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1.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 45(4): 694-701, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498941

RESUMO

Collaborative teaching strategies such as peer instruction and conventional group work have previously been shown to enhance meaningful learning, but they have not previously been compared. In this present study, we compared the impact of solving quizzes with peer instruction and conventional group work on immediate learning in a laboratory exercise. A total of 186 second-year medical students were randomized to solve two quizzes by either a peer instruction strategy (n = 93) or conventional group work (n = 93) during a mandatory laboratory exercise on respiratory physiology, after which all students completed an individual test. There was no difference in total test scores between groups, but students randomized to peer instruction obtained the highest test scores in solving simple integrated questions. Conversely, students randomized to conventional group work provided the best evaluations of the overall assessment of the laboratory exercise. In conclusion, different collaborative teaching strategies implemented during a laboratory exercise appear to affect immediate learning and student satisfaction differently.


Assuntos
Laboratórios , Estudantes de Medicina , Avaliação Educacional , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Grupo Associado , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Respiratórios , Ensino
2.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 441, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical supervision in general practice is critical for enabling registrars (GP trainees) to provide safe medical care, develop skills and enjoy primary care careers. However, this largely depends on the quality of supervision provided. There has been limited research describing what encompasses quality within GP clinical supervision, making it difficult to promote best practice. This study aimed to explore the attributes of high-quality clinical supervision for GP registrars. METHODS: In 2019-20, 22 semi-structured interviews were conducted with GP supervisors who were peer-nominated as best practice supervisors, by Regional GP Training Organisations and GP Colleges in Australia. Purposeful sampling sought respondents with diverse characteristics including gender and career stage, practice size, state/territory and rurality. Interviews were conducted by video-consultation and recorded. De-identified transcripts were independently coded using iterative, inductive thematic analyses to derive themes that reflected quality in GP supervision. RESULTS: Seven themes emerged. Participants understood the meaning of quality supervision based on their experience of being supervised when they were a registrar, and from reflecting and learning from other supervisors and their own supervision experiences. Quality was reflected by actively structuring GP placements to optimise all possible learning opportunities, building a secure and caring relationship with registrars as the basis for handling challenging situations such as registrar mistakes. Quality also encompassed sustaining and enhancing registrar learning by drawing on the input of the whole practice team who had different skills and supervision approaches. Strong learner-centred approaches were used, where supervisors adjusted support and intervention in real-time, as registrar competence emerged in different areas. Quality also involved building the registrar's professional identity and capabilities for safe and independent decision-making and encouraging registrars to reflect on situations before giving quality feedback, to drive learning. CONCLUSIONS: This study, although exploratory, provides a foundation for understanding the quality of clinical supervision in general practice, from the perspective of peer-recognised GP supervisors. Understanding and adopting quality within GP supervision may be improved by GPs sharing exemplars of best practice and having opportunities for professional reflection. The findings could be used as a point of reference for devising GP supervisor curriculum, resources and professional development activities.


Assuntos
Medicina Geral , Clínicos Gerais , Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Encaminhamento e Consulta
3.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(8): 1940-1943, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418005

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of peer-assisted learning against expert-assisted learning in terms of scores achieved by medical students, and to assess the perceptions of students about peer-assisted learning. Methods: The mixed-method study was conducted at Wah Medical College, Wah Cantonment, Pakistan, from October 2017 to December 2018, and comprised fourth year medical students who were randomised into groups A and B. In the first session the topic 'Data' was taught to group A by a peer and to group B by an expert teacher. In the next session the topic 'Sampling' was taught to group A by an expert teacher and to group B by a peer. Each session was followed by an assessment. Students' views about peer-assisted learning were collected using a predesigned questionnaire. An open-ended question about the role of expert in teaching was also asked from the students. Data was analysed using SPSS 22. Qualitative data was analysed to identify emerging themes. RESULTS: Of the 80 subjects, 41(51.25%) were group A and 39(48.75%) were in group B. Overall, there were 36(45%) males and 44(55%) females. In the first session, mean group A score was 6.85±1.99 and for group B it was 7.54±1.76 (p>0.05). In the second session, the mean score of group A was 6.12±2.06 and for group B it was 4.82±2.01 (p=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Peer-assisted learning was found to be a valuable tool that can be incorporated in the curriculum delivery for easy topics. However the significance of expert's assistance, guidance and feedback cannot be negated.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Currículo , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Grupo Associado
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 58, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422181

