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1.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 53: e03464, Jan.-Dez. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1020376

RESUMO

RESUMEN Objetivo Explorar la construcción social que sobre violencia obstétrica han elaborado mujeres Tének y Náhuatl de México. Método Estudio cualitativo-sociocrítico, mediante gupos focales se profundizó en las experiencias de parto de quienes vivieron un parto en el periodo 2015-2016. Resultados Participaron 57 mujeres. Mediante análisis de discurso se identificó que las participantes no poseen suficiente información sobre violencia obstétrica y/o derechos sexuales y reproductivos, lo que las imposibilita para asociar sus experiencias negativas al término legal "violencia obstétrica". Sus discursos corresponden en su mayoría a lo que desde el marco legal se ha denominado "violencia obstétrica", sin embargo, experiencias como el ayuno prolongado o el uso de tecnologías para la invasión de su intimidad fueron narradas como algo que conciben violento y que no se ha incorporado dentro del término legal. Conclusión Múltiples acciones que atentan contra los derechos humanos de las mujeres tienen lugar dentro de las salas de parto, la mayor parte no son identificadas por las usuarias, puesto que no han construido socialmente la imagen de la violencia obstétrica, ello no las hace menos susceptibles sin embargo, a sentirse agredidas y denigradas en sus partos.


RESUMO Objetivo Explorar a construção social que as mulheres Tének e Náhuatl do México elaboraram sobre a violência obstétrica. Método Estudo qualitativo-sociocrítico; por meio de grupos focais, houve um aprofundamento nas experiências de parto daquelas que passaram por um parto no período de 2015 a 2016. Resultados Participaram 57 mulheres. Mediante análise do discurso, foi identificado que as participantes não possuem informação suficiente sobre violência obstétrica e/ou direitos sexuais e reprodutivos, o que as impossibilita de associar suas experiências negativas ao termo legal "violência obstétrica". Seus discursos correspondem na sua maioria ao que, a partir do marco legal, foi denominado "violência obstétrica"; entretanto, experiências como jejum prolongado ou uso de tecnologias para a invasão da sua intimidade foram narradas como algo que concebem ser violento e que não foi incorporado ao termo legal. Conclusão Múltiplas ações que atentam contra os direitos humanos das mulheres têm lugar dentro das salas de parto, a maior parte não é identificada pelas usuárias, visto que não construíram socialmente a imagem da violência obstétrica, mas isso não as faz menos suscetíveis de sentir-se agredidas e denegridas nos seus partos.


ABSTRACT Objective To explore the social construction of obstetric violence developed by Tenek and Nahuatl women in Mexico. Method Qualitative, socio-critical study conducted through focal groups in which were deepened the childbirth experiences lived in the period 2015-2016. Results Participation of 57 women. Through discourse analysis, it was identified that participants do not have enough information about obstetric violence and/or sexual and reproductive rights. This makes the association of their negative experiences with the legal term "obstetric violence" impossible. Most of their speeches correspond to the legal denomination of "obstetric violence". Experiences like prolonged fasting or the use of technologies for invading their privacy were narrated like situations they perceive as violent, but have not been incorporated within the legal term. Conclusion Multiple actions against women's human rights take place within delivery rooms. Most remain unidentified by users, since they have not socially constructed the image of obstetric violence. However, that fact does not make them less susceptible to feel attacked and denigrated during their childbirth experiences.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Salas de Parto , Parto , População Indígena , Violência contra a Mulher , México , Grupos Focais , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Enfermagem Obstétrica
2.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 53: e03495, Jan.-Dez. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1020381

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo Descrever o ambiente de trabalho e reconhecer os riscos ocupacionais a que a equipe do Consultório na Rua está exposta, bem como as medidas preventivas aplicáveis segundo a percepção dos profissionais integrantes da equipe. Método Pesquisa qualitativa, exploratória, descritiva, realizada com profissionais representantes das seis equipes de Consultório na Rua existentes em um estado do Nordeste brasileiro. As informações foram coletadas a partir da técnica de grupo focal, e os dados foram analisados à luz da análise temática. Resultados Participaram 14 profissionais. O ambiente de trabalho foi descrito como de tensões, dificuldades e vulnerabilidades, mas também de crescimento pessoal. Foram reconhecidos riscos ocupacionais ocasionados por fatores físicos, biológicos, químicos, de acidentes e psicossociais. As medidas de prevenção utilizadas foram predominantemente tecnologias leves. Sugeriu-se a inclusão de novos equipamentos de proteção individual. Conclusão A reflexão grupal sobre o ambiente e processo de trabalho permitiu o reconhecimento de seus riscos, dificuldades e desafios, demonstrando a necessidade de implementação de medidas de enfrentamento dos fatores identificados.


