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1.
Med Trop Sante Int ; 4(1)2024 Mar 31.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38846113

RESUMO

Background: Sickle cell disease is one of the most common genetic diseases in France. In French Guiana, neonatal screening was introduced in 1992, at the same time as other screening programs for childhood diseases. The aim of this study is to describe the organization of newborn screening for sickle cell disease in French Guiana. Materials and methods: We used several data sources: data collected from hospital records since 2005, activity reports from the national neonatal screening program and data from screening campaigns organized by the Drepaguyane association between 2010 and 2021 on 1,300 subjects. Blood samples from newborns are collected by capillary or venous sampling and absorbed on blotting paper (Guthrie) at the same time as those for other neonatal screenings. The dried papers are sent to the inter-regional laboratory in Lille, for further processing. In Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, in order to reduce the proportion of people lost to follow-up, a double screening is carried out and the results are returned before discharge from the maternity hospital. All data were entered into an anonymous Excel file. The data were analyzed using STATA software. Results: Among the 175,593 screened neonates between 1992 and 2021, screening detected 823 infants with sickle cell disease and 17,950 heterozygotes. Sickle cell genotypes include 493 SS (60%), 302 SC (37%) and 28 S-Beta-thalassemia (3%). The incidence of sickle cell disease was 1/213, 95% CI [1/236-1/204], and that of heterozygotes 1/10, IC 95% [1/12-1/8]. The majority of these children (52%) were from the Maroni region. The delay between screening and test results was 7 days. Only pathological results (homozygous, heterozygous) were communicated to parents and/or the attending physician by post. These data confirm the upward trend in the number of children screened for sickle cell disease in French Guiana. Data from screening campaigns organized by the Drepaguyane association have enabled to describe the distribution of the various abnormal hemoglobin fractions, and to confirm that HbS is more frequent in Western French Guiana. In Cayenne, in 2021, the active file comprised 699 patients, including 266 children under 18 years old. Discussion and conclusion: This study provides valuable data on 30 years of neonatal screening for sickle cell disease in French Guiana, and on the evolution of sickle cell disease patients. It confirms that French Guiana is the French territory with the highest incidence of sickle cell disease. This incidence continues to rise over time. The study reveals the improvement in the organization of sickle cell disease management in French Guiana between 1992, when screening was introduced, and the present day. It highlights the role of patient associations in the fight against this disease, by organizing awareness and screening campaigns. These data will be used to guide public health policies in the pursuit of improved care and primary prevention.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Triagem Neonatal , Humanos , Anemia Falciforme/epidemiologia , Anemia Falciforme/diagnóstico , Anemia Falciforme/genética , Guiana Francesa/epidemiologia , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(5): e17287, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695768

RESUMO

While droughts predominantly induce immediate reductions in plant carbon uptake, they can also exert long-lasting effects on carbon fluxes through associated changes in leaf area, soil carbon, etc. Among other mechanisms, shifts in carbon allocation due to water stress can contribute to the legacy effects of drought on carbon fluxes. However, the magnitude and impact of these allocation shifts on carbon fluxes and pools remain poorly understood. Using data from a wet tropical flux tower site in French Guiana, we demonstrate that drought-induced carbon allocation shifts can be reliably inferred by assimilating Net Biosphere Exchange (NBE) and other observations within the CARbon DAta MOdel fraMework. This model-data fusion system allows inference of optimized carbon and water cycle parameters and states from multiple observational data streams. We then examined how these inferred shifts affected the duration and magnitude of drought's impact on NBE during and after the extreme event. Compared to a static allocation scheme analogous to those typically implemented in land surface models, dynamic allocation reduced average carbon uptake during drought recovery by a factor of 2.8. Additionally, the dynamic model extended the average recovery time by 5 months. The inferred allocation shifts influenced the post-drought period by altering foliage and fine root pools, which in turn modulated gross primary productivity and heterotrophic respiration for up to a decade. These changes can create a bust-boom cycle where carbon uptake is enhanced some years after a drought, compared to what would have occurred under drought-free conditions. Overall, allocation shifts accounted for 65% [45%-75%] of drought legacy effects in modeled NBE. In summary, drought-induced carbon allocation shifts can play a substantial role in the enduring influence of drought on cumulative land-atmosphere CO2 exchanges and should be accounted for in ecosystem models.


