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1.
Zootaxa ; 4860(1): zootaxa.4860.1.3, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056172

RESUMO

We morphologically validate the genus Schausiana Viette, 1950 as a monophyletic group comprising five species-S. phalerus (Druce, 1887) comb. n. and S. trojesa (Schaus, 1901) from Mexico, S. chalciope sp. n. and S. maishei sp. n. from Guatemala and S. pharus (Druce, 1887) comb. n. from Mexico to Costa Rica. Potential morphological monophyly of the genus is supported by the unique shared presence of specialized scales spine-like, elongate spinous, or piliform, located along the forewing veins. We investigate possible close phylogenetic relationships of this genus with the Mexican and Central American genera Pallas C. Mielke Grehan, 2015, and Phassus Walker, 1856, and the southeastern Brazilian genus, Phthius C. Mielke Grehan, 2017. Also discussed are the shared presence of several characters supporting the morphological monophyly of Schausiana, Phassus, and Pallas as 'phassine' Hepialidae. The distribution range of Schausiana is bounded in its northwestern range by the Guerrero terrane. Other than the widespread S. pharus with a disjunct record from Costa Rica, the southern distribution boundary corresponds to the Motagua-Polochic Fracture Zone in Guatemala. We suggest that the ancestral range of Schausiana did not include the Guerrero terrane and was possibly also absent from the Chocos Block (Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua) and the Costa Rica-Panama arc of Central America. Further divergence of Schausiana is predicted to have been influenced by tectonic events during late Cretaceous or early Cenozoic time. Colour photos are presented for all species for the first time. Holotypes of S. maishei, sp. n., and S. chalciope, sp. n., are deposited in the Universidad del Valle de Guatemala, Guatemala.


Assuntos
Lepidópteros , Animais , Guatemala , Filogenia
2.
Zootaxa ; 4780(2): zootaxa.4780.2.10, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055751

RESUMO

Ceracis tzotzilicus sp. nov. is described on the basis of 200 specimens collected in San Cristóbal de las Casas (Mexico) and Yepocapa (Guatemala), at an altitude above 2000 m. Ceracis tzotzilicus resembles members of the Ceracis cucullatus species-group due to the fine and sparse pronotal punctation, but males can be distinguished by the absence of a long anterior pronotal lamina and females by the ovipositor lacking gonostyli.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Feminino , Guatemala , Masculino , México
3.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52618

