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1.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1498, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38835005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the context of persistent wars and conflicts worldwide, the impact of acute, excessive and constant exposure to media coverage of such events on mental health outcomes becomes a serious problem for public health, and requires therefore urgent investigation to inform an effective prevention and management response. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that war-related media exposure is directly and indirectly associated with insomnia through depression and perceived stress among adults from the general population of different Arab countries. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried-out two weeks after the beginning of Israel-Gaza war on the 7th of October 2023. An anonymous online survey and a snowball sampling method were adopted to collect data. A sample of 2635 general population adults (mean age of 23.98 ± 7.55 years, 73.1% females) took part of this study. RESULTS: The results of the mediation analysis showed that, after adjusting over potential confounders, depression and perceived stress fully mediated the association between war media exposure and insomnia; higher war media exposure was significantly associated with higher depression (Beta = 0.13; p < .001) and perceived stress (Beta = 0.07; p < .001), whereas higher depression (Beta = 0.43; p < .001) and perceived stress (Beta = 0.31; p < .001) were significantly associated with higher insomnia. It is of note that war media exposure was not significantly and directly associated with insomnia (Beta = - 0.01; p = .178 and Beta = 0.02; p = .098 respectively). CONCLUSION: The present study is the first to provide evidence that more time spent viewing the horrors of war is significantly associated with insomnia. In addition, symptoms of stress and depression were present as early as two weeks following the beginning of the war, and played a significant role in mediating the association between war media coverage and insomnia. These findings suggest that timely screening for, and management of depression and stress symptoms in clinical and preventive programs might be beneficial for community adults who have been heavily and indirectly exposed to war through media, and present with insomnia.


Assuntos
Depressão , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Estresse Psicológico , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Adulto , Israel/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Meios de Comunicação de Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guerra
2.
Int J Public Health ; 69: 1607094, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38835807

RESUMO

Objectives: This study assessed emotion recognition skills in school-age children in wartime conditions in Ukraine. Methods: An online survey based on the concept of basic emotions was administrated to a sample of 419 schoolchildren from Ukraine and a control group of 310 schoolchildren from the Czech Republic, aged 8 to 12. Results: There is no difference in judging the intensity of anger and fear by Ukrainian children, compared with the control group. There is no evidence that the emotions of anger, fear, and sadness were better recognized in the Ukrainian group. Children from Ukraine were better at recognizing positive emotions than Czech children. Conclusion: Increased risks of threats and wartime experience do not impair the accuracy of identification of emotions like fear or the assessment of intensity of basic emotions by children who experience war in Ukraine. Still, it is important to continue studying the long-term consequences of military conflicts in order to deepen the understanding of their impact on human mental functioning.


Assuntos
Emoções , Humanos , Ucrânia , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , República Tcheca , Inquéritos e Questionários , Guerra/psicologia
3.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0297483, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837939

RESUMO

This article delves into the dynamics of a dyadic political violence case study in Rojava, Northern Syria, focusing on the conflict between Kurdish rebels and ISIS from January 1, 2017, to December 31, 2019. We employ agent-based modelling and a formalisation of the conflict as an Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game. The study provides a nuanced understanding of conflict dynamics in a highly volatile region, focusing on microdynamics of an intense dyadic strategic interaction between two near-equally- powered actors. The choice of using a model based on the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma, though a classical approach, offers substantial insights due to its ability to model dyadic, equally-matched strategic interactions in conflict scenarios effectively. The investigation primarily reveals that shifts in territorial control are more critical than geographical or temporal factors in determining the conflict's course. Further, the study observes that the conflict is characterised by periods of predominantly one-sided violence. This pattern underscores that the distribution of attacks, and target choices are a more telling indicator of the conflict nature than specific behavioural patterns of the actors involved. Such a conclusion aligns with the strategic implications of the underlying model, which emphasises the outcome of interactions based on differing aggression levels. This research not only sheds light on the conflict in Rojava but also reaffirms the relevance of this type of game-theoretical approach in contemporary conflict analysis.