RESUMEN Objetivo Describir el ambiente laboral y reconocer los riesgos ocupacionales a que está expuesto el equipo del Consultorio en la Calle, así como las medidas preventivas aplicables según la percepción de los profesionales integrantes del equipo. Método Investigación cualitativa, exploratoria, descriptiva, realizada con profesionales representantes de los seis equipos del Consultorio en la Calle existentes en un Estado del Nordeste brasileño. Las informaciones fueron recogidas mediante la técnica de grupo focal, y los datos fueron analizado a la luz del análisis temático. Resultados Participaron 14 profesionales. El ambiente de trabajo fue descrito como de tensiones, dificultades y vulnerabilidades, pero también de crecimiento personal. Fueron reconocidos los riesgos ocupacionales ocasionados por factores físicos, biológicos, químicos, de accidentes y psicosociales. Las medidas de prevención utilizadas fueron predominantemente tecnologías ligeras. Se sugirió la inclusión de nuevos equipos de protección individual. Conclusión La reflexión en grupo acerca del ambiente y el proceso laboral permitió el reconocimiento de sus riesgos, dificultades y retos, demostrando la necesidad de implementación de medidas de enfrentamiento de los factores identificados.


ABSTRACT Objective To describe the work environment and recognize the occupational hazards to which Street Medical Consultation teams are exposed, as well as the applicable preventive measures according to the perception of the professionals who are part of the team. Method A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study carried out with professionals representing the six Street Medical Consultation teams existing in a Northeast Brazilian state. The information was collected from the focus group technique, and the data were analyzed by the thematic analysis technique. Results Fourteen (14) professionals participated. The work environment was described as stressful, with difficulties and vulnerabilities, but also enabling personal growth. Occupational risks caused by physical, biological, chemical, accident and psychosocial factors were recognized. Implemented preventive measures were predominantly light technologies. New personal protective equipment was suggested to be included/used. Conclusion The group reflection on the environment and work process enabled recognizing its risks, difficulties and challenges, demonstrating the need to implement measures to address the identified factors.


Assuntos
Humanos , Ambiente de Trabalho , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Riscos Ocupacionais , Saúde do Trabalhador , Grupos Focais/métodos , Assistência à Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Enfermagem de Atenção Primária
3.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 53: e03512, Jan.-Dez. 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1020387

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Desvelar as práticas de Educação Permanente em Saúde desenvolvidas pelo Núcleo de Apoio à Saúde da Família na atenção ao idoso. MÉTODO: Estudo qualitativo e exploratório-descritivo, desenvolvido em um município do estado do Paraná, com profissionais do Núcleo de Apoio à Saúde da Família. Os dados foram obtidos pela técnica de Grupo Focal e submetidos à Classificação Hierárquica Descendente utilizando o software IRaMuTeQ. Os referenciais teórico-analíticos foram a Política Nacional de Educação Permanente em Saúde e a Teoria Dialógica. RESULTADOS: Participaram 46 profissionais. Surgiram cinco classes que permitiram desvelar que as práticas de educação permanente na atenção ao idoso ocorrem durante os momentos de discussão de casos, no matriciamento, nas visitas domiciliares, nos grupos operativos e no cotidiano do trabalho de modo informal. CONCLUSÃO: As práticas de educação permanente desenvolvidas pelos profissionais na atenção ao idoso ocorrem em distintos momentos da atuação profissional e são permeadas pela prática


OBJETIVO: Desvelar las prácticas de Educación Permanente en Salud desarrolladas por el Núcleo de Apoyo a la Salud de la Familia en la atención a la persona mayor. MÉTODO: Estudio cualitativo y exploratorio descriptivo, desarrollado en un municipio del Estado de Paraná, con profesionales del Núcleo de Apoyo a la Salud de la Familia. Los datos fueron obtenidos por la técnica de Grupo Focal y sometidos a la Clasificación Jerárquica Descendiente utilizando el software IRaMuTeQ. Los marcos de referencia teóricos analíticos fueron la Política Nacional de Educación Permanente en Salud y la Teoría Dialógica. RESULTADOS: Participaron 46 profesionales. Surgieron cinco clases que permitieron desvelar que las prácticas de educación permanente en la atención a la persona mayor ocurren durante los momentos de discusión de casos, en el matriciamiento, las visitas domiciliarias, los grupos operativos y el cotidiano del trabajo de modo informal. CONCLUSIÓN: Las prácticas de educación permanente desarrolladas por los profesionales en la atención a la persona mayor ocurren en distintos momentos de la actuación profesional y traen consigo la práctica


