vs 89 respondents [30.3%]; P < .001). Respondents reported discrepancies in the adequacy of ancestral populations with significantly more reporting European samples as adequate across consortium (203 respondents [90.6%]), government (200 respondents [89.7%]), and private (42 respondents [80.8%]) databases, compared with any other ancestral population. There were no significant differences in reported adequacy of ancestral populations across database stewards. A majority of respondents without access to adequate diverse samples reported that increasing the ancestral diversity of existing databases (201 respondents [68.4%]) and increasing access to databases that are already diverse (166 respondents [56.5%]) would increase the likelihood of them using a more diverse sample. Conclusions and Relevance: In this survey study of US genetic researchers, respondents reported existing databases only provide adequate ancestral samples for European populations, despite their interest in other ancestral populations. These findings suggest there are specific gaps in access to and composition of genetic databases, highlighting the urgent need to boost diversity in research samples to improve inclusivity in genetic research practices.


Assuntos
Governo , Povos Indígenas , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Bases de Dados Factuais , Internet , Probabilidade
19.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 18: e68, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38618875

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a globally devastating psychosocial impact. A detailed understanding of the mental health implications of this worldwide crisis is critical for successful mitigation of and preparation for future pandemics. Using a large international sample, we investigated in the present study the relationship between multiple COVID-19 parameters (both disease characteristics and government responses) and the incidence of the suicide crisis syndrome (SCS), an acute negative affect state associated with near-term suicidal behavior. METHODS: Data were collected from 5528 adults across 10 different countries in an anonymous web-based survey between June 2020 and January 2021. RESULTS: Individuals scoring above the SCS cut-off lived in countries with higher peak daily cases and deaths during the first wave of the pandemic. Additionally, the longer participants had been exposed to markers of pandemic severity (eg, lockdowns), the more likely they were to screen positive for the SCS. Findings reflected both country-to-country comparisons and individual variation within the pooled sample. CONCLUSION: Both the pandemic itself and the government interventions utilized to contain the spread appear to be associated with suicide risk. Public policy should include efforts to mitigate the mental health impact of current and future global disasters.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Suicídio , Adulto , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Pandemias , Governo , Síndrome
20.
J Environ Manage ; 357: 120806, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583377

RESUMO

Corporate energy transition is crucial for long-term sustainable development. The widely discussed Artificial Intelligence (AI), as a disruptive technological innovation, is highly potential for enhancing environment performance. However, the specific impact of AI on the process of corporate energy transition and its underlying mechanisms have not been fully explored. This study focuses on A-share listed corporates in Shanghai and Shenzhen stock markets in China spanning from 2011 to 2021. Based on corporate annual report information and information from over 200,000 patent application texts, we innovatively construct indicators for corporate energy transition and AI technology application. Furthermore, we empirically investigate the impact of AI technology on corporate energy transition and its potential mechanisms through combining information asymmetry theory and institutional theory. The empirical results indicate that: 1) AI can drive corporate energy transition and the promoting effect of AI collaborative innovation on corporate energy transition should not be ignored. 2) AI can help corporates achieve energy transition through pathways such as mitigating information asymmetry, reducing financing constraints, adjusting sustainable development concepts and practices. 3) The driving effect of AI on corporate energy transition varies depending on the characteristics of different types of corporates, industries, and regions. This study provides strategic guidance and decision support for business managers and policymakers, assisting both corporates and governments in better utilizing AI technology during the social energy transition process to achieve a dual optimization of environmental and economic goals.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Organizações , China , Governo , Comércio
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