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1.
Glob Health Action ; 17(1): 2338324, 2024 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726569

RESUMO

There is little evidence on optimizing the effectiveness and implementation of evidence-based early childhood development (ECD) interventions when task-shifted to frontline workers. In this Methods Forum paper, we describe our adaptation of the International Guide for Monitoring Child Development (GMCD) for task-shifting to frontline workers in Guatemala and India. In 2021-2022, implementers, trainers, frontline workers, caregivers, and international GMCD experts collaborated to adapt the GMCD for a task shifted implementation by frontline workers. We used an eight-step co-creating process: assembling a multidisciplinary team, training on the existing package, working groups to begin modifications, revision of draft modifications, tailoring of visual materials and language, train-the-trainers activities, pilot frontline worker trainings, final review and feedback. Preliminary effectiveness of adaptations was evaluated through narrative notes and group-based qualitative feedback following pilot trainings with 16 frontline workers in India and 6 in Guatemala. Final adaptations included: refining training techniques to match skill levels and learning styles of frontline workers; tailoring all visual materials to local languages and contexts; design of job aids for providing developmental support messages; modification of referral and triage processes for children in need of enhanced support and speciality referral; and creation of post-training support procedures. Feedback from pilot trainings included: (1) group consensus that training improved ECD skills and knowledge across multiple domains; and (2) feedback on ongoing needed adjustments to pacing, use of video-based vs. role-playing materials, and time allocated to small group work. We use the Framework for Reporting Adaptations and Modifications to Evidence-based Implementation Strategies (FRAME-IS) framework to document our adaptations. The co-creating approach we use, as well as systematic documentation of adaptation decisions will be of use to other community-based early childhood interventions and implementation strategies.


Main findings: The International Guide for Monitoring Child Development, an early childhood development support and monitoring tool, was successfully adapted for use by frontline workers in rural India and Guatemala.Added knowledge: Our Methods Forum paper uses a detailed framework to document the collaborative, co-creating process used and the adaptive decisions taken.Global health impact for policy and action: Evidence on how best to adapt and optimize early childhood interventions for frontline workers will be useful or scaling up support for children globally.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Humanos , Guatemala , Índia , Pré-Escolar , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/educação , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Lactente
2.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1308685, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38686037

RESUMO

Introduction: Feeding infants a sub-optimal diet deprives them of critical nutrients for their physical and cognitive development. The objective of this study is to describe the intake of foods of low nutritional value (junk foods) and identify the association with growth and developmental outcomes in infants up to 18 months in low-resource settings. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of data from an iron-rich complementary foods (meat versus fortified cereal) randomized clinical trial on nutrition conducted in low-resource settings in four low- and middle-income countries (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guatemala, Pakistan, and Zambia). Mothers in both study arms received nutritional messages on the importance of exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months with continued breastfeeding up to at least 12 months. This study was designed to identify the socio-demographic predictors of feeding infants' complementary foods of low nutritional value (junk foods) and to assess the associations between prevalence of junk food use with neurodevelopment (assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II) and growth at 18 months. Results: 1,231 infants were enrolled, and 1,062 (86%) completed the study. Junk food feeding was more common in Guatemala, Pakistan, and Zambia than in the Democratic Republic of Congo. 7% of the infants were fed junk foods at 6 months which increased to 70% at 12 months. Non-exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months, higher maternal body mass index, more years of maternal and paternal education, and higher socioeconomic status were associated with feeding junk food. Prevalence of junk foods use was not associated with adverse neurodevelopmental or growth outcomes. Conclusion: The frequency of consumption of junk food was high in these low-resource settings but was not associated with adverse neurodevelopment or growth over the study period.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Países em Desenvolvimento , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Humanos , Lactente , Feminino , Masculino , Paquistão , Guatemala , Zâmbia , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , República Democrática do Congo , Recém-Nascido , Valor Nutritivo
3.
BMJ Glob Health ; 9(4)2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38631704

