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1.
J Environ Manage ; 259: 109653, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072942

RESUMO

Complex environmental issues are leading local governments to collaborate with non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in the urban environmental governance sphere. While previous studies have emphasized how the Chinese government engages NGOs in service contracting to meet rising service demands, they have not provided empirical evidence of the outcomes of these collaborations at a local level. Based on a mixed methods research design developed from May 2016 to February 2017 in Shanghai, the impact of Aifen, an environmental NGO, is assessed in the context of municipal solid waste management. A total of 400 questionnaires were completed. 200 questionnaires in 10 communities where Aifen developed its activities and 200 questionnaires in 10 communities where no environmental NGO activities were accomplished. The results show that a local government-NGO collaborative governance approach enhances public participation and respond to state decentralization and rising environmental issues in urban areas.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Política Ambiental , Adaptação Psicológica , China , Governo , Humanos
3.
4.
Nature ; 577(7789): 170, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911689

Assuntos
Governo , África
5.
Lancet ; 395(10219): 177-178, 2020 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954450
6.
JAMA ; 322(22): 2249, 2019 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821426

Assuntos
Governo , Neuroimagem , Cuba
7.
9.
BMJ ; 367: l7001, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848154
10.
Global Health ; 15(1): 66, 2019 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2018, the Australian Government, through a Senate-led Parliamentary Inquiry, sought the views of diverse stakeholders on Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) implementation both domestically and as part of Australia's Overseas Development Assistance (ODA) program. One hundred and sixty-four written submissions were received. The submissions offered perspective and guidance from a rich cross-section of those involved, and with keen interest in, Australia's ODA-SDG commitment. This article identifies and explores the submissions to that Inquiry which placed impetus on Australia's ODA-SDG and health and development nexus. It then compares how the synthesized views, concerns and priorities of selected Inquiry stakeholders align with and reflect the Australian Government's treatment of SDG 3 in its SDG Voluntary National Review (VNR), as well as with the final Inquiry report summarizing submission content. RESULTS: Four key themes were synthesized and drawn from the thirty-one stakeholder submissions included in our analysis. Disconnect was then found to exist between the selected stakeholder views and the Australian Government's SDG-VNR's treatment of SDG 3, as well as with the content of the Parliamentary Inquiry's final report with respect to the ODA-SDG and health and development nexus. CONCLUSIONS: We situate the findings of our analysis within the wider strategic context of the Australian Government's policy commitment to "step up" in the Pacific region. This research provides an insight into both multi-stakeholder and Federal Government views on ODA in the Indo-Pacific region, especially at a time when Australia's Pacific engagement has come to the forefront of both foreign and security policy. We conclude that the SDG agenda, including the SDG health and development agenda, could offer a unique vehicle for enabling a paradigm shift in the Australian Government's development approach toward the Pacific region and its diverse peoples. This potential is strongly reflected in stakeholder perspectives included in our analysis. However, study findings remind that the political determinants of health, and overlapping political determinants of SDG achievement, will be instrumental in the coming decade, and that stakeholders from different sectors need to be genuinely engaged in SDG-ODA policy-related decision-making and planning by governments in both developed and developing countries alike.


Assuntos
Saúde Global/economia , Cooperação Internacional , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/economia , Austrália , Governo , Humanos , Participação dos Interessados
11.
Br J Nurs ; 28(19): 1264-1265, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680581

RESUMO

Emeritus Professor Alan Glasper, from the University of Southampton, discusses an initiative by the Government to review and improve the nutritional quality of hospital food.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Nutrição/normas , Valor Nutritivo , Governo , Humanos , Medicina Estatal , Reino Unido
12.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol ; 40(4): 336-346, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688051

RESUMO

President Kennedy sustained 2 gunshot wounds on November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, while riding in the right-rear seat of the presidential limousine. The convertible top was down, and no special ballistic protection for the occupants was present.The ballistic events in the assassination and subsequent ballistic evidence were not fully understood then and continue to be misunderstood and often misrepresented today. These facts are largely the consequence of the very uncommon wound ballistic properties of the 6.5-mm Carcano bullets associated with the President's gunshot wounds and the visual responses of the President to his 2 gunshot wounds so often viewed in the 8-mm Zapruder film.An understanding of the wound ballistic characteristics associated with the John F. Kennedy assassination also applies to certain contemporary bullets. Such an understanding could assist forensic pathologists in future cases in evaluating and correctly interpreting gunshot wounds associated with these types of bullets.


Assuntos
Balística Forense/métodos , Homicídio/história , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/patologia , Pessoas Famosas , Governo , História do Século XX , Humanos , Estados Unidos
13.
Indian J Med Ethics ; 4(3): 253-254, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727604

RESUMO

I was a student of the Government Medical College (GMC), Nagpur, from 1970 to1975. Based on my own experiences, I agree completely with Anurag Bhargava's comments regarding casteism at GMC Nagpur (1). Caste stigma gets attached to you early in life and stays with you till you reach the grave. I am still afraid to visit my so-called alma mater and I will explain why in this letter.


