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1.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0296820, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38620018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Worldwide Voyage (WWV) was a 3-year (2014-2017) open-ocean voyage to circumnavigate the world using Indigenous knowledge and navigational skills aboard Hokule'a, a traditionally designed Native Hawaiian (NH) voyaging canoe (wa'a kaulua). Each WWV segment included experienced crew and leadership who were recognized by their voyaging peers as highly experienced in Polynesian oceanic voyaging. This study explored the perceptions and insights of WWV-experienced ocean voyagers on the interconnection between human health and oceanic voyaging. METHODOLOGY: A constructivist approach with a storytelling-based moderator guide was used to conduct focus groups and informant interviews of experienced crew and voyaging leadership. Participants were interviewed and recorded transcripts were analyzed using content analysis. Triangulation of analysis included secondary thematic review by two independent NH cultural practitioners and participant member checking. Purposive sampling was used to enroll 34 of 66 eligible highly experienced voyagers (leadership n = 6; crew n = 28) in 5 focus groups and 4 informant interviews. RESULTS: Six themes emerged: 1) Indigenous context (spiritual and natural environment); 2) Importance of relationships and community; 3) Description of life on the canoe; 4) Holistic health; 5) Mindfulness, stress reduction and emotional health; and 6) Opportunities for intervention. Themes 1-5 were inductive and intricately interrelated, and theme 6 was deductive in that it directly resulted from a moderator guide question. Theme 6 offers strategies to improve the impact of voyaging and health well beyond the physical voyage with recommendations for improved transition back to land and developing a wa'a community context, which reflects a traditional voyaging experience. CONCLUSIONS: Polynesian oceanic voyaging is strongly perceived as a positive and transformative holistic-health-promoting experience. SIGNIFICANCE: Recommendations to promote generalizable health benefits of a voyaging lifestyle offers a promising and culturally grounded approach warranting future studies to understand mechanism and potential impact for improving health inequities.


Assuntos
Havaiano Nativo ou Outro Ilhéu do Pacífico , Navios , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Havaí , Grupos Focais
2.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e081063, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589258

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Audit and Feedback (A&F) is a widely used quality improvement (QI) intervention in healthcare. However, not all feedback is accepted by professionals. While claims-based feedback has been previously used for A&F interventions, its acceptance by medical specialists is largely unknown. This study examined medical specialists' acceptance of claims-based A&F for QI. DESIGN: Qualitative design, with focus group discussions. Transcripts were analysed using discourse analysis. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of five online focus group discussions were conducted between April 2021 and September 2022 with 21 medical specialists from varying specialties (urology; paediatric surgery; gynaecology; vascular surgery; orthopaedics and trauma surgery) working in academic or regional hospitals in the Netherlands. RESULTS: Participants described mixed views on using claims-based A&F for QI. Arguments mentioned in favour were (1) A&F stimulates reflective learning and improvement and (2) claims-based A&F is more reliable than other A&F. Arguments in opposition were that (1) A&F is insufficient to create behavioural change; (2) A&F lacks clinically meaningful interpretation; (3) claims data are invalid for feedback on QI; (4) claims-based A&F is unreliable and (5) A&F may be misused by health insurers. Furthermore, participants described several conditions for the implementation of A&F which shape their acceptance. CONCLUSIONS: Using claims-based A&F for QI is, for some clinical topics and under certain conditions, accepted by medical specialists. Acceptance of claims-based A&F can be shaped by how A&F is implemented into clinical practice. When designing A&F for QI, it should be considered whether claims data, as the most resource-efficient data source, can be used or whether it is necessary to collect more specific data.


Assuntos
Medicina , Melhoria de Qualidade , Criança , Humanos , Grupos Focais , Retroalimentação , Atenção à Saúde , Auditoria Médica
3.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e076416, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594183