OBJECTIVE: To unveil the Permanent Education in Health practices developed by the Family Health Support Center in the care provided to older adults. METHOD: A qualitative and exploratory-descriptive study developed in a municipality in the state of Paraná with professionals from the Family Health Support Center. Data were obtained by the Focus Group technique and submitted to the Descending Hierarchical Classification using IRaMuTeQ software. The implemented theoretical-analytical references were the National Policy of Permanent Education in Healthcare and the Dialogical Theory. RESULTS: Forty-six (46) professionals participated. Five classes emerged which revealed that the practices of permanent education in care provided to older adults occur during the moments of discussion of cases, in collaborative care planning (matriciamento ), in the home visits, in the operative groups and in the daily life of the informal work. CONCLUSION: The permanent education practices developed by the professionals in the care provided to older adults occur at different moments of professional performance and are permeated by the practice


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Educação Continuada/métodos , Enfermagem de Atenção Primária/normas , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos/normas , Pessoal de Saúde , Grupos Focais , Pesquisa Qualitativa
4.
J Dent Hyg ; 93(5): 40-47, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628175

RESUMO

Purpose: Local anesthetics have been used in dentistry to aid patients in pain control during a wide range of surgical and non-surgical procedures. The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of patients regarding the administration of local anesthesia (LA) by dental hygienists.Methods: This qualitative study used an exploratory, online, focus group design. Four online focus groups were held with 18 participants recruited through purposive sampling. Pseudonyms were used to protect participants' confidentiality. A questioning route was established for the groups and validated by focus group experts and pilot testing procedures. Each focus group session was recorded and transcribed. Themes were analyzed using classic analysis strategy. Validity was established using investigator triangulation, saturation and member checks.Results: Three major themes were identified regarding the administration of local anesthesia by dental hygienists. The first theme identified was the patients' experience and the value participants placed on patient-centered care. The second theme was the participants' unclear perceptions regarding the dental hygienists' educational qualifications to administer LA and complete a dental hygiene diagnosis. The third theme revealed future suggestions for dentists and legislators from the participants.Conclusion: This qualitative study offers insight into the patient's perspective of dental hygienists administering LA. Participants supported dental hygienists administering LA and appreciated the aspects of patient-centered care that this practice provided. Patient participants were unclear on educational requirements and training, but supported legislation allowing dental hygienists to administer LA.


Assuntos
Anestesia Local , Higienistas Dentários , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Odontólogos , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Sante Publique ; Vol. 31(3): 405-415, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640328

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Poor oral health in persons with schizophrenia is a major public health issue affecting 600,000 people in France. The aim of this article was to present the different stages in the development of a specific oral health educational program for persons with schizophrenia. It takes into account experimental knowledge of these persons and presents the results of the feasibility study. PATIENTS AND METHOD: The focus group method was applied to a group of health professionals and users to highlight an exploratory corpus in order to develop an oral health educational program. An expert group including persons with schizophrenia among others validated the fields and tools of this program. A feasibility study was then conducted in a control group of 7 persons with schizophrenia. RESULTS: Altogether, 26 persons participated in this feasibility study. The main fields investigated by the expert group aimed to promote personal responsibility for one's health, to improve access to the healthcare system and to promote the global management of health. The feasibility study showed the ability of this program to change persons with schizophrenia representations and knowledge of this health problem. Most educational tools were considered relevant. CONCLUSION: An oral health educational program was built as part of a caregiver-persons with schizophrenia partnership and showed its feasibility. A multicentric randomized trial is currently ongoing to assess the efficacy of this program with a high level of proof.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Saúde Bucal/educação , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/organização & administração , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Grupos Focais , França , Humanos
6.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 5(2): 68-93, ago. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1021761