Assuntos
Teoria dos Jogos , Dilema do Prisioneiro , Violência , Humanos , Síria , Violência/psicologia , Guerra , Modelos Teóricos , Conflitos Armados
5.
Tunis Med ; 102(4): 200-204, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38746958

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Stump hyperhidrosis is a common condition after lower limb amputation. It affects the prosthesis use, and the quality of life of patients. Several case reports tried to prove benefit of using Botulinum toxin in its treatment. AIM: This study was to conduct a larger workforce clinical trial and to demonstrate benefits of botulinum toxin injection in the treatment of stump hyperhidrosis. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted. War amputees who complained of annoying excessive sweating of the stump were included. They received intradermal injection of botulinum toxin A in the residual limb area in contact with prosthetic socket. Abundance of sweating and degree of functional discomfort associated with it were assessed before, after 3 weeks, 6 and 12 months. RESULTS: Seventeen male patients, followed for post-traumatic limb amputation were included in the study. Discomfort and bothersome in relation to Hyperhidrosis did decrease after treatment (p<0,001). Reported satisfaction after 3 weeks was 73,33%. Improvement of prothesis loosening up after 3 weeks was 72,5% [±15,6]. Mean injection-induced pain on the visual analogue scale was 5.17/10 (±1.58). The mean interval after the onset of improvement was 5.13 days [min:3, max:8]. The mean time of improvement was 10.4 months after the injection [min:6, max:12]. No major adverse events were reported following treatment. CONCLUSION: Intradermal injections of botulinum toxin in the symptomatic treatment of stump hyperhidrosis are effective and have few adverse effects. It improves the quality of life of our patients thanks to a better tolerance of the prosthesis.


Assuntos
Cotos de Amputação , Amputados , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A , Hiperidrose , Humanos , Hiperidrose/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Adulto , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/administração & dosagem , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Membros Artificiais/efeitos adversos , Injeções Intradérmicas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guerra , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto Jovem , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Lancet ; 403(10439): 1837-1838, 2024 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38735289

Assuntos
Hospitais , Líbano , Humanos , Guerra
9.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0301494, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38776294

RESUMO

One of the oldest complete suits of European armour was discovered in 1960 near the village of Dendra, in Southern Greece, but it remained unknown whether this armour was suitable for extended use in battle or was purely ceremonial. This had limited our understanding of the ancient Greek-Late Bronze Age-warfare and its consequences that have underpinned the social transformations of prehistoric Europe and Eastern Mediterranean. In a series of archeo-physiological studies, merging knowledge in archaeology, history, human physiology, and numerical simulation, we provide supporting evidence that the Mycenaean armour found at Dendra was entirely compatible with use in extended combat, and we provide a free software enabling simulation of Late Bronze Age warfare. A group of special armed-forces personnel wearing a replica of the Dendra armour were able to complete an 11-hour simulated Late Bronze Age combat protocol that we developed from a series of studies based on the available evidence. Numerical simulation of the thermal exchanges in Late Bronze Age warfare extended this conclusion across different environmental conditions and fighting intensities. Our results support the notion that the Mycenaeans had such a powerful impact in Eastern Mediterranean at least partly as a result of their armour technology.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Humanos , História Antiga , Grécia , Guerra , Arqueologia , Militares/história
10.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303023, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38809820

RESUMO

Truth telling processes, initiatives to prosecute war-time perpetrators, and ex-combatant reintegration are examples of common peacebuilding practices after war. Yet, little is known of how women are affected by peacebuilding initiatives such as these, or how they perceive these initiatives for peace. For many women, peace after war does not bring peace to everyday life; research shows that domestic violence increases during and after war. In addition, some peacebuilding measures have been found to increase risk and insecurity, not least for women. To better understand the interconnections between gender and post-conflict attitudes to peacebuilding, we asked 2,041 women and men in Sri Lanka and Nepal of their views on post-war peace initiatives. In line with our expectations, we find that women are more skeptical than men towards peacebuilding measures that involve increased risk in everyday life, such as truth-telling and coexisting with former adversaries and warring groups reintegrating in local communities. There are no gender differences pertaining to peacebuilding initiatives that take place far away at the national level, for example, concerning accountability or, in the case of Nepal, the peace agreement. Our findings suggest that international peacebuilding practice is blind to the everyday insecurities of women after war. That a basic gendered lens is missing from most peacebuilding designs is both alarming and deeply troubling, but identifying this critical aspect provides the opportunity for imperative change. By shedding light on the challenges women face after war, we hope this article contributes to finding ways to mitigate unknown and unintended side-effects of peacebuilding efforts, and thereby to the development of better, evidence-based peacebuilding practice-of benefit to both men and women.