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Non-adherence to antihypertensive medication significantly contributes to inadequate blood pressure control. Regarding non-pharmacological interventions to improve medication adherence, the question remains of which interventions yield the highest efficacy.Understanding the complementary perspectives of patients and healthcare professionals can be valuable for designing strategies to enhance medication adherence. Few studies explored the perspectives of patients and healthcare professionals regarding medication adherence. None of them focused specifically on adherence to pharmacological therapy for hypertension in Portugal.Considering the high prevalence of non-adherence and its location-specific aspects, the priority should be identifying its barriers and developing tactics to address them.This study aims to gather the perspectives of patients with hypertension and healthcare professionals such as family doctors, nurses and community pharmacists from Portugal, regarding the most effective strategies to enhance antihypertensive medication adherence and to understand the factors contributing to non-adherence. METHODS AND ANALYSES: We will conduct qualitative research through synchronous online focus groups of 6-10 participants. Some groups will involve patients with hypertension, while others will include family doctors, nurses and community pharmacists. The number of focus groups will depend on the achievement of theoretical saturation. A purposive sample will be used. Healthcare participants will be recruited via email, while patients will be recruited through their family doctors.The moderator will maintain neutrality while ensuring interactive contributions from every participant. Participants will be encouraged to express their opinions on the meeting summary. Meetings will be recorded and transcribed.Two researchers will perform content analyses using MAXQDA V.12 through comparative analyses and subsequent consensus. A third researcher will review the analyses. The results will be presented narratively. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The Ethics Committee of the University of Coimbra has approved this study with the number: CE-026/2021. The results will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publications and national and international conferences.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos , Hipertensão , Humanos , Grupos Focais , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Adesão à Medicação
4.
Can Fam Physician ; 70(4): 259-268, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626995

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore perceptions of early-career family physicians on the personal, educational, organizational, community, and system factors that had influenced their scope-of-practice decisions and to compare the similarities and differences among these factors across all 13 Canadian jurisdictions. DESIGN: Qualitative descriptive study. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-nine early-career family physicians who were 2 to 5 years into independent practice. METHODS: Data were collected using focus groups and were analyzed using deductive and inductive analysis techniques to identify patterns in the data within and across jurisdictions. MAIN FINDINGS: Participants across all jurisdictions highlighted that personal factors (ie, interest, work-life balance and family life, financial considerations, and self-perceived competence and confidence) were most influential on scope-of-practice decisions. Educational (ie, exposure during training, mentorship), organizational (ie, collegial support), community (ie, needs), and system (ie, payment models, funding for team-based care, governance) factors also influenced decisions about scope of practice. Experiences were similar across all jurisdictions for personal factors. Differences in experiences were reported across jurisdictions for educational, organizational, community, and system factors. CONCLUSION: Decisions about scope of practice by early-career family physicians are highly influenced by personal factors followed by organizational, educational, community, and system factors. These findings suggest numerous strategies are needed to increase individuals' interest in providing comprehensive care in Canada. Educators should cultivate interest in comprehensive care among learners, strategically recruit trainees, provide targeted exposure and experiences, ensure competence and confidence are evaluated throughout and at the end of training, and introduce formal mentorship programs. Policy-makers should invest in the spread of effective team models and alternative payment models. Together, these strategies could broaden the scopes of practice of family physicians and their capacity to deliver accessible and comprehensive care to Canadians.


Assuntos
População norte-americana , Médicos de Família , Humanos , Canadá , Grupos Focais , Pesquisa Qualitativa
5.
BMC Geriatr ; 24(1): 346, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis patient education is offered in many countries worldwide. When evaluating complex interventions like these, it is important to understand how and why the intervention leads to effects. This study aimed to develop a program theory of osteoporosis patient education in Danish municipalities with a focus on examining the mechanisms of change i.e. what is about the programs that generate change. METHODS: The program theory was developed in an iterative process. The initial draft was based on a previous published systematic review, and subsequently the draft was continually refined based on findings from observations (10 h during osteoporosis patient education) and interviews (individual interviews with six employees in municipalities and three health professionals at hospitals, as well as four focus group interviews with participants in patient education (in total 27 informants)). The transcribed interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis and with inspiration from realist evaluation the mechanisms as well as the contextual factors and outcomes were examined. RESULTS: Based on this qualitative study we developed a program theory of osteoporosis patient education and identified four mechanisms: motivation, recognizability, reassurance, and peer reflection. For each mechanism we examined how contextual factors activated the mechanism as well as which outcomes were achieved. For instance, the participants' motivation is activated when they meet in groups, and thereafter outcomes such as more physical activity may be achieved. Recognizability is activated by the participants' course of disease, which may lead to better ergonomic habits. Reassurance may result in more physical activity, and this mechanism is activated in newly diagnosed participants without previous fractures. Peer reflection is activated when the participants meet in groups, and the outcome healthier diet may be achieved. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a program theory and examined how and why osteoporosis patient education is likely to be effective. Understanding these prerequisites is important for future implementation and evaluation of osteoporosis patient education.