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neonatal mortality is a global public health challenge. Guatemala has the fifth highest neonatal mortality rate in Latin America, and Indigenous communities are particularly impacted. This study aims to understand factors driving neonatal mortality rates among Maya Kaqchikel communities. METHODS: We used sequential explanatory mixed methods. The quantitative phase was a secondary analysis of 2014-2016 data from the Global Maternal and Newborn Health Registry from Chimaltenango, Guatemala. Multivariate logistic regression models identified factors associated with perinatal and late neonatal mortality. A number of 33 in-depth interviews were conducted with mothers, traditional Maya midwives and local healthcare professionals to explain quantitative findings. RESULTS: Of 33 759 observations, 351 were lost to follow-up. There were 32 559 live births, 670 stillbirths (20/1000 births), 1265 (38/1000 births) perinatal deaths and 409 (12/1000 live births) late neonatal deaths. Factors identified to have statistically significant associations with a higher risk of perinatal or late neonatal mortality include lack of maternal education, maternal height <140 cm, maternal age under 20 or above 35, attending less than four antenatal visits, delivering without a skilled attendant, delivering at a health facility, preterm birth, congenital anomalies and presence of other obstetrical complications. Qualitative participants linked severe mental and emotional distress and inadequate maternal nutrition to heightened neonatal vulnerability. They also highlighted that mistrust in the healthcare system-fueled by language barriers and healthcare workers' use of coercive authority-delayed hospital presentations. They provided examples of cooperative relationships between traditional midwives and healthcare staff that resulted in positive outcomes. CONCLUSION: Structural social forces influence neonatal vulnerability in rural Guatemala. When coupled with healthcare system shortcomings, these forces increase mistrust and mortality. Collaborative relationships among healthcare staff, traditional midwives and families may disrupt this cycle.


Assuntos
Indígenas Centro-Americanos , Morte Perinatal , Nascimento Prematuro , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Humanos , Guatemala , Mortalidade Infantil , Mães
4.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 205(3): 567-577, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38520597

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Recruit and sequence breast cancer subjects in Guatemalan and US Hispanic populations. Identify optimum strategies to recruit Latin American and Hispanic women into genetic studies of breast cancer. METHODS: We used targeted gene sequencing to identify pathogenic variants in 19 familial breast cancer susceptibility genes in DNA from unselected Hispanic breast cancer cases in the US and Guatemala. Recruitment across the US was achieved through community-based strategies. In addition, we obtained patients receiving cancer treatment at major hospitals in Texas and Guatemala. RESULTS: We recruited 287 Hispanic US women, 38 (13%) from community-based and 249 (87%) from hospital-based strategies. In addition, we ascertained 801 Guatemalan women using hospital-based recruitment. In our experience, a hospital-based approach was more efficient than community-based recruitment. In this study, we sequenced 103 US and 137 Guatemalan women and found 11 and 10 pathogenic variants, respectively. The most frequently mutated genes were BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, and ATM. In addition, an analysis of 287 US Hispanic patients with pathology reports showed a significantly higher percentage of triple-negative disease in patients with pathogenic variants (41% vs. 15%). Finally, an analysis of mammography usage in 801 Guatemalan patients found reduced screening in women with a lower socioeconomic status (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Guatemalan and US Hispanic women have rates of hereditary breast cancer pathogenic variants similar to other populations and are more likely to have early age at diagnosis, a family history, and a more aggressive disease. Patient recruitment was higher using hospital-based versus community enrollment. This data supports genetic testing in breast cancer patients to reduce breast cancer mortality in Hispanic women.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Hispânico ou Latino , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/etnologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/epidemiologia , Hispânico ou Latino/genética , Hispânico ou Latino/estatística & dados numéricos , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Idoso , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Seleção de Pacientes
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(Suppl 1): 277, 2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38438953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2018, the World Health Organization commenced a multi-country validation study of the Cepheid GeneXpert for a range of molecular-based point-of-care (POC) tests in primary care settings. One study arm focused on the evaluation of POC tests for screening 'women at risk' for chlamydia (CT), gonorrhoea (NG) and trichomonas (TV) in four countries - Australia, Guatemala, Morocco and South Africa. METHODS: Study participants completed a pre-test questionnaire which included demographics, clinical information and general questions on POC testing (POCT). Two vaginal swab samples (either self-collected or clinician collected) from each patient were tested on the GeneXpert at the POC and at a reference laboratory using quality-assured nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs). RESULTS: One thousand three hundred and eighty-three women were enrolled: 58.6% from South Africa, 29.2% from Morocco, 6.2% from Guatemala, and 6.0% from Australia. 1296 samples for CT/NG and 1380 samples for TV were tested by the GeneXpert and the reference NAAT. The rate of unsuccessful tests on the GeneXpert was 1.9% for CT, 1.5% for NG and 0.96% for TV. The prevalence of CT, NG and TV was 31%, 13% and 23%, respectively. 1.5% of samples were positive for all three infections; 7.8% were positive for CT and NG; 2.4% were positive for NG and TV; and 7.3% were positive for CT and TV. Compared to reference NAATs, pooled estimates of sensitivity for the GeneXpert tests were 83.7% (95% confidence intervals 69.2-92.1) for CT, 90.5% (85.1-94.1) for NG and 64.7% (58.1-70.7) for TV (although estimates varied considerably between countries). Estimates for specificity were ≥96% for all three tests both within- and between-countries. Pooled positive and negative likelihood ratios were: 32.7 ([CI] 21.2-50.5) and 0.17 (0.08-0.33) for CT; 95.3 (36.9-245.7) and 0.10 (0.06-0.15) for NG; and 56.5 (31.6-101.1) and 0.35 (0.27-0.47) for TV. CONCLUSION: This multi-country evaluation is the first of its kind world-wide. Positive likelihood ratios, as well as specificity estimates, indicate the GeneXpert POC test results for CT, NG and TV were clinically acceptable for ruling in the presence of disease. However, negative likelihood ratios and variable sensitivity estimates from this study were poorer than expected for ruling out these infections, particularly for TV. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Ethics approval to conduct the ProSPeRo study was granted by the WHO Ethics Review Committee, as well as local ethics committees from all participating countries.