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objectives. To identify bottlenecks and barriers to effective coverage by Early Childhood Health and Development (ECHD) interventions in Guatemala. Methods. A scoping review of more than 100 peer-reviewed articles, grey literature, and other academic publications was conducted. Articles published from 2005-2019 were considered. Results were analyzed using the Tanahashi model of effective coverage that categorizes coverage by five domains: availability, accessibility, acceptability, contact, and effective coverage. Results. A total of 103 articles were identified, addressing 337 bottlenecks and barriers to effective coverage by ECHD interventions in Guatemala. Most occurred along the acceptability dimension (35.9%). The findings revealed four opportunity spaces: (i) strong political interest and commitment (opportunity for leadership); (ii) vibrant community health networks (opportunity for leverage); (iii) availability of promising evidence-based projects and interventions (opportunity for scale-up); and (iv) strong agency presence (opportunity for collaboration). Conclusions. Most bottlenecks and barriers to ECHD interventions in Guatemala occur around acceptability, followed by accessibility and availability. There is considerable potential for national leadership, leverage, scale-up, and collaboration of ongoing efforts in the country. These results may be used to inform future research and policymaking. The Tanahashi approach is an effective lens of analysis that can be applied to other countries, geographic areas, and contexts in future studies.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivos. Identificar los obstáculos y las barreras que impiden una cobertura efectiva de las intervenciones de salud y desarrollo en la primera infancia en Guatemala. Métodos. Se llevó a cabo una revisión sistemática exploratoria de más de 100 artículos revisados por pares, literatura gris y otras publicaciones académicas. Se consideraron artículos publicados entre 2005 y 2019. Los resultados se analizaron utilizando el modelo de Tanahashi de cobertura efectiva que clasifica la cobertura en cinco dominios: disponibilidad, accesibilidad, aceptabilidad, contacto y cobertura efectiva. Resultados. Se identificaron 103 artículos que abordan 337 obstáculos y barreras a la cobertura efectiva de las intervenciones de salud y desarrollo en la primera infancia en Guatemala. La mayoría de ellos se produjeron en la dimensión de la aceptabilidad (35,9%). Los resultados revelaron cuatro espacios de oportunidad para la acción: i) un fuerte interés y compromiso políticos (oportunidad de liderazgo); ii) redes de salud comunitarias dinámicas (oportunidad de apalancamiento); iii) disponibilidad de proyectos e intervenciones prometedores basados en la evidencia (oportunidad de ampliación); y iv) marcada presencia de instituciones (oportunidad de colaboración). Conclusiones. La mayoría de los obstáculos y las barreras a las intervenciones de salud y desarrollo en la primera infancia en Guatemala se dan en torno a la aceptabilidad, seguida de la accesibilidad y la disponibilidad. Existe un considerable potencial para el liderazgo nacional, el apalancamiento, la ampliación y la colaboración entre los emprendimientos en curso en el país. Estos resultados pueden utilizarse para fundamentar futuras investigaciones y la formulación de políticas. El enfoque de Tanahashi es una herramienta de análisis eficaz que puede aplicarse a otros países, zonas geográficas y contextos en estudios futuros.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde , Saúde Materna , Saúde da Criança , Países em Desenvolvimento , Guatemala , Equidade em Saúde , Saúde Materna , Saúde da Criança , Países em Desenvolvimento
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008535, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813703

RESUMO

Dengue fever occurs worldwide and about 1% of cases progress to severe haemorrhage and shock. Dengue is endemic in Guatemala and its surveillance system could document long term trends. We analysed 17 years of country-wide dengue surveillance data in Guatemala to describe epidemiological trends from 2000 to 2016.Data from the national dengue surveillance database were analysed to describe dengue serotype frequency, seasonality, and outbreaks. We used Poisson regression models to compare the number of cases each year with subsequent years and to estimate incidence ratios within serotype adjusted by age and gender. 91,554 samples were tested. Dengue was confirmed by RT-qPCR, culture or NS1-ELISA in 7097 (7.8%) cases and was IgM ELISA-positive in 19,290 (21.1%) cases. DENV1, DENV2, DENV3, and DENV4 were detected in 2218 (39.5%), 2580 (45.9%), 591 (10.5%), and 230 (4.1%) cases. DENV1 and DENV2 were the predominant serotypes, but all serotypes caused epidemics. The largest outbreak occurred in 2010 with 1080 DENV2 cases reported. The incidence was higher among adults during epidemic years, with significant increases in 2005, 2007, and 2013 DENV1 outbreaks, the 2010 DENV2 and 2003 DENV3 outbreaks. Adults had a lower incidence immediately after epidemics, which is likely linked to increased immunity.


Assuntos
Dengue/diagnóstico , Dengue/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dengue/imunologia , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Surtos de Doenças , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sorogrupo , Sorotipagem/métodos , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 96: 117-126, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819686

RESUMO

Sediments in Lake Izabal, Guatemala, contain substantial lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and nickel (Ni). The lack of historical data for heavy metal concentrations in the sediments makes it difficult to determine the sources or evaluate whether inputs of metals to the lake have changed through time. We measured the relative abundances and concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Ni by X-Ray Fluorescence core scanning and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry in three sediment cores to explore stratigraphic distributions of metals in the lake deposits. High amounts of Pb and Zn in the core taken near the Polochic Delta suggest that galena and sphalerite mining increased Pb and Zn delivery to Lake Izabal between ~1945 and 1965 CE. An up-core Ni increase in the core taken near a different mine on the north shore of Lake Izabal suggests that recent nickel mining operations led to an increase in Ni concentrations in the local sediments, but amounts in the other cores indicate that Ni is not widely distributed throughout the lake. Sediment cores from Lake Izabal are reliable recorders of heavy metal input to the lake, and were measured to establish background metal levels, which would otherwise be unavailable. Concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Ni in older, pre-20th-century Lake Izabal sediments reflect input from natural erosion of bedrock. Our results provide previously unavailable estimates of background metal concentrations in Lake Izabal before the onset of mining. These results are necessary for future monitoring related to mining contamination of the lake ecosystem.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Guatemala , Lagos , Chumbo , Níquel , Zinco
6.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(1): 101-109, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729574

