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1.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1270, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gambling abstinence when underage lowers the risk of harmful gambling in later life. However, little research has examined why many young people refrain from gambling, even though this knowledge can inform protective strategies and lower risk factors to reduce underage gambling and subsequent harm. This study draws on the lived experience of adolescent non-gamblers to explore how social determinants while growing up have shaped their reasons and choices to not gamble. METHODS: Fourteen Australian non-gamblers, aged 12-17 years, participated in an in-depth individual interview (4 girls, 3 boys) or online community (4 girls, 3 boys). Questions in each condition differed, but both explored participants' gambling-related experiences while growing up, including exposure, attitudes and behaviours of parents and peers, advertising, simulated gambling and motivations for not gambling. The analysis used adaptive grounded theory methods. RESULTS: The grounded theory model identifies several reasons for not gambling, including not being interested, being below the legal gambling age, discouragement from parent and peers, concern about gambling addiction and harm, not wanting to risk money on a low chance of winning, and moral objections. These reasons were underpinned by several social determinants, including individual, parental, peer and environmental factors that can interact to deter young people from underage gambling. Key protective factors were parental role modelling and guidance, friendship groups who avoided gambling, critical thinking, rational gambling beliefs, financial literacy and having other hobbies and interests. CONCLUSIONS: Choices to not gamble emanated from multiple layers of influence, implying that multi-layered interventions, aligned with a public health response, are needed to deter underage gambling. At the environmental level, better age-gating for monetary and simulated gambling, countering cultural pressures, and less exposure to promotional gambling messages, may assist young people to resist these influences. Interventions that support parents to provide appropriate role modelling and guidance for their children are also important. Youth education could include cautionary tales from people with lived experience of gambling harm, and education to increase young people's financial literacy, ability to recognise marketing tactics, awareness of the risks and harms of gambling, and how to resist peer and other normalising gambling influences.


Assuntos
Jogo de Azar , Teoria Fundamentada , Humanos , Adolescente , Feminino , Masculino , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Criança , Austrália , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Comportamento de Escolha , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Entrevistas como Assunto , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Pesquisa Qualitativa
2.
Psychosoc Interv ; 33(2): 73-88, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38711419

RESUMO

Objective: Parent peer advocacy, mentoring, and support programs, delivered by parents with lived child protection (CP) experience to parents receiving CP intervention, are increasingly recognized internationally as inclusive practices that promote positive outcomes, but little is known about what shared characteristics exist across these types of programs and what variations may exist in service delivery or impact. This scoping review examines 25 years (1996-2021) of empirical literature on these programs to develop a systematic mapping of existing models and practices as context for program benefits and outcome achievement. Method: Studies were selected using a systematic search process. The final sample comprised 45 publications that addressed research on 24 CP-related parent peer advocacy and support programs. Data analysis explored how programs were studied and conceptualized and examined their impact on parents, professionals, and the CP system. Results: Substantial variation in program settings, target populations, aims, advocate roles, and underlying theoretical frameworks were identified. Across program settings, existing empirical evidence on impact and outcomes also varied, though positive impacts and outcomes were evident across most settings. Conclusions: Findings from this review highlight the need to account better for parent peer advocacy and support program variations in future practice development to ensure alignment with inclusive and participatory principles and goals. Future research is also needed to address current knowledge gaps and shed light on the impact of these differences on individual, case, and system outcomes.


