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1.
Lipids Health Dis ; 23(1): 48, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38365720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genetic variants linked to fat metabolism and related traits, but rarely pinpoint causative variants. This limitation arises from GWAS not considering functional implications of noncoding variants that can affect transcription factor binding and potentially regulate gene expression. The aim of this study is to investigate a candidate noncoding functional variant within a genetic locus flagged by a GWAS SNP associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a condition characterized by liver fat accumulation in non-alcohol consumers. METHODS: CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing in HepG2 cells was used to modify the regulatory element containing the candidate functional variant linked to NAFLD. Global gene expression in mutant cells was assessed through RT-qPCR and targeted transcriptomics. A phenotypic assay measured lipid droplet accumulation in the CRISPR-Cas9 mutants. RESULTS: The candidate functional variant, rs2294510, closely linked to the NAFLD-associated GWAS SNP rs11206226, resided in a regulatory element within the DIO1 gene's promoter region. Altering this element resulted in changes in transcription factor binding sites and differential expression of candidate target genes like DIO1, TMEM59, DHCR24, and LDLRAD1, potentially influencing the NAFLD phenotype. Mutant HepG2 cells exhibited increased lipid accumulation, a hallmark of NAFLD, along with reduced LDL-C, HDL-C and elevated triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS: This comprehensive approach, that combines genome editing, transcriptomics, and phenotypic assays identified the DIO1 promoter region as a potential enhancer. Its activity could regulate multiple genes involved in the NAFLD phenotype or contribute to defining a polygenic risk score for enhanced risk assessment in NAFLD patients.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Humanos , LDL-Colesterol/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Células Hep G2 , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Iodeto Peroxidase/genética , HDL-Colesterol/genética , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo
2.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0298629, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38416767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Past studies have demonstrated that patients diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) often exhibit abnormal levels of lipids. Furthermore, certain lipid-modifying medications have shown effectiveness in alleviating clinical symptoms associated with RA. However, the current understanding of the causal relationship between lipids, lipid-modifying medications, and the risk of developing RA remains inconclusive. This study employed Mendelian randomization (MR) to investigate the causal connection between lipids, lipid-modifying drugs, and the occurrence of RA. METHODS: We obtained genetic variation for lipid traits and drug targets related to lipid modification from three sources: the Global Lipids Genetics Consortium (GLGC), UK Biobank, and Nightingale Health 2020. The genetic data for RA were acquired from two comprehensive meta-analyses and the R8 of FINNGEN, respectively. These variants were employed in drug-target MR analyses to establish a causal relationship between genetically predicted lipid-modifying drug targets and the risk of RA. For suggestive lipid-modified drug targets, we conducted Summary-data-based Mendelian Randomization (SMR) analyses and using expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data in relevant tissues. In addition, we performed co-localization analyses to assess genetic confounders. RESULTS: Our analysis revealed no significant causal relationship between lipid and RA. We observed that the genetically predicted 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) -mediated low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (OR 0.704; 95% CI 0.56, 0.89; P = 3.43×10-3), Apolipoprotein C-III (APOC3) -mediated triglyceride (TG) (OR 0.844; 95% CI 0.77, 0.92; P = 1.50×10-4) and low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) -mediated LDL-C (OR 0.835; 95% CI 0.73, 0.95; P = 8.81×10-3) were significantly associated with a lowered risk of RA. while Apolipoprotein B-100 (APOB) -mediated LDL-C (OR 1.212; 95%CI 1.05,1.40; P = 9.66×10-3) was significantly associated with an increased risk of RA. CONCLUSIONS: Our study did not find any supporting evidence to suggest that lipids are a risk factor for RA. However, we observed significant associations between HMGCR, APOC3, LDLR, and APOB with the risk of RA.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Humanos , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 4246, 2024 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38379026

RESUMO

High levels of HDL-C are correlated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. HDL-C levels are modulated in part by the secreted phospholipase, endothelial lipase (EL), which hydrolyzes the phospholipids of HDL and decreases circulating HDL-C concentrations. A 584C/T polymorphism in LIPG, the gene which encodes EL, was first identified in individuals with increased HDL levels. This polymorphism results in a T111I point mutation the EL protein. The association between this variant, HDL levels, and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) in humans has been extensively studied, but the findings have been inconsistent. In this study, we took a biochemical approach, investigating how the T111I variant affected EL activity, structure, and stability. Moreover, we tested whether the T111I variant altered the inhibition of phospholipase activity by angiopoietin-like 3 (ANGPTL3) and angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4), two known EL inhibitors. We found that neither the stability nor enzymatic activity of EL was altered by the T111I variant. Moreover, we found no difference between wild-type and T111I EL in their ability to be inhibited by ANGPTL proteins. These data suggest that any effect this variant may have on HDL-C levels or cardiovascular disease are not mediated through alterations in these functions.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Humanos , Proteína 3 Semelhante a Angiopoietina , Proteínas Semelhantes a Angiopoietina/genética , Angiopoietinas , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Lipase/genética , Lipase/metabolismo , Fosfolipases
4.
J Diabetes Res ; 2024: 5287580, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38239233