RESUMO

This article describes the development of Guatemala's animal health legislation since the country signed the international agreement establishing the World Organisation for Animal Health (then Office International des Epizooties) in 1924. This includes the evolution of the legislative framework, with the adoption of the Guatemalan Animal Health Code in 1936, the adoption of the Animal Health Law in 1947 and its conversion into the Plant and Animal Health Law and implementing regulations in 1998. This article also analyses changes in the operational and administrative structure of the competent animal health authority - the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food - in 1978, 1998 and 2010, until the Trade Facilitation Agreement of the World Trade Organization was approved in 2017. It also discusses the role of the Ministry of Economy, through the Foreign Trade Administration Directorate, in boosting the enforcement of sanitary and phytosanitary measures through the National Technical Committee for Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures.


Assuntos
Comércio , Cooperação Internacional , Animais , Saúde Global , Guatemala , Organizações
7.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(3): 669-682, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal supplementation during lactation could increase milk B-vitamin concentrations, but little is known about the kinetics of milk vitamin responses. OBJECTIVES: We compared acute effects of maternal lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) consumption (n = 22 nutrients, 175%-212% of the RDA intake for the nutrients examined), as a single dose or at spaced intervals during 8 h, on milk concentrations and infant intake from milk of B-vitamins. METHODS: This randomized crossover trial in Quetzaltenango, Guatemala included 26 mother-infant dyads 4-6 mo postpartum who were randomly assigned to receive 3 treatments in a random order: bolus 30-g dose of LNS (Bolus); 3 × 10-g doses of LNS (Divided); and no LNS (Control), with control meals. Mothers attended three 8-h visits during which infant milk consumption was measured and milk samples were collected at every feed. Infant intake was assessed as $\mathop \sum \nolimits_{i\ = \ 1}^n ( {{\rm{milk\ volum}}{{\rm{e}}_{{\rm{feed\ }}n}} \times \ {\rm{nutrient\ concentratio}}{{\rm{n}}_{{\rm{feed}}\ n}}} )$ over 8 h. RESULTS: Maternal supplementation with the Bolus or Divided dose increased least-squares mean (95% CI) milk and infant intakes of riboflavin [milk: Bolus: 154.4 (138.2, 172.5) µg · min-1 · mL-1; Control: 84.5 (75.8, 94.3) µg · min-1 · mL-1; infant: Bolus: 64.5 (56.1, 74.3) µg; Control: 34.5 (30.0, 39.6) µg], thiamin [milk: Bolus: 10.9 (10.1, 11.7) µg · min-1 · mL-1; Control: 7.7 (7.2, 8.3) µg · min-1 · mL-1; infant: Bolus: 5.1 (4.4, 6.0) µg; Control: 3.4 (2.9, 4.0) µg], and pyridoxal [milk: Bolus: 90.5 (82.8, 98.9) µg · min-1 · mL-1; Control: 60.8 (55.8, 66.3) µg · min-1 · mL-1; infant: Bolus: 39.4 (33.5, 46.4) µg; Control: 25.0 (21.4, 29.2) µg] (all P < 0.001). Only the Bolus dose increased cobalamin in milk [Bolus: 0.054 (0.047, 0.061) µg · min-1 · mL-1; Control: 0.041 (0.035, 0.048) µg · min-1 · mL-1, P = 0.039] and infant cobalamin intake [Bolus: 0.023 (0.020, 0.027) µg; Control: 0.015 (0.013, 0.018) µg, P = 0.001] compared with Control. Niacin was unaffected. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal supplementation with LNS as a Bolus or Divided dose was similarly effective at increasing milk riboflavin, thiamin, and pyridoxal and infant intakes, whereas only the Bolus dose increased cobalamin. Niacin was unaffected in 8 h. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02464111.