Assuntos
Ciclo do Carbono , Secas , Clima Tropical , Guiana Francesa , Florestas , Carbono/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos
3.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3988, 2024 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734682

RESUMO

Tick-borne bacteria of the genera Ehrlichia and Anaplasma cause several emerging human infectious diseases worldwide. In this study, we conduct an extensive survey for Ehrlichia and Anaplasma infections in the rainforests of the Amazon biome of French Guiana. Through molecular genetics and metagenomics reconstruction, we observe a high indigenous biodiversity of infections circulating among humans, wildlife, and ticks inhabiting these ecosystems. Molecular typing identifies these infections as highly endemic, with a majority of new strains and putative species specific to French Guiana. They are detected in unusual rainforest wild animals, suggesting they have distinctive sylvatic transmission cycles. They also present potential health hazards, as revealed by the detection of Candidatus Anaplasma sparouinense in human red blood cells and that of a new close relative of the human pathogen Ehrlichia ewingii, Candidatus Ehrlichia cajennense, in the tick species that most frequently bite humans in South America. The genome assembly of three new putative species obtained from human, sloth, and tick metagenomes further reveals the presence of major homologs of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma virulence factors. These observations converge to classify health hazards associated with Ehrlichia and Anaplasma infections in the Amazon biome as distinct from those in the Northern Hemisphere.


Assuntos
Anaplasma , Animais Selvagens , Ehrlichia , Filogenia , Floresta Úmida , Carrapatos , Anaplasma/genética , Anaplasma/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasma/patogenicidade , Anaplasma/classificação , Ehrlichia/genética , Ehrlichia/isolamento & purificação , Ehrlichia/classificação , Humanos , Animais , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Anaplasmose/microbiologia , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Anaplasmose/transmissão , Guiana Francesa , Ehrlichiose/microbiologia , Ehrlichiose/epidemiologia , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Ehrlichiose/transmissão , Metagenômica/métodos , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
4.
Malar J ; 23(1): 140, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax relapses due to dormant liver hypnozoites can be prevented with primaquine. However, the dose must be adjusted in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. In French Guiana, assessment of G6PD activity is typically delayed until day (D)14 to avoid the risk if misclassification. This study assessed the kinetics of G6PD activity throughout P. vivax infection to inform the timing of treatment. METHODS: For this retrospective monocentric study, data on G6PD activity between D1 and D28 after treatment initiation with chloroquine or artemisinin-based combination therapy were collected for patients followed at Cayenne Hospital, French Guiana, between January 2018 and December 2020. Patients were divided into three groups based on the number of available G6PD activity assessments: (i) at least two measurements during the P. vivax malaria infection; (ii) two measurements: one during the current infection and one previously; (iii) only one measurement during the malaria infection. RESULTS: In total, 210 patients were included (80, 20 and 110 in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively). Data from group 1 showed that G6PD activity remained stable in each patient over time (D1, D3, D7, D14, D21, D28). None of the patients with normal G6PD activity during the initial phase (D1-D3) of the malaria episode (n = 44) was categorized as G6PD-deficient at D14. Patients with G6PD activity < 80% at D1 or D3 showed normal activity at D14. Sex and reticulocyte count were statistically associated with G6PD activity variation. In the whole sample (n = 210), no patient had severe G6PD deficiency (< 10%) and only three between 10 and 30%, giving a G6PD deficiency prevalence of 1.4%. Among the 100 patients from group 1 and 2, 30 patients (26.5%) were lost to follow-up before primaquine initiation. CONCLUSIONS: In patients treated for P. vivax infection, G6PD activity did not vary over time. Therefore, G6PD activity on D1 instead of D14 could be used for primaquine dose-adjustment. This could allow earlier radical treatment with primaquine, that could have a public health impact by decreasing early recurrences and patients lost to follow-up before primaquine initiation. This hypothesis needs to be confirmed in larger prospective studies.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase , Malária Vivax , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Guiana Francesa/epidemiologia , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Deficiência de Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/complicações , Cinética , Malária Vivax/tratamento farmacológico , Plasmodium vivax/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium vivax/fisiologia , Primaquina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
5.
Bull Cancer ; 111(6): 597-607, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38749776