Assuntos
Osteoporose , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Grupos Focais , Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Osteoporose/terapia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia
6.
Rev Saude Publica ; 57Suppl 3(Suppl 3): 6s, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629670

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Describe the implementation of a digital diagnostic and territorial monitoring tool in primary healthcare. METHODS: Quantitative and qualitative study, developed in 14 basic healthcare units in São Paulo, with community health workers, coordinators, nurses, and physicians. Data collection occurred in four phases: analysis of the instruments used by the team for territory management; development of the digital tool; training and implementation; and evaluation after 90 days using focus groups. Descriptive analyses were conducted by calculating absolute and relative frequencies to treat quantitative data. Qualitative data were subjected to content analysis. RESULTS: Three hundred thirty-four professionals participated in the study. In the first step, territory management's main challenges were filling out various instruments, system failures, data inconsistency, internet infrastructure/network, and lack of time. Therefore, a digital tool was developed consisting of 1) a spreadsheet recording the number of family members and markers of health conditions, date of visit, and number of return visits; 2) a spreadsheet with a summary of families visited, not visited, and refusals; and 3) a panel with a summary of the data generated instantly. In the evaluation, after the initial use of the tool, the themes that emerged were integration of the tool into daily work, evaluation of the digital tool implementation process, and improvement and opportunities for improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Faced with the challenges faced by family healthcare teams when filling out systems and managing the territory, the tool developed provided greater reliability and agility in data visualization, reduced the volume of instruments, and optimized the work process.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Brasil , Grupos Focais
7.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 16(1): e1-e13, 2024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In South Africa, medical students are expected to have acquired a generalist competence in medical practice on completion of their training. However, what the students and their preceptors understand by 'generalist medical practice' has not been established in South African medical schools. AIM: This study aimed to explore what the students and their preceptors understood by 'generalist medical practice'. SETTING: Four South African medical schools: Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Walter Sisulu University and the University of the Witwatersrand. METHODS: The exploratory descriptive qualitative design was used. Sixteen focus group discussions (FGDs) and 27 one-on-one interviews were conducted among students and their preceptors, respectively. Participants were recruited through purposive sampling. The inductive and deductive data analysis methods were used. The MAXQDA 2020 (Analytics Pro) software was used to arrange data, yielding 2179 data segments. RESULTS: Ten themes were identified: (1) basic knowledge of medicine, (2) first point of contact with all patients regardless of their presenting problems, (3) broad field of common conditions prevalent in the community, (4) dealing with the undifferentiated patient without a diagnosis, (5) stabilising emergencies before referral, (6) continuity, (7) coordinated and (8) holistic patient care, necessitating nurturance of doctor-patient relationship, (9) health promotion and disease prevention, and (10) operating mainly in primary health care settings. CONCLUSION: The understanding of 'generalist medical practice' in accordance with internationally accepted principles augurs well in training undergraduate medical students on the subject. However, interdepartmental collaboration on the subject needs further exploration.Contribution: The study's findings can be used as a guide upon which the students' preceptors and their students can reflect during the training in generalist medical practice.


Assuntos
Faculdades de Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , África do Sul , Relações Médico-Paciente , Grupos Focais
8.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 16(1): e1-e9, 2024 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:  Despite measures put in place to combat teenage pregnancy, the rate remains high. Community health workers (CHWs) are a cadre of health workers that can help put measures in place to reduce teenage pregnancy in the communities in which they live and work. AIM:  This article aims to gain a deeper understanding of CHWs' perceptions regarding teenage pregnancy in the rural districts of Limpopo province. METHODS:  An exploratory qualitative study approach was employed to collect data from CHWs in two rural districts of Limpopo. A non-probability purposive sampling approach was used to choose 81 CHWs. Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) were organised, and audio recorded to collect data from participants. The discussions were 2-3 h long and conducted in English, and data saturation was attained by the fifth FGDs. RESULTS:  An eight-step tech's content analysis approach was employed to deductively code, analyse and summarise data into themes. Three themes emerged: the prevalence of teenage pregnancy in rural villages, factors contributing to teenage pregnancy and challenges faced by CHWs when dealing with teenage pregnancy. CONCLUSION:  The study's findings revealed that CHWs face challenges in their communities when offering appropriate teen pregnancy services and CHWs believe that teen pregnancy numbers remain high. There is a significant barrier in combating teenage pregnancy; if contraceptives are not acceptable to the community, the only solution and option for combating teenage pregnancy is abstinence.Contribution: The CHWs presented their insights of teenage pregnancy in rural communities. The outcomes of this study could help clinical practise, schools, communities, youth-friendly services, policymakers and other non-governmental organisations reduce teenage pregnancy.