RESUMO

Introdução:A Educação Popular em Saúde (EPS) remete indivíduos e grupos à troca de saberes e experiências, permitindo-lhes associar a saúde ao resultado das suas condições de vida levando a uma emancipação do sujeito. Objetivo:Promover ações educativas com portadores de Diabetes Mellitus (DM);realizar oficinas de capacitação em EPS com trabalhadores de saúde; e avaliar os resultados das ações realizadas para os trabalhadores e usuários, em uma Unidade de Saúde da Família em Natal/RN. Método:Trata-se de uma pesquisa-ação com o referencial teórico da Teoria da Educação Libertadora, centrada na pedagogia problematizadora. Participaram da pesquisa trinta trabalhadores de saúde e trinta e seis usuários diabéticos. As ações foram organizadas através de rodas de conversa, dinâmicas de grupo, narrativas de vida, relatos de experiências, e explicitação de saberes, desejos, limitações, crenças e valores socialmente construídos. A coleta dos dados foi realizada através da Técnica de Associação Livre de Palavras, entrevista semiestruturada e grupo focal. O material empírico foi submetido à análise de ocorrência com auxílio do programa IRAMUTEQ. Resultados:Foram geradas palavras, expressões e categorias, a partir dos temas abordados e de situações criativas mostrando que a EPS vem sendo incorporada timidamente no processo educativo dos sujeitos deste estudo e bem distante dos princípios de participação, organização de um trabalho político, ampliação dos espaços de diálogo, respeito, de solidariedade e tolerância entre os diversos atores envolvidos no enfrentamento dos problemas de saúde, fundamentais para o aperfeiçoamento na construção de práticas saudáveis da atenção básica. Conclusões:A utilização de práticas ativas de ensino-aprendizagem, centradas na ampliação da escuta e em capacitações sobre EPS, poderá possibilitar mudanças no cenário onde os usuários e trabalhadores de saúde atuam com a diabetes mellitus (AU).


Introduction:Popular Health Education (EPS) refers to individuals and groups to exchange knowledge and experiences, allowing them to associate health to the outcomes of their living conditions.Objective:To know and promote educational actions with patients with diabetes Mellitus (DM); Perform training workshops in EPS with health workers; To know and develop participatory educative actions with diabetic groups; and evaluate the results of theactions performed for workers and users, in a family health unit in Natal/RN.Methods:This is an action research with the theoretical framework of liberating education theory, centered on problematizing pedagogy. Thirty health workers and 36 diabetic users participated in the study. The actions were organized through conversation wheels, group dynamics, life narratives, reports of experiences, and explication of knowledge, desires, limitations, beliefs and socially constructed values. Data collection was performed through the free word association technique, semi-structured interview and focal group. The empirical material was subjected to occurrence analysis (Bardin) with the aid of the Iramuteq program (Ratinaud; Marchand).Results:The data analyses originated words, expressions, categories, themes and creative situations showing that EPS is in process of construction, but still very incipient in primary care. words, expressions and categories were generated from the themes addressedand creative situations showing that the EPS has been incorporated timidly in the educational process of the subjects of this study and far from the principles of participation, organization of a political work, expansion of the spaces of dialogue, respect, solidarity and tolerance among the various actors involved in coping with health problems, fundamental for the improvement in the construction of Healthy practices of primary care.Conclusions:The use of active teaching-learning practices, centered on the amplification of listening and in training on EPS, may enable changes in the scenario where users and health workers act with diabetes mellitus (AU).


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Saúde da Família , Saúde do Idoso , Educação em Saúde , Grupos Focais/métodos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Brasil , Diabetes Mellitus , Aprendizagem
7.
AIDS Behav ; 23(Suppl 3): 276-286, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586283