RESUMO

The use of social media to increase awareness on mental health is rapidly gaining momentum globally. However, despite evidence of a growing trend in social media use in sub Saharan Africa, little has been reported on tapping the potential of social media within a mental health practice to not only increase awareness but also facilitate linkage to specialist care. We describe one such mental health practice and its process of integration of the different social media platforms to promote mental health and increase linkage to specialist care. We further highlight the challenges and practical implication of social media use in the Kenyan setting. We conclude by advocating for this integration to raise awareness and also encourage peer support for persons with mental health problems and recommend research that measures the impact of such interventions in sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Saúde Mental , Mídias Sociais , Humanos , Quênia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Grupo Associado , Apoio Social
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444105

RESUMO

Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is an emerging health problem among adolescents. Although previous studies have shown that deviant peer affiliation is an important risk factor for this behavior, the reasons for this relationship are unclear. Based on the integrated theoretical model of the development and maintenance of NSSI and the social development model of delinquency prevention, this study tested whether depression mediated the relationship between deviant peer affiliation and NSSI and whether this mediating effect was moderated by sensation seeking. A sample of 854 Chinese adolescents (31.50% male; Mage = 16.35; SD = 1.15) anonymously completed questionnaires on the study variables. Results of regression-based analyses showed that depression mediated the association between deviant peer affiliation and NSSI, and this effect was stronger among adolescents who reported high sensation seeking. The results demonstrate the role of individual differences in the link between affiliation with deviant peers and NSSI, and have implications for preventing and treating this risky behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Adolescente , China/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Sensação
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444186

RESUMO

(1) Background: Correctional Officers show signs of adverse health early in their careers. We evaluated the impact of a one-year peer health mentoring program for new officers based on a Total Worker Health® approach; (2) Methods: Cadets (n = 269) were randomly assigned to a mentored or control group. Cadets in this mixed methods design completed physical assessments, and surveys at three time points to assess demographics, health, mentoring, and workplace variables. Physical testing included several health markers. Surveys and physical data were analyzed as repeated measures. Regression analyses were used to analyze the relationship between mentoring characteristics and outcomes. A semi-structured interview of mentors was analyzed qualitatively. (3) Results: Higher mentoring frequency was associated with lower burnout. Health behaviors and outcomes declined over time in all groups, but mentees displayed slower decline for body mass index (BMI) and hypertension compared to controls. (4) Conclusions: A continuous peer health mentoring program seemed protective to new officers in reducing burnout and also declines in BMI and hypertension. Short-term physical health markers in younger officers may not be an index of psycho-social effects. A participatory design approach is recommended for a long-term health mentoring program to be both effective and sustainable.


Assuntos
Tutoria , Humanos , Mentores , Grupo Associado , Inquéritos e Questionários , Recursos Humanos
7.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e047994, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341046

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate systematically the fidelity of a peer-befriending intervention for people with aphasia. DESIGN: SUpporting wellbeing through Peer-befriending (SUPERB) was a feasibility randomised controlled trial comparing usual care to usual care +peer-befriending. This paper reports on the fidelity of all intervention aspects (training and supervision of providers/befrienders; intervention visits) which was evaluated across all areas of the Behaviour Change Consortium framework. SETTING: Community. PARTICIPANTS: People with aphasia early poststroke and low levels of distress, randomised to the intervention arm of the trial (n=28); 10 peer-befrienders at least 1-year poststroke. INTERVENTION: Peer-befrienders were trained (4-6 hours); and received regular supervision (monthly group while actively befriending, and one-to-one as and when needed) in order to provide six 1-hour peer-befriending visits over 3 months. MAIN MEASURES: Metrics included number and length of training, supervision sessions and visits. All training and supervision sessions and one (of six) visits per pair were rated against fidelity checklists and evaluated for inter-rater and intrarater reliability (Gwets AC1 agreement coefficient). Per-cent adherence to protocol was evaluated. RESULTS: All peer-befrienders received 4-6 hours training over 2-3 days as intended. There were 25 group supervision sessions with a median number attended of 14 (IQR=8-18). Twenty-six participants agreed (92.8%) to the intervention and 21 (80.8%) received all six visits (median visit length 60 min). Adherence was high for training (91.7%-100%) and supervision (83%-100%) and moderate-to-high for befriending visits (66.7%-100%). Where calculable, inter-rater and intrarater reliability was high for training and supervision (Gwets AC1 >0.90) and moderate-to-high for intervention visits (Gwets AC1 0.44-1.0). CONCLUSION: Planning of fidelity processes at the outset of the trial and monitoring throughout was feasible and ensured good-to-high fidelity for this peer-befriending intervention. The results permit confidence in other findings from the SUPERB trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02947776.