Assuntos
Gravidez na Adolescência , Gravidez , Feminino , Adolescente , Humanos , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , População Rural , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Grupos Focais
9.
S Afr Fam Pract (2004) ; 66(1): e1-e8, 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:  The study explored and described the meaning attached to the lived experiences of women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the rural context of Zimbabwe. Stigma and discrimination negatively impact one's ability to perform the expected social roles, the quality of life, and the efforts to prevent the spread of HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and reduce HIV-related mortality. Thus, the study aims to understand the meaning attached to the lived experiences of HIV-positive women living in rural areas or villages of Matabeleland South province in Zimbabwe. METHODS:  The study used a qualitative, descriptive, and exploratory design. Four focus group discussions were conducted with 24 HIV-positive rural women living in Matabeleland South province, Zimbabwe. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was adopted to explore and describe the meaning attached to the lived experiences of women living with HIV. RESULTS:  Two interconnected themes were identified in the analysis with their sub-themes. These were: (1) struggle for social belonging, with subthemes - loss of social belonging and reduced access to community-based empowerment opportunities and (2) struggle for maintaining the quality of life with subthemes - lack of need-based community healthcare and food insecurity. CONCLUSION:  Being a woman living with HIV in rural Zimbabwe means a perpetual struggle to maintain one's humanness and quality of life.Contribution: This study's results will support the efforts of the Zimbabwean government to improve the quality of life of HIV-positive women living in rural areas.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , Soropositividade para HIV , Humanos , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Zimbábue , Qualidade de Vida
10.
Brain Impair ; 252024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593747

RESUMO

Background While goal setting with children and their families is considered best practice during rehabilitation following acquired brain injury, its successful implementation in an interdisciplinary team is not straightforward. This paper describes the application of a theoretical framework to understand factors influencing goal setting with children and their families in a large interdisciplinary rehabilitation team. Methods A semi-structured focus group was conducted with rehabilitation clinicians and those with lived experience of paediatric acquired brain injury (ABI). The 90-min focus group was audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were thematically coded and mapped against the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to understand influencing factors, which were then linked to the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation - Behaviour (COM-B) model. Results A total of 11 participants (nine paediatric rehabilitation clinicians, one parent and one young person with lived experience of paediatric ABI) participated in the focus group. Factors influencing collaborative goal setting mapped to the COM-B and six domains of the TDF: Capabilities (Skills, Knowledge, Beliefs about capabilities, and Behavioural regulation), Opportunities (Environmental context and resources), and Motivation (Social/professional role and identity). Results suggest that a multifaceted intervention is needed to enhance rehabilitation clinicians' and families' skills and knowledge of goal setting, restructure the goal communication processes, and clarify the roles clinicians play in goal setting within the interdisciplinary team. Conclusion The use of the TDF and COM-B enabled a systematic approach to understanding the factors influencing goal setting for children with acquired brain injury in a large interdisciplinary rehabilitation team, and develop a targeted, multifaceted intervention for clinical use. These represent important considerations for the improvement of collaborative goal setting in paediatric rehabilitation services to ensure that best practice approaches to goal setting are implemented effectively in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas , Objetivos , Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Lesões Encefálicas/reabilitação , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Motivação , Grupos Focais
11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7880, 2024 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570593