RESUMO

We characterized the potential benefits and risks of participating in a microenterprise program targeting low-income women living with HIV (WLWH) in Alabama; and described potential mechanisms through which microenterprise programs could influence sexual risk behaviors and engagement in HIV care. Fourteen stakeholders and 46 WLWH (89% African American) participated in the qualitative study. Data were collected using in-depth interviews (stakeholders) and focus group discussions (WLWH). NVivo qualitative software was used for the management and analysis of the data. The data revealed four main mechanisms through which microenterprise programs could potentially improve health outcomes: (1) social support and encouragement from other women, (2) improvement in self-esteem, (3) creating structure in the women's lives, and (4) financial strengthening. Potential risks included unwanted disclosure of HV status, stigma and loss of insurance benefits. Microenterprise programs have the potential to be acceptable and may contribute to improved health and social outcomes among low-income WLWH in Alabama.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Motivação , Poder (Psicologia) , Autoimagem , Empresa de Pequeno Porte/organização & administração , Adulto , Alabama/epidemiologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Pobreza , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual , Estigma Social
8.
Z Gerontol Geriatr ; 52(Suppl 4): 291-296, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Germany, the question arises as to why the dementia sensitivity of acute care hospitals is still so uncommon even though the first concepts were successfully tested more than 20 years ago. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to describe implementation barriers in an overview and to show ways to a better practice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The results presented are based on a document analysis, the evaluation of focus groups and network meetings as well as on interviews with experts within the framework of a study for the Robert Bosch Foundation. In addition, the results of an earlier investigation of the iso institut for the German Alzheimer Society are included. RESULTS: Based on the experience gained in model projects, typical barriers for a dementia-sensitive orientation on individual, work organizational and superordinate levels are described. The systematization of the barriers provides a starting point for overcoming these hurdles. In addition, a number of success factors for the implementation of good practice can be worked out from the projects. It has been found to be crucial to work on the attitude of staff towards people with cognitive impairments and to adapt processes to the special needs of this patient group. In this context, management and a professionally sound structuring of change processes play a key role. DISCUSSION: In the future, managers and employees in acute care hospitals will be able to find a wide range of suggestions in comprehensive guidelines from the iso-Institute on the modular implementation of dementia-sensitive hospitals, which is backed up by tried and tested and effective aids to action, instruments, process descriptions, etc. The guidelines will also be available in the form of a comprehensive list of recommendations.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Assistência à Saúde , Demência , Assistência ao Paciente , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Competência Clínica , Cuidados Críticos , Grupos Focais , Alemanha , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
9.
J Nurs Adm ; 49(11): 569-573, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651618

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine 1st-line managers' (FLMs') experiences in managing the workplace social environment (WSE). BACKGROUND: FLMs are responsible for the establishment and maintenance of supportive WSE essential for effective teamwork. Poorly managed WSE and dysfunctional teams hold negative implications for patients, teams, and organizations. METHODS: This was a qualitative descriptive study, using content analysis of individual and focus group interviews with FLMs and directors. RESULTS: FLMs play a critical role in the management of the WSE; however, the task is fraught with constraints and challenges including competing demands, lack of support, and insufficient training. Findings explicate how competing demands and communication challenges impede the successful management of the WSE. CONCLUSIONS: Given the importance of a healthy WSE to patient, professional, and organizational outcomes, FLMs need support, training, and resources to assist them in managing the social environment alongside other competing priorities.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Liderança , Enfermeiras Administradoras/psicologia , Cultura Organizacional , Meio Social , Local de Trabalho/organização & administração , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa
10.
Nurs Educ Perspect ; 40(6): 367-369, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644456

RESUMO

Various causes exist for nursing student anxiety in the clinical setting. There is a need for further intervention research that may be effective to reduce student anxiety related to clinical. The purpose of this pilot research study was to measure and manage anxiety for nursing students in the clinical area with the assistance of a smartphone app. The usefulness of the app was evaluated by means of a focus group.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Aplicativos Móveis , Smartphone , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Projetos Piloto
11.
J Dent Educ ; 83(12): 1445-1451, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501255

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to qualitatively assess dental public health (DPH) residents' perspectives on teaching methods for DPH competencies and to develop and implement a case-based simulation to address those competencies, constructed on the basis of the qualitative assessment. Focus group discussions were conducted with 18 DPH residents enrolled in two university-based DPH programs. Topic areas discussed in the two focus groups were perceived value of DPH competencies, ways to acquire new DPH skills/abilities, and additional skills/abilities needed by DPH residents. The focus groups' responses showed that the residents felt competent in the analytical thinking competencies such as research methodology and critiquing literature. They emphasized the importance of learning leadership skills and reported feeling somewhat uncertain about their mastery of the policy and advocacy and system evaluation competencies. Of the two distinct categories of DPH skills and competencies- analytical/critical thinking and practical competencies-these residents reported that a greater proportion of time needed to be devoted to integrating the practical competencies into their education. Based on the residents' feedback, the authors developed a structured seminar series taking a case-based approach to simulate real-world DPH problems, using real and semi-hypothetical planning projects to meet the residents' perceived needs and covering gaps between didactic learning and practice.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Retroalimentação , Grupos Focais , Saúde Pública , Odontologia em Saúde Pública
12.
J Dent Educ ; 83(12): 1420-1426, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548304

