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1.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 3): 371-377, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030456

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The problem of peer violence is increasingly discussed. It is noticeable that it is not sufficiently researched and there is no sufficient information about its prevalence, forms, prevention methods, repression and coping with the problem and its consequences. It seems that it gets discussed more intensively only in case of a traumatic incident whose consequences cannot be denied and if they make a large impact on the entire society. To show the prevalence and manifestation of peer violence as well as problems in the prevention and addressing consequences of peer violence. METHODS: Data are collected from several studies on peer violence conducted in Bosnia and Herzegovina and worldwide. RESULTS: Collected data indicate that the peer violence ranges from 15% to 50% depending on the development of the country where research is conducted. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to identify peer violence on time and respond in a timely manner. Any claim of a child needs to be taken seriously, because timely response prevents the child who experienced some form of violence to revenge or become violent. It is important to start raising awareness among children from their early age and train them on techniques of non-violent communication, forms of violence, the ways of expressing violence and its effects on victims and observers of violence and why it is important to talk about it. They need to know where to report violence and what the duties of relevant institutions are. In addition to children, it is important to raise awareness among parents, teachers, politicians as well as mental health professionals. The entire society needs to be involved in the prevention of peer violence.


Assuntos
Agressão , Grupo Associado , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Bósnia e Herzegóvina/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Prevalência
2.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 1): 172-175, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890385

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social networks are taking over teenagers' lives and altering the way they relate to others. They are creating their own and changing culture. Which is a cause for concern for adults, who do not understand it. Moreover, usage peaks at a pivotal time in life: adolescence. Therefore it seems important to understand these new habits, and the reasons why social networks are such an important part of the life of adolescents. Furthermore, we looked into the question if virtual relationships have an impact on real-life relationships, and vice versa. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This literature review examined studies published between 2008 and September 2019. Twenty-five articles were selected from PubMed, Scopus, PsychINFO and Cochrane databases. RESULTS: Above all, teenagers are motivated to use social networks because they can develop an identity based on an idealized profile. This profile must be at least as good as those of their peers, in order to obtain the latter's approval. This is notably the case in a context where changes to the family structure give a greater weight to the opinion of peers. Young people are driven to seek refuge on the Internet by a lack of family support, and parents who are less emotionally present. This effect could be limited by encouraging communication between teenagers and their parents. Finally, romantic relationships are impacted by the availability of pornography. Viewing pornography is increasingly seen as a normal stage of development and is linked to poorer attachment to peers and family. CONCLUSIONS: The Internet seems to support a gradual detachment from family life and a move towards greater inclusion in the peer group. This is all the more evident in a context where family structures are changing.


Assuntos
Grupo Associado , Rede Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos
4.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968030

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Adolescents often display heterogenous trajectories of alcohol use. Initiation and escalation of drinking may be important predictors of later harms, including alcohol use disorder (AUD). Previous conceptualizations of these trajectories lacked adjustment for known confounders of adolescent drinking, which we aimed to address by modeling dynamic changes in drinking throughout adolescence while adjusting for covariates. METHODS: Survey data from a longitudinal cohort of Australian adolescents (n = 1813) were used to model latent class alcohol use trajectories over 5 annual follow-ups (mean age = 13.9 until 17.8 years). Regression models were used to determine whether child, parent, and peer factors at baseline (mean age = 12.9 years) predicted trajectory membership and whether trajectories predicted self-reported symptoms of AUD at the final follow-up (mean age = 18.8 years). RESULTS: We identified 4 classes: abstaining (n = 352); late-onset moderate drinking (n = 503); early-onset moderate drinking (n = 663); and early-onset heavy drinking (n = 295). Having more alcohol-specific household rules reduced risk of early-onset heavy drinking compared with late-onset moderate drinking (relative risk ratio: 0.31; 99.5% confidence interval [CI]: 0.11-0.83), whereas having more substance-using peers increased this risk (relative risk ratio: 3.43; 99.5% CI: 2.10-5.62). Early-onset heavy drinking increased odds of meeting criteria for AUD in early adulthood (odds ratio: 7.68; 99.5% CI: 2.41-24.47). CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides evidence that parenting factors and peer influences in early adolescence should be considered to reduce risk of later alcohol-related harm. Early initiation and heavy alcohol use throughout adolescence are associated with increased risk of alcohol-related harm compared with recommended maximum levels of consumption (late-onset, moderate drinking).


