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1.
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54976

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. Objetivos. Analizar el progreso en las estructuras, mecanismos y estrategias organizativas, así como los factores y las barreras, que favorecen la incorporación de la perspectiva de género en la salud en Guatemala, Guyana y Perú, dado el papel que ello desempeña en el abordaje de las desigualdades de género en la salud como un motor estructural clave de la equidad en salud. Métodos. Se obtuvieron datos a partir de la literatura gris de leyes, políticas o documentos de programas y entrevistas cualitativas semiestructuradas con 37 informantes. El análisis se basó en un marco teórico que incluía siete categorías consideradas esenciales para avanzar la incorporación de la perspectiva de género en el sector de la salud. Resultados. A pesar de los importantes esfuerzos y las experiencias acumuladas respecto de la incorporación de la perspectiva de género en el sector de la salud persisten obstáculos estructurales, como desafíos sociales más amplios para transformar las relaciones de poder desiguales entre los géneros; la complejidad del sistema de salud combinada con una baja capacidad técnica, política y financiera de las estructuras institucionales encargadas de abordar el tema; y la limitada coordinación con las instituciones nacionales dedicadas a la promoción de la mujer (a menudo, débiles). En algunos contextos, los obstáculos se ven agravados por la limitada comprensión de los conceptos básicos subyacentes a la perspectiva de género (a veces exacerbada por una comprensión limitada de la interseccionalidad o el compromiso con los hombres) y la ausencia de indicadores para medir los resultados y el impacto concreto de la incorporación de la perspectiva de género. Conclusiones. Para que la incorporación de la perspectiva de género en la salud sea satisfactoria, se requiere una agenda más estratégica y transformadora, elaborada e implementada en coordinación con las instituciones nacionales de promoción de la mujer y la sociedad civil y vinculada a instancias externas (p. ej., el Comité para la Eliminación de la Discriminación contra la Mujer). Es necesario, asimismo, una distinción más clara entre los enfoques sensibles al género y aquellos transformativos de las relaciones desiguales de género, y una definición de los resultados previstos y los indicadores para medir los avances. Estos podrían entonces documentarse y sistematizarse mejor, lo que permitiría que la perspectiva de género se comprendiera más ampliamente y se pusiera en práctica como instrumento concreto para lograr la equidad en salud.


[ABSTRACT]. Objectives. To analyze progress in organizational structures, mechanisms, strategies, and enabling factors and barriers towards gender mainstreaming (GM) in health in Guatemala, Guyana, and Peru, given GM’s role in addressing gender inequalities in health as a key structural driver of health equity. Methods. Data was obtained through a grey literature review of laws, policies, and/or program documents and semistructured qualitative interviews with 37 informants. Analysis was based on a theoretical framework including 7 categories considered essential to advance GM in the health sector. Results. Despite significant efforts and accumulated experiences of GM in health, structural barriers include: wider societal challenges of transforming gender unequal power relations; health system complexity combined with the low technical, political, and financial capacity of institutional structures tasked with GM; and limited coordination with (often weak) National Women’s Machineries (NWMs). In some contexts, barriers are compounded by limited understanding of basic concepts underlying GM (at times exacerbated by misunderstandings related to intersectionality and/or engagement with men) and the absence of indicators to measure GM’s concrete results and impact. Conclusions. Successful GM requires a more strategic and transformational agenda, developed and implemented in coordination with NWMs and civil society and with reference to external bodies (e.g. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women) to go beyond process, with clearer distinction between gender sensitivity and gender transformation, and definition of expected results and indicators to measure advances. These then could be better documented and systematized, enabling GM to be more broadly understood and operationalized as a concrete instrument towards health equity.