RESUMO

Aims: To explore the relationship between monocyte-to-HDL cholesterol ratio (MHR) and endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods: 243 patients diagnosed with T2DM were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Patients were divided into two groups by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) quintile as nonendothelial dysfunction (FMD ≥ 6.4%) and endothelial dysfunction (FMD < 6.4%). The relationship between MHR and FMD was analyzed using Spearman's correlation, partial correlation, and multiple logistic regression analysis. ROC curve was fitted to evaluate the ability of MHR to predict endothelial dysfunction. Results: Endothelial dysfunction was present in 193 (79%) patients. Patients with endothelial dysfunction had higher MHR (p < 0.05) than those without endothelial dysfunction. Furthermore, MHR had a significantly positive correlation with endothelial dysfunction (r = 0.17, p < 0.05), and the positive association persisted even after controlling for confounding factors (r = 0.14, p < 0.05). Logistic regression showed that MHR was an independent contributor for endothelial dysfunction (OR: 1.35 (1.08, 1.70), p < 0.05) and the risk of endothelial dysfunction increases by 61% with each standard deviation increase in MHR (OR: 1.61 (1.12, 2.30), p < 0.05) (model 1). After adjusting for sex, age, BMI, disease course, hypertension, smoking, and drinking (model 2) as well as HbA1c, HOMA-IR, C-reactive protein, and TG (model 3), similar results were obtained. In ROC analysis, the area of under the ROC curve (AUC) for MHR was 0.60 (95% CI 0.52-0.69, p < 0.05). Conclusion: MHR was independently associated with endothelial dysfunction in T2DM patients. It could be a new biomarker for vascular endothelial function assessment.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Doenças Vasculares , Humanos , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Monócitos/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais
5.
Curr Atheroscler Rep ; 25(12): 1093-1099, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38051472

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: High-density lipoproteins (HDL) have long been regarded as an antiatherogenic lipoprotein species by virtue of their role in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), as well as their established anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. For decades, HDL have been an extremely appealing therapeutic target to combat atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD). RECENT FINDINGS: Unfortunately, neither increasing HDL with drugs nor direct infusions of reconstituted HDL have convincedly proven to be positive strategies for cardiovascular health, raising the question of whether we should abandon the idea of considering HDL as a treatment target. The results of two large clinical trials, one testing the latest CETP inhibitor Obicetrapib and the other testing the infusion of patients post-acute coronary events with reconstituted HDL, are still awaited. If they prove negative, these trials will seal the fate of HDL as a direct therapeutic target. However, using HDL as a therapeutic agent still holds promise if we manage to optimize their beneficial properties for not only ASCVD but also outside the cardiovascular field.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Humanos , Lipoproteínas HDL , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Transporte Biológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico
6.
J Transl Med ; 21(1): 920, 2023 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38115108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) plays an anti-atherosclerosis role through reverse cholesterol transport. Several studies have validated the efficacy and safety of natural products in treating atherosclerosis (AS). However, the study of raising HDL-C levels through natural products to treat AS still needs to be explored. METHODS: The gene sets associated with AS were collected and identified by differential gene analysis and database query. By constructing a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, the core submodules in the network are screened out. At the same time, by calculating node importance (Nim) in the PPI network of AS disease and combining it with Kyoto Encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathways enrichment analysis, the key target proteins of AS were obtained. Molecular docking is used to screen out small natural drug molecules with potential therapeutic effects. By constructing an in vitro foam cell model, the effects of small molecules on lipid metabolism and key target expression of foam cells were investigated. RESULTS: By differential gene analysis, 451 differential genes were obtained, and a total of 313 disease genes were obtained from 6 kind of databases, then 758 AS-related genes were obtained. The enrichment analysis of the KEGG pathway showed that the enhancement of HDL-C level against AS was related to Lipid and atherosclerosis, Cholesterol metabolism, Fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis, PPAR signaling pathway, and other pathways. Then we intersected 31 genes in the core module of the PPI network, the top 30 genes in Nims, and 32 genes in the cholesterol metabolism pathway, and finally found 3 genes. After the above analysis and literature collection, we focused on the following three related gene targets: APOA1, LIPC, and CETP. Molecular docking showed that Genistein has a good binding affinity for APOA1, CETP, and LIPC. In vitro, experiments showed that Genistein can up-regulated APOA1, LIPC, and CETP levels. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our research, Genistein may have the effects of regulating HDL-C and anti-atherosclerosis. Its mechanism of action may be related to the regulation of LIPC, CETP, and APOA1 to improve lipid metabolism.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Produtos Biológicos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Genisteína , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(21)2023 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37958510

