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1.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 73(suppl 2): e20200350, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965403

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to report the experience of telemonitoring Brazilian nursing homes before coronavirus and COVID-19 infections. METHODS: a descriptive experience report that occurred between March 18 and April 25, 2020 through telemonitoring nursing homes in Salvador, Bahia, following a script previously prepared for first contact and follow-up. The telemonitoring was carried out by professors from the School of Nursing of Universidade Federal da Bahia and Graduate Program students for four weeks. RESULTS: thirty-two institutions were followed for four weeks. Some facilities and difficulties appeared during the monitoring. FINAL CONSIDERATIOS: as nursing homes are collective households, their residents are vulnerable to transmission of infections. In addition, the diversity of structures and economic, social and human resources needs of these locations reveal their fragility and urgency of public policies that address such diversities.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos , Casas de Saúde , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Telefone , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vigilância da População/métodos , Habilidades Sociais , Telefone/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e22018, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder, which lacks specific medical treatment. Intervention is the key point of rehabilitation training for ASD. Social stories (SS) are a commonly used intervention practice in individuals with ASD. However, there is mixed evidence on the effectiveness of SS. Thus, the objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to assess studies of the effects of SS for children and adolescents with ASD. METHODS: To identify relevant studies, we will search PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Google Scholar and trials registers (the World Health Organization International Clinical Trial Registration Platform, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Chinese Clinical Trial Register) from inception to May 2020. In addition, we will also perform handsearching of grey literature, such as conference proceedings and academic degree dissertations. Only the randomized control trials will be accepted, no matter what the languages they were reported. We will first focus on the effectiveness of the intervention on the behavior of the targets. Then we will do further analysis of the study design, including the length and intensity of intervention, the characteristics of participants and interveners, the methods of assessment, the place, the medium, and the economic feasibility. Two independent reviewers will carry out literature identification, data collection, and study quality assessment. Discrepancies will be resolved by a third reviewer. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool will be used to evaluate the risk of bias of the randomized controlled trials. Data analysis will be calculated using the STATA 13.0 software. RESULT: This study will offer new evidence whether the SS is an appropriate intervention of benefiting the children and adolescents with ASD, and to determine which factors affect the effectiveness of SS. CONCLUSION: The conclusion drawn from this systematic review will benefit the children and adolescents with ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Metanálise como Assunto , Terapia Narrativa/métodos , Habilidades Sociais , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Criança , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
3.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 1 ed; 20200900. 64 p. ilus.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, MINSAPERU | ID: biblio-1121804

RESUMO

El documento contiene cuatro partes: en el primero se trata de la comprensión en la adolescencia, en el segundo de pensar en la salud adolescente, en el tercero de promover el desarrollo de la población adolescente y en el cuarto de las habilidades sociales para la interacción efectiva.


Assuntos
População , Adolescente , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Compreensão , Habilidades Sociais
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236983, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764768

RESUMO

National efforts to address the diversity dilemma in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) often emphasize increasing numbers of historically underrepresented (HU) students and faculty, but fall short in instituting concrete changes for inclusion and belonging. Therefore, increasing the pool of senior faculty who wish to become guides and advocates for emerging scientists from HU populations is an essential step toward creating new pathways for their career advancement. As a step toward achieving this goal, we created a novel eight-hour intervention on Culturally Aware Mentoring (CAM), a program of the National Research Mentoring Network (NRMN) targeted to faculty and administrators. A previous report of surveys at the end of the CAM sessions revealed substantial awareness and knowledge gains, with participants expressing intentions to use and implement new skills they had learned. In this paper, we provide the results of our thematic analysis of qualitative interviews with academic administrators and faculty, 18-24 months after participation in CAM. Interviews were designed to determine: 1) What changes in self-perceptions and interactions occurred as a result of participation in CAM? 2) What specific components of CAM are associated with changes in individual beliefs and practices? 3) How did participants actively make changes after the CAM workshop? 4) What barriers or challenges do participants encounter after the CAM intervention? The results demonstrate the lasting influences of CAM on participants' awareness of cultural differences, their assumptions about and approaches toward interactions with colleagues and students, and their efforts to change their behaviors to promote inclusive practices in their mentoring and teaching of HU students in STEM. Our findings provide evidence that CAM can be incorporated into existing mentor training programs designed to improve the confidence and capacity of senior research faculty mentors to make culturally-informed, scholar-centered decisions to more deliberately recognize and respond to cultural differences within their mentoring and collegial relationships.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo , Diversidade Cultural , Docentes , Tutoria , Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/educação , Docentes de Medicina , Humanos , Mentores , Grupo Associado , Ciência/educação , Ciência/organização & administração , Habilidades Sociais , Desenvolvimento de Pessoal , Estados Unidos
5.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817440