Assuntos
Tutoria , Pais , Grupo Associado , Humanos , Pais/psicologia , Criança , Serviços de Proteção Infantil , Apoio Social , Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle
3.
Trials ; 25(1): 319, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The demand for mental health services in Australia is substantial and has grown beyond the capacity of the current workforce. As a result, it is currently difficult for many to access secondary healthcare providers. Within the secondary healthcare sector, however, peer workers who have lived experience of managing mental health conditions have been increasingly employed to intentionally use their journey of recovery in supporting others living with mental health conditions and their communities. Currently, the presence of peer workers in primary care has been limited, despite the potential benefits of providing supports in conjunction with GPs and secondary healthcare providers. METHODS: This stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) aims to evaluate a lived experience peer support intervention for accessing mental health care in primary care (PS-PC). Four medical practices across Australia will be randomly allocated to switch from control to intervention, until all practices are delivering the PS-PC intervention. The study will enrol 66 patients at each practice (total sample size of 264). Over a period of 3-4 months, 12 h of practical and emotional support provided by lived experience peer workers will be available to participants. Scale-based questionnaires will inform intervention efficacy in terms of mental health outcomes (e.g., self-efficacy) and other health outcomes (e.g., healthcare-related costs) over four time points. Other perspectives will be explored through scales completed by approximately 150 family members or carers (carer burden) and 16 peer workers (self-efficacy) pre- and post-intervention, and 20 medical practice staff members (attitudes toward peer workers) at the end of each study site's involvement in the intervention. Interviews (n = 60) and six focus groups held toward the end of each study site's involvement will further explore the views of participants, family members or carers, peer workers, and practice staff to better understand the efficacy and acceptability of the intervention. DISCUSSION: This mixed-methods, multi-centre, stepped-wedge controlled study will be the first to evaluate the implementation of peer workers in the primary care mental health care sector. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) ACTRN12623001189617. Registered on 17 November 2023, https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=386715.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Grupo Associado , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Apoio Social , Austrália
4.
J Nurs Educ ; 63(5): 328-331, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about hybrid PhD nursing students' experiences. METHOD: The purpose of this study was to describe and analyze the experiences of PhD nursing students in a hybrid program using a convergent mixed methods design. Recent nursing PhD alumni (n = 18), and current PhD students (n = 4) were recruited at a research-intensive university in the southwestern United States. RESULTS: Four metainferences were identified: (1) the facilitator of faculty as both advisors and mentors; (2) the facilitator of peers as support, motivation, and a source of advice that preceded advisors; (3) the barrier of receiving conflicting feedback from advisory and dissertation committees; and (4) the barrier of not understanding the PhD student process. CONCLUSION: Peer support is fundamental for hybrid PhD nursing student success; conflicting feedback and not understanding the process are significant barriers. Strategies are recommended to mitigate barriers to facilitate hybrid PhD nursing students' success. [J Nurs Educ. 2024;63(5):328-331.].


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Enfermagem/organização & administração , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Pesquisa em Educação em Enfermagem , Grupo Associado , Mentores , Feminino , Docentes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Masculino , Sudoeste dos Estados Unidos , Adulto
5.
Soins Pediatr Pueric ; 45(338): 39-46, 2024.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38697724

RESUMO

The parents of a baby hospitalized in a neonatal unit are confronted with the trauma of premature birth. L'Atelier créa, a creatively-mediated peer group, was designed to give them a space in which to meet and share their experiences. It's a time for talking, imagining and dreaming about the baby. This group is also a form of passage, taking the place of ritual, allowing access to the parent-baby triad, in this sometimes so inhospitable universe.


Assuntos
Pais , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pais/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Recém-Nascido Prematuro
6.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1250, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Being socially excluded has detrimental effects, with prolonged exclusion linked to loneliness and social isolation. Social disconnection interventions that do not require direct support actions (e.g., "how can I help?") offer promise in mitigating the affective and cognitive consequences of social exclusion. We examine how various social disconnection interventions involving friends and unknown peers might mitigate social exclusion by buffering (intervening before) and by promoting recovery (intervening after). METHODS: We present an integrative data analysis (IDA) of five studies (N = 664) that systematically exposed participants to exclusion (vs. inclusion) social dynamics. Using a well-validated paradigm, participants had a virtual interaction with two other people. Unbeknownst to participants, the other people's behavior was programmed to either behave inclusively toward the participant or for one to behave exclusively. Critically, our social disconnection interventions experimentally manipulated whether a friend was present (vs. an unknown peer vs. being alone), the nature of interpersonal engagement (having a face-to-face conversation vs. a reminder of an upcoming interaction vs. mere presence), and the timing of the intervention in relation to the social dynamic (before vs. during vs. after). We then assessed participants' in-the-moment affective and cognitive responses, which included mood, feelings of belonging, sense of control, and social comfort. RESULTS: Experiencing exclusion (vs. inclusion) led to negative affective and cognitive consequences. However, engaging in a face-to-face conversation with a friend before the exclusion lessened its impact (p < .001). Moreover, a face-to-face conversation with a friend after exclusion, and even a reminder of an upcoming interaction with a friend, sped-up recovery (ps < .001). There was less conclusive evidence that a face-to-face conversation with an unknown peer, or that the mere presence of a friend or unknown peer, conferred protective benefits. CONCLUSIONS: The findings provide support for the effectiveness of social disconnection interventions that involve actual (i.e., face-to-face) or symbolic (i.e., reminders) interactions with friends. These interventions target momentary vulnerabilities that arise from social exclusion by addressing negative affect and cognitions before or after they emerge. As such, they offer a promising approach to primary prevention prior to the onset of loneliness and social isolation.