RESUMO

High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are promising targets for predicting and treating atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), as they mediate removal of excess cholesterol from lipid-laden macrophages that accumulate in the vasculature. This functional property of HDLs, termed cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC), is inversely associated with ASCVD. HDLs are compositionally diverse, associating with >250 different proteins, but their relative contribution to CEC remains poorly understood. Our goal was to identify and define key HDL-associated proteins that modulate CEC in humans. The proteomic signature of plasma HDL was quantified in 36 individuals in the multi-ethnic population-based Dallas Heart Study (DHS) cohort that exhibited persistent extremely high (>=90th%) or extremely low CEC (<=10th%) over 15 years. Levels of apolipoprotein (Apo)A-I associated ApoC-II, ApoC-III, and ApoA-IV were differentially correlated with CEC in high (r = 0.49, 0.41, and -0.21 respectively) and low (r = -0.46, -0.41, and 0.66 respectively) CEC groups (p for heterogeneity (pHet) = 0.03, 0.04, and 0.003 respectively). Further, we observed that levels of ApoA-I with ApoC-III, complement C3 (CO3), ApoE, and plasminogen (PLMG) were inversely associated with CEC in individuals within the low CEC group (r = -0.11 to -0.25 for subspecies with these proteins vs. r = 0.58 to 0.65 for subspecies lacking these proteins; p < 0.05 for heterogeneity). These findings suggest that enrichment of specific proteins on HDLs and, thus, different subspecies of HDLs, differentially modulate the removal of cholesterol from the vasculature.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Proteômica , Humanos , Apolipoproteína C-III , Lipoproteínas HDL , Colesterol/metabolismo , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo
8.
Diabet Med ; 40(12): e15213, 2023 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37638553

RESUMO

AIM: This study aims to investigate the associations between genetic risk scores (GRS) for favourable and unfavourable adiposity and a wide range of adiposity-related outcomes across diverse populations. METHODS: We utilised previously identified variants associated with favourable (36 variants) and unfavourable (38 variants) adiposity to create GRS for each adiposity phenotype. We used summary statistics from 39 outcomes generated by the Pan-UKB genome-wide association studies Version 0.3, incorporating covariates such as age, sex and principal components in six populations: European (n = 420,531), African (6636), American (980), Central/South Asian (8876), East Asian (2709) and Middle Eastern (1599). RESULTS: The favourable adiposity GRS was associated with a healthy metabolic profile, including lower risk of type 2 diabetes, lower liver enzyme levels, lower blood pressure, higher HDL-cholesterol, lower triglycerides, higher apolipoprotein A, lower apolipoprotein B, higher testosterone, lower calcium and lower insulin-like growth factor 1 generally consistently across all the populations. In contrast, the unfavourable adiposity GRS was associated with an adverse metabolic profile, including higher risk of type 2 diabetes, higher random glucose levels, higher HbA1c, lower HDL-cholesterol, higher triglycerides, higher liver enzyme levels, lower testosterone, and higher C-reactive protein generally consistently across all the populations. CONCLUSION: The study provides evidence that the genetic scores associated with favourable and unfavourable adiposity have consistent effects on metabolic profiles and disease risk across diverse ethnic groups. These findings deepen our understanding of distinct adiposity subtypes and their impact on metabolic health.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Adiposidade/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Etnicidade/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/genética , Fatores de Risco , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos , Metaboloma , Testosterona , Apolipoproteínas/genética , Apolipoproteínas/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(14)2023 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37511116