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the relation between exposure to maternal depression before age 5 and 5 domains of developmental vulnerability at school entry, overall, and by age at exposure. METHODS: This cohort study included all children born in Manitoba, Canada, who completed the Early Development Instrument between 2005 and 2016 (N = 52 103). Maternal depression was defined by using physician visits, hospitalizations, and pharmaceutical data; developmental vulnerability was assessed by using the Early Development Instrument. Relative risk of developmental vulnerability was assessed by using log-binomial regression models adjusted for characteristics at birth. RESULTS: Children exposed to maternal depression before age 5 had a 17% higher risk of having at least 1 developmental vulnerability at school entry than did children not exposed to maternal depression before age 5. Exposure to maternal depression was most strongly associated with difficulties in social competence (adjusted relative risk [aRR] = 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20-1.38), physical health and well-being (aRR = 1.28; 95% CI: 1.20-1.36), and emotional maturity (aRR = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.18-1.37). For most developmental domains, exposure to maternal depression before age 1 and between ages 4 and 5 had the strongest association with developmental vulnerability. CONCLUSIONS: Our finding that children exposed to maternal depression are at higher risk for developmental vulnerability at school entry is consistent with previous findings. We extended this literature by documenting that the adverse effects of exposure to maternal depression are specific to particular developmental domains and that these effects vary depending on the age at which the child is exposed to maternal depression.


Assuntos
Depressão/complicações , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Nível de Saúde , Mães/psicologia , Habilidades Sociais , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalos de Confiança , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Manitoba/epidemiologia , Risco , Irmãos/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Am J Psychiatry ; 177(9): 818-826, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731812

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Early adversity is correlated with increased risk for negative outcomes, including psychopathology and atypical neurodevelopment. The authors aimed to test the causal impact of an early parenting intervention (Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-Up; ABC) on children's neural processing of parent cues and on psychosocial functioning in a longitudinal randomized clinical trial. METHODS: Participants (N=68, mean age, 10.0 years [SD=0.8 years]) were 46 high-risk children whose parents were randomly assigned to receive either the ABC intervention (N=22) or a control intervention (N=24) while the children were infants, in addition to a comparison sample of low-risk children (N=22). During functional MRI scanning, children viewed pictures of their own mothers and of a stranger. RESULTS: Children in the ABC condition showed greater maternal cue-related activation than children in the control condition in clusters of brain regions, including the precuneus, the cingulate gyrus, and the hippocampus, regions commonly associated with social cognition. Additionally, greater activity in these regions was associated with fewer total behavior problems. There was an indirect effect of early intervention on middle childhood psychosocial functioning mediated through increased activity in brain regions in response to maternal cues. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that early parenting intervention (in this case the ABC intervention) can enhance brain regions supporting children's social cognitive development. In addition, the findings highlight these brain effects as a possible neural pathway through which ABC may prevent future behavior problems among high-risk children, yielding psychosocial benefits that endure through at least middle childhood without the need to intervene with the child directly.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Educação não Profissionalizante/métodos , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Habilidades Sociais , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/prevenção & controle , Apego ao Objeto , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Relações Pais-Filho , Psicologia do Desenvolvimento/métodos , Medição de Risco
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238133, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822438