[RESUMO]. Objetivos. Analisar o progresso nas estruturas organizacionais, mecanismos, estratégias, e fatores habilitadores e barreiras para a integração do gênero (IG) na saúde na Guatemala, na Guiana e no Peru, dado o papel da IG na abordagem das desigualdades de gênero na saúde como um dos principais impulsionadores estruturais da equidade em saúde. Métodos. Os dados foram obtidos por meio de uma análise das leis, políticas e/ou documentos de programa e entrevistas qualitativas semiestruturadas junto a 37 informantes, extraídos da literatura cinza. A análise foi efetuada com base em uma estrutura teórica que incluiu 7 categorias consideradas essenciais para promover a IG no setor da saúde. Resultados. Apesar dos esforços significativos e das experiências acumuladas na IG na saúde, as barreiras estruturais incluem: os desafios sociais mais amplos de transformar relacionamentos desiguais de poder; a complexidade dos sistemas de saúde associada à baixa capacidade técnica, política e financeira das instituições encarregadas pela IG; e a coordenação limitada (e muitas vezes fraca) com as Maquinarias Nacionais de Mulheres (NWM, na sigla em inglês). Em alguns contextos, as barreiras são exacerbadas pela compreensão limitada de conceitos básicos nas bases da IG (às vezes agravadas por mal entendidos relacionados à intersecção com homens e/ou o envolvimento deles); e a ausência de indicadores para medir resultados concretos da IG e seu impacto. Conclusões. Para que a IG ocorra de fato, é necessária uma pauta mais estratégica e transformadora, elaborada e implementada em coordenação com as NWM e a sociedade civil, e fazendo referência a organismos externos (por exemplo, Comitê sobre a Eliminação de todas as Formas de Discriminação contra a Mulher) para que a integração inclua não só o processo, mas que forneça, além disso, uma diferenciação mais clara entre a sensibilidade às questões de gênero e a transformação das relações de gênero, e defina os resultados esperados e os indicadores para medir os avanços. A partir de então, elas poderiam ser melhor documentadas e sistematizadas, permitindo um melhor entendimento sobre a IG e sua operacionalização como instrumento concreto rumo à equidade na saúde.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde , Equidade de Gênero , Transversalidade de Gênero , Políticas Inclusivas de Gênero , Guatemala , Guiana , Peru , Equidade em Saúde , Equidade de Gênero , Transversalidade de Gênero , Políticas Inclusivas de Gênero , Peru , Equidade em Saúde , Equidade de Gênero , Transversalidade de Gênero , Políticas Inclusivas de Gênero , Guiana
2.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-09-09.
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54814

RESUMO

Guatemala tiene la oportunidad de dar respuesta a las demandas de salud de la población si aumenta su inversión pública. Los análisis cuantitativos y cualitativos realizados en este estudio señalan que es posible generar más recursos públicos para el sector de la salud, ampliar la red de servicios y ofrecer atención de calidad. Pero esto no puede lograrse únicamente a través de una sola fuente del espacio fiscal ni en dependencia exclusiva del crecimiento económico. Es necesario adoptar una estrategia que conjugue varios mecanismos, teniendo en cuenta la repriorización del gasto en favor de la salud, los ingresos tributarios y la eficiencia del gasto público, así como la recaudación de los ingresos fiscales. Sobre todo, estas iniciativas deben ser fruto de una decisión política de Estado que implique un esfuerzo constante del país en el mediano y largo plazo. Este estudio ha sido elaborado para generar un mayor conocimiento del espacio fiscal para el gasto en salud de Guatemala, sus componentes y perspectivas, a fin de fomentar un debate amplio de alcance nacional respecto de la necesidad de aumentar el financiamiento público para la salud, como acompañamiento a la necesaria transformación del sistema de salud en pos del logro de la salud universal.


Assuntos
Financiamento dos Sistemas de Saúde , Espaço Fiscal para a Saúde , Gastos Públicos com Saúde , Políticas, Planejamento e Administração em Saúde , Sistemas de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde , Guatemala
3.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 908, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled hypertension represents a substantial and growing burden in Guatemala and other low and middle-income countries. As a part of the formative phase of an implementation research study, we conducted a needs assessment to define short- and long-term needs and opportunities for hypertension services within the public health system. METHODS: We conducted a multi-method, multi-level assessment of needs related to hypertension within Guatemala's public system using the World Health Organization's health system building blocks framework. We conducted semi-structured interviews with stakeholders at national (n = 17), departmental (n = 7), district (n = 25), and community (n = 30) levels and focus groups with patients (3) and frontline auxiliary nurses (3). We visited and captured data about infrastructure, accessibility, human resources, reporting, medications and supplies at 124 health posts and 53 health centers in five departments of Guatemala. We conducted a thematic analysis of transcribed interviews and focus group discussions supported by matrix analysis. We summarized quantitative data observed during visits to health posts and centers. RESULTS: Major challenges for hypertension service delivery included: gaps in infrastructure, insufficient staffing and high turnover, limited training, inconsistent supply of medications, lack of reporting, low prioritization of hypertension, and a low level of funding in the public health system overall. Key opportunities included: prior experience caring for patients with chronic conditions, eagerness from providers to learn, and interest from patients to be involved in managing their health. The 5 departments differ in population served per health facility, accessibility, and staffing. All but 7 health posts had basic infrastructure in place. Enalapril was available in 74% of health posts whereas hydrochlorothiazide was available in only 1 of the 124 health posts. With the exception of one department, over 90% of health posts had a blood pressure monitor. CONCLUSIONS: This multi-level multi-method needs assessment using the building blocks framework highlights contextual factors in Guatemala's public health system that have been important in informing the implementation of a hypertension control trial. Long-term needs that are not addressed within the scope of this study will be important to address to enable sustained implementation and scale-up of the hypertension control approach.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Programas Governamentais , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde
4.
Guatemala; OPS; 2021-09-09. (OPS/GTM/21-0001).
Não convencional em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-54809