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/etiologia , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/psicologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Austrália/epidemiologia , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Poder Familiar , Pais , Grupo Associado , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
9.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(9): 775-787, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal depression has a recurring course that can influence offspring outcomes. Evidence on how to treat maternal depression to improve longer-term maternal outcomes and reduce intergenerational transmission of psychopathology is scarce, particularly for task-shifted, low-intensity, and scalable psychosocial interventions. We evaluated the effects of a peer-delivered, psychosocial intervention on maternal depression and child development at 3 years postnatal. METHODS: 40 village clusters in Pakistan were randomly allocated using a computerised randomisation sequence to receive a group-based, psychosocial intervention and enhanced usual care for 36 months, or enhanced usual care alone. Pregnant women (≥18 years) were screened for moderate or severe symptoms of depression (patient health questionnaire-9 [PHQ-9] score ≥10) and were recruited into the trial (570 participants), and a cohort without depression (PHQ-9 score <10) was also enrolled (584 participants). Including the non-depressed dyads enabled us to determine how much of the excess risk due to maternal depression exposure the intervention could mitigate. Research teams responsible for identifying, obtaining consent, and recruiting trial participants were blind to the allocation status throughout the duration of the study, and principal investigators, site coordinators, statisticians, and members of the trial steering committee were also blinded to the allocation status until the analysis of 6-month data for the intervention. Primary outcomes were maternal depression symptoms and remission (PHQ-9 score <10) and child socioemotional skills (strengths and difficulties questionnaire [SDQ-TD]) at 36-months postnatal. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02658994. FINDINGS: From Oct 15, 2014 to Feb 25, 2016 46 village clusters were assessed for eligibility, of which 40 (including 1910 mothers were enrolled. After exclusions, 288 women were randomly assigned to the enhanced usual care group and 284 to the intervention group, and 1159 women were included in a group without prenatal depression. At 36-months postnatal, complete data were available from 889 mother-child dyads: 206 (72·5%) in the intervention group, 216 (75·3%) in the enhanced usual care group, and 467 (80·0%) women who did not have prenatal-depression. We did not observe significant outcome differences between the intervention group and the enhanced usual care group for the primary outcomes. The standardised mean difference of PHQ-9 total score was -0·13 (95% CI -0·33 to 0·07), relative risk of patient health questionnaire-9 remission was 1·00 (95% CI 0·88 to 1·14), and the SDQ-TD treatment estimate was -0·10 (95% CI -1·39 to 1·19). INTERPRETATION: Reduced symptom severity and high remission rates were seen across both the intervention and enhanced usual care groups, possibly masking any effects of the intervention. A multi-year, psychosocial intervention can be task-shifted via peers but might be susceptible to reductions in fidelity and dosage over time (which were not among the outcomes of this trial). Early intervention efforts might need to rely on multiple models (eg, collaborative care), be of greater intensity, and potentially targeted at mothers who are at high risk for depression to reduce the intergenerational transmission of psychopathology from mothers to children. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Depressão Pós-Parto/terapia , Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Depressão Pós-Parto/diagnóstico , Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Paquistão , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
AIDS Educ Prev ; 32(3): 243-259, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749879

RESUMO

Qualitative data were collected from 34 Indonesian female sex workers to understand their engagement with HIV treatment. Influences that enhanced treatment initiation and adherence included women's desires to stay healthy to continue working to provide for families; awareness of the biomedical benefits of treatment; support from bosses, outreach workers, and peer support groups; and flexible, nonjudgmental HIV service provision. Influences inhibiting treatment initiation and adherence included concerns about unwanted disclosure in the workplace and side effects of medication on women's capacity to earn money through sex work; geographical location of services; discrimination and confidentiality concerns in HIV care services. To improve HIV treatment initiation and adherence among Indonesian female sex workers, future responses should explore health promotion messages that engage with women's family and livelihood obligations; increased funding for community-based peer outreach workers; community-based treatment initiation and supply; and advocacy in work environments to secure support for treatment initiatives.