RESUMO

Since social robots are increasingly entering areas of people's personal lives, it is crucial to examine what affects people's perceptions and evaluations of these robots. In this study, three potential influences are examined: 1) the robot's level of interaction skills, 2) the robot's expected future role as a helpful assistant or a threatening competitor, and 3) people's individual background with regard to robots and technology in general. In an experimental lab study with a 2x2 between-subjects-design (N = 162), people read a vignette describing the social robot Nao either as assistant or competitor and subsequently interacted with Nao, which either displayed high or low interaction skills. Results of a structural equation model show that the robot's interaction skill level had the strongest effect, with a low level leading to a negative evaluation of the robot's sociability and competence and subsequently a negative general evaluation of the interaction with the robot. A robot which was expected to become a competitor was also evaluated as less sociable than a robot expected to become an assistant. Overall, in case of an actual interaction with a social robot, the robot's behavior is more decisive for people's evaluations of it than their expectations or individual backgrounds.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Robótica/instrumentação , Robótica/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação/fisiologia , Habilidades Sociais
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707722

RESUMO

The word scouting refers to the Scout movement, born more than a hundred years ago, which educates millions of young people between the ages of six and twenty-one in their leisure time. We aimed to study the effects of scouting on the academic results, social skills, and self-esteem of high school youths compared to a non-scout sample. The selected sample consisted of 430 secondary students aged between thirteen and seventeen. Self-esteem and social skills were measured, and the average mark of the total sample was analysed. After the study, it was shown that belonging to the scout movement significantly influences the improvement of academic results in formal education and conflict resolution; however, there are no statistically significant differences in self-esteem and other social skills.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Autoimagem , Habilidades Sociais , Adolescente , Humanos , Organizações sem Fins Lucrativos , Psicologia do Adolescente , Estudantes
9.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234109, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502163

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Depression is a public health concern among youth, and it is pertinent to identify factors that can help prevent development of depressive symptoms in adolescence. This study aimed to investigate the association between negative life events and depressive symptoms among adolescents, and to examine the influence and relative contributions of personal, social and family protective factors related to resilience. METHODS: Data stem from the cross-sectional youth@hordaland-survey, conducted in Hordaland, Norway. In all, 9,546 adolescents, aged 16-19 years old (52.8% girls) provided self-report information on depressive symptoms, negative life events and protective factors related to resilience. RESULTS: Experiencing a higher number of negative life events was related to increases in depressive symptoms, while the potential protective factors goal orientation, self-confidence, social competence, social support, and family cohesion individually were associated with fewer symptoms. Although there were small moderating effects of goal orientation and self-confidence, the results mainly supported a compensatory resilience model. When considering the potential protective factors jointly, only self-confidence and family cohesion were significantly associated with fewer depressive symptoms for both genders, with the addition of social support for girls. There were significant interactions between all the potential protective factors and gender, indicating a greater reduction of depressive symptoms with higher levels of protective factors among girls. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions aimed at fostering self-confidence and family cohesion could be effective in preventing depressive symptoms for adolescent boys and girls, regardless of their exposure to negative events. Results further indicate that preventive interventions targeting these potential protective factors could be especially beneficial for adolescent girls.