Assuntos
Isolamento Social , Humanos , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Cognição , Afeto , Solidão/psicologia , Adulto Jovem , Análise de Dados , Interação Social , Relações Interpessoais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Amigos/psicologia , Grupo Associado
7.
Health Expect ; 27(3): e14064, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695287

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Many people with mental health issues recover and re-establish their identity and find hope and meaning in life, irrespective of symptom burden. Recovery can be supported through learning and education, aiming at strengthening self-management and coping skills. Such education offered by peers with lived experience is rare and scarcely reported. The aim was to assess the perceived value of an educational intervention, called the Patient School (PS), organized within a psychiatry organization by employed patient peers with lived experience. METHODS: A qualitative case study based on interviews with people with mental health issues (n = 8), peer-organizers (n = 4) and healthcare professionals (n = 4), and documents such as schedules and educational materials were used. First, the interviews were transcribed and analyzed using inductive conventional content analysis. Second, the findings were synthesized into a programme theory, illustrated in a logic model. RESULTS: The perceived value of the PS was related to the willingness of peer-organizers to share their own experiences, a sense of belonging, sharing with like-minded and new knowledge, practical skills, roles and attitudes acquired. These experiences were empowering, decreased stigma and reassured user participants that one's identity is not defined by mental health issues. This increased self-confidence paves the way for increased self-management and creates a potential for a more efficient use of healthcare services. CONCLUSION: We conclude that this PS, organized within a psychiatry organization by salaried peers, achieved the same positive results as those reported in the literature and showed the value of having peer-organizers being part of the staff. PATIENT OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: This research was performed in a partnership between academic researchers and persons with user experience of psychiatric services, engaged in the educational intervention in the focus of the study. The research plan was co-designed, and the analysis of the data collected was performed in collaboration. The participation of the co-researchers with user experience gave the project team access to the study site, provided the team with insights into to study context and contributed with an understanding promoting the interpretation of the findings.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Grupo Associado , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , Suécia , Masculino , Feminino , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Adulto , Adaptação Psicológica , Entrevistas como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Autogestão
8.
J Trauma Nurs ; 31(3): 171-177, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interpersonal violence remains a significant public health problem in the United States. The toll of violence has spurred the development of hospital-based violence intervention programs that use peer support specialists or navigators. Yet, their effectiveness remains uncertain. This study aims to concisely review the recent literature on the effectiveness of hospital-based violence intervention programs using the peer support specialist role. METHODS: A systematic search of articles from PubMed, OVID, and Google Scholar was performed for this review. Peer reviewed studies addressing hospital-based violence intervention programs using peer support specialists between 2017 and 2022 were selected. Key data points were extracted and analyzed by consensus of the authors. RESULTS: Eight of the 232 studies reviewed met eligibility requirements. Across these studies, the recidivism rate was reduced between 43% and 95% in victims participating in hospital-based violence intervention programs with peer support specialists. CONCLUSION: The peer support specialist (navigator) role is central to the success of the violence intervention programs. This role guides and coordinates health services for victims of violence, extending after discharge into the community. Programs showed the most success with helping victims reach short-term goals focused on immediate basic needs but are more challenged meeting longer-term goals, such as education or relocation. This review reveals that hospital-based violence intervention programs using peer support specialists (navigators) lead to the achievement of meeting victim goals and reduce recidivism rates.