RESUMO

Convergence of neural implants with artificial intelligence (AI) presents opportunities for the development of novel neural implants and improvement of existing neurotechnologies. While such technological innovation carries great promise for the restoration of neurological functions, they also raise ethical challenges. Developers of AI-driven neural implants possess valuable knowledge on the possibilities, limitations and challenges raised by these innovations; yet their perspectives are underrepresented in academic literature. This study aims to explore perspectives of developers of neurotechnology to outline ethical implications of three AI-driven neural implants: a cochlear implant, a visual neural implant, and a motor intention decoding speech-brain-computer-interface. We conducted semi-structured focus groups with developers (n = 19) of AI-driven neural implants. Respondents shared ethically relevant considerations about AI-driven neural implants that we clustered into three themes: (1) design aspects; (2) challenges in clinical trials; (3) impact on users and society. Developers considered accuracy and reliability of AI-driven neural implants conditional for users' safety, authenticity, and mental privacy. These needs were magnified by the convergence with AI. Yet, the need for accuracy and reliability may also conflict with potential benefits of AI in terms of efficiency and complex data interpretation. We discuss strategies to mitigate these challenges.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Implantes Cocleares , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Grupos Focais
12.
BMC Palliat Care ; 23(1): 91, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to explore how palliative care staff reason about the autonomy challenge that arises when a patient who has first said he wants full information appears to change his mind and rejects being informed. METHODS: The study had a qualitative and exploratory design. Participants (physicians, registred nurses, social workers, physiotherapists and occupational therapists) were recruited from palliative care teams in southern Sweden. Six separate focus group interviews with a total number of 33 participants were conducted. The teams were asked to discuss a fictional case of a man who first wants, then rejects, information about his situation. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Reflexive thematic analysis following Braun and Clarke was undertaken to analyse data. RESULTS: The analysis resulted in three themes: Patients have a right to reject information, Questioning whether this patient WANTS to reject information and There are other values at stake, too. Although participants endorsed a right to reject information, they were unsure whether this right was relevant in this situation, and furthermore felt that it should be balanced against counteracting factors. The effect of such balancing was that participants would aim to find a way to present relevant information to the patient, but in a probing and flexible way. CONCLUSIONS: In their work with dying patients, palliative care staff meet many autonomy challenges. When faced with a choice to withhold information as per a patient's wishes, or to provide information with the patient's best interest in mind, staff find it hard to balance competing values. Staff also find it hard to balance their own interests against a purely professional stance. The overall strategy seems to be to look for caring ways to impart the information.


Assuntos
Cuidados Paliativos , Resolução de Problemas , Masculino , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Grupos Focais , Pacientes
13.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 375, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The burnout rates among residents urge for adequate interventions to improve resilience and prevent burnout. Peer reflection, also called group intervision sessions, is a potentially successful intervention to increase the resilience of young doctors. We aimed to gain insight into the perceived added value of intervision sessions and the prerequisite conditions to achieve this, according to residents and intervisors. Our insights might be of help to those who think of implementing intervision sessions in their institution. METHODS: An explorative, qualitative study was performed using focus groups and semi-structured interviews with both residents (n = 8) and intervisors (n = 6) who participated in intervision sessions in a university medical center in the Netherlands. The topic list included the perceived added value of intervision sessions and factors contributing to that. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded using NVivo. Thematic analysis was subsequently performed. RESULTS: According to residents and intervisors, intervision sessions contributed to personal and professional identity development; improving collegiality; and preventing burn-out. Whether these added values were experienced, depended on: (1) choices made during preparation (intervisor choice, organizational prerequisites, group composition, workload); (2) conditions of the intervision sessions (safety, depth, role of intervisor, group dynamics, pre-existent development); and (3) the hospital climate. CONCLUSIONS: Intervision sessions are perceived to be of added value to the identity development of medical residents and to prevent becoming burned out. This article gives insight in conditions necessary to reach the added value of intervision sessions. Optimizing preparation, meeting prerequisite conditions, and establishing a stimulating hospital climate are regarded as key to achieve this.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Internato e Residência , Resiliência Psicológica , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Grupos Focais , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle
14.
Am J Mens Health ; 18(2): 15579883241241973, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613210

RESUMO

Older Black men are underrepresented in research despite being disproportionately affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors related to AD compared with non-Hispanic Whites. Although dietary interventions have shown promise to reduce modifiable CV risk factors related to AD, Black Americans have lower adherence likely due to lack of cultural considerations. Using a noninterventional convergent parallel mixed-methods approach, this study examined the cultural contexts that inform perceptions of dietary interventions among older Midwestern Black men. All participants completed an online demographic and dietary habit survey prior to focus group discussions. Two focus group discussion sessions were conducted with a total of 10 cognitively normal Black men aged 55 years and older. Survey data were analyzed using a frequency analysis and qualitative data were analyzed using a six-step thematic analysis process. Most men indicated having hypertension (N = 7, 77.8%) and currently not following a dietary eating pattern (N = 8, 88.9%). Emerging themes identified included (1) knowledge of dementia, (2) perceptions of dietary interventions, (3) barriers impacting participation in dietary interventions, and (4) overcoming barriers to engage Black men in dietary interventions. Findings from this study should inform the design of future dietary interventions for AD prevention to enhance participation among older Black men.