Assuntos
Família , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Profissionais do Sexo/psicologia , Estigma Social , Apoio Social , Adulto , Cidades , Confidencialidade , Revelação , Discriminação Psicológica , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Grupo Associado , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Trabalho Sexual , Adulto Jovem
12.
Public Health Rep ; 135(5): 700-707, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735497

RESUMO

Clear writing is a critical component of public health research and practice. The ability to convey information in a concise, engaging, and insightful manner influences stakeholder engagement and is the backbone of program and policy development, organization, and implementation. To help master of public health (MPH) students adapt their writing skills to these specialized demands, Boston University School of Public Health launched the Peer Writing Coach Program in 2010 staffed by MPH students. The service is open to all students enrolled in public health classes. They can schedule up to 2 appointments per assignment for both individual and team papers. Student use increased from 55 appointments in academic year 2010-2011 (the first year of the program) to 767 appointments in academic year 2017-2018. For the 2016-2017, 2017-2018, and 2018-2019 academic years, 1128 (74%) of 1530 appointment requests asked for assistance "writing clearly and concisely," 886 (58%) for assistance "organizing and synthesizing main points of argument," and 529 (35%) for assistance "tailoring writing for a specific audience." This case study describes the rationale for creating the program, outlines the chronology of its development since 2010, and provides an overview of peer coach training, student use, and lessons learned as we addressed logistical challenges.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Currículo , Educação Médica/organização & administração , Guias como Assunto , Saúde Pública/educação , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Redação/normas , Adulto , Boston , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236983, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764768

RESUMO

National efforts to address the diversity dilemma in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) often emphasize increasing numbers of historically underrepresented (HU) students and faculty, but fall short in instituting concrete changes for inclusion and belonging. Therefore, increasing the pool of senior faculty who wish to become guides and advocates for emerging scientists from HU populations is an essential step toward creating new pathways for their career advancement. As a step toward achieving this goal, we created a novel eight-hour intervention on Culturally Aware Mentoring (CAM), a program of the National Research Mentoring Network (NRMN) targeted to faculty and administrators. A previous report of surveys at the end of the CAM sessions revealed substantial awareness and knowledge gains, with participants expressing intentions to use and implement new skills they had learned. In this paper, we provide the results of our thematic analysis of qualitative interviews with academic administrators and faculty, 18-24 months after participation in CAM. Interviews were designed to determine: 1) What changes in self-perceptions and interactions occurred as a result of participation in CAM? 2) What specific components of CAM are associated with changes in individual beliefs and practices? 3) How did participants actively make changes after the CAM workshop? 4) What barriers or challenges do participants encounter after the CAM intervention? The results demonstrate the lasting influences of CAM on participants' awareness of cultural differences, their assumptions about and approaches toward interactions with colleagues and students, and their efforts to change their behaviors to promote inclusive practices in their mentoring and teaching of HU students in STEM. Our findings provide evidence that CAM can be incorporated into existing mentor training programs designed to improve the confidence and capacity of senior research faculty mentors to make culturally-informed, scholar-centered decisions to more deliberately recognize and respond to cultural differences within their mentoring and collegial relationships.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo , Diversidade Cultural , Docentes , Tutoria , Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/educação , Docentes de Medicina , Humanos , Mentores , Grupo Associado , Ciência/educação , Ciência/organização & administração , Habilidades Sociais , Desenvolvimento de Pessoal , Estados Unidos
14.
J Investig Med ; 68(6): 1128-1134, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641352

RESUMO

Mentorship is a critical component of career development, particularly in academic medicine. Peer mentorship, which does not adhere to traditional hierarchies, is perhaps more accessible for underrepresented groups, including women and minorities. In this article, we review various models of peer mentorship, highlighting their respective advantages and disadvantages. Structured peer mentorship groups exist in different settings, such as those created under the auspices of formal career development programs, part of training grant programs, or through professional societies. Social media has further enabled the establishment of informal peer mentorship through participatory online groups, blogs, and forums that provide platforms for peer-to-peer advice and support. Such groups can evolve rapidly to address changing conditions, as demonstrated by physician listserv and Facebook groups related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Peer mentorship can also be found among colleagues brought together through a common location, interest, or goal, and typically these relationships are informal and fluid. Finally, we highlight here our experience with intentional formation of a small peer mentoring group that provides structure and a safe space for professional and social-emotional growth and support. In order to maximize impact and functionality, this model of peer mentorship requires commitment among peers and a more formalized process than many other peer mentoring models, accounting for group dynamics and the unique needs of members. When done successfully, the depth of these mentoring relationships can produce myriad benefits for individuals with careers in academic medicine including, but not limited to, those from underrepresented backgrounds.