Assuntos
Afasia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
Dev Psychol ; 57(6): 951-961, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424012

RESUMO

This study examined how children's and adolescents' beliefs about the distribution of wealth in society and the fairness of economic systems informed their behavior, judgments, and reasoning about access to opportunities among peers. The sample included 136 8- to 14-year-olds (47% girls, 60% White, majority middle- to higher-socioeconomic status [SES]) in the United States. Relative to older children, early adolescents viewed economic systems as less fair and wealth as less equally distributed, but still underestimated the true magnitude of existing economic disparities. Importantly, the stronger their system justification beliefs the fewer opportunities participants directed to poor peers over rich peers in an allocation scenario, but the more equally participants believed that wealth should be distributed in society the more opportunities they directed to poor peers. Moreover, participants were more supportive of allocating opportunities to poor peers when they had direct evidence that poor peers had been excluded in the past, and 40% reasoned explicitly about the implications of economic inequality when making their decision. Finally, exploratory associations of family SES and beliefs about distributive justice suggested that experiencing greater economic security may have enabled some participants to more readily critique societal inequality. Together, these findings provide correlational, experimental, and cross-sectional developmental evidence that older children's and early adolescents' beliefs about distributive justice in society inform their decisions about how to address disparities within their sphere of influence. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Justiça Social , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
9.
Dev Psychol ; 57(7): 1136-1148, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435828

RESUMO

This study investigated the role of school context in changes in the behaviors associated with having high social status during early adolescence. Three waves of surveys were collected from students (N = 542, 53% girls; 44% Black, 44% White, 5% Hispanic/Latinx, and 7% other; 60% free/reduced-fee lunch) in the middle of their sixth, seventh, and eighth grade school years. Peer nominations were used to assess two types of social status (peer acceptance and popularity) and three behavioral reputations (academic, prosocial, and physical aggression). Approximately half of the students made a transition from an elementary school to a larger middle school after sixth grade and the other half attended the same school from kindergarten through eighth grade (K-8). Across time and school configurations, students who were well-liked were perceived to be academically oriented, prosocial, and not physically aggressive. In contrast, the reputations of popular students differed in the two school configurations. In the K-8 context, popularity became increasingly associated with academic and prosocial behavior, and less characterized by physical aggression over time. In the transition context, popularity was associated with academic and prosocial behavior in elementary school, but these associations were null upon the transition to middle school in seventh grade. When students moved into eighth grade, popular students were increasingly academically oriented. In the transition group, popularity was also characterized by physical aggression at all three grades. Findings highlighted the significance of school context for the development of popularity. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Distância Psicológica , Adolescente , Agressão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Instituições Acadêmicas , Comportamento Social
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444496