RESUMO

Establecida en 1902 como el organismo independiente especializado en salud del sistema interamericano, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) ha desarrollado competencias y experiencia ampliamente reconocidas al brindar cooperación técnica a sus Estados Miembros para combatir las enfermedades transmisibles y no transmisibles y sus causas, fortalecer los sistemas de salud y responder a situaciones de emergencia y desastres en toda la Región de las Américas. Asimismo, en su calidad de oficina regional de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, la OPS participa activamente en los equipos de las Naciones Unidas en los países, colaborando con otros organismos, fondos y programas del sistema de las Naciones Unidas para contribuir al logro de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS) a nivel de país. En este informe anual se presenta la cooperación técnica de la OPS a nivel de país en el 2020, mediante la aplicación de la estrategia de cooperación con el país, la respuesta a las necesidades y prioridades nacionales, y el desarrollo de las actividades en el marco de los mandatos regionales y mundiales de la Organización y los ODS. En consonancia con el tema general de "la salud universal y la pandemia: sistemas de salud resilientes", se pone de relieve la respuesta de la OPS a la pandemia de COVID-19, así como sus esfuerzos continuos en esferas prioritarias como las enfermedades transmisibles, las enfermedades no transmisibles, la salud mental, la salud a lo largo del curso de vida y las emergencias de salud. También se presenta un resumen financiero del ejercicio examinado.


Assuntos
Cooperação Técnica , Sistemas de Saúde , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Políticas, Planejamento e Administração em Saúde , Cobertura de Serviços de Saúde , Cobertura Universal de Saúde , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Doenças Transmissíveis , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Saúde Mental , Administração Financeira , Administração em Saúde Pública , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde , América Central , Guatemala
5.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-08-16.
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54670

RESUMO

The main purpose of this publication is to advocate for the need to understand the gendered nature of vulnerabilities to poor health. Gender equality in health is an integral dimension of sustainable development, and it is critical to apply a “gender lens” to all aspects of the health system, including financing mechanisms in health. The impact of health-related out-of-pocket expenditure (OPE) on household poverty has been a significant factor driving the move toward universal health coverage across much of Latin America and beyond. However, not only do health care users still face a broad range of health-related OPEs that can contribute to the impoverishment of households, but the gender dimensions of OPEs have received very little attention. Drawing primarily on data from Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Peru, this report offers an in-depth analysis of the gender dimensions of health-related OPEs in Latin America. It highlights the limitations of survey data in determining levels of household spending on health as well as the potential failure of indicators to capture the impacts of coping strategies that households adopt to pay for OPEs. This publication calls for the application of an intersectional analysis to ensure a more nuanced understanding of the ways in which other social identity markers, such as race and ethnicity, alongside gender shape the ability of individuals and households to respond to the different OPEs they may encounter. Until policymakers consider the issue through a gender lens, OPE will continue to limit the potential of universal health care coverage to effectively address health inequalities.


Assuntos
Gênero e Saúde , Análise de Gênero na Saúde , Gastos em Saúde , Cobertura Universal de Saúde , Bolívia , Guatemala , Nicarágua , Peru
6.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-08-16.
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54668

RESUMO

El objetivo principal de esta publicación es defender la necesidad de comprender la naturaleza de género de las vulnerabilidades a la mala salud. La igualdad de género en la salud es una dimensión integral del desarrollo sostenible, por lo que es fundamental aplicar una perspectiva de género a todos los aspectos del sistema de salud, incluidos los mecanismos de financiamiento de la salud. El impacto de los gastos directos de bolsillo relacionados con la salud en la pobreza de los hogares ha sido un factor importante que ha impulsado el avance hacia la cobertura universal de salud en gran parte de América Latina y en otros países. Sin embargo, no solo los usuarios de la atención de salud siguen enfrentándose a una amplia gama de gastos directos de bolsillo relacionados con la salud que pueden contribuir al empobrecimiento de los hogares, sino que las dimensiones de género de estos gastos han recibido muy poca atención. Basándose principalmente en datos de Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de), Guatemala, Nicaragua y Perú, en este informe se ofrece un análisis en profundidad de las dimensiones de género que tienen los gastos directos de bolsillo relacionados con la salud en América Latina. Se destacan las limitaciones de los datos de las encuestas a la hora de determinar los niveles de gasto de los hogares en salud, así como la posible imposibilidad de que los indicadores capten los efectos de las estrategias de afrontamiento que adoptan los hogares para pagar por los gastos directos de bolsillo. En esta publicación se hace un llamamiento a aplicar un análisis interseccional para comprender con más matices las formas en que otros marcadores de identidad social, como la raza y la etnia, junto con el género, determinan la capacidad de las personas y los hogares para responder a los diferentes gastos directos de bolsillo que puedan encontrar. Hasta que los responsables de las políticas no consideren la cuestión desde una perspectiva de género, los gastos directos de bolsillo seguirán limitando el potencial de la cobertura universal de salud para abordar eficazmente las desigualdades de salud.