RESUMO

A specific feature of dyslipidemia in pregnancy is increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration, which is probably associated with maternal endothelium protection. However, preeclampsia is most often associated with low HDL cholesterol, and the mechanisms behind this change are scarcely explored. We aimed to investigate changes in HDL metabolism in risky pregnancies and those complicated by late-onset preeclampsia. We analyze cholesterol synthesis (cholesterol precursors: desmosterol, 7-dehydrocholesterol, and lathosterol) and absorption markers (phytosterols: campesterol and ß-sitosterol) within HDL particles (NCSHDL), the activities of principal modulators of HDL cholesterol's content, and major HDL functional proteins levels in mid and late pregnancy. On the basis of the pregnancy outcome, participants were classified into the risk group (RG) (70 women) and the preeclampsia group (PG) (20 women). HDL cholesterol was lower in PG in the second trimester compared to RG (p < 0.05) and followed by lower levels of cholesterol absorption markers (p < 0.001 for campesterolHDL and p < 0.05 for ß-sitosterolHDL). Lowering of HDL cholesterol between trimesters in RG (p < 0.05) was accompanied by a decrease in HDL phytosterol content (p < 0.001), apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) concentration (p < 0.05), and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) (p < 0.001), lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) (p < 0.05), and cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) activities (p < 0.05). These longitudinal changes were absent in PG. Development of late-onset preeclampsia is preceded by the appearance of lower HDL cholesterol and NCSHDL in the second trimester. We propose that reduced capacity for intestinal HDL synthesis, decreased LCAT activity, and impaired capacity for HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux could be the contributing mechanisms resulting in lower HDL cholesterol.


Assuntos
Pré-Eclâmpsia , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transferência de Ésteres de Colesterol/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Apolipoproteína A-I/metabolismo , Arildialquilfosfatase/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(12)2023 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37373432

RESUMO

Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is known to influence HDL-C levels, potentially altering the profile of HDL subfractions and consequently cardiovascular risk (CVR). This study aimed to investigate the effect of five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs1532624, rs5882, rs708272, rs7499892, and rs9989419) and their haplotypes (H) in the CETP gene on 10-year CVR estimated by the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE), the Framingham Risk Score for Coronary Heart Disease (FRSCHD) and Cardiovascular Disease (FRSCVD) algorithms. Adjusted linear and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association of SNPs and 10 haplotypes (H1-H10) on 368 samples from the Hungarian general and Roma populations. The T allele of rs7499892 showed a significant association with increased CVR estimated by FRS. H5, H7, and H8 showed a significant association with increased CVR based on at least one of the algorithms. The impact of H5 was due to its effect on TG and HDL-C levels, while H7 showed a significant association with FRSCHD and H8 with FRSCVD mediated by a mechanism affecting neither TG nor HDL-C levels. Our results suggest that polymorphisms in the CETP gene may have a significant effect on CVR and that this is not mediated exclusively by their effect on TG and HDL-C levels but also by presently unknown mechanisms.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Proteínas de Transferência de Ésteres de Colesterol , Humanos , Proteínas de Transferência de Ésteres de Colesterol/genética , Proteínas de Transferência de Ésteres de Colesterol/metabolismo , Haplótipos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Fatores de Risco , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas
11.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 48(4): 331-8, 2023 Apr 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37186196

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the antioxidant effect of moxibustion on vascular endothelial function and the under-lying mechanism. METHODS: Forty male SD rats were randomly divided into blank, model, moxibustion and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) inhibitor groups, with 10 rats in each group. Hyperlipidemia rat model was established by high fat diet for 8 weeks. Rats in the moxibustion group received 45 ℃ moxibustion at "Zusanli" (ST36) for 10 min once daily for consecutive 4 weeks. Rats in the eNOS inhibitor group received intraperitoneal injection of eNOS inhibitor L-NAME (1 mg/100 g) at the same time of moxibustion intervention. The morphology of abdominal aorta endothelium was observed by HE staining. Lipid deposition in abdominal aorta was observed by oil red O staining. The contents of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in serum and reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), oxidized LDL lipoprotein (ox-LDL), endothelin-1 (ET-1), eNOS, malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum and abdominal aorta were determined by ELISA. The expression of eNOS in abdominal aorta was detected by immunofluorescence. RESULTS: HE staining of the abdominal aorta showed no significant pathological abnormality in the blank group; the endovascular cortex was rough, and the inner, media and outer membrane were rough in the model group; the nucleus and surrounding tissue structure were clear and the vascular wall was smooth in the moxibustion group; abdominal aorta texture was rough in the eNOS inhibitor group. Compared with the blank group, the area of oil red O staining in abdominal aorta increased (P<0.05); the contents of serum TC, TG and LDL-C increased (P<0.01, P<0.05) while HDL-C decreased (P<0.05); the contents of ET-1 in serum and abdominal aorta were increased (P<0.01, P<0.05) while the contents of NO and eNOS were decreased (P<0.05, P<0.001); the contents of ROS, ox-LDL and MDA in serum and abdominal aorta were increased (P<0.001, P<0.01, P<0.000 1) while the content of SOD in abdominal aorta was decreased (P<0.000 1); the expression level of eNOS in abdominal aorta was decreased (P<0.05) in the model group. Compared with the model group, the area of oil red O staining in abdominal aorta decreased (P<0.05); the contents of TC, TG and LDL-C in serum decreased (P<0.05) while HDL-C increased (P<0.05); the contents of ET-1 in serum and abdominal aorta were decreased (P<0.01, P<0.05) while the contents of NO and eNOS in abdominal aorta were increased (P<0.001, P<0.01); the contents of ROS and MDA in serum and abdominal aorta were decreased (P<0.001, P<0.01, P<0.05), the content of ox-LDL was decreased (P<0.01) and the content of SOD was increased (P<0.000 1) in abdominal aorta; the expression level of eNOS in abdominal aorta was increased (P<0.05) in the moxibustion group. Compared with the moxibustion group, the contents of serum TC, LDL-C and MDA in the eNOS inhibitor group were increased (P<0.05); the contents of ET-1, ROS, ox-LDL and MDA in abdominal aorta were increased (P<0.05), the contents of NO, eNOS and SOD were decreased (P<0.05); the expression level of eNOS in abdominal aorta was decreased (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: 45 ℃ moxibustion at ST36 can protect and repair vascular endothelial injury in abdominal aorta of hyperlipidemia rats and improve the oxidative stress of vascular endothelium.