RESUMO

The United Nations (UN) emphasizes that health promotion, education, and empowerment of women are all goals that will help to end poverty. In eastern rural Tanzania, young women who dropped out of school now take an active part in health promotion campaigns in schools and villages through the youth program "Innovative and Productive Youth", which is administered by the nongovernmental organization Hatua na Maendeleo (HAMA). The aim of this qualitative study was to explore how some of these young Tanzanian women experience participating in health promotion campaigns. A hermeneutic phenomenology design with focus group interviews was used. The study's participants were nine young women between the ages of 18 and 23 who had participated in the youth program for one year. In addition, the participants were given the opportunity to provide written elaboration in Kiswahili after the interviews. The findings were analyzed from an empowerment perspective and revealed the benefits that the young women had experienced, which were expressed as three themes, i.e., my involvement in the campaigns (a) made me strong and confident, (b) made me become a role model, and (c) made me think that I can achieve something. Involvement in health promotion campaigns seemed to empower the young women by increasing their confidence and providing a feeling of self-efficacy. In addition, their health literacy increased, which appeared to have a ripple effect on their families, peers, and the local community. The findings from this study provide insight into the participants' self-reported short-term effects. Moreover, with this study, it can be argued that by empowering individuals, community transformation can be seen as well.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , População Rural , Adolescente , Adulto , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Saúde da Mulher , Adulto Jovem
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444571

RESUMO

This study explores the impact of the 'pre-intervention effects' of a community-based intervention. This refers to participatory research processes and parallel publicity in the media on changes in alcohol use and relevant mechanisms (rules and norms about alcohol, accessibility of alcohol in a formal setting) among adolescents before any intervention is implemented. The aim was to investigate the contribution of these processes (i.e., pre-intervention effects) to changes in intervention-targeted factors before any actual intervention was implemented. In a quasi-experimental study, data were collected twice by means of self-report among adolescents living in two municipalities (control and experimental condition). A regression analysis showed negative pre-intervention main effects on adolescents' perceived accessibility of alcohol in a formal setting. Moreover, among adolescents aged 15 years and older, the normative decline in strictness of rules and norms was less steep in the experimental condition compared to the control condition. Additionally, adolescents aged 14 years and younger in the experimental condition reported more weekly drinking compared to their peers in the control condition. No differential effects across gender were found. To conclude, applying a co-creational approach in the development of an intervention not only contributes to more effective interventions in the end, but the involvement of and discussions in the community when planning the intervention contribute to changes in targeted factors. This implies that public discussions about the development of intervention strategies should be considered as an essential feature of co-creation in community-based interventions.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Autorrelato
12.
J Youth Adolesc ; 50(10): 1982-1994, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387816

RESUMO

Programs to prevent peer sexual violence that encourage positive bystander intervention are proliferating. Yet, little is known about how these prosocial behaviors unfold over time across middle to later adolescence. The current study examined helpful bystander actions over three years among students in grades 7-10 (mean age 13.7, range 12-18) at baseline (N = 2539, 53.2% girls). Surveys assessed bystander behavior, social norms, and use of alcohol. Multilevel logistic regression examined patterns of change over time, as well as how changes in attitudes and binge drinking predicted changes in taking bystander action to prevent peer violence. Positive bystander behaviors overall decreased over time, consistent with previous work on bullying. Higher positive social norms and lower denial of sexual violence as a problem were associated with more positive helping behaviors across different waves of data. These findings suggest that the effectiveness of bystander intervention training for peer sexual violence prevention may be enhanced by developing strategies to work against the observed developmental decline in helping, perhaps by social marketing campaigns that can bolster positive social norms.


Assuntos
Bullying , Delitos Sexuais , Adolescente , Altruísmo , Bullying/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Comportamento de Ajuda , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Universidades
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444045

RESUMO

Cyber-victimization, tobacco and alcohol use are all prominent public health problems among adolescents throughout the world. Against this background, this study examined the association between cyber-victimization and tobacco and alcohol use, as well as the moderating role of deviant peer affiliation and the potential age differences among elementary, middle, and high school students. A survey conducted among 1488 school students (aged 9-19 years, consisting of 702 elementary school students, 318 middle school students, and 468 high school students) found that cyber-victimization was positively correlated with tobacco and alcohol use among students of all stages. However, the moderating mechanism was different. Among elementary school students, deviant peer affiliation played a positive moderating role. For individuals with high deviant peer affiliation, this association was stronger. Among middle school students, the moderating role of deviant peer affiliation was insignificant. Among high school students, deviant peer affiliation played a negative moderating role; this association was significant for individuals with low deviant peer affiliation. The results of this study clarify the relationship between cyber-victimization and tobacco and alcohol use by examining the moderating role of deviant peer affiliation and age differences, providing intervention guidance for reducing the negative influences of cyber-victimization on children and adolescents with respect their use of tobacco and alcohol.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Cyberbullying , Adolescente , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Instituições Acadêmicas , Tabaco
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444417