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Lactação , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Micronutrientes/sangue , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/sangue , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Estudos Cross-Over , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Guatemala , Humanos , Lactente , Micronutrientes/química , Leite Humano/química , Niacina/administração & dosagem , Niacina/sangue , Niacina/farmacocinética , Piridoxal/administração & dosagem , Piridoxal/sangue , Piridoxal/farmacocinética , Riboflavina/administração & dosagem , Riboflavina/sangue , Riboflavina/farmacocinética , Tiamina/administração & dosagem , Tiamina/sangue , Tiamina/farmacocinética , Vitamina B 12/administração & dosagem , Vitamina B 12/sangue , Vitamina B 12/farmacocinética , Vitaminas/farmacocinética , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234399, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses are increasingly important public health problems. Burning vegetation, leaves, and other plant products have been shown to be effective mosquito repellents for their vector, Aedes spp., but there has been scant research on whether firewood cooking smoke in households influences mosquito populations or mosquito-borne diseases. About 2.9 billion people worldwide use biomass fuel for household cooking and heating, resulting in an estimated 1.6 million deaths annually from household air pollution (HAP)-related diseases. Global health agencies now encourage households to transition from biomass to clean fuels, but it is unclear whether such interventions may actually increase risk for mosquito-borne diseases. This retrospective case-control study evaluated associations between arboviral infections and cooking with firewood in Santa Rosa, Guatemala. METHOD: Vigilancia Integrada Comunitaria (VICo) was a prospective public health surveillance system for bacterial, parasitic, and viral causes of diarrheal, neurological, respiratory, and febrile illnesses in hospitals and clinics in the department of Santa Rosa, Guatemala. Enrolled VICo in-patients and out-patients during 2011-2018 were interviewed using standardized questionnaires on demographics and household characteristics. Blood and stool specimens were collected and tested to identify the etiologies presenting symptoms. Cases were defined as laboratory-positive for dengue, chikungunya, or Zika virus infections. Controls were laboratory-positive for bacterial and viral diarrheal illnesses (e.g., Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, rotavirus, norovirus, sapovirus, or astrovirus). Cooking with firewood, kitchen location, stove type, and firewood cooking frequency were the independent exposure variables. Logistic regression models were used to analyze unadjusted and adjusted associations between arboviral infections and exposures of interest. RESULT: There were 311 arboviral cases and 1,239 diarrheal controls. Arboviral infections were inversely associated with cooking with firewood in the main house (AOR: 0.22; 95% CI: 0.08-0.57), cooking with firewood on an open hearth (AOR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.33-0.78), and cooking with firewood ≥5 times per week (AOR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.36-0.81), adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status index, number of people per household, community population density, community elevation, recruitment location, season, and admission year. CONCLUSION: Several primary determinants of HAP exposure were inversely associated with arboviral infections. Additional studies are needed to understand whether interventions to reduce HAP might actually increase risk for mosquito-borne infectious diseases, which would warrant improved education and mosquito control efforts in conjunction with fuel interventions.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Culinária , Características da Família , Feminino , Fogo , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Humanos , Repelentes de Insetos/análise , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fumaça/análise , Madeira , Adulto Jovem
9.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(1): 157-159, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458782