RESUMO

Few studies have been published on thesis completion experiences of master's degree students. However, for doctoral students, dissertation completion has been found to be dependent on individual, relational, and institutional factors. The aim of this study was to examine dental hygienists' perceptions of their experiences completing a thesis as a requirement for an advanced degree. A qualitative phenomenological research design was used utilizing virtual focus groups with a national purposive sample of dental hygienists (n=25) who had graduated from a degree program in which a thesis was a requirement for the degree. Data analysis used an inductive approach to identify themes using Liechty et al.'s framework of individual, relational, and institutional factors impacting completion of a dissertation. Liechty et al.'s framework is based on Vygotsky's sociocultural theory of learning. In the results, individual factors identified included family/work responsibilities, lack of understanding of the thesis process, time management, health issues, and reaching personal and professional goals. Relational factors focused primarily on positive and negative experiences with the thesis advisor/committee and support from expert peers/family. Institutional factors included the thesis structure, financial concerns, and challenges in recruiting research participants. This study found many factors influencing the thesis experience that may help guide the process in graduate degree programs. In addition, the findings suggest a need to provide mentoring and support for thesis advisors and committee members to more effectively guide students through the thesis process. Effective modifications of these may improve retention of students and facilitate timely completion of thesis research.


Assuntos
Higienistas Dentários , Educação de Pós-Graduação , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Odontologia , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Mentores , Estudantes
13.
Pflege ; 32(6): 315-323, 2019.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542991

RESUMO

Counselling approaches to assistive technologies in nursing care for people with dementia - A focus group study with informal carers Abstract. Background: Assistive technologies may support caregiving relatives of people with dementia. Presently, counselling and training courses are lacking as well as concrete considerations for didactic and methodical implementation. AIM: To convey the perspectives of caring relatives on the development of knowledge and competences in assistive technologies. METHODS: Six interview-guided focus groups with 46 caring relatives of people with dementia were conducted. For analysis the documentary method was applied. RESULTS: Assistive technologies currently do not seem to play a role in care-relevant information and counselling structures. The early development of competences as part of a guided support process is explicitly requested by caregiving relatives. The respondents favoured to try out assistive technologies, e. g. by moderated test possibilities. CONCLUSION: The interviewed caregiving relatives consider the existing approaches to get access to assistive technologies as inadequate. Access to knowledge and competence development of caregiving relatives must be more clearly integrated into the design of the care process. Counselling formats focusing on experience, reflection and usage of assistive technologies might be the didactic basis of structured competence achievement for sustainable integration of useful technologies in daily nursing care.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento/métodos , Demência/enfermagem , Equipamentos de Autoajuda , Cuidadores , Grupos Focais , Humanos
14.
J Nurs Adm ; 49(10): 473-479, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490796

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe strategies to recruit and support members from hard-to-reach groups on research-focused Patient and Family Advisory Councils (PFACs). BACKGROUND: Ensuring diverse representation of members of research PFACs is challenging, and few studies have given attention to addressing this problem. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted using 8 focus groups and 19 interviews with 80 PFAC members and leaders, hospital leaders, and researchers. RESULTS: Recruitment recommendations were: 1) utilizing existing networks; 2) going out to the community; 3) accessing outpatient clinics; and 4) using social media. Strategies to support inclusion were: 1) culturally appropriate communication methods; 2) building a sense of community between PFAC members; 3) equalizing roles between community members/leaders; 4) having a diverse PFAC leadership team; and 5) setting transparent expectations for PFAC membership. CONCLUSION: Increasing the diversity of research PFACs is a priority, and it is important to determine how best to engage groups that have been traditionally underrepresented.


Assuntos
Comitês Consultivos/organização & administração , Pesquisa em Enfermagem/organização & administração , Seleção de Pacientes , Adulto , California , Cuidadores , Família , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Projetos de Pesquisa
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 101, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489079