Assuntos
Grupo Associado , Humanos , Violência/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos , Apoio Social , Feminino , Masculino
9.
JMIR Hum Factors ; 11: e55415, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the effects of digital health are receiving wide scientific attention, very little is known about the characteristics of digitally engaged people experiencing homelessness, especially in Central and Eastern Europe. Our previous research revealed a considerable level of internet use in the homeless population of Budapest, Hungary, for general purposes (350/662, 52.9%) and medical purposes (229/664, 34.6%). Moreover, a digitally engaged subgroup was identified (129/662, 19.5%). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this exploratory study was to map out the resources, attitudes, and behaviors of digitally engaged homeless individuals in relation to digital technology to set the basis for potential health policy interventions, which will enable better access to health services through strengthening of the digital components of the existing health care system. METHODS: Between August 18, 2022, and October 27, 2022, a total of 12 in-depth semistructured interviews were conducted in 4 homeless shelters in Budapest, Hungary. Upon analysis by 3 independent evaluators, 2 interviews were excluded. The interviewees were chosen based on purposive sampling with predefined inclusion criteria. Thematic analysis of the transcripts was conducted. RESULTS: In the thematic analysis, 4 main themes (attitude, access, usage patterns, and solutions for usage problems) emerged. Health-related technology use mostly appeared in health information-seeking behavior. Online search for prescribed medications (5 interviews), active ingredients of medications (4 interviews), medicinal herbs believed to replace certain pills (2 interviews) or foods, and natural materials (1 interview) were mentioned. Moreover, mobile health app use (3 interviews) was reported. The intention to circumvent or check on mainstream health care solutions was mainly associated with previous negative experiences in the health care system. Several gaps in the daily use of technology were identified by the interviewees; however, more than half of the interviewees (6/10) turned out to be contact points for their peers for digital problem-solving or basic digital literacy skill enhancement in the homeless shelters. Furthermore, a lack of institutional support or special programs targeting senior clients was noted. CONCLUSIONS: Digitally engaged homeless individuals might become mediators between their peers and comprehensive digital health programs. They have the trust of their peers, can recognize and harness the benefits of digital technology, and are able to provide meaningful help in technology- and usage-related issues through experience. Digital health services have great promise in community shelters for managing and preventing health issues, and digitally engaged individuals might be important for the success of such services.


Assuntos
Pessoas Mal Alojadas , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , Pessoas Mal Alojadas/psicologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hungria , Grupo Associado , Apoio Social , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Tecnologia Biomédica
10.
Can J Rural Med ; 29(2): 55-62, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709015

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Practising medicine exposes physicians to emotionally difficult situations, which can be devastating, and for which they might be unprepared. Informal peer support has been recognised as helpful, although this phenomenon is understudied. Hence, it is important to develop a better understanding of the features of helpful informal peer support from the experiences of physicians who have successfully moved through such difficult events. This could lead to new and potentially more effective ways to support struggling physicians. METHODS: Rural Canadian generalist physicians were interviewed. Using a hermeneutic phenomenological approach, data analysis was oriented towards understanding features of helpful informal peer support and the meanings that participants derived from the experience. RESULTS: Eleven rural generalist physicians took part. Peer support prompted the processing of difficult emotional experiences, which initially seemed insurmountable and career-ending. Participants overcame feelings of emotional distress after even brief encounters of informal peer support. Most participants described the support they received as vitally important. After the peer support encounter, practitioners no longer thought of leaving medical practice and felt more able to handle such difficulties moving forward. CONCLUSIONS: Informal peer support enabled recipients to move through an emotionally difficult experience. Empathy, shared vulnerability and connection were the part of the peer support encounter. In addition, the support offered benefits which are known to help physicians not only process emotionally difficult events but also to acquire 'post-traumatic growth'. Practitioners, healthcare leaders and medical educators all have roles to play in enabling the conditions for informal peer support to flourish. INTRODUCTION: La pratique de la médecine expose les médecins à des situations émotionnellement difficiles, qui peuvent être dévastatrices, et auxquelles ils ne sont pas préparés. Le soutien informel par les pairs a été reconnu comme utile, même si ce phénomène est peu étudié. Il est donc important de mieux comprendre les caractéristiques du soutien informel par les pairs à partir des expériences de médecins qui ont réussi à traverser des événements aussi difficiles. Cela pourrait conduire à de nouvelles façons, potentiellement plus efficaces, de soutenir les médecins en difficulté. MTHODES: Onze médecins généralistes canadiens ruraux ont été interrogés. En utilisant une approche phénoménologique herméneutique, l'analyse des données a été orientée vers la compréhension des caractéristiques du soutien informel utile par les pairs et des significations que les participants ont tirées de l'expérience. RSULTATS: Le soutien des pairs a incité à vivre des expériences émotionnelles difficiles, qui semblaient au départ insurmontables et mettant fin à une carrière. Les participants ont surmonté leurs sentiments de détresse émotionnelle après même de brèves rencontres de soutien informel par leurs pairs. La plupart des participants ont décrit le soutien qu'ils ont reçu comme étant d'une importance vitale. Après la rencontre de soutien par les pairs, les praticiens ne pensaient plus à quitter la pratique médicale et SE sentaient plus capables de faire face à de telles difficultés à l'avenir. CONCLUSION: Le soutien informel par les pairs a permis aux bénéficiaires de traverser une expérience émotionnellement difficile. L'empathie, la vulnérabilité partagée et la connexion faisaient partie de la rencontre de soutien par les pairs. En outre, le soutien a offert des avantages connus pour aider les médecins non-seulement à gérer des événements émotionnellement difficiles, mais également à acquérir une 'croissance post-traumatique'. Les praticiens, les dirigeants des soins de santé et les enseignants en médecine ont tous un rôle à jouer pour permettre aux conditions propices au soutien informel par les pairs de s'épanouir.