Assuntos
Guerra , Nepal , Humanos , Sri Lanka , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Atitude
11.
BMJ Glob Health ; 9(5)2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38777392

RESUMO

Global rates of armed conflicts have shown an alarming increase since 2008. These conflicts have devastating and long-term cumulative impacts on health. The overriding aim in these conflicts is to achieve military or political goals by harming human life, which is the antithesis of the moral underpinnings of the health professions. However, the profession has rarely taken on a global advocacy role to prevent and eliminate conflicts and wars. To assume such a role, the health profession needs to be aware of the extensive and multiple impacts that wars have on population health. To facilitate this discourse, the author proposes a novel framework called 'The Twelve Dimensions of Health Impacts of War' (or the 12-D framework). The framework is based on the concepts of social and environmental determinants of population health. It has 12 interconnected 'dimensions' beginning with the letter D, capturing the adverse impacts on health (n=5), its social (n=4) and environmental determinants (n=3). For health, the indices are Deaths, Disabilities, Diseases, Dependency and Deformities. For social determinants of health, there are Disparities in socioeconomic status, Displacements of populations, Disruptions to the social fabric and Development reversals. For environmental determinants, there is Destruction of infrastructure, Devastation of the environment and Depletion of natural resources. A relatively simple framework could help researchers and lay public to understand the magnitude and quantify the widespread health, social and environmental impacts of war, comprehensively. Further validation and development of this framework are necessary to establish it as a universal metric for quantifying the horrific impacts of war on the planet and garner support for initiatives to promote global peace.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Humanos , Conflitos Armados , Saúde Global , Guerra
12.
Indian J Med Ethics ; IX(2): 130-135, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38755772

RESUMO

This article looks at the October 2023 war on Gaza in the context of the effects of wars on healthcare systems. I will begin with a brief historical overview of the so-called Israeli-Palestinian conflict to clarify the special status of the Gaza Strip and the hostilities since October 7, 2023. This will be followed by a description of the major distinguishing characteristic of this war, namely, the systematic assault on the healthcare system. Finally, I will attempt to explain the conduct of this war using a necropolitical lens.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Oriente Médio , Israel , Árabes , Guerra , Conflitos Armados , Política
13.
Science ; 384(6698): 838, 2024 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38781374
14.
15.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 254, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570753

RESUMO

Traumatic experiences in childhood can lead to trauma symptoms and impaired mental health, especially when children are exposed to war and political violence. Despite significant attention to child's exposure to traumas, few instruments to detect potentially traumatic events have been validated psychometrically. Our study aimed to develop, adapt and validate a user-friendly traumatic events checklist in Palestinian children living in three areas affected by low-intensity war and ongoing political and military violence. 965 Palestinian children (494 males and 471 females) living in the Gaza Strip, West Bank and East Jerusalem were administered with a tailor-made Traumatic Events checklist, Children Impact of Events scale, and Strengths and Difficulties Scale. Exploratory and Confirmatory factor analysis was run to detect the factorial structure of the checklist. Furthermore, ANOVA was performed to identify statistically significant demographic differences among participants. A three factors structure emerged with Political violence-related traumatic experiences (PVTE), military violence against individuals (MVI), and military violence against individuals and families (MVF). Gaza children and adolescents resulted in being the most exposed to potentially traumatic events. The instrument can clearly portray potentially traumatic experiences in children exposed to violent events and adverse childhood experiences.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Guerra , Masculino , Criança , Feminino , Adolescente , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Árabes/psicologia , Lista de Checagem , Violência/psicologia
16.
Lancet ; 403(10434): 1309, 2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582552
17.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1366600, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38645454