Assuntos
Gonorreia , Trichomonas vaginalis , Feminino , Humanos , Trichomonas vaginalis/genética , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Marrocos/epidemiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , Austrália , Testes Imediatos
6.
Public Health ; 229: 135-143, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442595

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We estimated the prevalence and time trends of the double burden of malnutrition (DBM) in Guatemala and explored its occurrence based on socio-demographic factors. STUDY DESIGN: This was a secondary data analysis using information from four Demographic and Health Surveys covering the period 1998-2015. METHODS: The unit of analysis was the household within which information was gathered from women 18-49 years and their children, 6-59 months. The main outcome was the prevalence of any DBM in the household (co-existence of undernutrition and overnutrition in a woman, her children or both). We estimated the prevalence of any DBM by survey and analysed time trends. Stepwise logistic regression was used to explore the occurrence of DBM and socio-demographic factors. RESULTS: We analysed 39,749 households across all surveys. The prevalence of any DBM was 25.3% (95%CI: 22.1-28.7) in 1998-99, 23.8% (22.0-25.8) in 2002, 25.9% (24.3-27.5) in 2008-09 and 24.2% (22.9-25.5) in 2014-15, with no significant change over time (P = 0.782). Characteristics associated with lower odds of any DBM were rural residence, female-headed household, wealth and women's secondary education. Higher odds were seen for households with electricity, women >25y, indigenous and with >2 children. CONCLUSION: Our findings revealed that a quarter of Guatemala's households suffer from DBM, which has remained unchanged for 17 years. Interventions should prioritise urban areas, households of lower socio-economic status and those less educated. To increase awareness of policymakers of this pressing public health concern, further research on DBM could be strengthened by prospective study designs, integrating all household members and expanding the types of malnutrition.


Assuntos
Desnutrição , Estado Nutricional , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Análise de Dados Secundários , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos
7.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 110(5): 943-950, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38507804

RESUMO

Current WHO guidelines for onchocerciasis elimination provide requirements for stopping mass drug administration of ivermectin and the verification of elimination of transmission. These guidelines also recommend post-elimination surveillance (PES) based on entomological surveys. Serological markers in humans could complement entomological PES once the longevity of anti-OV-16 antibody responses is better understood. In 2014-2015 we evaluated ELISA anti-OV-16 IgG4 antibody persistence among previously seropositive people from the central endemic zone of Guatemala. The country stopped all onchocerciasis program interventions in 2012 and was verified by WHO as having eliminated transmission of onchocerciasis in 2016. A total of 246 participants with prior OV-16 ELISA results from 2003, 2006, 2007, or 2009 were enrolled in a follow-up study. Of these, 77 people were previously OV-16 seropositive and 169 were previously seronegative. By 2014 and 2015, 56 (72.7%) previously seropositive individuals had sero-reverted, whereas all previous negatives remained seronegative. The progression of antibody responses over time was estimated using a mixed-effects linear regression model, using data from seropositive participants who had sero-reverted. The temporal variation showed a mean activity unit decay of 0.20 per year (95% credible interval [CrI]: 0.17, 0.23), corresponding to an estimated antibody response half-life of 3.3 years (95% CrI: 2.7, 4.1). These findings indicate that the majority of seropositive people will sero-revert over time.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos , Imunoglobulina G , Oncocercose , Humanos , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Oncocercose/epidemiologia , Oncocercose/transmissão , Oncocercose/imunologia , Oncocercose/prevenção & controle , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Animais , Onchocerca volvulus/imunologia , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos
8.
Nutrients ; 16(4)2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38398796