RESUMO

Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) is the most accurate method for the detection of dengue virus (DENV) and yellow fever virus (YFV) in acute illness. However, performing rRT-PCR is not feasible for many laboratories in regions of endemicity. The current study compared new reverse transcription-insulated isothermal PCRs (the POCKIT DENV and YFV reagent sets) with laboratory-developed rRT-PCRs for both viruses using clinical samples and viral strains from different endemic regions. Sensitivity and specificity of the POCKIT DENV Reagent Set were 87.2% (68/78 samples) and 98.2% of samples (54/55), respectively. The YFV reagent set demonstrated sensitive detection of YFV RNA from six viral strains down to an estimated concentration of 2.5 log10 copies/mL and proved to be specific for YFV. Although the POCKIT assays require RNA extraction, they may provide accurate and less-complex options for molecular testing in laboratory settings where rRT-PCR is not practical.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue/genética , Dengue/diagnóstico , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Febre Amarela/diagnóstico , Vírus da Febre Amarela/genética , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/virologia , Doenças Endêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Humanos , Paraguai/epidemiologia , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/normas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Carga Viral/genética , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia , Febre Amarela/virologia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429252

RESUMO

There are 466 million people globally with disabling hearing loss, many of whom can benefit from hearing aids. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of providing hearing aids on poverty, mental health, quality of life, and activities, among adults in Guatemala. A nonrandomised before and after study was conducted, with a comparison group to assess for secular trends. Adult cases with bilateral hearing impairment were identified within 150 km of Guatemala City, as well as age- and sex-matched comparison subjects without disabling hearing loss. All participants were interviewed with a semistructured questionnaire, and cases were offered hearing aids. Participants were reinterviewed 6-9 months later. We interviewed 135 cases and 89 comparison subjects at baseline and follow-up. At baseline, cases were poorer than comparison subjects with respect to individual income (p = 0.01), household income (p = 0.02), and per capita expenditure (PCE) (p = 0.003). After provision of hearing aids, median household income improved among cases (p = 0.03). In the comparison group, median individual income (p = 0.01) and PCE (p = 0.03) fell between baseline at follow-up. At follow-up, there were also improvements in productive time use, quality of life, and depressive symptoms among cases, but these were less apparent in the comparison group. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated a positive effect of hearing aids in improving quality of life, economic circumstances and mental health among Guatemalan adults.


Assuntos
Auxiliares de Audição , Saúde Mental , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Guatemala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
J Parasitol ; 106(3): 341-345, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227228

RESUMO

Rodents are reservoirs and hosts of several pathogens around the world, including zoonotic parasite species. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of zoonotic gastrointestinal helminths in rodents captured inside households in a rural community from southern Guatemala. Sixty-nine rodents were captured in 33% (49/148) of the surveyed households, including Rattus rattus, Rattus norvegicus, Mus musculus, and Sigmodon hispidus. Thirty-six percent (25/69) of these rodents (3 Rattus and 22 Mus musculus), from 45% (22/49) of the households, were parasitized with at least 1 gastrointestinal helminth species. Helminths from 6 species were identified: Hymenolepis diminuta, Moniliformis moniliformis, Heterakis spumosa, Nippostrongylus sp., Strongyloides sp., and Syphacia sp. Two zoonotic species were found in Rattus, H. diminuta in R. rattus (1/6), and M. moniliformis in R. norvegicus (1/1). Coinfection with other non-zoonotic helminth parasites, such as He. spumosa and Strongyloides sp., also was observed in the Rattus genus. Mus musculus had only non-zoonotic helminths: He. spumosa, Nippostrongylus sp., and Syphacia sp. being the most common, and He. spumosa (96%) followed by Nippostrongylus sp. (48%), with a higher presence in males than females, with a similar proportion in adult and young individuals. This is the first report of zoonotic and non-zoonotic helminths parasites in rodents from Guatemala.