Assuntos
Hiperlipidemias , Moxibustão , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Hiperlipidemias/genética , Hiperlipidemias/terapia , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , LDL-Colesterol/farmacologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/farmacologia , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , HDL-Colesterol/farmacologia , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
12.
Biosci Rep ; 43(6)2023 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37199509

RESUMO

The determination of functionality or quality of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) is assuming a central stage in the prediction of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). To assess HDL quality, several attempts have been made to develop an automated, cost-effective cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) system with few operational steps that might be used in clinical settings for large throughput testing. The work of Dr. Ohkawa and co-workers seems to address this issue and provide a solution for the same (Bioscience Reports (2023), 43 BSR20221519, https://doi.org/10.1042/BSR20221519). Earlier work from the author's lab utilized a radioisotope and cell-free CEC assay known as the immobilized liposome-bound gel beads (ILGs) method. However, this assay required a centrifugation step to separate the cells and was not suitable for automation. To overcome these limitations, two very important changes were made: (i) magnetic beads were used instead of gel beads that allowed them to avoid the centrifugation process that would allow ease of setting up an autonomous analyzer; (ii) porous magnetic beads were coated with liposomes containing fluorescently tagged cholesterol instead radiolabeled cholesterol. These two changes can be considered not only significant but also novel as they were highly suitable for CEC testing. The authors reported the successful development of a simple immobilized liposome-based magnetic beads (ILMs) automated system to measure CEC, which provided both consistent performance and satisfactory correlation with the other methods. Thus, we feel the present study will open newer avenues for measuring the quality of HDL in addition to the quantity of HDL-cholesterol in clinical settings in a more robust way.


Assuntos
Lipoproteínas HDL , Lipossomos , Humanos , Lipoproteínas HDL/metabolismo , Colesterol , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico
13.
Atherosclerosis ; 375: 21-29, 2023 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37245423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Associations between CDKAL1 variants and cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) have been reported. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Cdkal1 deficiency on high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism, atherosclerosis, and related pathways. METHODS: Lipid and glucose metabolic profiles, CEC, and in vivo reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) were compared in liver-specific Alb-Cre:Cdkal1fl/fl and Cdkal1fl/fl mice. Aortic atherosclerosis was compared in Apoe-/-Alb-Cre:Cdkal1fl/fl and Apoe-/- mice fed high-fat diets. HDL subclasses and mediators of HDL metabolism from Alb-Cre:Cdkal1fl/fl mice were examined. RESULTS: HDL-cholesterol level tended to be higher in the Alb-Cre:Cdkal1fl/fl mice (p = 0.050). Glucose and other lipid profiles were similar in the two groups of mice, irrespective of diet. The mean CEC was 27% higher (p = 0.007) in the Alb-Cre:Cdkal1fl/fl mice, as were the radioactivities of bile acids (mean difference 17%; p = 0.035) and cholesterol (mean difference 42%; p = 0.036) from faeces. The radioactivity tendency was largely similar in mice fed a high-fat diet. Atherosclerotic lesion area tended to be smaller in the Apoe-/-Alb-Cre:Cdkal1fl/fl mice than in the Apoe-/- mice (p = 0.067). Cholesterol concentrations in large HDLs were higher in the Alb-Cre:Cdkal1fl/fl mice (p = 0.024), whereas in small HDLs, they were lower (p = 0.024). Endothelial lipase (mean difference 39%; p = 0.002) and hepatic lipase expression levels (mean difference 34%; p < 0.001) were reduced in the Alb-Cre:Cdkal1fl/fl mice, whereas SR-B1 expression was elevated (mean difference 35%; p = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: The promotion of CEC and RCT in Alb-Cre:Cdkal1fl/fl mice verified the effect of CDKAL1 seen in human genetic data. These phenotypes were related to regulation of HDL catabolism. This study suggests that CDKAL1 and associated molecules could be targets for improving RCT and vascular pathology.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Lipoproteínas HDL , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Lipoproteínas HDL/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Lipase , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Camundongos Knockout , tRNA Metiltransferases
14.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 14: 1127425, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37056665