Assuntos
Gênero e Saúde , Análise de Gênero na Saúde , Gastos em Saúde , Cobertura Universal de Saúde , Bolívia , Guatemala , Nicarágua , Peru
7.
Ann Glob Health ; 87(1): 75, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34430225

RESUMO

Background: Rural Indigenous Maya communities in Guatemala have some of the worst obstetrical health outcomes in Latin America, due to widespread discrimination in healthcare and an underfunded public sector. Multiple systems-level efforts to improve facility birth outcomes have been implemented, primarily focusing on early community-based detection of obstetrical complications and on reducing discrimination and improving the quality of facility-level care. However, another important feature of public facility-level care are the out-of-pocket payments that patients are often required to make for care. Objective: To estimate the burden of out-of-pocket costs for public obstetrical care in Indigenous Maya communities in Guatemala. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of electronic medical record data on obstetrical referrals collected as part of an obstetrical care navigation intervention, which included documentation of out-of-pocket costs by care navigators accompanying patients within public facilities. We compared the median costs for both emergency and routine obstetrical facility care. Findings: Cost data on 709 obstetric referrals from 479 patients were analyzed (65% emergency and 35% routine referrals). The median OOP costs were Q100 (IQR 75-150) [$13 USD] and Q50 (IQR 16-120) [$6.50 USD] for emergency and routine referrals. Costs for transport were most common (95% and 55%, respectively). Costs for medication, supply, laboratory, and imaging costs occurred less frequently. Food and lodging costs were minimal. Conclusion: Out-of-pocket payments for theoretically free public care are a common and important barrier to care for this rural Guatemalan setting. These data add to the literature in Latin American on the barriers to obstetrical care faced by Indigenous and rural women.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/economia , Gastos em Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Materna/economia , Serviços de Saúde Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural , Adulto , Feminino , Guatemala , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 634738, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248932

RESUMO

P48/45 is a conserved gametocyte antigen involved in Plasmodium parasite fertilization. A recombinant Plasmodium vivax P48/45 (Pvs48/45) protein expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) was highly antigenic and immunogenic in experimental animals and elicited specific transmission-blocking (TB) antibodies in a previous pilot study. Here, a similar Pvs48/45 gene was expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells and we compared its immunoreactivity with the E. coli product. Specific antibody titers were determined using plasma from Colombian individuals (n=227) living in endemic areas where both P. vivax and P. falciparum are prevalent and from Guatemala (n=54) where P. vivax is highly prevalent. In Colombia, plasma seroprevalence to CHO-rPvs48/45 protein was 46.3%, while for E. coli-rPvs48/45 protein was 36.1% (p<0.001). In Guatemala, the sero prevalence was 24.1% and 14.8% (p<0.001), respectively. Reactivity index (RI) against both proteins showed an age-dependent increase. IgG2 was the predominant subclass and the antibody avidity index evaluated by ELISA ranged between 4-6 mol/L. Ex vivo P. vivax mosquito direct membrane feeding assays (DMFA) performed in presence of study plasmas, displayed significant parasite transmission-blocking (TB), however, there was no direct correlation between antibody titers and oocysts transmission reduction activity (%TRA). Nevertheless, DMFA with CHO rPvs48/45 affinity purified IgG showed a dose response; 90.2% TRA at 100 µg/mL and 71.8% inhibition at 10 µg/mL. In conclusion, the CHO-rPvs48/45 protein was more immunoreactive in most of the malaria endemic places studied, and CHO-rPvs48/45 specific IgG showed functional activity, supporting further testing of the protein vaccine potential.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Malária Vivax/diagnóstico , Plasmodium vivax/imunologia , Testes Sorológicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Antígenos de Protozoários/metabolismo , Células CHO , Criança , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Cricetulus , Escherichia coli/genética , Feminino , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Humanos , Malária Vivax/sangue , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmodium vivax/patogenicidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299682