RESUMO

Introduction: Statistical data indicate a link between war and the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), then it is necessary to carefully analyze the factors that directly affect the identified pattern in order to overcome this problem. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to systematically analyze the factors that influence the spread of STIs during war. Methods: The study included all original research articles and meta-analyses on the impact of war on the spread of sexually transmitted infections that met the following eligibility criteria: (1) articles published exclusively in English; (2) articles published in the period 2013-2023; (3) studies with quantitative, qualitative or mixed design. The search for relevant literature was conducted using four databases: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Ebsco. Results: The articles selected for our systematic review had different research designs and were mainly published as original studies (n = 8) and literature reviews (n = 6). As a result of the evaluation of the selected articles for the systematic review, the authors identified migration, a decrease in access to health care, difficult access to contraception, sexual violence as the most frequent factors directly affecting the spread of STIs during the war. Conclusion: This systematic review systematizes data on the impact of hostilities on the spread of STIs and outlines the main factors that contribute to the dissemination of pathogens far beyond the territory at the epicenter of the conflict.Systematic review registration:https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42023479808, CRD42023479808.


Assuntos
Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Humanos , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Guerra , Fatores de Risco , Feminino
19.
Soc Sci Med ; 349: 116870, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38631234

RESUMO

Terror Management Theory (Tmt, solomon et al., 1991) claims that individuals use three anxiety buffer mechanisms to regulate their death awareness - cultural worldviews, self-esteem, and proximity seeking. In this article, we use these three TMT anxiety buffers to explain the phenomenon of posthumous sperm retrieval, requested by spouses or parents, usually of young soldiers who died during their military service. Whereas this phenomenon has been known for some time, it increased dramatically in the initial days following the massacre conducted by the Hamas terrorist organization in Israel on October 7, 2023. We claim that this was an immediate reaction to this terror event, which posed a direct, existential threat to those who were exposed to the massacre and the soldiers who defended the country, but also to the entire Israeli society, as well as for Jews around the globe. We use interpretive phenomenology to qualitatively examine the phenomenon of retrieving sperm from dead young men, analyzing the requests to retrieve sperm posthumously as a sign of the need to provide these young men with symbolic immortality, on both personal and national levels. We integrate this explanation with the military ethos and the tendency of Israeli society to endorse familyist and pronatalist values to expand our understanding of this contemporary phenomenon in Israel.


Assuntos
Militares , Recuperação Espermática , Humanos , Masculino , Israel , Militares/psicologia , Recuperação Espermática/psicologia , Concepção Póstuma/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Adulto Jovem , Guerra/psicologia , Atitude Frente a Morte , Terrorismo/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa
20.
Environ Manage ; 73(6): 1089-1093, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38649482

RESUMO

The military-industrial complex, military operations, and wars are major contributors to exacerbating both climate change and biodiversity crises. However, their environmental impacts are often shadowed due to national security reasons. The current paper aims to go through the devastating impacts of military operations and wars on climate change and biodiversity loss and challenges that hinder the inclusion of military-related activities into environmental crisis mitigation efforts. The information blind spot induced by concerns about national security reasons jeopardizes the efforts to involve the military-industrial complex and military operations in the global climate and biodiversity agendas. Besides that, many military-related challenges, such as specificity of operational requirements and lifecycles, dependence on fossil fuels, complex supply change, inadequate civilian technologies and innovations, and requirements of structural changes, can hinder emission reduction. Meanwhile, wars and conflicts not only threaten to drain all human and material resources available to tackle environmental problems but also inflict long-lasting destructions, pains, and trauma that can lead to hatred and distrust among nations and parties. With the rising hatred and distrust, global agreement and commitment to address climate change and biodiversity will hardly be achieved. Thus, promoting peace is the humanistic and planetary conscience.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Humanos , Guerra , Militares
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