Assuntos
Capacitação em Serviço , Relações Interprofissionais , Tutoria , Mentores , Escolha da Profissão , Infecções por Coronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários , Exposição Ocupacional , Pandemias , Grupo Associado , Médicos , Médicas , Pneumonia Viral , Mídias Sociais , Apoio Social , Sociedades Médicas , Estados Unidos , Universidades
15.
Psychiatr Hung ; 35(3): 322-336, 2020.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643621

RESUMO

In the past two decades, there has been a considerable research interest in celebrity worship. According to the general view, celebrity worship can be considered as a continuum, ranging from a healthy enthusiasm to an exces - sive involvement. A considerable proportion of research investigating this phenomenon has focused on the explora - tion of the underlying mechanisms of excessive celebrity worship. In light of this, the primary aim of the present review is to summarize and synthesize the clinical and personality psychological characteristics of the attitudes related to celebrity worship, based on the international literature. In this review, we introduce the definition and assessment of celebrity worship. Following this, we describe the demographical and personality correlates of excessive celebrity wor - ship, and analyze the findings of empirical studies on psychological well-being, cognitive and social functioning. Based upon all this, it can be concluded that excessive celebrity worship is associated with some psychiatric symptoms (e.g., symptoms of depression and anxiety) and a lower level of cognitive (e.g., critical thinking) and social skills (e.g., attachment to peers). In this review, we also elaborate on the possibilities and challenges of future research.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Comportamental , Pessoas Famosas , Personalidade , Atitude , Emoções , Humanos , Grupo Associado
16.
S Afr Med J ; 110(2): 145-153, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The intersection of violence exposure and mental health problems is a public health crisis for South African (SA) adolescents. Understanding the impact of community violence on adolescent mental health can inform future interventions. OBJECTIVES: To assess pathways between community violence exposure and internalising and externalising problems in SA adolescents receiving mental healthcare, and the roles of parent and peer relationships in these associations. METHODS: Participants (N=120 parent-adolescent pairs) were recruited from four mental health clinics in Western Cape Province to participate in a pilot test of a family-based HIV prevention study. Adolescents reported on their exposure to community violence, parental attachment, peer support of risk behaviour, and mental health. Parents reported on adolescents' internalising and externalising mental health problems. Participants received transport money (ZAR30 = USD3) and a shopping voucher or cash (ZAR50 = USD5) for their time. RESULTS: Adolescents were 12 - 18 years old (mean (standard deviation) 14.39 (1.82) years), 53% were male, and 67% and 33% reported black African and mixed-race ethnicity, respectively. Parents were 94% female and reported an average monthly income of ZAR3 973 (USD397). Boys reported significantly higher rates of witnessing community violence than girls. Among boys, significant paths emerged from community violence and low parent attachment to externalising symptoms and from community violence to peer support of risky behaviour. For girls, the only significant path was from low parent attachment to peer support of risky behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: This cross-sectional study sheds new light on the possible pathways from witnessing community violence to mental health problems among SA adolescents. Identifying factors that drive and mitigate psychological distress in the context of persistent community violence is critical to SA's future and can inform the selection and delivery of appropriate and targeted evidence-based interventions.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Violência/psicologia , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Projetos Piloto , Assunção de Riscos , Fatores Sexuais , África do Sul
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234875, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645069