Assuntos
Grupo Associado , Serviços de Saúde Rural , Apoio Social , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Canadá , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Médicos/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa
11.
Int J Equity Health ; 23(1): 98, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741119

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Almost one third of people affected by leprosy in Colombia suffer from disability, which often results from delayed diagnosis and treatment. We aimed to explore the experience of people affected by leprosy during the process of diagnosis and treatment and if and how this experience was influenced by peers. METHODS: A qualitative study using body map stories was conducted from October 2019 to February 2020 in Colombia. Adult people affected by leprosy were recruited through patient associations in different cities. We conducted three sessions with an average duration of 2-3 h per participant, during which the participants created a painted map of their body and chose symbols to represent their experience, while being engaged in an informal interview. The sessions were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically by an interdisciplinary team, consisting of physicians, social workers and a person affected by leprosy. RESULTS: The 17 study participants (11 female) were aged 20 to 70 years. Leprosy-related manifestations ranged from no to advanced disability. Some participants were active members of associations for people affected by leprosy. Three main themes were identified during analysis: (1) A long pathway to diagnosis, (2) Therapy as a double-edged sword and (3) The influence of other people affected by leprosy. The participants described an often years-long process until being diagnosed, which was marked by insecurities, repeated misdiagnosis, and worsening mental and physical health. Delayed diagnosis was related to late health care seeking, but also to inadequate health communication, lack of leprosy-related knowledge and negligence among health care workers. A high desire to cure motivated the participants to take their medication rigorously, despite the high treatment burden. Support from peers, either within the own social environment or provided from associations, contributed to a faster diagnosis and increased therapy adherence. Peers helped to recognize the symptoms, urged patients to seek care, recommended physicians with leprosy-related knowledge and provided a realistic example of both disease severity and curability. CONCLUSION: People affected by leprosy experience a significant burden during the process of diagnosis and treatment. Involving well-trained peers could foster early diagnosis, treatment compliance and prevention of disability.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , Hanseníase/psicologia , Hanseníase/terapia , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Colômbia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Diagnóstico Tardio/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia
12.
Brain Impair ; 252024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713806