RESUMO

Achieving sustainable food security in Guatemala, where nearly half the population is food insecure and 50% of children face chronic malnutrition, is challenging. This mixed-methods study aimed to identify the impacts of climate change on food production, community food security, and household food security. Twelve agricultural group leaders in six communities were interviewed using semi-structured guides. Key informant interview themes included subsistence agriculture, commercial production, challenges related to climate, capital, market, and capacity, as well as sustainable opportunities. Fifty-five mothers from 13 distinct communities around Momostenango were surveyed and interviewed. A significant finding is that 85% of households were food insecure, with 93% relying on agriculture. Food-secure families mostly worked on their own or leased land, whereas food-insecure ones combined farming with day labor. In times of food scarcity, strategies such as altering food consumption and reducing expenses were common. Severely food-insecure families were significantly more likely to reduce portion sizes (72%), whereas food-secure families typically resorted to less preferred foods. Overall, food insecurity was notably linked to larger families, older mothers with limited education, and reliance on agricultural day labor. Food insecurity is a long-term issue in rural areas, deeply rooted in structural socioeconomic constraints, and recurring across generations.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos , Mães , Feminino , Criança , Humanos , Guatemala , Escolaridade , Insegurança Alimentar , Fatores Socioeconômicos
9.
J Cancer Educ ; 39(3): 264-270, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38376746

RESUMO

Low and middle-income countries, such as Guatemala, shoulder a disproportionate share of cervical cancer, a preventable disease in high income countries. Tangible obstacles, such as lack of access to health care, cultural differences, and insufficient infrastructure, and facilitators, such as being Ladino, married, and educated, have been identified in the literature related to cervical cancer prevention. The aim of this survey was to explore barriers and facilitators to cervical cancer prevention, comparing rural Indigenous and urban Ladino populations. We surveyed 139 women in two health clinics. Participants answered questions about demographic information, cervical cancer knowledge, and health care behaviors. We analyzed survey data with four bivariate models. Our results suggest vulnerable populations, such as rural Indigenous women who are single, illiterate, and lack education, face higher cervical cancer risk. Partnerships should be formed with health promotors and lay midwives to educate and encourage vulnerable populations to prevent cervical cancer.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Teste de Papanicolaou , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Populações Vulneráveis , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Guatemala , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Teste de Papanicolaou/estatística & dados numéricos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Esfregaço Vaginal/estatística & dados numéricos , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Adulto Jovem , População da América Central
10.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0298652, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38422106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tools to accurately assess infants' neurodevelopmental status very early in their lives are limited. Wearable sensors may provide a novel approach for very early assessment of infant neurodevelopmental status. This may be especially relevant in rural and low-resource global settings. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal observational study and used wearable sensors to repeatedly measure the kinematic leg movement characteristics of 41 infants in rural Guatemala three times across full days between birth and 6 months of age. In addition, we collected sociodemographic data, growth data, and caregiver estimates of swaddling behaviors. We used visual analysis and multivariable linear mixed models to evaluate the associations between two leg movement kinematic variables (awake movement rate, peak acceleration per movement) and infant age, swaddling behaviors, growth, and other covariates. RESULTS: Multivariable mixed models of sensor data showed age-dependent increases in leg movement rates (2.16 [95% CI 0.80,3.52] movements/awake hour/day of life) and movement acceleration (5.04e-3 m/s2 [95% CI 3.79e-3, 6.27e-3]/day of life). Swaddling time as well as growth status, poverty status and multiple other clinical and sociodemographic variables had no impact on either movement variable. CONCLUSIONS: Collecting wearable sensor data on young infants in a rural low-resource setting is feasible and can be used to monitor age-dependent changes in movement kinematics. Future work will evaluate associations between these kinematic variables from sensors and formal developmental measures, such as the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development.


Assuntos
Aceleração , Perna (Membro) , Lactente , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Guatemala
11.
Nutrients ; 16(3)2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38337744

RESUMO

Nutrient-dense, acceptable foods are needed in low-resource settings. Rice bran, a global staple byproduct of white rice processing, is rich in amino acids, fibers, and vitamins, when compared to other cereal brans. This pilot study examines the nutritional contribution of rice bran to the daily diets of mother-child pairs in rural southwest Guatemala. Thirty households were screened. Mothers (≥18 years) and children (6 to 24 months) completed 24 h dietary recalls at baseline and after 12 weeks (endline) for diet intake and diversity analyses. During biweekly visits for 12 weeks, households with <5 members received 14 packets containing 60 g of heat-stabilized rice bran, and those with ≥5 members received 28 packets. The macro- and micro-nutrient contributions of rice bran and whole, cooked black beans were included in dietary simulation models with average intakes established between the recalls and for comparison with dietary reference intakes (DRIs). A baseline child food frequency questionnaire was administered. The 27 mothers and 23 children with complete recalls were included in analyses. Daily maternal consumption of 10 g/d of rice bran plus 100 g/d of black beans resulted in all achieving at least 50% of the fiber, protein, magnesium, niacin, potassium, and thiamin DRIs. Daily child consumption of 3 g/d of rice bran plus 10 g/d of black beans resulted in all achieving at least 50% of the magnesium, niacin, phosphorous, and thiamine DRIs. For 15/17 food categories, male children had a higher intake frequency, notably for animal-source foods and coffee. Dietary rice bran coupled with black beans could improve nutritional adequacy, especially for fiber and key micro-nutrients, with broader implications for addressing maternal and child malnutrition in low-resource settings.