RESUMO

Background: Accumulating evidence suggests that patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have a significantly high risk of incident atrial fibrillation (AF). Systemic inflammation, metabolic disorders and oxidative stress could be the potential mechanisms by which NAFLD drives AF. Monocyte-to- high-density lipoprotein ratio (MHR) has emerged as a novel biomarker of inflammation and oxidative stress that has not been studied in AF with NAFLD patients. We aimed to investigate the relationship between MHR and the risk of AF among NAFLD patients. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of the patients with NAFLD in the Second Hospital of Shanxi Medical University from January 2019 to October 2022, among whom 204 patients with AF were enrolled as NAFLD+AF group and 613 patients without AF were enrolled as NAFLD control, and 152 patients were selected from each group based on propensity score matching (PSM) at a ratio of 1:1 to balance the covariates between groups. The t-test or the Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of continuous data between two groups; the chi-square test or the Fisher's exact test was used for comparison of categorical data between two groups. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the independent predictor for occurrence of AF among NAFLD patients. Trend chi-square test to analyze the prevalence of AF among MHR tertiles, and then the correlation between MHR and the risk of AF confirmed by restricted cubic splines (RCS). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine the optimum MHR cutoff value to predict AF. Results: Univariate analysis showed that AF patients had higher MHR than non-AF patients (P < 0.001). Meanwhile, compared with pure NAFLD patients, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that MHR remained to be an independent risk factor for AF after adjusting for confounding risk factors (OR = 10.67, 95% CI 2.17-52.37, P = 0.004). TC、HDL-C were also independent risk factors for AF. Among them, TC and HDL-C are protective factors for AF. The trend chi-square test showed that the risk of AF increased with an increase in MHR (P < 0.05). However, the RCS showed a nonlinear and J-shaped relationship between MHR and the risk of AF (P for non-linearity = 0.023). The occurrence of AF increased with increasing MHR only when MHR > 0.44. The ROC curve showed that MHR combined with traditional risk factors can improve the ability to predict AF. Conclusion: MHR is an independently associated with incident AF in patients with NAFLD and show a certain predictive value.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Humanos , Lipoproteínas HDL/metabolismo , Monócitos/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/etiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/metabolismo , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo
15.
Nutrients ; 15(6)2023 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36986107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is prevalent with lasting health implications for the mother and offspring. Medical therapy is the foundation of GDM management, for achieving optimal glycemic control often requires treatment with insulin or metformin. Gut dysbiosis is a feature of GDM pregnancies, therefore, dietary manipulation of the gut microbiota may offer a new avenue for management. Probiotics are a relatively new intervention, which can reduce the mother's blood sugar levels and, furthermore, adjust glucose and lipid metabolism in both mother and offspring. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to explore the effect of probiotics/synbiotics on glucose and lipid metabolism in women with GDM. METHODS: A systematic search of the literature was conducted using the electronic databases Cochrane Library, Web of Science, PubMed, and EBOSCO, published between 1 January 2012 and 1 November 2022. A total of 11 randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) were analyzed. The indicators included fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting serum insulin (FSI), the homoeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides (TG), the mean weight at end of trial, and gestational weight gain (GWG). RESULTS: Compared with the placebo, probiotics/synbiotics were associated with a statistically significant improvement in FPG (MD = -2.33, 95% CI = -4.27, -0.40, p = 0.02), FSI (MD = -2.47 95% CI = -3.82, -1.12, p = 0.0003), HOMA-IR (MD = -0.40, 95% CI = -0.74, -0.06, p = 0.02), and TC (MD = -6.59, 95% CI = -12.23,--0.95, p = 0.02), while other factors had no significant difference. The subgroup analysis revealed that the kind of supplement led to heterogeneity for FPG and FSI, while heterogeneity was not found for others. CONCLUSION: Probiotics/synbiotics could control glucose and lipid metabolism in pregnant women with GDM. There was a significant improvement in FPG, FSI, HOMA-IR, and TC. The use of specific probiotic supplementation may be a promising prevention and therapeutic strategy for GDM. However, due to the heterogeneity among existing studies, further studies are warranted to address the limitations of existing evidence and better inform the management of GDM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Resistência à Insulina , Probióticos , Simbióticos , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Diabetes Gestacional/terapia , Glucose , Glicemia/metabolismo , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Insulina , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos
16.
Exp Eye Res ; 229: 109429, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36863431