Assuntos
Depressão/patologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Relações Familiares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega , Fatores de Proteção , Autoimagem , Habilidades Sociais , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235149, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574215

RESUMO

Despite the multitude of adverse physical and psychosocial consequences of sports injury, evidence also highlights the potential for positive benefits in the injury aftermath. The purpose of this study is to address this gap by exploring the dimensions of personal growth following a severe sports injury. A 3-rounds e-Delphi method was utilized to develop a consensual understanding of the dimensions of sport-injury related growth. A panel of 24 psychology of sport injury experts participated in the process. The final list of items obtained was subjected to conventional content analysis to identify general themes. The process led to the development of a 5-dimension model capable of describing athletes' experiences of personal growth following a severe sports-related injury: personal strength, improved social life, health benefits, sport benefits, and social support and recognition. The domains of sport-injury related growth identified here are consistent with growth-domains identified in previous personal growth literature. However, they also highlight the importance of contextualizing the experience of growth. We have captured key elements of sport-injury related growth, domains that can be used as the basis for further psychometric testing and for further interventions to increase adjustment and well-being during the rehabilitation process.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/psicologia , Técnica Delfos , Medicina Esportiva/métodos , Esportes/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/reabilitação , Humanos , Psicologia do Esporte/métodos , Psicologia do Esporte/estatística & dados numéricos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Habilidades Sociais , Esportes/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(22): e20331, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study will investigate the effectiveness of and safety of social skills intervention (SSI) for the management of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: All potential randomized controlled trials related to the effectiveness and safety of SSI for children with ASD will be retrieved from Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. All these databases will be identified from inception to the present with no limitations of language and publication time. Two investigators will independently perform selection of study, data collection, and study quality assessment, respectively. A third investigator will help to solve any different views between 2 investigators. RevMan 5.3 software will be used for data pooling and statistical analysis. RESULTS: This study will provide synthesis of present evidence on assessing the effectiveness and safety of SSI for children with ASD. CONCLUSION: This study will provide helpful references for the effectiveness and safety of SSI on the management of ASD, which may benefit both patients and clinicians. STUDY REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202040090.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Habilidades Sociais , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa
12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD009829, 2020 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Around 1 in 1000 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years old display problematic or harmful sexual behaviour (HSB). Examples include behaviours occurring more frequently than would be considered developmentally appropriate; accompanied by coercion; involving children of different ages or stages of development; or associated with emotional distress. Some, but not all, young people engaging in HSB come to the attention of authorities for investigation, prosecution or treatment. Depending on policy context, young people with HSB are those whose behaviour has resulted in a formal reprimand or warning, conviction for a sexual offence, or civil measures. Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) interventions are based on the idea that by changing the way a person thinks, and helping them to develop new coping skills, it is possible to change behaviour. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of CBT for young people aged 10 to 18 years who have exhibited HSB. SEARCH METHODS: In June 2019, we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, 12 other databases and three trials registers. We also examined relevant websites, checked reference lists and contacted authors of relevant articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using parallel groups. We evaluated CBT treatments compared with no treatment, waiting list or standard care, irrespective of mode of delivery or setting, given to young people aged 10 to 18 years, who had been convicted of a sexual offence or who exhibited HSB. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS: We found four eligible RCTs (115 participants). Participants in two studies were adolescent males aged 12 to 18 years old. In two studies participants were males simply described as "adolescents." Three studies took place in the USA and one in South Africa. The four studies were of short duration: one lasted two months; two lasted three months; and one lasted six months. No information was available on funding sources. Two studies compared group-based CBT respectively to no treatment (18 participants) or treatment as usual (21 participants). The third compared CBT with sexual education (16 participants). The fourth compared CBT (19 participants) with mode-deactivation therapy (21 participants) and social skills training (20 participants). Three interventions delivered treatment in a residential setting by someone working there, and one in a community setting by licensed therapist undertaking a PhD. CBT compared with no treatment or treatment as usual Primary outcomes No study in this comparison reported the impact of CBT on any measure of primary outcomes (recidivism, and adverse events such as self-harm or suicidal behaviour). Secondary outcomes There was little to no difference between CBT and treatment as usual on cognitive distortions in general (mean difference (MD) 1.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) -11.54 to 14.66, 1 study, 18 participants; very low-certainty evidence), assessed with Abel and Becker Cognition Scale (higher scores indicate more problematic distortions); and specific cognitive distortions about rape (MD 8.75, 95% CI 2.83 to 14.67, 1 study, 21 participants; very low-certainty evidence), measured with the Bumby Cardsort Rape Scale (higher scores indicate more justifications, minimisations, rationalisations and excuses for HSB). One study (18 participants) reported very low-certainty evidence that CBT may result in greater improvements in victim empathy (MD 5.56, 95% CI 0.94 to 10.18), measured with the Attitudes Towards Women Scale, compared with no treatment. One additional study also measured this, but provided no usable data. CBT compared with alternative interventions Primary outcomes One study (59 participants) found little to no difference between CBT and alternative treatments on post-treatment sexual aggression scores (MD 0.09, 95% CI -0.18 to 0.37, very low-certainty evidence), assessed using Daily Behaviour Reports and Behaviour Incidence Report Forms. No study in this comparison reported the impact of CBT on any measure of our remaining primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes One study (16 participants) provided very low-certainty evidence that, compared to sexual education, mean cognitive distortions pertaining to justification or taking responsibility for actions (MD 3.27, 95% CI -4.77 to -1.77) and apprehension confidence (MD 2.47 95% CI -3.85 to -1.09) may be lower in the CBT group. The same study indicated that mean cognitive distortions pertaining to social-sexual desirability may be lower in the CBT group, and there may be little to no difference between the groups for cognitive distortions pertaining to inappropriate sexual fantasies measured with the Multiphasic Sex Inventory. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: It is uncertain whether CBT reduces HSB in male adolescents compared to other treatments. All studies had insufficient detail in what they reported to allow for full assessment of risk of bias. 'Risk of bias' judgements were predominantly rated as unclear or high. Sample sizes were very small, and the imprecision of results was significant. There is very low-certainty evidence that group-based CBT may improve victim empathy when compared to no treatment, and may improve cognitive distortions when compared to sexual education, but not treatment as usual. Further research is likely to change the estimate. More robust evaluations of both individual and group-based CBT are required, particularly outside North America, and which look at the effects of CBT on diverse participants.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Atitude , Criança , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Dessensibilização Psicológica , Fantasia , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estupro/psicologia , Reincidência , Autoimagem , Educação Sexual , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Habilidades Sociais
13.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 270: 287-291, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570392