RESUMO

Introduction: Despite the effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy using sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP), the uptake and coverage in southwest Nigeria are low. We assessed the factors influencing utilisation of IPTp-SP. Methods: A multistage sampling technique was used to select 400 pregnant women from six primary healthcare centers in Oyo State. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude towards IPTp-SP and its utilisation were obtained using a semi-structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Focus group discussions (FGD) and key informant interviews (KII) were held for pregnant women and healthcare workers and analysed thematically. Results: Mean age of respondents was 27.2 (SD ± 5.5) years. Mean gestational age was 29.5 weeks (SD ± 5.4). Overall, 320 (80.0%) took SP, of which 152 (47.5%) took 2 doses and 112 (35.0%) took under directly observed therapy (DOT). We found that early booking for ANC, more than two visits to ANC (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 5.6; 95% CI: 1.2 - 26.6), good knowledge on IPTp (aOR = 9.3; 95% CI: 5.4 - 16.0), positive attitude towards IPTp (aOR = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.5 - 2.9) and being employed (aOR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1 - 1.7) were factors associated with IPTp-SP utilisation. The FGD and KII revealed that IPTp-SP drugs were mostly taken at home due to stock out. Conclusion: Late ANC booking with stock out of IPTp-SP drugs was responsible for its low utilisation. There is need to encourage pregnant women to book early for ANC. Adherence to the practice of DOT scheme is recommended to improve IPTp-SP utilisation.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Malária/prevenção & controle , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Pirimetamina/administração & dosagem , Sulfadoxina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Terapia Diretamente Observada , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Nigéria , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1151, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Samoa is suffering from alarming rates of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). To address this epidemic, tackling health literacy is important. A qualitative study was conducted with the aim to explore health literacy in Samoa in relation to NCDs. METHODS: Six focus groups were conducted, with a total sample size of 73 participants aged over 18 years. The semi-structured interview guide was based on the conceptual model of the European Health Literacy project (HLS-EU). Data was translated, transcribed, coded, and categorized as part of the qualitative analysis. RESULTS: The analysis resulted in one overarching category and seven sub-categories based on 19 themes. It revealed that health literacy in Samoa is strongly influenced by the culture. Personal responsibility is lacking. The family circle is central to health in a community where support is provided through the church and local groupings. Basic knowledge of NCDs was present in the population, but a deeper understanding of chronic disease implications was lacking. Difficulties with regards to medication adherence for chronic diseases arose as a topic, and traditional healers are still strongly embedded in the local society. Finally, the health system's performance, especially primary care services at the local level, is suffering from the high burden of NCDs and has been challenged to respond to the needs of the community it serves. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study show how health literacy in Samoa is influenced by culture and suggest employing participatory, culture-sensitive, public health interventions which address the family as a whole, building on health literacy to address major public health problems like NCDs and remove barriers in the health system.


Assuntos
Alfabetização em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adulto , Características Culturais , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores de Risco , Samoa/epidemiologia
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1167, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Existing evidence identifies health benefits for children of additional daily physical activity (PA) on a range of cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes. The Daily Mile (TDM) is a popular scheme designed to increase children's PA within the school day. Emerging evidence indicates that participation in TDM can increase children's PA, reduce sedentarism and reduce skinfold measures. However, little is known about the potential effects of TDM as a public health intervention, and the benefits and disbenefits that might flow from wider implementation in 'real world' settings. METHODS: We aimed to identify how TDM is being implemented in a naturalistic setting, and what implications this has for its potential impact on population health. We undertook a rapid ethnographic assessment of uptake and implementation in Lewisham, south London. Data included interviews (n = 22) and focus groups (n = 11) with stakeholders; observations of implementation in 12 classes; and analysis of routine data sources to identify school level factors associated with uptake. RESULTS: Of the 69 primary schools in one borough, 33 (48%) had adopted TDM by September 2018. There were no significant differences between adopters and non-adopters in mean school population size (means 377 vs 397, P = 0.70), mean percentage of children eligible for free school meals (16.2 vs 14.3%, P = 0.39), or mean percentage of children from Black and Minority Ethnic populations (76.3 vs 78.2%, P = 0.41). Addressing obesity was a key incentive for adoption, although a range of health and educational benefits were also hypothesised to accrue from participation. Mapping TDM to the TIDierR-PHP checklist to describe the intervention in practice identified that considerable adaption happened at the level of borough, school, class and pupil. Population health effects are likely to be influenced by the interaction of intervention and context at each of these levels. CONCLUSIONS: Examining TDM in 'real world' settings surfaces adaptions and variations in implementation. This has implications for the likely effects of TDM, and points more broadly to an urgent need for more appropriate methods for evaluating public health impact and implementation in complex contexts.