RESUMO

The macular carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin are taken up from the bloodstream into the human retina through a selective process, for which the HDL cholesterol receptor scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) in the cells of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is thought to be a key mediator. However, the mechanism of SR-BI-mediated selective uptake of macular carotenoids is still not fully understood. Here, we investigate possible mechanisms using biological assays and cultured HEK293 cells, a cell line without endogenous SR-BI expression. Binding affinities between SR-BI and various carotenoids were measured by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy, which shows that SR-BI cannot bind lutein or zeaxanthin specifically. Overexpression of SR-BI in HEK293 cells results in more lutein and zeaxanthin taken up than ß-carotene, and this effect can be eliminated by an SR-BI mutant (C384Y) whose cholesterol uptake tunnel is blocked. Next, we determined the effects of HDL and hepatic lipase (LIPC), SR-BI's partners in HDL cholesterol transport, on SR-BI-mediated carotenoid uptake. HDL addition dramatically reduced lutein, zeaxanthin, and ß-carotene in HEK293 cells expressing SR-BI, but the cellular lutein and zeaxanthin are higher than ß-carotene. LIPC addition increases the uptake of all three carotenoids in HDL-treated cells, and promotes the transport of lutein and zeaxanthin better than ß-carotene. Our results suggest that SR-BI and its HDL cholesterol partner HDL and LIPC may be involved in the selective uptake of macular carotenoids.


Assuntos
Carotenoides , Luteína , Humanos , beta Caroteno , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Antígenos CD36 , Colesterol , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Luteína/farmacologia , Receptores Depuradores/metabolismo , Receptores Depuradores Classe B/genética , Receptores Depuradores Classe B/metabolismo , Zeaxantinas
17.
Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat ; 166: 106719, 2023 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36863606

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate changes in serum sphingolipid levels and high density lipoprotein (HDL) subtypes with relation to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), non-HDL-C and triglyceride (TG) levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. METHODS: Blood was obtained from 60 patients with T2DM. Levels of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), C16-C24 sphingomyelins (SMs), C16-C24 ceramides (CERs), and C16 CER-1 P were determined by LC-MS/MS. Serum concentrations of cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP), lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-I) were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). HDL subfraction analysis was performed by Disc polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. RESULTS: C16 SM, C24 SM, C24-C16 CER and C16 CER-1 P levels were significantly increased in T2DM patients with LDL-C above 160 mg/dL, compared to those with LDL-C below 100 mg/dL. A significant correlation was observed between C24:C16 SM, C24:C16 CER ratios and LDL-C, non HDL-C levels. Higher serum levels of C24 SM, C24-C18 CER and C24:C16 SM ratio was seen in obese T2DM patients (BMI>30) compared to those with BMI 27-30. Patients with fasting TG levels below 150 mg/dL had significantly increased HDL-large and significantly decreased HDL-small fractions compared to those with fasting TG levels above 150 mg/dL. CONCLUSION: Obese dyslipidemic T2DM patients had increased levels of serum sphingomyelins, ceramides and HDL-small fractions. The ratio of serum C24:C16 SM, C24:C16 CER and long chain CER levels may be used as diagnostic and prognostic indicators of dyslipidemia in T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Esfingomielinas , Humanos , LDL-Colesterol , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ceramidas , Lipoproteínas HDL , Obesidade/complicações , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo
18.
Atherosclerosis ; 369: 9-16, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36827905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The evidence that dyslipidemia is associated with hyperglycemia calls for an investigation of whether dyslipidemia, as well as lipid-modifying agents, could affect the subsequent development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Therefore, we aimed to address these unanswered questions by utilizing Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. METHODS: Genetic variants were selected from the UK Biobank as instruments to serve as proxies for lipid traits [high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG), apolipoprotein A-I (APOA-I) and apolipoprotein B (APOB)]. Univariable and multivariable MR analyses were performed to examine the associations of these lipid traits with DR and different levels of severity of DR. Based on the evidence for the effects of lipids on outcomes, we estimated the causal relevance of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors in severe nonproliferative and proliferative DR using protein quantitative trait loci (pQTLs) and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) as instruments. RESULTS: Genetically determined HDL-C levels were inversely associated with the risk of severe nonproliferative DR (OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.52-0.94) and proliferative DR (OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.83-0.97) in the main analyses utilizing the inverse variance-weighted (IVW) MR method and a couple of sensitivity analyses. No association was noted between genetically proxied CETP inhibitors and DR. CONCLUSIONS: This MR study suggests the casual protective roles of HDL-C in severe nonproliferative DR and proliferative DR, which calls for further studies to confirm these findings. Current lipid-modifying agents acting on HDL-C may not reduce the risk of DR and new treatments are required in the future.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Retinopatia Diabética , Dislipidemias , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Retinopatia Diabética/epidemiologia , Retinopatia Diabética/genética , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
19.
Biomolecules ; 13(1)2023 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36671520