RESUMO

Background Many families of children with acquired brain injuries (ABI) desire opportunities to connect with peers who have shared similar experiences, but such opportunities are often unavailable. Heads Together Online Peer Education (HOPE) is a co-designed online video-based resource that provides information and early support to families following paediatric ABI. This study is part of a larger co-creation project using a community-based participatory research approach to develop and implement HOPE for families impacted by paediatric ABI in Australia. This study aimed to explore parents' and clinicians' perspectives regarding HOPE's usability, acceptability, and future implementation. Methods Parents and clinicians were recruited from a state-wide, interdisciplinary rehabilitation service. Parents were eligible to participate if their child had sustained an ABI within 2 years of recruitment. Participants accessed HOPE, completed the System Usability Scale (SUS), and participated in a semi-structured interview. Transcripts were analysed using inductive content analysis. Results Ten parents and 13 rehabilitation clinicians participated. Average SUS scores were 80.5/100 and 81.73/100, respectively. Participants were satisfied with HOPE's family-centred content and delivery. They expressed having benefited from using HOPE and offered suggestions for its optimisation. Finally, participants reflected on how HOPE could be introduced to and used by families, and its potential usefulness in educating others about paediatric ABI. Conclusions HOPE was developed through a family-led co-design process and aims to provide information and support to families in the early stages following paediatric ABI. This study's findings demonstrate HOPE's usability and acceptability from end-users' perspectives and will guide implementation.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas , Pais , Grupo Associado , Humanos , Lesões Encefálicas/reabilitação , Lesões Encefálicas/psicologia , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Pais/psicologia , Pais/educação , Austrália , Adolescente , Adulto , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade/métodos , Família/psicologia , Pré-Escolar
13.
JMIR Hum Factors ; 11: e53194, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Care partners of people with serious illness experience significant challenges and unmet needs during the patient's treatment period and after their death. Learning from others with shared experiences can be valuable, but opportunities are not consistently available. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to design and prototype a regional, facilitated, and web-based peer support network to help active and bereaved care partners of persons with serious illness be better prepared to cope with the surprises that arise during serious illness and in bereavement. METHODS: An 18-member co-design team included active care partners and those in bereavement, people who had experienced serious illness, regional health care and support partners, and clinicians. It was guided by facilitators and peer network subject-matter experts. We conducted design exercises to identify the functions and specifications of a peer support network. Co-design members independently prioritized network specifications, which were incorporated into an early iteration of the web-based network. RESULTS: The team prioritized two functions: (1) connecting care partners to information and (2) facilitating emotional support. The design process generated 24 potential network specifications to support these functions. The highest priorities included providing a supportive and respectful community; connecting people to trusted resources; reducing barriers to asking for help; and providing frequently asked questions and responses. The network platform had to be simple and intuitive, provide technical support for users, protect member privacy, provide publicly available information and a private discussion forum, and be easily accessible. It was feasible to enroll members in the ConnectShareCare web-based network over a 3-month period. CONCLUSIONS: A co-design process supported the identification of critical features of a peer support network for care partners of people with serious illnesses in a rural setting, as well as initial testing and use. Further testing is underway to assess the long-term viability and impact of the network.


Assuntos
Internet , Grupo Associado , Apoio Social , Humanos , Cuidadores/psicologia , Masculino , Estado Terminal/psicologia , Feminino
14.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0298806, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718055

RESUMO

The transition period from high school to post-secondary can be particularly challenging for many, including varsity student-athletes (SAs). To better support SAs through this transitional experience, some institutions have created peer mentor programs. What is unclear, however, is the perceived value of these mentorship programs from the perspectives of multiple stakeholder positions. This paper contributes to the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning by presenting findings of a program evaluation that investigated the perceived value of a peer mentor program to its stakeholders. To accomplish this, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 participants to discuss SA's experiences with being a first year student, making the transition from high school to post-secondary studies, and also, to discuss their lived experiences with the peer mentor program developed for SAs. Using the findings from the inductive thematic analyses, the peer mentor program's effectiveness, areas of strengths, and areas of improvement are discussed to better align with the stakeholders' needs and experiences. Findings offer insights into a) the trials and tribulations of the first year SA experience, b) how peer mentor programs can better support SA's transition to post-secondary education, c) the benefits of conducting a program evaluation, and d) strategies to enhance the peer mentor program to better support students' needs.