RESUMO

It is widely believed that one's peers influence product adoption behaviors. This relationship has been linked to the number of signals a decision-maker receives in a social network. But it is unclear if these same principles hold when the "pattern" by which it receives these signals vary and when peer influence is directed towards choices which are not optimal. To investigate that, we manipulate social signal exposure in an online controlled experiment using a game with human participants. Each participant in the game decides among choices with differing utilities. We observe the following: (1) even in the presence of monetary risks and previously acquired knowledge of the choices, decision-makers tend to deviate from the obvious optimal decision when their peers make a similar decision which we call the influence decision, (2) when the quantity of social signals vary over time, the forwarding probability of the influence decision and therefore being responsive to social influence does not necessarily correlate proportionally to the absolute quantity of signals. To better understand how these rules of peer influence could be used in modeling applications of real world diffusion and in networked environments, we use our behavioral findings to simulate spreading dynamics in real world case studies. We specifically try to see how cumulative influence plays out in the presence of user uncertainty and measure its outcome on rumor diffusion, which we model as an example of sub-optimal choice diffusion. Together, our simulation results indicate that sequential peer effects from the influence decision overcomes individual uncertainty to guide faster rumor diffusion over time. However, when the rate of diffusion is slow in the beginning, user uncertainty can have a substantial role compared to peer influence in deciding the adoption trajectory of a piece of questionable information.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Infuência dos Pares , Adulto , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Probabilidade , Incerteza , Jogos de Vídeo
18.
Nursing ; 50(8): 57-60, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701893

RESUMO

The term horizontal violence (HV) is synonymous with nurse-to-peer incivility or bullying. This article examines why HV continues to plague the nursing profession and discusses tools and strategies for eliminating this toxic behavior from the workplace.


Assuntos
Bullying/prevenção & controle , Incivilidade/prevenção & controle , Relações Interprofissionais , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Violência no Trabalho/prevenção & controle , Humanos
19.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235383, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645110

RESUMO

A major concern among universities around the world is that female students face gender bias, discrimination and related barriers in male-dominated STEM fields. To investigate this concern, we conducted a novel large-scale experiment of interactions between female and male students in one of the most important gateway courses for the Sciences and a course in which students interact one-on-one extensively throughout the term. Over the past four years, at a large public research university, we randomly paired every student enrolled in an introductory Chemistry lab (3,902 students and total N = 5,537). Using precise estimates from the experiment, we provide novel evidence that female students are not negatively affected academically by male partners. When assigned a male partner, female students do not receive lower scores or grades, and they are no more likely to drop the course or not continue in Chemistry or a STEM field. We also find that academically weaker female students are not negatively affected by male students and that female students are not negatively affected when paired with academically stronger male students. Although previous studies have documented that female students self-report experiencing gender bias from male peers in STEM, importantly, we do not find evidence that female students are negatively affected by male peers in intensive, long-term pairwise interactions in their course grades or future STEM course taking. The findings provide hopeful news for future trends in female representation in STEM fields.


Assuntos
Currículo , Engenharia/educação , Matemática/educação , Grupo Associado , Ciência/educação , Estudantes , Tecnologia/educação , Universidades , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Análise de Regressão , Ensino
20.
Psychosomatics ; 61(5): 538-543, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has put an enormous stress on the mental health of frontline health care workers. OBJECTIVE: Psychiatry departments in medical centers need to develop support systems to help our colleagues cope with this stress. METHODS: We developed recurring peer support groups via videoconferencing and telephone for physicians, resident physicians, and nursing staff, focusing on issues and emotions related to their frontline clinical work with COVID patients in our medical center which was designated as a COVID-only hospital by the state. These groups are led by attending psychiatrists and psychiatry residents. In addition, we also deployed a system of telehealth individual counseling by attending psychiatrists. RESULTS: Anxiety was high in the beginning of our weekly groups, dealing with fear of contracting COVID or spreading COVID to family members and the stress of social distancing. Later, the focus was also on the impairment of the traditional clinician-patient relationship by the characteristics of this disease and the associated moral challenges and trauma. Clinicians were helped to cope with these issues through group processes such as ventilation of feelings, peer support, consensual validation, peer-learning, and interventions by group facilitators. People with severe anxiety or desiring confidentiality were helped through individual interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Our experience suggests that this method of offering telehealth peer support groups and individual counseling is a useful model for other centers to adapt to emotionally support frontline clinical workers in this ongoing worldwide crisis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Aconselhamento , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Grupos de Autoajuda , Apoio Social , Telemedicina , Comunicação por Videoconferência , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Médicos/psicologia , Psiquiatria , Telecomunicações
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