Assuntos
Exercício , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Antropologia Cultural , Criança , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Londres , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Saúde Pública , Pesquisa Qualitativa
18.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 119, 2019 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362732

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Considerable evidence has advanced the role of citizen-led coalitions (CLC) in supporting the health and social needs of rural citizens. There has been little research focusing on the experiences and strategies of coalitions, with their limited resources and status, in targeting health inequities in their rural communities. The aim of this study was to understand the entrepreneurial strategies and experiences of rural coalitions to effect change in the delivery of health services for their older adult populations. METHOD: A qualitative descriptive study method was used to generate understanding of the entrepreneurial experiences and strategies of CLCs in advancing health services to meet the health and social needs of their citizens. Seven diverse CLCs (n = 40) from different rural communities participated in focus groups and in individual and coalition-level surveys. Thematic analysis was used to construct themes from the data. RESULTS: Two over-riding themes emerged: entrepreneurial strategies and societal recognition. CLCs engaged in numerous entrepreneurial strategies that enabled actions and outcomes in meeting their health care needs. These strategies included: securing quick wins, leveraging existing resources, and joining forces with stakeholder groups/individuals. However, despite these strategies and successes, coalitions expressed frustration with not being seen and not being heard by decision-makers. This pointed to a key structural barrier to coalition successes -- a broader societal and institutional problem of failing to recognize not only the health needs of rural citizens, but also the legitimacy of the community coalitions to represent and act on those needs. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the potential for coalitions to mobilize and effect change in addressing the inequities of rural health service access for older adults, broader barriers to their recognition, may undermine their entrepreneurial strategies and success.


Assuntos
Redes Comunitárias/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Rural/organização & administração , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde das Minorias , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1048, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Participation of men in Maternal and Child Health (MCH) is crucial for the reduction of infant and maternal mortality. Men may be influential in making health care decisions that may affect their female partner's access to health care services, but also as individuals, whose health status has a significant impact on the health of their partners' and that of their children. However, male involvement is still inadequate due to various reasons. This paper sought to explore the community perspectives towards participation of men in maternal and child health care in Kabale District, Western Uganda. METHODS: The study used a case study approach. Household questionnaires, in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, direct field observation and document review were employed to collect data. One hundred and twenty-four respondents completed a household questionnaire, eight key informants took part in semi-structured interviews and thirty-six community members (two men and two women groups) participated in focus group discussions. RESULTS: The participation of men in maternal and child health care was found to be low. Patriarchal community values and norms influencing gender roles hindered male involvement in MCH. More so, sensitisation on the importance of male involvement was inadequate. CONCLUSION: Men's participation in MCH is affected by multiple factors emanating from the community and health institutions. Involving men in MCH is critical, and therefore participatory and comprehensive approaches should be applied to encourage participation. Sensitisation of communities is fundamental for increasing awareness of the significance of male involvement in MCH.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil , Homens/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Características da Família , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Normas Sociais , Valores Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Womens Health ; 19(1): 106, 2019 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Domestic violence and abuse (DVA) is a serious public health issue, threatening the health of individuals the world over. Whilst DVA can be experienced by both men and women, the majority is still experienced by women; around 30% of women worldwide who have been in a relationship report that they have experienced violence at the hands of their partner, and every week in England and Wales two women are killed by their current or ex-partner. The purpose of this study was to explore the concept of thrivership with women who have experienced DVA, to contribute to our understandings of what constitutes 'thriving' post-abuse, and how women affected can move from surviving to thriving. METHODS: Thirty-seven women took part in this qualitative study which consisted of six focus groups and four in-depth interviews undertaken in one region of the UK in 2018. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Initial findings were reported back to a group of participants to invite respondent validation and ensure co-production of data. RESULTS: The process of 'thrivership' - moving from surviving to thriving after DVA - is a fluid, non-linear journey of self-discovery featuring three 'stages' of victim, survivor, and thriver. Thriving after DVA is characterised by a positive outlook and looking to the future, improved health and well-being, a reclamation of the self, and a new social network. Crucial to ensuring 'thrivership' are three key components that we propose as the 'Thrivership Model', all of which are underpinned by education and awareness building at different levels: (1) Provision of Safety, (2) Sharing the Story, (3) Social Response. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings provide a new view of thriving post-abuse by women who have lived through it. The proposed Thrivership Model has been developed to illustrate what is required from DVA-services and public health practitioners for the thrivership process to take place, so that more women may be supported towards 'thriving' after abuse.


Assuntos
Violência Doméstica/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Sobrevivência , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Inglaterra , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Otimismo , Pesquisa Qualitativa
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