Assuntos
Niacina , Oryza , Feminino , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Magnésio , Guatemala , Temperatura Alta , Dieta , Vitaminas , Ingestão de Alimentos
12.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 47: 100951, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38199694

RESUMO

Taeniasis/cysticercosis complex caused by Taenia solium, is a serious public health problem and causes major economic losses to swine producers in developing countries in Asia, Africa and the Americas. Despite scarce epidemiological data, Guatemala is considered endemic for T. solium. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Azacualpa and Malpais, two villages in the department of Zacapa, to assess the prevalence of swine cysticercosis and associated factors. Between March and October 2019, 149 pigs were examined by tongue palpation and serum samples were then collected to detect antibodies by ab-ELISA, and necropsy was performed on pigs that were positive by tongue palpation and/or ab-ELISA, to assess parasite load. Pig owners were asked to fill out a questionnaire on factors related to pig husbandry and occurrence of swine cysticercosis. Pearson's chi-square test and multivariate analysis were used to measure the association between serological results and other variables (p < 0.05 was considered significant). The seroprevalence of swine cysticercosis was 13.4% (13/97, 95% C.I. 6.6%-20.2%) and 25% (13/52, 95% C.I. 13.2%-36.8%) in Azacualpa and Malpais, respectively, yielding an overall seroprevalence of 17.4% (26/149, 95% C.I. 11.4%-23.5%). Parasite loads ranged from 1 to over 23,000 metacestodes per carcass. No bivariate association was found between exposure variables and seropositivity. A positive diagnosis by tongue palpation increased the odds of finding pigs seropositive for cysticercosis by a factor of 16.1 in the multivariate analysis. Despite the high prevalence and parasite load of T. solium, risk factors associated with cysticercosis were not significant in this study.


Assuntos
Cisticercose , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Suínos , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , População Rural , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Cisticercose/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
13.
BMJ Open ; 14(1): e079130, 2024 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38167279

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: SARS-CoV-2 has impacted globally the care of chronic diseases. However, direct evidence from certain vulnerable communities, such as Indigenous communities in Latin America, is missing. We use observational data from a health district that primarily serves people of Maya K'iche' ethnicity to examine the care of type 2 diabetes in Guatemala during the pandemic. METHODS: We used a parallel convergent mixed methods design. Quantitative data (n=142 individuals with diabetes) included glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure, body mass index and questionnaires on diabetes knowledge, self-care and diabetes distress. Quantitative data was collected at two points, at baseline and after COVID restrictions were lifted. For quantitative outcomes, we constructed multilevel mixed effects models with multiple imputation for missing data. Qualitative data included interviews with providers, supervisors and individuals living with diabetes (n=20). We conducted thematic framework analysis using an inductive approach. RESULTS: Quantitative data was collected between June 2019 and February 2021, with a median of 487 days between data collection points. HbA1c worsened +0.54% (95% CI, 0.14 to 0.94) and knowledge about diabetes decreased -3.54 points (95% CI, -4.56 to -2.51). Qualitatively, the most important impact of the pandemic was interruption of the regular timing of home visits and peer group meetings which were the standard of care. CONCLUSIONS: The deterioration of diabetes care was primarily attributed to the loss of regular contact with healthcare workers. The results emphasize the vulnerability of rural and Indigenous populations in Latin America to the suspension of chronic disease care.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , SARS-CoV-2 , Hemoglobinas Glicadas , Guatemala/epidemiologia
14.
Vaccine ; 42(5): 1179-1183, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38281901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In April 2022, after a year of COVID-19 vaccination, there were large differences in coverage between urban and rural areas in Guatemala. To address barriers in rural communities, the "Health on Wheels" (HoW) strategy was implemented. The strategy deployed mobile brigades with a dedicated team of health workers and a culturally sensitive health promotion plan in selected communities in 15 districts in Alta Verapaz, a health area with low COVID-19 vaccination uptake and a high-level of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. This study evaluates the impact of the HoW strategy. METHODS: We measured the relative increase in COVID-19 doses administered prior and during the HoW implementation period in the 190 intervened communities and compared to 188 communities without the intervention. Communities were grouped by health district and the impact analyses were stratified by number of COVID-19 vaccine dose (1st, 2nd, and 3rd doses) and history of vaccine hesitancy. RESULTS: The increase in 1st, 2nd, and 3rd dose-COVID-19 vaccination coverage between before and during HoW implementation was 2.4, 2.2 and 2.6 times higher in intervened communities (20 %, 21 % and 37 % increase in 1st, 2nd and 3rd dose, respectively) than in non-intervened communities (8 %, 10 % and 14 % increase in 1st, 2nd and 3rd dose respectively). For the 1st dose, increase in dose administration was 2.9 times higher in intervened communities (n = 24) with hesitancy (24 % increase) compared to non-intervened communities (n = 188) without hesitancy (8 % increase). CONCLUSION: The deployment of mobile brigades with a dedicated team of vaccinators and culturally sensitive health promotion through the HoW strategy successfully accelerated the increase in COVID-19 vaccination coverage in rural communities in Guatemala.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Guatemala/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Cobertura Vacinal , Vacinação
15.
Vet Med Sci ; 10(3): e1264, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38037858