RESUMO

French Guiana is an equatorial, multicultural, overseas territory in South America. The region is unique: a wealthy country with a universal healthcare system, but significant poverty, which bears little resemblance to its neighbors Brazil and Suriname. Cancer is the second leading cause of death. The incidence of cancer is lower than in France, stages are generally more advanced and the prognosis worse. To date, oncology has been organized through a joint venture between local institutions and healthcare professionals and a cancer center in mainland France, in line with the recommendations of the Institut National du Cancer. The implementation of a medical project and a complete medical studies curriculum in French Guiana is a tremendous opportunity for the development of oncology. The main challenges are consolidating medical care for patients, quality control, genetic oncology, molecular biology, implementation of radiotherapy and nuclear medicine, clinical and translational research, and teaching programs. Working in oncology in French Guiana is exciting because of the scientific interest (particular characteristics of cancers, notably the role of viral or micro-organism-induced carcinogenesis, genetic factors in these populations with African and Asian roots, and the importance of a public health policy) and human interest (patients from different cultures; all of them bring original approaches to health and illness that need to be deciphered in order to offer quality care). This requires the support of healthcare professionals who are enthusiastic about this unique adventure.


Assuntos
Oncologia , Neoplasias , Guiana Francesa/epidemiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/terapia , Oncologia/educação , Currículo , Pesquisa Translacional Biomédica , França , Controle de Qualidade
6.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 278, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The availability of soil phosphorus (P) often limits the productivities of wet tropical lowland forests. Little is known, however, about the metabolomic profile of different chemical P compounds with potentially different uses and about the cycling of P and their variability across space under different tree species in highly diverse tropical rainforests. RESULTS: We hypothesised that the different strategies of the competing tree species to retranslocate, mineralise, mobilise, and take up P from the soil would promote distinct soil 31P profiles. We tested this hypothesis by performing a metabolomic analysis of the soils in two rainforests in French Guiana using 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). We analysed 31P NMR chemical shifts in soil solutions of model P compounds, including inorganic phosphates, orthophosphate mono- and diesters, phosphonates, and organic polyphosphates. The identity of the tree species (growing above the soil samples) explained > 53% of the total variance of the 31P NMR metabolomic profiles of the soils, suggesting species-specific ecological niches and/or species-specific interactions with the soil microbiome and soil trophic web structure and functionality determining the use and production of P compounds. Differences at regional and topographic levels also explained some part of the the total variance of the 31P NMR profiles, although less than the influence of the tree species. Multivariate analyses of soil 31P NMR metabolomics data indicated higher soil concentrations of P biomolecules involved in the active use of P (nucleic acids and molecules involved with energy and anabolism) in soils with lower concentrations of total soil P and higher concentrations of P-storing biomolecules in soils with higher concentrations of total P. CONCLUSIONS: The results strongly suggest "niches" of soil P profiles associated with physical gradients, mostly topographic position, and with the specific distribution of species along this gradient, which is associated with species-specific strategies of soil P mineralisation, mobilisation, use, and uptake.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Fósforo , Floresta Úmida , Árvores , Guiana Francesa , Fosfatos , Solo
7.
J Epidemiol Popul Health ; 72(2): 202381, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579396

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The overall incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in France is low; thus, BCG vaccination is no longer mandatory. In French Guiana - a French overseas territory - BCG vaccination is strongly recommended because the incidence of TB is high in the context of mass immigration from endemic countries with low BCG vaccination rates. Thus, it is important to assess Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination coverage and its predictors. METHODS: We used data from the 2014 French Guiana Yellow Fever survey, which was conducted by the Observatoire Régional de la Santé de Guyane. Demographic and immunization data from eligible children and their families were collected using a questionnaire. Children who had an immunization card and who were no older than 7 years of age at the time of the survey were eligible. The Coverage for BCG and other mandatory vaccines were estimated; the delay in BCG vaccination was also computed. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified predictors associated with BCG immunization and BCG delayed immunization (after 2 months of age). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Overall, 469 children were eligible for this study. The total BCG coverage was 79.5 %, and the proportion of children vaccinated with delay was 50.7 %. The multivariate analysis indicated that BCVA was significantly greater among children younger than 3 years of age, whose household head was employed and whose education level was greater. None of the predictors were associated with the delay of BCG vaccination.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG , Tuberculose , Criança , Humanos , Guiana Francesa , Vacinação , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Imunização
8.
Int J Public Health ; 69: 1606423, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38681119