RESUMO

The Mayan population of Guatemala is understudied within eye and vision research. Studying an observational homogenous, geographically isolated population of individuals seeking eye care may identify unique clinical, demographic, environmental and genetic risk factors for blinding eye disease that can inform targeted and effective screening strategies to achieve better and improved health care distribution. This study served to: (a) identify the ocular health needs within this population; and (b) identify any possible modifiable risk factors contributing to disease pathophysiology within this population. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 126 participants. Each participant completed a comprehensive eye examination, provided a blood sample for genetic analysis, and received a structured core baseline interview for a standardized epidemiological questionnaire at the Salama Lions Club Eye Hospital in Salama, Guatemala. Interpreters were available for translation to the patients' native dialect, to assist participants during their visit. We performed a genome-wide association study for ocular disease association on the blood samples using Illumina's HumanOmni2.5-8 chip to examine single nucleotide polymorphism SNPs in this population. After implementing quality control measures, we performed adjusted logistic regression analysis to determine which genetic and epidemiological factors were associated with eye disease. We found that the most prevalent eye conditions were cataracts (54.8%) followed by pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PXF) (24.6%). The population with both conditions was 22.2%. In our epidemiological analysis, we found that eye disease was significantly associated with advanced age. Cataracts were significantly more common among those living in the 10 districts with the least resources. Furthermore, having cataracts was associated with a greater likelihood of PXF after adjusting for both age and sex. In our genetic analysis, the SNP most nominally significantly associated with PXF lay within the gene KSR2 (p < 1 × 10-5). Several SNPs were associated with cataracts at genome-wide significance after adjusting for covariates (p < 5 × 10-8). About seventy five percent of the 33 cataract-associated SNPs lie within 13 genes, with the majority of genes having only one significant SNP (5 × 10-8). Using bioinformatic tools including PhenGenI, the Ensembl genome browser and literature review, these SNPs and genes have not previously been associated with PXF or cataracts, separately or in combination. This study can aid in understanding the prevalence of eye conditions in this population to better help inform public health planning and the delivery of quality, accessible, and relevant health and preventative care within Salama, Guatemala.


Assuntos
Catarata , Síndrome de Exfoliação , Catarata/etnologia , Catarata/genética , Estudos Transversais , Síndrome de Exfoliação/etnologia , Síndrome de Exfoliação/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Humanos , Índios Centro-Americanos
10.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 189(2): 533-539, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196900

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Mutations in hereditary breast cancer genes play an important role in the risk for cancer. METHODS: Cancer susceptibility genes were sequenced in 664 unselected breast cancer cases from Guatemala. Variants were annotated with ClinVar and VarSome. RESULTS: A total of 73 out of 664 subjects (11%) had a pathogenic variant in a high or moderate penetrance gene. The most frequently mutated genes were BRCA1 (37/664, 5.6%) followed by BRCA2 (15/664, 2.3%), PALB2 (5/664, 0.8%), and TP53 (5/664, 0.8%). Pathogenic variants were also detected in the moderate penetrance genes ATM, BARD1, CHEK2, and MSH6. The high ratio of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations is due to two potential founder mutations: BRCA1 c.212 + 1G > A splice mutation (15 cases) and BRCA1 c.799delT (9 cases). Cases with pathogenic mutations had a significantly earlier age at diagnosis (45 vs 51 years, P < 0.001), are more likely to have had diagnosis before menopause, and a higher percentage had a relative with any cancer (51% vs 37%, P = 0.038) or breast cancer (33% vs 15%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Hereditary breast cancer mutations were observed among Guatemalan women, and these women are more likely to have early age at diagnosis and family history of cancer. These data suggest the use of genetic testing in breast cancer patients and those at high risk as part of a strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality in Guatemala.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Genes BRCA2 , Células Germinativas , Guatemala , Humanos
11.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1412, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is a global health emergency. Persons colonized with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) are at risk for developing subsequent multidrug-resistant infections, as colonization represents an important precursor to invasive infection. Despite reports documenting the worldwide dissemination of MDROs, fundamental questions remain regarding the burden of resistance, metrics to measure prevalence, and determinants of spread. We describe a multi-site colonization survey protocol that aims to quantify the population-based prevalence and associated risk factors for colonization with high-threat MDROs among community dwelling participants and patients admitted to hospitals within a defined population-catchment area. METHODS: Researchers in five countries (Bangladesh, Chile, Guatemala, Kenya, and India) will conduct a cross-sectional, population-based prevalence survey consisting of a risk factor questionnaire and collection of specimens to evaluate colonization with three high-threat MDROs: extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (ESCrE), carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Healthy adults residing in a household within the sampling area will be enrolled in addition to eligible hospitalized adults. Colonizing isolates of these MDROs will be compared by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to routinely collected invasive clinical isolates, where available, to determine potential pathogenicity. A colonizing MDRO isolate will be categorized as potentially pathogenic if the MLST pattern of the colonizing isolate matches the MLST pattern of an invasive clinical isolate. The outcomes of this study will be estimates of the population-based prevalence of colonization with ESCrE, CRE, and MRSA; determination of the proportion of colonizing ESCrE, CRE, and MRSA with pathogenic characteristics based on MLST; identification of factors independently associated with ESCrE, CRE, and MRSA colonization; and creation an archive of ESCrE, CRE, and MRSA isolates for future study. DISCUSSION: This is the first study to use a common protocol to evaluate population-based prevalence and risk factors associated with MDRO colonization among community-dwelling and hospitalized adults in multiple countries with diverse epidemiological conditions, including low- and middle-income settings. The results will be used to better describe the global epidemiology of MDROs and guide the development of mitigation strategies in both community and healthcare settings. These standardized baseline surveys can also inform future studies seeking to further characterize MDRO epidemiology globally.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Adulto , Bangladesh , Chile , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Guatemala , Hospitais , Humanos , Índia , Quênia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Prevalência , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia
12.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(7): 1135-1144, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228513