RESUMO

Eye tracking studies have demonstrated deficits in attention in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) for a range of different social attention-based tasks. Here we examined social attention skills in a large sample of ASD participants (n = 120), using eye tracking data from a social information processing task, and compared them with a typically developing (TD) group (n = 35). Assuming eye movement parameters are random variables generated by an underlying stochastic process, we modeled the fixation sequences of participants in ASD and TD groups with a Hidden Markov Model. The Regions of Interests (ROIs), modeled as hidden states, corresponded to the true ROIs with a prediction accuracy of >90% for each group. The transition between ROIs revealed bias towards a specific area in the scene in ASD group, which deviated from the TD group. Objective time-dynamic measures of gaze patterns can potentially serve as useful endpoints in ASD diagnosis. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT02299700.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Cadeias de Markov , Comportamento Social , Habilidades Sociais , Processos Estocásticos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545462

RESUMO

Children in situations of destitution who become institutionalized commonly display developmental disorders, including delayed growth. The aim was to evaluate the environmental quality of the casas cuna of the Department of Chuquisaca (Plurinational state of Bolivia) in children aged 0 to 2 years old after receiving an early stimulation program based on psychomotor therapy. Thirty-six children who were institutionalized at shelter homes in the Department of Chuquisaca were selected to receive sessions of psychomotricity over a five-month period. The Infant/Toddler Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (IT-HOME) scale and the Attachment During Stress Scale (ADS) were used. The adult-child relationship with factors of responsiveness (-0.89; p = 0.037), acceptance (0.57; p = 0.024), organization (-1.03; p < 0.001), learning material (-2.57; p < 0.001) and involvement (-1.92; p < 0.001) scored below expectations, showing that environmental indicators are a poor stimulation for children growing up in shelter homes. Improvements were found in the children's development after receiving this therapy. In conclusion, an early stimulation program based on psychomotor therapy over five months provided favorable results for the acquisition of skills for communication, motor development and social skills, which positively affect the psychomotor development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Cuidados no Lar de Adoção , Habilidades Sociais , Bolívia , Pré-Escolar , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Destreza Motora
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(26): 14911-14917, 2020 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541023