RESUMO

Alcohol abuse, a global health problem, is closely associated with many pathological processes, such as dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease. In particular, excessive alcohol consumption promotes dyslipidemia and liver damage, such as hepatic steatosis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Beeswax alcohol (BWA) is a natural product used for its antioxidant properties that has not been evaluated for its efficacy in alcohol-induced liver injury. In the present study, zebrafish were exposed to 1% ethanol with supplementation of 10% fermented black rice bran (BRB-F), 10% BWA, or 10% mixtures of BWA+BRB-F (MIX). The BRB-F, BWA, and MIX supplementation increased the survival rate dramatically without affecting the body weight changes. In histology of hepatic tissue, alcoholic foamy degeneration was ameliorated by the BWA or MIX supplements. Moreover, dihydroethidium (DHE) and immunohistochemistry staining suggested that the MIX supplement decreased the hepatic ROS production and interleukin-6 expression significantly owing to the enhanced antioxidant properties, such as paraoxonase. Furthermore, the MIX supplement improved alcohol-induced dyslipidemia and oxidative stress. The BWA and MIX groups showed lower blood total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels with higher high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) than the alcohol-alone group. The MIX group showed the highest HDL-C/TC ratio and HDL-C/TG ratio with the lowest low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-C/HDL-C ratio. In conclusion, BWA and BRB-F showed efficacy to treat alcohol-related metabolic disorders, but the MIX supplement was more effective in ameliorating the liver damage and dyslipidemia, which agrees with an enhanced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity exhibited by BWA/BRB-F in a synergistic manner.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias , Oryza , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Dislipidemias/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
20.
Clin Transl Sci ; 16(3): 489-501, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36645160

RESUMO

Sepsis accounts for one in three hospital deaths. Higher concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are associated with apparent protection from sepsis, suggesting a potential therapeutic role for HDL-C or drugs, such as cholesteryl ester transport protein (CETP) inhibitors that increase HDL-C. However, these beneficial clinical associations might be due to confounding; genetic approaches can address this possibility. We identified 73,406 White adults admitted to Vanderbilt University Medical Center with infection; 11,612 had HDL-C levels, and 12,377 had genotype information from which we constructed polygenic risk scores (PRS) for HDL-C and the effect of CETP on HDL-C. We tested the associations between predictors (measured HDL-C, HDL-C PRS, CETP PRS, and rs1800777) and outcomes: sepsis, septic shock, respiratory failure, and in-hospital death. In unadjusted analyses, lower measured HDL-C concentrations were significantly associated with increased risk of sepsis (p = 2.4 × 10-23 ), septic shock (p = 4.1 × 10-12 ), respiratory failure (p = 2.8 × 10-8 ), and in-hospital death (p = 1.0 × 10-8 ). After adjustment (age, sex, electronic health record length, comorbidity score, LDL-C, triglycerides, and body mass index), these associations were markedly attenuated: sepsis (p = 2.6 × 10-3 ), septic shock (p = 8.1 × 10-3 ), respiratory failure (p = 0.11), and in-hospital death (p = 4.5 × 10-3 ). HDL-C PRS, CETP PRS, and rs1800777 significantly predicted HDL-C (p < 2 × 10-16 ), but none were associated with sepsis outcomes. Concordant findings were observed in 13,254 Black patients hospitalized with infections. Lower measured HDL-C levels were significantly associated with increased risk of sepsis and related outcomes in patients with infection, but a causal relationship is unlikely because no association was found between the HDL-C PRS or the CETP PRS and the risk of adverse sepsis outcomes.


Assuntos
Sepse , Choque Séptico , Adulto , Humanos , HDL-Colesterol/genética , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transferência de Ésteres de Colesterol/genética , Proteínas de Transferência de Ésteres de Colesterol/metabolismo , Mortalidade Hospitalar , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Sepse/genética
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