RESUMO

In 2019 the United States signed Asylum Cooperative Agreements with the Northern Triangle countries of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras, in Central America. In November 2019 the Trump administration announced that these agreements would be used to permit the expedited removal of asylum seekers from the US, claiming that these countries provided comprehensive legal procedures for adjudicating asylum claims and protection against further persecution. To assess the presence of dangerous conditions in the three countries, we examined forensic medical evaluations of asylum seekers from the Northern Triangle who are in the US and who presented to an academic medical center asylum clinic in Boston, Massachusetts, from 2017 to 2020. Northern Triangle asylum seekers reported high rates of exposure to trauma and violence, including gender-based violence and violence perpetrated by gangs, and they also exhibited a high prevalence of trauma-related psychiatric disorders. Asylum seekers also reported state actors in Northern Triangle countries as perpetrators of violence and described denial of protection from the state when it was solicited. These findings cast doubt on key tenets underpinning the legal basis for the Asylum Cooperative Agreements. The agreements should be formally terminated and investigations undertaken to determine the impact on people who were subject to removal from the US during preliminary implementation.


Assuntos
Refugiados , América Central , Guatemala , Humanos , Prevalência , Estados Unidos , Violência
13.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e044966, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193485

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Few studies have used longitudinal data to study the development of cognition over the life course in low-income and middle-income countries. The objectives of this study were to assess predictors of cognitive development trajectories from 6 months through 7 years, and if these trajectories predicted adult cognitive function in a birth cohort from Guatemala. DESIGN: We analysed data from the INCAP Nutrition Supplementation Trial Longitudinal Study in Guatemala. Cognition was assessed at eight different time points between 6 months and 7 years. We derived childhood development trajectories using latent class growth analysis. We assessed predictors of the trajectories using ordinal logistic regression, and associations between childhood trajectories and adult non-verbal intelligence and literacy at age 18-52 years (mean±SD =42.7±6.4 years) using mixed models. SETTING: The study was conducted in four Guatemalan villages. PARTICIPANTS: The study included 927 participants from Guatemala with repeated measurements of cognitive function during the first 7 years of life. RESULTS: We identified three trajectories of cognitive development (high: n=214, average: n=583, low: n=130). Participants whose mothers were taller (proportional log odds (PO)=0.03, 95% CI=0.01 to 0.06), had more years of schooling (PO=0.15, 95% CI=0.06 to 0.25), or lived in households with higher socioeconomic scores (PO=0.19, 95% CI=0.09 to 0.29) were more likely to follow higher trajectories. Childhood trajectories predicted adult non-verbal intelligence (high=18.4±0.3, average=14.6±0.53, low=11.4±0.9) and literacy (high=63.8±2.0, average=48.6±1.2, low=33.9± 2.6) scores. CONCLUSIONS: In this sample from Guatemala, cognitive development trajectories from 6 months through 7 years were associated with adult non-verbal intelligence and literacy. These findings provide evidence of tracking of cognition over time in a transitioning low-income setting.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Cognição , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Humanos , Inteligência , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206907

RESUMO

The population's behavioral responses to containment and precautionary measures during the COVID-19 pandemic have played a fundamental role in controlling the contagion. A comparative analysis of precautionary behaviors in the region was carried out. A total of 1184 people from Mexico, Colombia, Chile, Cuba, and Guatemala participated through an online survey containing a questionnaire on sociodemographic factors, precautionary behaviors, information about COVID-19, concerns, maintenance of confinement, and medical symptoms associated with COVID-19. Cubans reported the highest scores for information about COVID-19. Colombians reported less frequent usage of precautionary measures (e.g., use of masks), but greater adherence to confinement recommendations in general, in contrast to the low levels of these behaviors in Guatemalans. Chileans reported greater pandemic-related concerns and the highest number of medical symptoms associated with COVID-19. These findings allow a partial characterization of the Latin American population's responses during the second and third phases of the COVID-19 pandemic and highlight the importance of designing and managing public health policies according to the circumstances of each population when facing pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Chile/epidemiologia , Colômbia , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , México , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209792

RESUMO

This analysis of surveys from six low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) aimed to (i) estimate the prevalence of disability among older adults and (ii) compare experiences and participation in key life areas among older people with and without disabilities which may show vulnerability during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were analysed from district-level or national surveys in Cameroon, Guatemala, Haiti, India, Nepal and the Maldives, which across the six databases totalled 3499 participants aged 60 years and above including 691 people with disabilities. Disability was common among adults 60+, ranging from 9.7% (8.0-11.8) in Nepal to 39.2% in India (95% CI 34.1-44.5%). Mobility was the most commonly reported functional difficulty. In each setting, older people with disabilities were significantly less likely to be working and reported greater participation restrictions and environmental barriers in key life areas compared to people in the same age categories without disabilities (p < 0.05). Disability is common in this population, and older people with disabilities may have greater difficulties participating in COVID-19 responses and have high economic vulnerabilities. It is imperative to prioritise the needs of older people with disabilities in the COVID-19 pandemic, including ensuring accessibility of both health services and the community in general.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pessoas com Deficiência , Idoso , Camarões , Países em Desenvolvimento , Guatemala , Haiti , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Ilhas do Oceano Índico , Nepal/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54152