RESUMO

Objectives: Small for gestational age (SGA) newborns have a higher risk of poor outcomes. French Guiana (FG) is a territory in South America with poor living conditions. The objectives of this study were to describe risk factors associated with SGA newborns in FG. Methods: We used the birth cohort that compiles data from all pregnancies that ended in FG from 2013 to 2021. We analysed data of newborns born after 22 weeks of gestation and/or weighing more than 500 g and their mothers. Results: 67,962 newborns were included. SGA newborns represented 11.7% of all newborns. Lack of health insurance was associated with SGA newborns (p < 0.001) whereas no difference was found between different types of health insurance and the proportion of SGA newborns (p = 0.86). Mothers aged less than 20 years (aOR = 1.65 [1.55-1.77]), from Haiti (aOR = 1.24 [1.11-1.39]) or Guyana (aOR = 1.30 [1.01-1.68]) and lack of health insurance (aOR = 1.24 [1.10-1.40]) were associated with SGA newborns. Conclusion: Immigration and precariousness appear to be determinants of SGA newborns in FG. Other studies are needed to refine these results.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Seguro Saúde , Humanos , Guiana Francesa , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores de Risco , Masculino , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem , Idade Gestacional
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 924: 171645, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479523

RESUMO

The origin of introduction of a new pathogen in a country, the evolutionary dynamics of an epidemic within a country, and the role of cross-border areas on pathogen dynamics remain complex to disentangle and are often poorly understood. For instance, cross-border areas represent the ideal location for the sharing of viral variants between countries, with international air travel, land travel and waterways playing an important role in the cross-border spread of infectious diseases. Unfortunately, monitoring the point of entry and the evolutionary dynamics of viruses in space and time within local populations remain challenging. Here we tested the efficiency of wastewater-based epidemiology and genotyping in monitoring Covid-19 epidemiology and SARS-CoV-2 variant dynamics in French Guiana, a tropical country located in South America. Our results suggest that wastewater-based epidemiology and genotyping are powerful tools to monitor variant introduction and disease evolution within a tropical country but the inclusion of both clinical and wastewater samples could still improve our understanding of genetic diversity co-circulating. Wastewater sequencing also revealed the cryptic transmission of SARS-CoV-2 variants within the country. Interestingly, we found some amino acid changes specific to the variants co-circulating in French Guiana, suggesting a local evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 variants after their introduction. More importantly, our results showed that the proximity to bordering countries was not the origin of the emergence of the French Guianese B.1.160.25 variant, but rather that this variant emerged from an ancestor B.1.160 variant introduced by European air plane travelers, suggesting thus that air travel remains a significant risk for cross-border spread of infectious diseases. Overall, we suggest that wastewater-based epidemiology and genotyping provides a cost effective and non-invasive approach for pathogen monitoring and an early-warning tool for disease emergence and spread within a tropical country.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Guiana Francesa/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Águas Residuárias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , América do Sul
10.
Euro Surveill ; 29(13)2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38551097

RESUMO

In 2023, dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV2) affected most French overseas territories. In the French Caribbean Islands, viral circulation continues with > 30,000 suspected infections by March 2024. Genome sequence analysis reveals that the epidemic lineage in the French Caribbean islands has also become established in French Guiana but not Réunion. It has moreover seeded autochthonous circulation events in mainland France. To guide prevention of further inter-territorial spread and DENV introduction in non-endemic settings, continued molecular surveillance and mosquito control are essential.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Humanos , Guiana Francesa/epidemiologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Índias Ocidentais/epidemiologia , França/epidemiologia
11.
Glob Public Health ; 19(1): 2332969, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38529772