Assuntos
População Negra , Homens , Masculino , Humanos , Grupos Focais , Negro ou Afro-Americano , Percepção
15.
J Prof Nurs ; 51: 90-96, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38614680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Motivational Interviewing is a well-established person-centered counseling approach toward positive behavioral change. However, several limitations have been reported using motivational interviewing applications. PURPOSE: This study explored the potential of an innovative intervention (namely, modified motivational interviewing) to address the limitations associated with the original form of Motivational Interviewing. METHODS: The research used a phenomenological qualitative design to include three focus groups with a total sample size of 24 university nursing students to examine their experiences with the Modified Motivational Interviewing. The focus groups were transcribed verbatim and then coded to extract the themes. RESULTS: The following ten themes emerged from the data analysis: increasing discrepancy; ambivalence; ready, willing, and able; change as a natural process; the role of the modified motivational interviewing facilitator; spontaneous generalization; peer support facilitates change; help-seeking behavior; practical applications of the modified motivational interviewing; and problems encountered during the implementation of modified motivational interviewing. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed intervention can potentially be a cost-effective replacement for the original format of motivational interviewing intervention. Further research is needed to support the modified motivational interviewing.


Assuntos
Entrevista Motivacional , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Aconselhamento , Grupos Focais , Universidades
16.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 467, 2024 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38614970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Public health initiatives require coordinated efforts from healthcare, social services and other service providers. Organisational theory tells us that trust is essential for reaching collaborative effectiveness. This paper explores the drivers for initiating and sustaining trust in a temporary public health partnership, in response to a sudden health threat. METHODS: This qualitative study analysed the formation process of a multisector partnership for a Covid-19 contact tracing service. Data was collected through 12 interviews, two focus groups, one feedback workshop, and an online survey with workforce members from all seven partner organisations. Purposive maximum variation sampling was used to capture the reflections and experiences of workforce members from all seven partner organisations. A deductive code scheme was used to identify drivers for building and sustaining trust in inter-organisational collaboration. RESULTS: Relational mechanisms emanating from the commitment to the common aim, shared norms and values, and partnership structures affected trust-building. Shared values and the commitment to the common aim appeared to channel partners' behaviour when interacting, resulting in being perceived as a fair, reliable and supportive partner. Shared values were congruent with the design of the partnership in terms of governance structure and communication lines reflecting flat hierarchies and shared decision-making power. Tensions between partner organisations arose when shared values were infringed. CONCLUSIONS: When managing trust in a collaboration, partners should consider structural components like governance structure, organisational hierarchy, and communication channels to ensure equal power distribution. Job rotation, recruitment of candidates with the desired personality traits and attitudes, as well as training and development, encourage inter-organisational networking among employees, which is essential for building and strengthening relationships with partner organisations. Partners should also be aware of managing relational dynamics, channelling behaviours through shared values, objectives and priorities and fostering mutual support and equality among partner organisations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Confiança , Humanos , Saúde Pública , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Grupos Focais
17.
BMC Emerg Med ; 24(1): 60, 2024 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38614978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent research has indicated that sex is an important determinant of emergency medical response in patients with possible serious injuries. Men were found to receive more advanced prehospital treatment and more helicopter transportation and trauma centre destinations and were more often received by an activated trauma team, even when adjusted for injury mechanism. Emergency medical dispatchers choose initial resources when serious injury is suspected after a call to the emergency medical communication centre. This study aimed to assess how dispatchers evaluate primary responses in trauma victims, with a special focus on the sex of the victim. METHODS: Emergency medical dispatchers were interviewed using focus groups and a semistructured interview guide developed specifically for this study. Two vignettes describing typical and realistic injury scenarios were discussed. Verbatim transcripts of the conversations were analysed via systematic text condensation. The findings were reported in accordance with the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Studies (COREQ) checklist. RESULTS: The analysis resulted in the main category "Tailoring the right response to the patient", supported by three categories "Get an overview of location and scene safety", "Patient condition" and "Injury mechanism and special concerns". The informants consistently maintained that sex was not a relevant variable when deciding emergency medical response during dispatch and claimed that they rarely knew the sex of the patient before a response was implemented. Some of the participants also raised the question of whether the Norwegian trauma criteria reliably detect serious injury in women. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the emergency medical response is largely based on the national trauma criteria and that sex is of little or no importance during dispatch. The observed sex differences in the emergency medical response seems to be caused by other factors during the emergency medical response phase.