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. Evaluate the sustainability of the Healthy Municipalities strategy in Guatemala in order to have solid evidence to support decision-making. Methods. A concurrent mixed-methods study was carried out in five phases: 1) theoretical-conceptual (based on a narrative review of the literature on sustainability, dimensions and categories were proposed for evaluation); 2) empirical (four municipalities were selected for convenience and 29 semi-structured interviews and four focus groups were conducted with key actors to explore sustainability; with this information, a score was assigned to each category and dimension); 3) analytical, by category and dimension (content analysis was performed for qualitative information, and totals and averages were calculated for quantitative information); 4) integrative (qualitative data were integrated into matrices by category and dimension, and quantitative data were supported by qualitative information); and 5) meta-inference (consideration was given to the context and its influence on the results). Results. Ninety-two (92) informants participated. In operational terms, progress was observed in the transfer and use of results, and in rotations in leadership. In the legal and political sphere, accountability and local planning were highlighted. In the economic sphere, progressive investment in health, water and sanitation was emphasized, as well as insufficient investment in social determinants of health. In the social sphere, few mechanisms were observed to promote and strengthen social participation. Conclusions. In the municipalities that participated in the study, a fair level of sustainability was observed in the Healthy Municipalities strategy.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Evaluar la sostenibilidad de la estrategia Municipios Saludables en Guatemala, para disponer de evidencia sólida que permita apoyar la toma de decisiones. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio mixto concurrente en cinco fases: 1) teórica-conceptual, se realizó una revisión narrativa de literatura en sostenibilidad, con base en la cual se propusieron dimensiones y categorías para su evaluación; 2) empírica, se seleccionaron por conveniencia cuatro municipios y se realizaron 29 entrevistas semiestructuradas y cuatro grupos focales a actores clave para explorar la sostenibilidad; con esta información, se asignó un puntaje a cada categoría y dimensión; 3) analítica, por categoría y dimensión, se realizó el análisis del contenido para la información cualitativa y sumatorias y promedios para la información cuantitativa; 4) integrativa, los datos cualitativos se integraron en matrices por categoría y dimensión; y los datos cuantitativos se respaldaron con información cualitativa; y 5) metainferencia, se reflexionó sobre el contexto y su influencia en los resultados. Resultados. Participaron 92 informantes. En la dimensión operativa, se destacan avances en la transferencia y el uso de resultados, así como en el relevo de liderazgo. En la dimensión legal y política, se destacaron la rendición de cuentas y los planes locales. En la dimensión económica, se destacó la inversión progresiva en salud, agua y saneamiento, con deficiencia de inversiones en determinantes sociales de la salud. En la dimensión social, se observaron pocos mecanismos para impulsar y fortalecer la participación social. Conclusiones. En los municipios que participaron del estudio se observó un nivel regular de sostenibilidad de la estrategia Municipios Saludables.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Avaliar a sustentabilidade da estratégia de Municípios Saudáveis na Guatemala para dispor de evidências sólidas para apoiar o processo decisório. Métodos. Foi realizado um estudo de método misto concorrente em cinco fases: 1) fase teórica-conceitual em que foi feita a revisão narrativa da literatura em sustentabilidade a partir da qual foram propostas dimensões e categorias a serem avaliadas; 2) fase empírica em que foi feita a seleção por conveniência de quatro municípios, com 29 entrevistas semiestruturadas e quatro grupos de discussão com as principais partes interessadas para explorar a sustentabilidade; a partir das informações coletadas, foi dada uma pontuação a cada categoria e dimensão; 3) fase analítica, por categoria e dimensão, em que foi realizada a análise do conteúdo para os dados qualitativos e feito o cálculo de somatórias e médias para os dados quantitativos; 4) fase integrativa em que os dados qualitativos foram integrados em matrizes por categoria e dimensão e os dados quantitativos foram respaldados com a informação qualitativa e 5) metainferência em que foi analisado o contexto e sua influência nos resultados. Resultados. O estudo incluiu 92 participantes. Na dimensão operacional, destacam-se os avanços na transferência e no uso de resultados, bem como a ênfase em liderança. Na dimensão jurídico-política, destacam-se a prestação de contas e os planos locais. Na dimensão econômica, destaca-se o investimento progressivo em saúde, água e saneamento, com investimento inadequado nos determinantes sociais da saúde. Na dimensão social, observam-se poucos mecanismos para incentivar e reforçar a participação social. Conclusões. Foi observado nos municípios participantes do estudo um nível constante de sustentabilidade da estratégia de Municípios Saudáveis.