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis is a major cause of mortality worldwide. Prisoners in Guiana have multiple risk factors. The primary objective of this study was to describe tuberculosis occurring in prison and after release in French Guiana between 2008 and 2020. Secondary objectives were to identify tuberculosis risk factors and determine annual incidences. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of tuberculosis cases was carried out at the Guiana prison between 2008 and 2020. Data were collected from prison registers and cross-referenced with the list of tuberculosis notifications in French Guiana. RESULTS: A total of 36 cases of tuberculosis were studied. Incidence was high, at 263/100,000 per year, higher than elsewhere in France and comparable to that in Brazil. Despite visibly effective screening on entry, with little evidence of intra-prison circulation of tuberculosis, 39% of patients were diagnosed within two years of leaving prison (76% were symptomatic). This could be explained by the high prevalence of latent forms (LTI). DISCUSSION: Continued screening on entry, in combination with annual radiological and clinical screening, and reinforced follow-up on release seem indicated to improve patient management and the search for possible LTI.


Assuntos
Prisioneiros , Tuberculose , Humanos , Prisões , Estudos Retrospectivos , Guiana Francesa/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(14): e2311597121, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38527199

RESUMO

Warmer temperatures and higher sea level than today characterized the Last Interglacial interval [Pleistocene, 128 to 116 thousand years ago (ka)]. This period is a remarkable deep-time analog for temperature and sea-level conditions as projected for 2100 AD, yet there has been no evidence of fossil assemblages in the equatorial Atlantic. Here, we report foraminifer, metazoan (mollusks, bony fish, bryozoans, decapods, and sharks among others), and plant communities of coastal tropical marine and mangrove affinities, dating precisely from a ca. 130 to 115 ka time interval near the Equator, at Kourou, in French Guiana. These communities include ca. 230 recent species, some being endangered today and/or first recorded as fossils. The hyperdiverse Kourou mollusk assemblage suggests stronger affinities between Guianese and Caribbean coastal waters by the Last Interglacial than today, questioning the structuring role of the Amazon Plume on tropical Western Atlantic communities at the time. Grassland-dominated pollen, phytoliths, and charcoals from younger deposits in the same sections attest to a marine retreat and dryer conditions during the onset of the last glacial (ca. 110 to 50 ka), with a savanna-dominated landscape and episodes of fire. Charcoals from the last millennia suggest human presence in a mosaic of modern-like continental habitats. Our results provide key information about the ecology and biogeography of pristine Pleistocene tropical coastal ecosystems, especially relevant regarding the-widely anthropogenic-ongoing global warming.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Moluscos , Humanos , Animais , Guiana Francesa , Plantas , Pólen , Fósseis
13.
Parasite ; 31: 14, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38488705

RESUMO

Filarial nematodes of the Dipetalonema lineage include tick-borne filarioids that infect both domestic and wild vertebrate hosts, but they remain understudied in many cases. In this study, we conducted a molecular characterization of a Dipetalonema-like filarioid (DLF) recently identified in two tick species in French Guiana, South America. While the cox1 mitochondrial gene was the sole marker initially sequenced for describing DLF, its classification and phylogenetic relationship with other members of the Dipetalonema lineage were unclear. Therefore, we better characterized DLF through the sequencing of six additional gene markers and conducted phylogenetic analyses. Based on this multi-locus typing scheme, DLF exhibited significant divergence from known genera and species of filarioids, or other sequences available in public databases, suggesting its potential classification as a novel genus within the Dipetalonema lineage. Phylogenetic analyses further unveiled a close evolutionary relationship between DLF and all other filarioids associated with Acari (ticks and mites) within a robust monophyletic subclade in the Dipetalonema lineage. Overall, these findings confirm the existence of a specialized, Acari-borne group of filarioids and underscore the need for comprehensive investigations into their epidemiology and potential impact on animal health.