RESUMO

The use of information and communication technology (ICT) has led to new risks, and among them is cyberbullying. It is important to be aware of the prevalence of cyberbullying in order to design intervention plans based on real contexts. Studies, however, vary widely in the data they report. These discrepancies may be due to differences in measurement. The main aim of our study, conducted in the Region of Murcia (Spain), was to ascertain the prevalence of cyberbullying in the three roles involved: victim, perpetrator and bystander. A descriptive, correlational and quantitative study was conducted using a "Cyberbullying: peer harassment screening"questionnaire to collect data. The representative sample comprised 950 students aged between 11 and 18 years (M = 13.93, SD = 1.35). The data showed that 72.1% of the participants had been involved in one or more cyberbullying situation (as victim, aggressor and/or bystander) in the previous year. Specifically, 49.3% had been cybervictims, 23.3% cyberaggressors and 62.3% cyberbystanders. The study provides detailed information about the prevalence of cyberbullying in the Region of Murcia and enables comparisons of the three roles involved. The data point to the need to promote active prevention and psychoeducational intervention strategies.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Cyberbullying , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Internet , Grupo Associado , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444462

RESUMO

Correctional officers (COs) are exposed to a number of occupational stressors, and their health declines early in their job tenure. Interventions designed to prevent early decline in CO health are limited. This article describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a one-year peer health mentoring program (HMP) guided by Total Worker Health® principles and using a participatory action research to collectively address worker safety, health, and well-being of newly hired COs. The HMP aimed to provide new COs with emotional and tangible forms of support during their first year of employment, including peer coaching to prevent early decline in physical fitness and health. The development and implementation of the HMP occurred across five main steps: (1) participatory design focus groups with key stakeholders; (2) adaptation of an existing mentoring handbook and training methods; (3) development of mentor-mentee recruitment criteria and assignment; (4) designing assessment tools; and (5) the initiation of a mentor oversight committee consisting of union leadership, corrections management, and research staff. Correctional employee engagement in the design and implementation process proved to be efficacious in the implementation and adaptation of the program by staff. Support for the HMP remained high as program evaluation efforts continued.


Assuntos
Tutoria , Humanos , Mentores , Grupo Associado , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Recursos Humanos
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444470

RESUMO

While previous studies have shown evidence of an association between school climate and aggression, few have explored the mechanisms behind this association. As such, this cross-sectional study focused on both the mediating effects of self-control and the moderating effects of the parent-child relationship on the association between school climate and aggression. Data were obtained through an anonymous survey conducted among 1030 Chinese elementary and middle school students (52.72% male, average age = 11.53 years), who responded to items on school climate, aggression, self-control, and the parent-child relationship. First, the results showed that school climate was negatively associated with aggression. Second, a mediation analysis showed that self-control significantly mediated the association between school climate and aggression. Third, a moderated mediation analysis showed that the parent-child relationship significantly moderated the first stage of the indirect path (school climate → self-control). Specifically, this association was notably stronger among children and adolescents with better parent-child relationships. In sum, these findings constitute a valuable reference for both improving self-control and in the context of targeted interventions aimed at preventing aggression in children and adolescents in China.


Assuntos
Agressão , Grupo Associado , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Instituições Acadêmicas
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360323

RESUMO

Social isolation and loneliness are increasing in our contemporary western society and seem to correlate with suicide in adolescents and young adults. Social Workers are a potential resource to create such initiatives and projects that promote inclusion and cohesion within communities, a protective factor against suicide. Sixty-two Social Work BA students participated in a Death Education course based on education on suicide prevention. Participants carried out two activities. First, they were invited to complete two written semi-structured interviews on young people's reasons for living and dying. Second, they were invited to design suicide prevention interventions targeted at their peers and adolescents. Data were analyzed qualitatively within the Thematic Analysis framework. As regards the first activity, four main themes were identified: (1) Internet and social media; (2) social isolation and loneliness; (3) the importance of proximal relationships; and, (4) the importance of networking between proximal relationships, educational institutions and mental health services. Whereas, as for suicide prevention interventions, three main ideas were identified: (1) suicide prevention through community and networking between services; (2) academic institutions: high schools and universities; and, (3) suicide prevention through new technologies. To conclude, Death Education as education on suicide prevention can offer young people a space in which to voice their and their peers' reasons for living and dying and to reflect upon their contribution to suicide prevention as students and as future professionals.