Assuntos
Estudo de Avaliação , Cidade Saudável , Promoção da Saúde , Governo Local , Guatemala , Estudo de Avaliação , Cidade Saudável , Promoção da Saúde , Governo Local , Estudo de Avaliação , Cidade Saudável , Promoção da Saúde , Governo Local
18.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 425, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global disparities in maternal mortality could be reduced by universal facility delivery. Yet, deficiencies in the quality of care prevent some mothers from seeking facility-based obstetric care. Obstetric care navigators (OCNs) are a new form of lay health workers that combine elements of continuous labor support and care navigation to promote obstetric referrals. Here we report qualitative results from the pilot OCN project implemented in Indigenous villages in the Guatemalan central highlands. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 17 mothers who received OCN accompaniment and 13 staff-namely physicians, nurses, and social workers-of the main public hospital in the pilot's catchment area (Chimaltenango). Interviews queried OCN's impact on patient and hospital staff experience and understanding of intended OCN roles. Audiorecorded interviews were transcribed, coded, and underwent content analysis. RESULTS: Maternal fear of surgical intervention, disrespectful and abusive treatment, and linguistic barriers were principal deterrents of care seeking. Physicians and nurses reported cultural barriers, opposition from family, and inadequate hospital resources as challenges to providing care to Indigenous mothers. Patient and hospital staff identified four valuable services offered by OCNs: emotional support, patient advocacy, facilitation of patient-provider communication, and care coordination. While patients and most physicians felt that OCNs had an overwhelmingly positive impact, nurses felt their effort would be better directed toward traditional nursing tasks. CONCLUSIONS: Many barriers to maternity care exist for Indigenous mothers in Guatemala. OCNs can improve mothers' experiences in public hospitals and reduce limitations faced by providers. However, broader buy-in from hospital staff-especially nurses-appears critical to program success. Future research should focus on measuring the impact of obstetric care navigation on key clinical outcomes (cesarean delivery) and mothers' future care seeking behavior.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Povos Indígenas , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Guatemala , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Tocologia , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Adulto Jovem
19.
Soc Sci Med ; 281: 114040, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144481

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Stress process theory considers that actual and perceived isolation, caused by mobility restrictions from attempted containment of the COVID-19 pandemic, deteriorates mental health. OBJECTIVE: We examine the relationship between the COVID-19 lockdowns and mental health-related Google searches in 11 Latin American countries. We include the following countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay. We also explore how changes in search patterns relate to income support policies and to COVID-19 death rates. METHOD: Using Google Trends data and an event-study design, as well as a difference-in-differences analysis, we investigate the association between country specific stay-at-home orders and internet searches including the following words: insomnia, stress, anxiety, sadness, depression, and suicide. RESULTS: We find three main patterns. First, searches for insomnia peak but then decline. Second, searches for stress, anxiety, and sadness increase and remain high throughout the lockdown. Third, there is no substantial change in depression-related or suicide-related searches after the lockdown. In terms of potential mechanisms, our results suggest that searches declined for suicide and insomnia following the passage of each country's income support, while in countries with higher COVID-19-related death rates, searches for insomnia, stress, and anxiety increased by more. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that, in Latin America, Google searches for words associated with mild mental health disorders increased during the COVID-19 stay-at-home orders. Nonetheless, these conclusions should not be construed as a general population mental health deterioration, as we cannot verify that search indicators are accurately related to the users' current feelings and behaviors, and as internet users may not be representative of the population in this region.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Mental , Ferramenta de Busca , Argentina , Bolívia , Chile , Colômbia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Equador , Guatemala , Honduras , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , México , Pandemias , Peru , SARS-CoV-2 , Uruguai
20.
Zootaxa ; 4966(2): 202214, 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186622

RESUMO

We describe Bolitoglossa qeqom sp. nov. from an isolated cloud forest in Cerro Guachmalén, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, based on multiple lines of evidence (morphological, molecular, and biogeographic data). This region comprises a mountain ridge without previous herpetological surveys. The new species is a large salamander with uniform purplish-black coloration and is distinguished by having relatively long legs with only one costal groove between adpressed limbs, numerous maxillary teeth, few vomerine teeth, only one phalange free of webbing in digit III of feet, and a relatively short tail. It is geographically closest to its sister clade of B. lincolni + B. franklini and the xeric Chixoy river canyon appears to be the major biogeographic barrier that isolated the new taxon. The cloud forest inhabited by this species has undergone severe habitat destruction in the region and land conservation actions are urgent.


Assuntos
Florestas , Urodelos/anatomia & histologia , Urodelos/classificação , Animais , Guatemala , Filogenia
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