Assuntos
Governo , Universidades , Humanos , Índia , Estigma Social
15.
Expert Rev Med Devices ; 16(11): 913-922, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657961

RESUMO

Introduction: Biomedical-engineering (BME) plays a major role in modern medicine. Many BME-based assets have been brought to clinical translation in the twentieth century, but translation currently stagnates. Here, we compare the impact of past and present scientific, economic and societal climates on the translation of BME-based assets, in order to provide the BME-community with incentives to address current stagnation.Areas covered: In the twentieth century, W.J. Kolff brought kidney dialysis, the total artificial heart, artificial vision and limbs to clinical application. This success raises the question whether Kolff and other past giants of clinical translation had special mind-sets, or whether their problem selection, their training, or governmental and regulatory control played roles. Retrospective analysis divides the impact of BME-based assets to clinical application into three periods: 1900-1970: rapid translation from bench-to-bedside, 1970-1990: new diseases and increased governmental control, and the current translational crisis from 1990 onward.Expert opinion: Academic and societal changes can be discerned that are concurrent with BME's translational success: mono-disciplinary versus multi-disciplinary training, academic reward systems based on individual achievements versus team achievements with strong leadership, increased governmental and regulatory control, and industrial involvement. From this, recommendations can be derived for accelerating clinical translation of BME-assets.


Assuntos
Engenharia Biomédica , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Governo , Humanos , Liderança , Estudos Retrospectivos , Controle Social Formal , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/educação
16.
BMJ ; 367: l5997, 2019 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628104
17.
Int J Public Health ; 64(8): 1159-1172, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606749

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This paper examines the opportunities and barriers that the South Australian Health in all Policies (SA HiAP) approach encountered when seeking to establish a whole-of-government response to promoting healthy weight. METHODS: The paper draws on data collected during 31 semi-structured interviews, analysis of 113 documents, and a program logic model developed via workshops to show the causal links between strategies and anticipated outcomes. RESULTS: A South Australian Government target to increase healthy weight was supported by SA HiAP to develop a cross-government response. Our analysis shows what supported and hindered implementation. A combination of economic and systemic framing, in conjunction with a co-benefits approach, facilitated intersectoral engagement. The program logic shows how implementation can be expected to contribute to a population with healthy weight. CONCLUSIONS: The HiAP approach achieved some success in encouraging a range of government departments to contribute to a healthy weight target. However, a comprehensive approach requires national regulation to address the commercial determinants of health and underlying causes of population obesity in addition to cross-government action to promote population healthy weight through regional government action.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Obesidade , Perda de Peso , Governo , Órgãos Governamentais , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/terapia , Formulação de Políticas , Saúde da População , Austrália do Sul/epidemiologia
18.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(10): 1000-1006, 2019 Oct 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607045

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of potential government fully-funded influenza vaccination for diabetics in our country. Methods: From the societal perspective, a decision tree model was developed to compare outcomes (including impact on the influenza-related outpatient consultation, hospitalization and excess mortality, and quality-adjusted life years (QALY), as well as incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER)) of a national fully-funded vaccination programme in the population with diabetes and status quo (i.e., vaccinated with out-of-pocket payment, with a uptake rate of zero), using the published data with regarding to influenza related ILI (influenza-like illness) consultation rate, hospitalization rate and excess mortality rate, health-related quality of life and economic burden, diabetes prevalence, population size, health seeking behaviour, vaccine uptake rate, vaccine efficacy/effectiveness, etc. A time horizon of 1 year was used in the present analysis, and all costs were expressed in CNY in 2016 using the consumer price index. All results are presented in M (P(25), P(75)). Results: In the scenario of 40% vaccination coverage in the population with diabetes, government fully-funded vaccination programme was estimated to cost 1.71 (1.67, 1.75) billions CNY, and expected to prevent 110 000 (81 000, 143 000) influenza-related ILI consultations, 36 000 (28 000, 44 000) influenza-related SARI hospitalizations and 12 000 (9 000, 16 000) influenza-related deaths due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. A total of 108 000 (82 000, 142 000) QALY were estimated to be gained. The ICER was 10 088 (7 365, 14 046) CNY per QALY gained. The probability of cost-effectiveness of the fully-funded vaccination programme was 99.1% at a threshold of 53 680 CNY per QALY gained (GDP per capita in 2016). Conclusion: Government fully-funded influenza vaccination in population with diabetes is cost-effective, and thus is recommended as the key strategy of diabetes prevention and control.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Vacinas contra Influenza/economia , Influenza Humana , Vacinação/economia , China , Análise Custo-Benefício , Governo , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
19.
J Environ Manage ; 251: 109592, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569022

RESUMO

As a way to coordinate the interests of multi-government and solve the problem of transboundary water pollution, watershed ecological compensation system has been promoted in China. It is necessary to understand the influencing factors of watershed ecological compensation from the perspective of how interactions occur between different governments. This paper analyses the interaction among upstream governments, downstream governments and the central government in the Eastern Route of South-to-North Water Transfer Project, using evolutionary game theory. In particular, how ecological benefits are distributed between upstream and downstream governments is analyzed. Simultaneously, numerical simulation is used to analyze the effects of influencing factors on governments' behaviors. The results show that: (1) the initial willingness of governments to corporate affect their final behaviors; (2) upstream and downstream governments cannot spontaneously cooperate to implement watershed ecological compensation system without supervision of the central government; (3) opportunity costs only have a significant impact on upstream governments; (4) punishment on downstream governments can effectively influence the behaviors of governments at all levels; (5) high ecological compensation fee improve downstream governments' willness not to pay; (6) upstream governments get about 78% of ecological benefits due to the implementation of watershed ecological compensation system.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Governo , China , Ecossistema , Teoria do Jogo
20.
Br J Nurs ; 28(19): 1164-1165, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647740

RESUMO

Emeritus Professor Alan Glasper, from the University of Southampton, discusses an initiative by the Government to review and improve the nutritional quality of hospital food.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Nutrição/normas , Valor Nutritivo , Governo , Humanos , Medicina Estatal , Reino Unido
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