RESUMO

An 11-year-old male Golden Retriever was presented for consultation due to a chronic progressive lesion on the nose that had started a year before. The majority of the nasal mucosa was affected, with the disruption of the normal architecture, pigment atrophy and abundant peeling on the rostral plane. Histopathology revealed a band of lichenoid infiltrate at the interface and vacuolation of the cells in the basal layer consistent with a diagnosis of canine discoid lupus erythematosus.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Lúpus Eritematoso Discoide , Masculino , Cães , Animais , Guatemala , Lúpus Eritematoso Discoide/diagnóstico , Lúpus Eritematoso Discoide/veterinária , Lúpus Eritematoso Discoide/patologia , Epiderme/patologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/patologia
16.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 170(1): 252-259, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37466003

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The frequency of humanitarian surgical mission trips has grown over recent decades. Unfortunately, research on patient outcomes from these trips has not increased proportionately. We aim to analyze the safety and efficacy of surgeries in a low- and middle-income country missions-based surgery center in Guatemala City, Guatemala, and identify factors that influence surgical outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Guatemalan surgery center is called the Moore Center. METHODS: Pediatric patients underwent otolaryngology surgery between 2017 and 2019. All patients required follow up. We analyzed the effect of patient, surgical, and geographic factors on follow up and complications with univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS:  A total of 1094 otolaryngologic surgeries were performed between 2017 to 2019, which comprised 37.4% adenotonsillectomies, 26.8% cleft lip (CL)/cleft palate (CP) repairs, 13.6% otologic, and 20% "other" surgeries. Patients traveled on average 88 km to the center (±164 km). Eighty-nine percent attended their first follow up and 55% attended their second. The 11% who missed their first follow up lived farther from the center (p < .001) and had a higher ASA classification (p < .001) than the 89% who did attend. Sixty-nine (6.3%) patients had 1 or more complications. CL/CP surgery was associated with more complications than other procedures (p < .001). Of 416 tonsillectomies, 4 patients (1%) had a bleeding episode with 2 requiring reoperation. CONCLUSION: This surgical center models effective surgical care in low-resource areas. Complications and follow-up length vary by diagnosis. Areas to improve include retaining complex patients for follow up and reducing complications for CL/CP repair.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Missões Médicas , Otolaringologia , Criança , Humanos , Fissura Palatina/cirurgia , Fenda Labial/cirurgia , Guatemala , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Psychiatr Serv ; 75(1): 48-54, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37644830

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Latin America has undergone major changes in psychiatric services over the past three decades. The authors aimed to assess the availability of service data and changes in psychiatric services in this region during the 1990-2020 period. METHODS: The authors formed a research network to collect data on psychiatric service indicators gathered between 1990 and 2020 from national registries in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay. Indicators included psychiatric beds in psychiatric and general hospitals overall, for children and adolescents, and for forensic populations; residential beds for substance use treatment; treatment slots in residential facilities and day hospitals; and outpatient facilities. RESULTS: Data availability varied among countries, service indicators, and time points. The median prevalence of psychiatric beds decreased in psychiatric hospitals from 5.1 to 3.0 per 100,000 people (-42%) and in general hospitals from 1.0 to 0.8 (-24%). The median prevalence estimates of specialized psychiatric beds for children and adolescents (0.18) and for forensic populations (0.04) remained unchanged. Increases in prevalence were observed for residential beds for substance use treatment (from 0.40 to 0.57, 43% increase), available treatment slots in residential facilities (0.67 to 0.79, 17%), treatment slots in day hospitals (0.41 to 0.54, 32%), and outpatient facilities (0.39 to 0.93, 138%). CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that treatment capacity shifted from inpatient to outpatient and community care. Most countries had a bed shortage for acute psychiatric care, especially for children and adolescents and forensic patients. More comprehensive and standardized mental health service registries are needed.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Criança , Humanos , Adolescente , América Latina/epidemiologia , México , Guatemala/epidemiologia
18.
Chemosphere ; 348: 140705, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37981014