Title: Une analyse de séquences multi-locus dévoile un nouveau genre de nématodes filaires, associé aux tiques en Guyane française. Abstract: Les filaires de la lignée Dipetalonema comprennent des espèces transmises par les tiques qui infectent à la fois des hôtes vertébrés domestiques et sauvages, mais qui restent sous-étudiées dans de nombreux cas. Dans cette étude, nous avons réalisé une caractérisation moléculaire d'un filarioïde ressemblant à Dipetalonema (FRD) récemment identifié dans deux espèces de tiques en Guyane française. Alors que la séquence du gène mitochondrial cox1 était le seul marqueur génétique initialement séquencé pour décrire FRD, sa classification et sa relation phylogénétique avec d'autres membres de la lignée Dipetalonema étaient incertaines. Par conséquent, nous avons caractérisé plus précisément DLF en séquençant six gènes supplémentaires et en réalisant des analyses phylogénétiques. Sur la base de ce typage multi-locus, FRD présentait une divergence significative par rapport aux genres et espèces connus de filarioïdes, ou à d'autres séquences disponibles dans les bases de données publiques, suggérant sa classification potentielle en tant que nouveau genre au sein de la lignée Dipetalonema. Les analyses phylogénétiques ont en outre révélé une relation évolutive étroite entre FRD et tous les autres filarioïdes associés aux tiques et acariens au sein d'un sous-clade monophylétique dans la lignée Dipetalonema. Dans l'ensemble, ces résultats confirment l'existence d'un groupe spécialisé de filarioïdes transmis par les tiques et acariens et soulignent la nécessité d'études approfondies sur leur épidémiologie et leur impact potentiel sur la santé animale.


Assuntos
Ácaros e Carrapatos , Nematoides , Carrapatos , Animais , Filogenia , Guiana Francesa/epidemiologia , Análise de Sequência
14.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1252040, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38481831

RESUMO

Preterm deliveries are a major multifactorial public health problem in French Guiana. Desert dust episodes have been associated with preterm delivery in Guadeloupe, a territory with similarities to French Guiana. We thus tried to replicate this finding in the context of French Guiana. A retrospective ecological cohort study combined daily PM10 concentration measurements during pregnancy and term at delivery extracted from French Guiana's computerized pregnancy delivery registry. Daily PM10 concentrations during the course of pregnancy were analyzed as mean concentrations and as the proportion of intense dust episodes (≥55 µg PM10/m3). These exposure variables were studied in relation to the outcome of preterm delivery. Overall, 3,321 pregnant women with complete daily PM10 measurements were included, of whom 374 (11.26%) delivered prematurely. Among preterm deliveries, 168 (44.9%) were spontaneous deliveries and 206 (55.1%) were induced. Rank-sum tests showed that, for spontaneous and induced spontaneous deliveries, both mean PM10 concentrations and proportions of intense desert dust episodes were significantly greater among preterm births than among term births. Although the proportion of intense desert dust episodes during pregnancy was significantly associated with spontaneous preterm deliveries, the relation was U-shaped, with an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2 (95%CI = 1.2-3.1) for lowest values relative to median values and AOR = 5.4 (95%CI = 3.2-8.9) for the highest values relative to median values. Similarly, the proportion of intense desert dust episodes during pregnancy was also significantly associated with induced preterm deliveries in a U-shaped manner (AOR = 2.7 (95%CI = 1.6-4.5) for the lowest relative to median values and AOR = 6.8 (95%CI = 3.9-11.9) for the highest relative to median values). Although in our study the relation between PM10 concentrations appeared non-linear, the highest mean concentrations and intense desert dust episodes were indeed associated with both spontaneous and induced preterm delivery.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Nascimento Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Poeira/análise , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Guiana Francesa/epidemiologia
15.
Med Mycol ; 62(3)2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38389256

RESUMO

Previous molecular studies have shown that Candida africana corresponds to the clade 13 of Candia albicans. It has been mostly involved in vulvovaginal candidiasis worldwide but few data exist in South America. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of C. africana in women living in French Guiana. For this, we first set up a fluorescent-intercalating-dye-real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) targeting the hyphal wall protein 1 gene. The test was applied to 212 C. albicans isolates collected from May to August 2019 from vaginal swabs, allowing the identification of six women harboring C. africana (eight isolates). The in vitro susceptibility of these eight isolates to six antifungal drugs was also evaluated. No demographics or clinical-specific features could be demonstrated. Genetic diversity of those isolates was analyzed through multilocus sequence typing and showed that diploid sequence type 182 was predominant (n = 6) and allowed the report of a new diploid sequence type.