Assuntos
Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Camundongos/parasitologia , Ratos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Animais , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , População Rural
13.
Guatemala; MSPAS. UGR; 2 abr 2020. 11 p. ilus.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1096879

RESUMO

Dispone procedimientos para el adecuado traslado de pacientes sospechosos y confirmados con Coronavirus COVID-19 desde las viviendas y entre los servicios de salud para minimizar el contagio y preservar el estado de salud y bienestar de la población guatemalteca y del personal de salud, a nivel nacional y de todas las instituciones de salud que intervienen.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/métodos , Transferência de Pacientes/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Guatemala
14.
Guatemala; MSPAS, Unidad de Gestion de Riesgos; 07 abr 2020. 28 p. graf.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1096398

RESUMO

Establece los lineamientos a seguir durante en el proceso del manejo de cadáveres infectados con el Coronavirus COVID-19 en todo el territorio nacional. Describe procedimientos para servicios de salud y funerarias, en el trato de los cuerpos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Cadáver , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Autopsia , Saneamento/métodos , Cemitérios/normas , Necrotério/métodos , Funerárias/normas , Guatemala/epidemiologia
15.
Guatemala; MSPAS, Unidad de Gestión de Riesgos; 03 abr 2020. 12 p. ilus.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1096349

RESUMO

Detalla el procedimiento para homogenizar el equipo de protección personal (EPP) que se recomienda utilizar en las acciones relacionadas con la obtención de muestras a analizar para detectar la presencia del virus, así como establecer las especificaciones y características que deben llenar los diferentes elementos a emplear, priorizando la seguridad del personal de salud involucrado.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Infecções/normas , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Guatemala
16.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0225022, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267848

RESUMO

Population size estimation is performed for several reasons including disease surveillance and control, for example to design adequate control strategies such as vaccination programs or to estimate a vaccination campaign coverage. In this study, we aimed at investigating the possibility of using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) to estimate the size of free-roaming domestic dog (FRDD) populations and compare the results with two regularly used methods for population estimations: foot-patrol transect survey and the human: dog ratio estimation. Three studies sites of one square kilometer were selected in Petén department, Guatemala. A door-to-door survey was conducted in which all available dogs were marked with a collar and owner were interviewed. The day after, UAV flight were performed twice during two consecutive days per study site. The UAV's camera was set to regularly take pictures and cover the entire surface of the selected areas. Simultaneously to the UAV's flight, a foot-patrol transect survey was performed and the number of collared and non-collared dogs were recorded. Data collected during the interviews and the number of dogs counted during the foot-patrol transects informed a capture-recapture (CR) model fit into a Bayesian inferential framework to estimate the dog population size, which was found to be 78, 259, and 413 in the three study sites. The difference of the CR model estimates compared to previously available dog census count (110 and 289) can be explained by the fact that the study population addressed by the different methods differs. The human: dog ratio covered the same study population as the dog census and tended to underestimate the FRDD population size (97 and 161). Under the conditions within this study, the total number of dogs identified on the UAV pictures was 11, 96, and 71 for the three regions (compared to the total number of dogs counted during the foot-patrol transects of 112, 354 and 211). In addition, the quality of the UAV pictures was not sufficient to assess the presence of a mark on the spotted dogs. Therefore, no CR model could be implemented to estimate the size of the FRDD using UAV. We discussed ways for improving the use of UAV for this purpose, such as flying at a lower altitude in study area wisely chosen. We also suggest to investigate the possibility of using infrared camera and automatic detection of the dogs to increase visibility of the dogs in the pictures and limit workload of finding them. Finally, we discuss the need of using models, such as spatial capture-recapture models to obtain reliable estimates of the FRDD population. This publication may provide helpful directions to design dog population size estimation methods using UAV.


Assuntos
Cães , Animais de Estimação , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães/fisiologia , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Humanos , Animais de Estimação/fisiologia , Densidade Demográfica , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto
17.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(1): 260-265, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314688