Assuntos
Operador de Emergência Médica , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Grupos Focais , Aeronaves , Lista de Checagem
18.
Brain Impair ; 252024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38603544

RESUMO

Background Challenging behaviours are often a significant difficulty faced following acquired brain injury (ABI), for which PBS+PLUS (a Positive Behaviour Support framework) is an effective intervention. Clinicians report experiencing a range of barriers to supporting behaviour change for individuals with ABI and require tailored resources to support the implementation of PBS+PLUS. This study aimed to describe the process of co-designing a PBS+PLUS intervention guidebook and podcast series together with individuals with ABI, close-others, and clinicians, and qualitatively examine co-design experiences. Methods The Knowledge-To-Action Framework was followed to support the translation of PBS+PLUS into clinical practice. Participants with ABI (n = 4), close-others (n = 7), and clinicians (n = 3) participated in focus groups contributing to the development of a PBS+PLUS intervention guidebook and podcast series. Following completion of the groups, qualitative interviews were conducted to understand participants' perspectives of the co-design experience. Transcripts were analysed using reflexive thematic analysis. Results Co-design processes are described, and participants provided practical suggestions for co-design and the dissemination of developed resources. Two core themes encapsulating four sub-themes were identified. Firstly, 'Esteeming Experiences ' described the person-driven approach of co-design whereby participants felt supported and connected with other contributors and facilitators through sharing their perspectives. Secondly, 'Empowerment ' reflected participants' increased confidence and skills in applying PBS+PLUS. Conclusions Overall, participants endorsed the therapeutic benefits of co-design engagement and high utility of PBS+PLUS resources. This study adds to the growing literature supporting the use of co-design methodology within clinical implementation, and is inclusive of individuals with ABI, close-others, and clinicians.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Grupos Focais
19.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0297845, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38603723

RESUMO

Ghana's Disability Fund aims to build the capacity of persons with disabilities, particularly those outside of formal employment, to engage in livelihood generation activities as a way to reduce poverty. The objective of this paper is to investigate the kind of knowledge that exists on the District Assemblies Common Fund program, understand the experience of beneficiaries when they access the program, and examine the benefits on beneficiaries' livelihoods. The research consisted of five focus group discussions with 35 beneficiaries, key informant interviews with six member organizations of Ghana Federation of Disability Organizations, and interviews with eleven Disability Fund Management Committees members. This research found the experiences of beneficiaries on the program are varied yet the program on the whole has had a positive outcomes on their livelihoods. Persons with disabilities who participated in this study demonstrated knowledge of the program. Beneficiaries further described issues relating to the quality of purchased items, the procurement process, as well as reductions and changes to requested items. Disability-specific issues in accessing the funds were also noted. These limited the effectiveness of the Fund to meet its stated goals. The findings of the study can inform the Common Fund Secretariat efforts to improve the performance of the fund as well as the advocacy of the disability movement. The findings are also relevant to the design and implementation of other social protection programmes in low-and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Humanos , Gana , Pobreza , Grupos Focais , Emprego
20.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e077932, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine family planning through the community's perception, belief system and cultural impact; in addition to identifying the determining factors for family planning uptake. DESIGN: A descriptive exploratory study. SETTING: Three communities were selected from three local government areas, each in the three senatorial districts in Ekiti State. PARTICIPANTS: The study was conducted among young unmarried women in the reproductive age group who were sexually active as well as married men and women in the reproductive age group who are currently living with their partners and were sexually active. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Eight focus group discussions were conducted in the community in 2019 with 28 male and 50 female participants. The audio recordings were transcribed, triangulated with notes and analysed using QSR NVivo V.8 software. Community perception, beliefs and perceptions of the utility of family planning, as well as cultural, religious and other factors determining family planning uptake were analysed. RESULTS: The majority of the participants had the perception that family planning helps married couple only. There were diverse beliefs about family planning and mixed reactions with respect to the impact of culture and religion on family planning uptake. Furthermore, a number of factors were identified in determining family planning uptake-intrapersonal, interpersonal and health system factors. CONCLUSION: The study concluded that there are varied reactions to family planning uptake due to varied perception, cultural and religious beliefs and determining factors. It was recommended that more targeted male partner engagement in campaign would boost family planning uptake.


Assuntos
Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Religião , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/métodos , Nigéria , Grupos Focais , Comportamento Contraceptivo
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