RESUMO

Waste collection services are uncommon in rural areas of low-resource countries, causing waste accumulation and subsequent dumping and burning of garbage. Air pollution from household garbage burning, including plastics, has been observed in Jalapa, Guatemala in addition to household air pollution (HAP) from cooking. Adolescent girls often help with these cooking and household tasks, but little is known about their exposures. We characterized 24-h exposures to HAP and household garbage burning in adolescent girls by measuring fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), urinary biomarkers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), bisphenol A (BPA), and phthalates. We recruited 60 girls between 13 and 17 years of age who helped with cooking activities and lived with participants of the Household Air Pollution Intervention Network (HAPIN) trial. We recruited n = 30 girls each from the control (wood-burning stove) and intervention (liquefied petroleum gas stove) arms. We also measured real-time kitchen concentrations of BC in 20 homes (33%). PM2.5 and BC were measured in n = 21 control and n = 20 intervention participants. Median concentrations of personal PM2.5 and BC and kitchen BC were lower (p < 0.05) in the intervention arm by 87%, 80%, and 85%, respectively. PAH metabolite concentrations were lower (p < 0.001) for all nine metabolites in intervention (n = 26) compared to control participants (n = 29). Urinary BPA concentrations were 66% higher in participants who reported using cosmetics (p = 0.02), and phthalate concentrations were 63% higher in participants who had reported using hair products during the sample period (p = 0.05). Our results suggest that gas stoves can reduce HAP exposures among adolescents who are not primary cooks at home. Biomarkers of plastic exposure were not associated with intervention status, but some were elevated compared to age- and sex-matched participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluição do Ar , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Guatemala , Poluição do Ar/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Fuligem , Culinária , Biomarcadores , População Rural
19.
Am J Hum Biol ; 36(5): e24031, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38148505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guatemala suffered from civil war and high levels of inequality and childhood stunting in the second half of the 20th century, but little is known about inequalities in secular trends in adiposity. OBJECTIVES: To investigate differences in childhood body mass index (BMI) and skinfold thickness trajectories from 1979 to 1999 between three groups of children: High socioeconomic position (SEP) Ladino, Low SEP Ladino, and Low SEP Indigenous Maya. METHODS: The sample comprised 19 346 children aged 7-17 years with 54 638 observations. The outcomes were height, BMI, triceps skinfold thickness (TST), and subscapular skinfold thickness (SST) Z-scores according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) references. Sex-specific multilevel models were used to estimate and compare mean trajectories from 1979 to 1999 between the three groups. RESULTS: Mean Z-scores were always highest for High SEP Ladino children and lowest for Low SEP Maya children. Despite their very short stature, the Low SEP groups had SST trajectories that were above the 50th centile. The BMI trajectories were relatively flat and within one major centile band of the CDC median, with differences between the three groups that were small (0.2-0.3 Z-scores) and did not attenuate over time. Conversely, the TST Z-score trajectories demonstrated larger positive secular trends (e.g., from -1.25 in 1979 to -0.06 in 1999 for Low SEP Maya boys), with differences between the three groups that were large (0.5-1.2 Z-scores) and did attenuate over time (in boys). Secular trends and between-group difference in the SST Z-score trajectories were less pronounced, but again we found stronger evidence in boys that the estimated inequalities attenuated over time. CONCLUSIONS: Secular trends and inequalities in skinfolds differ from those for BMI in Guatemalan children. Differences between groups in skinfolds attenuated over time, at least in boys, but whether this is good news is questionable given the very short stature yet relatively large subscapular skinfolds of the Low SEP groups.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Dobras Cutâneas , Humanos , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Criança , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Fatores Socioeconômicos
20.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1527678