Assuntos
Atletas , Mentores , Grupo Associado , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estudantes , Humanos , Canadá , Masculino , Feminino , Atletas/psicologia , Adolescente , Estudantes/psicologia , Tutoria/métodos
15.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0299596, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38696414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Therapeutic Radiographers (RT) and Speech and Language Therapists (SLT) work closely together in caring for people with head and neck cancer and need a strong understanding of each others' roles. Peer teaching has been shown to be one of the most effective methods of teaching; however, no studies to date, have involved RT and SLT students. This research aims to establish the effectiveness and perceptions of peer-led teaching between undergraduate RT and SLT students in Ulster University. METHODS: Twenty SLT students and 14 RT students participated. Knowledge tests were taken online before the peer-led teaching session (T1), after the session (T2) and 3 months later (T3). Students' perceptions of the experience were collected at the end of the session. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to analyse the impact of the intervention on knowledge scores. Qualitative content analysis was used for open text response data. RESULTS: RT students' own professional knowledge score at T2 was statistically significantly higher than the score at T1; the score at T3 was not deemed to be statistically significantly higher. RT students' SLT knowledge score at T2 and T3 was found to be statistically significantly higher than the score at T1. SLT students' own professional knowledge score was not statistically significantly higher at T2 or T3 than T1. They did have a statistically significantly higher score at T2 on the RT test, but score at T3 was not deemed to be statistically significantly higher. The majority of students across both professions agreed or strongly agreed that the peer-led teaching experience had a positive impact on their learning. CONCLUSION: This investigation highlights the benefits of an interprofessional peer-led teaching intervention for RT and SLT students and the findings add to the evidence of more objective study of knowledge gain as a result of interprofessional peer teaching.


Assuntos
Grupo Associado , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Terapia da Linguagem/métodos , Fonoterapia/educação , Fonoterapia/métodos , Aprendizagem , Ensino , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/psicologia , Adulto , Relações Interprofissionais , Radiografia
17.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 16(6): 496-502, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38692946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stress experienced by pharmacy students is on the rise and is negatively impacting student success. Pharmacy accreditation standards encourage schools to promote student success and well-being. Peer to peer student support is a largely under-investigated strategy to address this. The objective of this manuscript is to conduct a literature review on the development of peer mentoring programs for pharmacy students and describe best practices for successful implementation into pharmacy programs. METHODS: This literature review identified studies using major databases, including PubMed, Embase, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and Education Resources Information Center. Search terms included [(peer mentor*) AND pharmacy]. Any study that involved peer assessment, peer tutoring, or peer learning within a course, faculty mentors only, non-pharmacy students, and/or did not implement a mentor-mentee relationship, was excluded. RESULTS: Three studies met the criteria for inclusion. Mentorship programs varied with regard to duration, mentor recruitment, participant incentives, and overall structure. Various methods of analyses were employed. Despite major differences between the included studies, three themes were identified regarding development of peer mentoring programs: participation, support, and pairing. Active engagement led to higher perceived benefit and both mentors and mentees found the programs beneficial, agreed to recommend the programs to others, and provided positive feedback. IMPLICATIONS: Successful mentoring programs should aim to incorporate the following characteristics to some degree: mandatory participation by mentor and mentee as well as support for mentors with training and faculty oversight. Peer mentoring programs have a positive impact on participants. More studies are needed to assess the effects of peer mentoring in pharmacy programs. This is the first known review of peer mentoring within pharmacy programs and identifies a gap in knowledge in this area. There is a paucity of data surrounding peer mentoring in pharmacy and its potential value as a tool to improve student well-being.


Assuntos
Educação em Farmácia , Tutoria , Grupo Associado , Estudantes de Farmácia , Humanos , Tutoria/métodos , Tutoria/normas , Educação em Farmácia/métodos , Educação em Farmácia/normas , Estudantes de Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Farmácia/psicologia , Mentores/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1367584, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721533