Candida africana, the clade 13 of C. albicans, is characterized by specific genetic and phenotypic traits. Using a new molecular technique, we report a high prevalence of C. africana in vaginal swabs from patients living in French Guiana. The worldwide predominant genotype was detected in all but one patient.


Assuntos
Candida , Candidíase Vulvovaginal , Feminino , Humanos , Guiana Francesa/epidemiologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/epidemiologia , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/microbiologia , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/veterinária , Vagina/microbiologia , Antifúngicos , Candida albicans
16.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 110(4): 819-825, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38377600

RESUMO

In tropical countries, acute febrile illnesses represent a complex clinical problem for general practitioners. We describe the prevalence of different etiologies of acute febrile illnesses occurring among French service members and their families, excluding children, in general practice in French Guiana. From June 2017 to March 2020, patients with a fever ≥37.8°C with a duration of less than 15 days who sought medical care at the army medical centers in Cayenne and Kourou were prospectively enrolled. Based on clinical presentation, blood, urine, nasopharyngeal, and stool samples were collected for diagnostic testing for viruses, bacteria, and parasites (by direct examination, microscopic examination of blood smears, culture, serology, or polymerase chain reaction), and standardized biological tests were systematically performed. Among 175 patients retained for analysis, fever with nonspecific symptoms was predominant (46.9%), with 10 Plasmodium vivax malaria cases, 8 dengue infections, and 6 cases of Q fever. The second most frequent cause of acute febrile illness was upper respiratory tract infections (32.0%) due to influenza virus (n = 18) or human rhinovirus (n = 10). Among the causes of acute febrile illness in French Guiana, clinicians should first consider arboviruses and malaria, as well as Q fever in cases of elevated C-reactive protein with nonspecific symptoms and influenza in cases of signs and symptoms associated with upper respiratory tract infections. Despite an expanded microbiological search, the etiology of 51.4% of acute febrile illnesses remain unknown. Further investigations will be necessary to identify the etiology of acute febrile illnesses, including new pathogens, in French Guiana.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana , Malária , Febre Q , Criança , Adulto , Humanos , Guiana Francesa/epidemiologia , Febre Q/complicações , Malária/complicações , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/diagnóstico , Febre/etiologia , Febre/complicações , Influenza Humana/complicações
17.
J Med Entomol ; 61(3): 818-823, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38408180

RESUMO

Arboviruses can be difficult to detect in the field due to relatively low prevalence in mosquito populations. The discovery that infected mosquitoes can release viruses in both their saliva and excreta gave rise to low-cost methods for the detection of arboviruses during entomological surveillance. We implemented both saliva and excreta-based entomological surveillance during the emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in French Guiana in 2016 by trapping mosquitoes around households of symptomatic cases with confirmed ZIKV infection. ZIKV was detected in mosquito excreta and not in mosquito saliva in 1 trap collection out of 85 (1.2%). One female Ae. aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) was found with a ZIKV systemic infection in the corresponding trap. The lag time between symptom onset in a ZIKV-infected individual living near the trap site and ZIKV detection in this mosquito was 1 wk. These results highlight the potential of detection in excreta from trapped mosquitoes as a sensitive and cost-effective method to non invasively detect arbovirus circulation.


Assuntos
Aedes , Fezes , Saliva , Zika virus , Animais , Guiana Francesa , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Aedes/virologia , Saliva/virologia , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Masculino , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(1): e0011859, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38194417