RESUMO

Infection by Helicobacter pylori is a major risk factor for gastric cancer (GC), the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Although biomarkers such as pepsinogens (PGs) and soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) may have diagnostic and/or prognostic value in patients with GC, their levels may be affected by H. pylori infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the presence of antibodies to H. pylori and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) with plasma levels of PGs and suPAR in a cohort of Guatemalan GC patients and controls. To this end, levels of suPAR, Pepsinogens I and II (PGI and PGII), and antibodies to H. pylori and CagA toxin were determined by ELISA in plasma samples from 67 GC patients and 136 matched healthy controls. Seropositivity for CagA was significantly higher in patients with GC than in controls. Pepsinogens II and suPAR levels were higher and PGI/PGII ratios were lower in GC patients than in controls. There was a significant association of H. pylori seropositivity status with increased levels of PGII and lower PGI/PGII ratios, particularly in the control (non-GC) population. The levels of suPAR were not significantly affected by H. pylori or CagA seropositivity status. These results suggest that the seropositivity status for H. pylori and CagA need to be taken into account during the GC diagnostic process.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Helicobacter pylori/imunologia , Pepsinogênio A/sangue , Receptores de Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/sangue , Neoplasias Gástricas/microbiologia , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Neoplasias Gástricas/sangue
18.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 25, 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improved access to health care and quality of services require integrated efforts and innovations, including community empowerment and participation in transformation processes. Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease that is generally controlled by insecticide spraying. To achieve community empowerment in a health program, actions for social innovations may include: community-based research, interdisciplinary and intersectoral participation, community perception of direct benefits and participation in health or environmental improvements. The aim of this study was to describe and analyze the processes by which an interdisciplinary team, in collaboration with communities of Comapa, Guatemala, developed an effective solution to address the risk for Chagas disease. METHODS: A qualitative study involving interviews semi-structured and direct observation was conducted using a case study approach to describe and understand the community-based research and intervention process developed by researchers from the Laboratory of Applied Entomology and Parasitology of the Universidad de San Carlos of Guatemala (Laboratorio de Entomologia y Parasitologia Aplicada). Nine interviews were conducted with the investigators, innovators, members of the community in which the intervention had been implemented. NVivo software (version 12) was used for the emergent coding and analysis of the interviews. RESULTS: Processes of social transformation were evident within households, and the communities that transcended the mere improvement of walls and floors. New social dynamics that favored the household economy and conditions of hygiene and home care that positively impacted the health of the community. We describe how the integration of criteria of social innovation into a home improvement strategy for Chagas disease control, can generate processes of transformation in health by considering sociocultural conditions, encouraging dialogue between public health approaches and traditional practices. We identify and discuss processes for Social Innovations in Health and identify their potential in improving community health in Latin America. CONCLUSIONS: When social innovation criteria are included in a health control initiative, the community-based research and the interdisciplinary and intersectoral participation facilitate the implementation of the control strategy, the perceived benefits by the community and its empowerment to sustain and share the strategy. The case study provided understanding of the intersectoral and interdisciplinary dynamics in particular contexts, and documented the relevance of innovation criteria in health processes.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/prevenção & controle , Controle de Insetos , Animais , Doença de Chagas/psicologia , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Participação da Comunidade , Empoderamento , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Guatemala , Humanos , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Características de Residência , Triatoma
20.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230892, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32255773

RESUMO

It is well known that the development of the ancient Maya civilization had significant and long-lasting impacts on the environment. This study assesses a large collection of faunal remains (>35,000 specimens) recovered over a span of several kilometers in and around the archaeological site of Ceibal, Guatemala, in order to determine whether the composition of animal resources was continuous throughout the site's history between 1000 BC and AD 1200, or whether there were any changes that could be attributed to sociopolitical or environmental causes. Results show a steep uniform decline in the number of freshwater mollusks across the site that occurred during the Preclassic to Classic transition, when large region-wide political changes, including the development of more complex and centralized political organization, took place throughout the Maya region. Evidence of species introductions (e.g., turkeys from central Mexico and possibly the Dermatemys river turtle from the Isthmus of Tehuantepec) and variations in resource exchange (e.g. marine shells) over time indicate that Ceibal was one of likely many communities involved in long-distance animal exchange networks. The results of the faunal analysis at Ceibal show how the ancient Maya had a complex and ever-changing relationship with the local wildlife, with outcomes that can still be observed in the environment today.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Civilização , Animais , Guatemala
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