RESUMO

Background: A persistent treatment gap remains between children and adults living with HIV. The Zvandiri program, developed by Africaid, is one of the few models of differentiated service delivery for children, adolescents, and youth that has been shown to improve outcomes along the HIV care continuum, employing Community Adolescent Treatment Supporters (CATS) to offer peer counseling and patient navigation. Our qualitative study provides an in-depth analysis of the feelings and experiences Zimbabwean youth had following an HIV diagnosis, and the ways that CATS facilitated linkage and retention in care. Methods: We conducted in-depth interviews in Shona with adolescents and young adults who were recently diagnosed with HIV in Zimbabwe. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and then translated to English. Interviews were coded in Dedoose using a structured a priori codebook. We wrote semi-structured summary memos for each interview. We co-conducted thematic analysis, guided by interpretive phenomenology with a team of Zimbabwean and American experienced qualitative researchers and community partners. We co-developed memos to elaborate and understand key themes across interviews. Results: Most of our interview participants recounted an immediate sense of loss upon testing HIV positive and a fear that "there was no hope for the future." CATS played a pivotal role for youth, providing emotional, educational, and logistical support to facilitate treatment initiation, adherence, and persistence in care. The CATS program supported youth through multiple approaches: group sessions, individual meetings, and via text or phone. While CATS offered counseling and comfort to participants, they emphasized the long-term importance of identifying at least one other person in participants' lives who could know their status and support them around HIV. Conclusion: Our findings delineate some of the key concerns that face youth after receiving an HIV diagnosis and the ways that a community-based adherence peer navigation program supported participants to navigate both their feelings and the health care system. Results can inform practice at community-based agencies that are implementing or considering peer youth navigation programs and garner support for policy to fund interventions for youth.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Grupo Associado , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , Zimbábue , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Adolescente , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Entrevistas como Assunto , Apoio Social , Aconselhamento , Adulto
19.
JMIR Ment Health ; 11: e55750, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Online forums are widely used for mental health peer support. However, evidence of their safety and effectiveness is mixed. Further research focused on articulating the contexts in which positive and negative impacts emerge from forum use is required to inform innovations in implementation. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop a realist program theory to explain the impacts of online mental health peer support forums on users. METHODS: We conducted a realist synthesis of literature published between 2019 and 2023 and 18 stakeholder interviews with forum staff. RESULTS: Synthesis of 102 evidence sources and 18 interviews produced an overarching program theory comprising 22 context-mechanism-outcome configurations. Findings indicate that users' perceptions of psychological safety and the personal relevance of forum content are foundational to ongoing engagement. Safe and active forums that provide convenient access to information and advice can lead to improvements in mental health self-efficacy. Within the context of welcoming and nonjudgmental communities, users may benefit from the opportunity to explore personal difficulties with peers, experience reduced isolation and normalization of mental health experiences, and engage in mutual encouragement. The program theory highlights the vital role of moderators in creating facilitative online spaces, stimulating community engagement, and limiting access to distressing content. A key challenge for organizations that host mental health forums lies in balancing forum openness and anonymity with the need to enforce rules, such as restrictions on what users can discuss, to promote community safety. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first realist synthesis of online mental health peer support forums. The novel program theory highlights how successful implementation depends on establishing protocols for enhancing safety and strategies for maintaining user engagement to promote forum sustainability. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42022352528; https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=352528.


Assuntos
Grupo Associado , Humanos , Apoio Social , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Redes Sociais Online , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia
20.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 88(5): 100695, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583718

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the perception of students, faculty, and previous lab coaches on a near-peer teaching model integrated into a skills-based laboratory. METHODS: As part of a longitudinal near-peer teaching experience, third professional year students are utilized as lab coaches in a skills-based laboratory course. Lab coaches deliver lectures, provide feedback, facilitate activities, and assist with class preparation spanning 2 semesters for first and second professional year students. Students enrolled in the courses received an anonymous 12-question survey to assess the comfort and helpfulness of feedback when working with a lab coach and faculty during the 2021-2022 academic year. Statistical analysis was conducted using descriptive and inferential statistics for survey questions, and thematic analysis for open-ended responses. Semi-structured interviews with previous lab coaches and faculty were conducted, and thematic analysis was utilized for the responses. RESULTS: The student survey had an 81.4% response rate (n = 114). Students were significantly more comfortable working with and asking questions to a lab coach than a faculty instructor (mean [SD] of 4.78 [0.66] vs 4.44 [0.75]). Nine (75%) previous lab coaches and 6 (43%) faculty members were also interviewed. A total of 6 themes regarding perceptions of the lab coach position emerged: positive impact on personal and professional development; relationship building; rewarding experience recommended to others; robust teaching experience; struggles and challenges faced by both faculty and lab coaches; appreciation of the position by faculty. CONCLUSION: Implementing near-peer teachers into a pharmacy skills-based laboratory was very well received by students, previous lab coaches, and faculty.


Assuntos
Educação em Farmácia , Grupo Associado , Estudantes de Farmácia , Ensino , Humanos , Estudantes de Farmácia/psicologia , Educação em Farmácia/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Percepção , Docentes de Farmácia , Docentes , Masculino , Feminino , Currículo
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