RESUMO

Mayaro virus (MAYV) is a mosquito-borne Alphavirus that is widespread in South America. MAYV infection often presents with non-specific febrile symptoms but may progress to debilitating chronic arthritis or arthralgia. Despite the pandemic threat of MAYV, its true distribution remains unknown. The objective of this study was to clarify the geographic distribution of MAYV using an established risk mapping framework. This consisted of generating evidence consensus scores for MAYV presence, modeling the potential distribution of MAYV in select countries across Central and South America, and estimating the population residing in areas suitable for MAYV transmission. We compiled a georeferenced compendium of MAYV occurrence in humans, animals, and arthropods. Based on an established evidence consensus framework, we integrated multiple information sources to assess the total evidence supporting ongoing transmission of MAYV within each country in our study region. We then developed high resolution maps of the disease's estimated distribution using a boosted regression tree approach. Models were developed using nine climatic and environmental covariates that are related to the MAYV transmission cycle. Using the output of our boosted regression tree models, we estimated the total population living in regions suitable for MAYV transmission. The evidence consensus scores revealed high or very high evidence of MAYV transmission in several countries including Brazil (especially the states of Mato Grosso and Goiás), Venezuela, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and French Guiana. According to the boosted regression tree models, a substantial region of South America is suitable for MAYV transmission, including north and central Brazil, French Guiana, and Suriname. Some regions (e.g., Guyana) with only moderate evidence of known transmission were identified as highly suitable for MAYV. We estimate that approximately 58.9 million people (95% CI: 21.4-100.4) in Central and South America live in areas that may be suitable for MAYV transmission, including 46.2 million people (95% CI: 17.6-68.9) in Brazil. Our results may assist in prioritizing high-risk areas for vector control, human disease surveillance and ecological studies.


Assuntos
Alphavirus , Mosquitos Vetores , Animais , Humanos , Brasil , Guiana Francesa , Guiana
19.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 57: 102677, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38049022

RESUMO

In French Guiana, more than a third of the population, and nearly half of the adults, are of foreign origin. This immigration is explained by the French standard of living, which is attractive to nationals of surrounding countries. Infectious diseases remain in the top 10 causes of premature death, often in the most precarious populations. In this context we aimed to synthesize the state of the knowledge regarding immigration and infectious diseases in French Guiana and the general implications that follow this diagnosis. For HIV, although the majority of patients are of foreign origin, estimates of the presumed date of infection based on CD4 erosion modelling and from molecular analyses suggest that the majority of transmissions in foreign-born individuals occur in French Guiana and that the Guiana shield has been a crossroad between Latin America and the Caribbean. Among key populations bridging these regions illegal gold miners are very mobile and have the greatest proportion B Caribbean HIV viruses. Gold miners have been a key vulnerable population for falciparum malaria and other tropical diseases such as leishmaniasis, leprosy, or leptospirosis. The complex history of migrations in French Guiana and on the Guiana Shield is also reflected in the fingerprinting of mycobacterium tuberculosis and the high incidence of tuberculosis in French Guiana, notably in immigrants, reflects the incidences in the countries of origin of patients. The high burden of infectious diseases in immigrants in French Guiana is first and foremost a reflection of the precarious living conditions within French Guiana and suggests that community-based proactive interventions are crucial to reduce transmission, morbidity, and mortality from infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por HIV , Malária Falciparum , Adulto , Humanos , Guiana Francesa/epidemiologia , Ouro , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia
20.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 38(3): 602-612, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38041562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Strategies for the control of scabies should be adapted to local settings. Traditional communities in French Guiana have non-Western conceptions of disease and health. OBJECTIVES: The objectives for this study were to explore knowledge, attitudes and practices to identify potential factors associated with the failure of scabies treatment in these communities. METHODS: Patients with a clinical diagnosis of scabies, seen at either the Cayenne Hospital or one of 13 health centres between 01 April 2021 and 31 August 2021, were included as participants, and were seen again after 6 weeks to check for persistence of lesions. Factors associated with treatment failure were looked for both at inclusion and at 6 weeks. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a diversified subsample of participants. RESULTS: In total, 164 participants were included in the quantitative component, and 21 were interviewed for the qualitative component. Declaring that the second treatment dose had been taken was associated with therapeutic success. Western treatments were not always affordable. Better adherence was observed with topical treatments than with oral ivermectin, whereas permethrin monotherapy was associated with failure. Scabies-associated stigma was high among Amerindians and Haitians but absent in Ndjuka Maroons. Participants reported environmental disinfection as being very complex. CONCLUSIONS: The treatment of scabies in traditional Guianan communities may vary depending on local perceptions of galenic formulations, disease-associated stigma and differences in access to health care. These factors should be taken into account when devising strategies for the control of scabies aimed at traditional communities living in remote areas, and migrant populations.


Assuntos
Indígenas Sul-Americanos , Escabiose , Humanos , Escabiose/tratamento farmacológico , Guiana Francesa , Ivermectina , Permetrina
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