Assuntos
Suicídio , Universidades , Adolescente , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360527

RESUMO

This is an English translation with some expansion of the article originally published in Japanese as a university bulletin in 2009. Previous research has found both differences and similarities between ijime in Japan and bullying in England. Bullying is often by pupils in different classes or higher year groups whom the victim does not know very well; ijime is often by victims' classmates whom the victim knows very well. However, it has not been shown whether these differences are found for all types of bullying, or how they relate to friendships generally and the impact of differing school systems. We aimed to see whether previously found differences between ijime and bullying could be replicated, and, if so, whether they held for six different types of victimization, and whether friendship characteristics were consistent with explaining why they occur. To investigate the role of friendships and their location, 1036 Japanese and 931 English secondary school pupils participated in a comparative study of perceptions of bullying and ijime. The previous differences were confirmed and found to hold irrespective of type of bullying. Japanese pupils mainly formed friendships on a class basis, English pupils on a broader basis including pupils in different years. In school, English pupils spent much time in the playground with their friends and saw this as a likely venue for bullying, whereas Japanese pupils spent more time in the classroom and saw this as a likely venue for ijime. The difference in friendship formation, together with differences in the organization of class-based teaching in the two countries, are hypothesized to play a significant role in explaining some differences between bullying and ijime.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Criança , Inglaterra , Amigos , Humanos , Japão , Grupo Associado , Percepção , Instituições Acadêmicas
19.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 426, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peer review in Team-based learning (TBL) exists for three key reasons: to promote reflection on individual behaviours; provide opportunities to develop professional skills; and prevent 'free riders' who fail to contribute effectively to team discussions. A well-developed process that engages students is needed. However, evidence suggests it remains a difficult task to effectively incorporate into TBL. The purpose of this study was to assess medical students' ability to provide written feedback to their peers in TBL, and to explore students' perception of the process, using the conceptual framework of Biggs '3P model'. METHODS: Year 2 students (n = 255) participated in peer review twice during 2019. We evaluated the quality of feedback using a theoretically derived rubric, and undertook a qualitative analysis of focus group data to seek explanations for feedback behaviors. RESULTS: Students demonstrated reasonable ability to provide positive feedback, but were less prepared to identify areas for improvement. Their ability did not improve over time, and was influenced by the perceived task difficulty; social discomfort; and sense of responsibility in providing written feedback. CONCLUSIONS: To increase student engagement, we require a transparent process that incorporates verbal feedback and team discussion, with monitoring of outcomes by faculty and adequate training.


Assuntos
Alfabetização , Estudantes de Medicina , Retroalimentação , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Revisão por Pares , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas
20.
S D Med ; 74(4): 158-171, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When considering the impacts of addiction on society, it is important to include loved ones - close friends and family members of those suffering from the chronic disease. The societal burden placed on loved ones, in addition to the stress and pain they already experience in the face of addiction, results in an extremely neglected and isolated population. METHODS: Face It TOGETHER (FIT), using qualitative methodologies, set out to answer the research question: What changes do persons with the disease (PWDs) and their loved ones (LOs) report in their relationships after participating in FIT peer coaching? Using deductive thematic analysis procedures, this paper examines the role of LO wellness in PWD recovery by reviewing the impact of peer coaching, a new form of support for LOs. Semi-structured interviews with seven PWD and LO clients of FIT, an addiction management nonprofit, were analyzed in this study. RESULTS: Five primary themes were identified from the interviews: "reduced addiction's impacts," "increased knowledge," "openness to resources," "improved communication" and "mutually beneficial." CONCLUSIONS: Ultimately, peer coaching for LOs led to better communication and relationships, lessened helplessness previously felt by LOs and improved LO and PWD wellness.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Tutoria , Comunicação , Família , Humanos , Grupo Associado
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