RESUMO

El objetivo del estudio fue describir los niveles de resistencia transmitida de VIH-1 en adultos atendidos en Unidades de Atención Integral de Guatemala. El estudio incluyó registros de 185 pacientes adultos VIH-1 positivo, de reciente diagnóstico sin antecedente de uso de TAR, de noviembre del 2019 a noviembre del 2020. El análisis se realizó en el software DeepChek® v2.0, para la clasificación de la resistencia se siguió el algoritmo de Stanford HIVdb (v9.4 - 07/12/2022). Se encontró 18.4% (IC 95% 13.1 - 24.7%) de resistencia general a alguna familia de ARVs. Se evidenció 15.1% (IC 95% 10.3 - 21.1%) de resistencia individual a la familia de INNTR afectando principalmente a NVP y EFV; 2.2% (IC 95% 0.6 - 5.4%) de resistencia a INTR, mayormente a FTC/3TC; y 2.7% (IC 95% 0.9 - 6.2%) de resistencia intermedia y baja los IP NFV y LPV/r. Tres casos presentaron resistencia múltiple a los INTR + INNTR. Las mutaciones más frecuentemente encontradas fueron K103N (41.2%), M184V/I (8.8%) y M46I (5.9%). La elevada resistencia transmitida del VIH-1 en pacientes atendidos en distintas Unidades de Atención Integral del VIH, demuestra la importancia de analizar periódicamente la tendencia de la resistencia en personas que no han estado expuestas a ARVs, lo cual a su vez es un marcador indirecto de presencia de resistencia adquirida en el país, datos que evidencian la necesidad de acciones e intervenciones prontas y efectivas dado su impacto en la salud pública.


The objective of this study was to describe the levels of transmitted HIV-1 resistance in patients with a recent HIV diagnosis before starting ART, treated in Comprehensive Care Units in Guatemala during the years 2019 and 2020. The study included records of 185 HIV-positive adult patients, recently diagnosed with HIV without a history of ART use. The analysis was carried out in the DeepChek® v2.0 software, the Stanford HIVdb algorithm (v9.4 - 07/12/2022) was followed to classify resistance. 18.4% (95% CI 13.1 - 24.7%) of general resistance to some family of ARVs was found. There was evidence of 15.1% (95% CI 10.3 - 21.1%) of individual resistance to the NNRTI family, mainly affecting NVP and EFV; 2.2% (95% CI 0.6 - 5.4%) resistance to INTR, mostly to FTC/3TC; and 2.7% (95% CI 0.9 - 6.2%) of intermediate and low resistance IP NFV and LPV/r. Three cases presented multiple resistance to NRTIs + NNRTIs. The most frequently found mutations were K103N (41.2%), M184V/I (8.8%) and M46I (5.9%). The high transmitted resistance of HIV-1 in patients treated in different Comprehensive HIV Care Units demonstrates the importance of periodically analyzing the trend of resistance in people who have not been exposed to ARVs, which in turn is an indirect marker. of the presence of acquired resistance in the country, data that demonstrate the need for prompt and effective actions and interventions given its impact on public health.


O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever os níveis de resistência transmitida ao HIV-1 em adultos tratados em Unidades de Cuidados Integrais na Guatemala. O estudo incluiu prontuários de 185 pacientes adultos HIV-1 positivos, recentemente diagnosticados sem histórico de uso de TARV, no período de novembro de 2019 a novembro de 2020. A análise foi realizada no software DeepChek® v2.0, para classificação da resistência, O algoritmo Stanford HIVdb (v9.4 - 07/12/2022) foi seguido. Foi encontrada 18.4% (IC 95% 13.1 - 24.7%) de resistência geral a alguma família de ARVs. Houve evidência de 15.1% (IC 95% 10.3 - 21.1%) de resistência individual à família de NNRTI, afetando principalmente NVP e EFV; 2.2% (IC 95% 0.6 - 5.4%) resistência ao INTR, principalmente ao FTC/3TC; e 2.7% (IC 95% 0.9 - 6.2%) de resistência intermediária e baixa ao IP NFV e LPV/r. Três casos apresentaram resistência múltipla a NRTIs + NNRTIs. As mutações mais frequentemente encontradas foram K103N (41.2%), M184V/I (8.8%) e M46I (5.9%). A elevada resistência transmitida do HIV-1 em pacientes atendidos em diferentes Unidades de Cuidados Integrados ao HIV demonstra a importância de analisar periodicamente a tendência de resistência em pessoas que não foram expostas aos ARVs, o que por sua vez é um marcador indireto da presença de ARVs adquiridos. resistência no país, dados que demonstram a necessidade de ações e intervenções rápidas e eficazes dado o seu impacto na saúde pública.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/genética , Vigilância da População , Estudos Transversais , HIV-1/genética , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/farmacologia , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/farmacologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Mutação
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