RESUMO

Aging involves decline in a range of functional abilities and phenotypes, many of which are also associated with socioeconomic status (SES). Here we assessed whether lower SES is a determinant of the rate of decline over 8 y in six domains-physical capability, sensory function, physiological function, cognitive performance, emotional well-being, and social function-in a sample of 5,018 men and women aged 64.44 (SD 8.49) y on average at baseline. Wealth was used as the marker of SES, and all analyses controlled for age, gender, ethnicity, educational attainment, and long-term health conditions. Lower SES was associated with greater adverse changes in physical capability (grip strength, gait speed, and physical activity), sensory function (sight impairment), physiological function (plasma fibrinogen concentration and lung function), cognitive performance (memory, executive function, and processing speed), emotional well-being (enjoyment of life and depressive symptoms), and social function (organizational membership, number of close friends, volunteering, and cultural engagement). Effects were maintained when controlling statistically for other factors such as smoking, marital/partnership status, and self-rated health and were also present when analyses were limited to participants aged ≤75 y. We conclude that lower SES is related to accelerated aging across a broad range of functional abilities and phenotypes independently of the presence of health conditions and that social circumstances impinge on multiple aspects of aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Classe Social , Idoso , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensação , Habilidades Sociais
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(25): 14073-14076, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513710

RESUMO

It is well known that far fewer men than women enroll in tertiary education in the United States and other Western nations. Developed nations vary in the degree to which men are underrepresented, but the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) average lies around 45% male students. We use data from the OECD Education at a Glance statistical reports, the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), and the World Values Survey to explain the degree to which men are underrepresented. Using a multiple regression model, we show that the combination of both the national reading proficiency levels of 15-y-old boys and girls and the social attitudes toward girls attending university can predict the enrollment in tertiary education 5 y later. The model also shows that parity in some countries is a result of boys' poor reading proficiency and negative social attitudes toward girls' education, which suppresses college enrollment in both sexes, but for different reasons. True equity will at the very least require improvement in boys' reading competencies and the liberalization of attitudes regarding women's pursuit of higher education. At this time, there is little reason to expect that the enrollment gap will decrease, given the stagnating reading competencies in most countries.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação Profissionalizante/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Leitura , Habilidades Sociais , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 69(3): 218-235, 2020 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394820

RESUMO

Do Children and Adolescents with Different Reasons for Admission Equally Benefit from Institutional Care? Currently, almost 150.000 children and adolescents are placed in institutional care in Germany with the aim to improve their living conditions. Various studies showed positive effects concerning the development of those institutionalized children and adolescents. Within the present study, 500 children and adolescents in institutional care were examined regarding the improvement of quality of life and social competencies during their care placement depending on the respective reason for admission (group A: admission due to mental health and behavior problems; group S: problems in the context of the school; group O: no mental health problems, but other reasons). Furthermore, differences in the development of children and adolescents who initiated the placement by themselves and those who did not were examined. Results show that over a period of 18-24 months, all three groups developed effectively equally. Group A had a lower initial level regarding quality of life and social competencies compared to group S and group O and therefore reached lower outcomes within the investigation period. Development was irrespective of whether or not children and adolescents initiated the institutional placement by themselves. The results demonstrate that all three groups were able to benefit from institutional care, although children and adolescents with mental health problems had a notable potential for further development.


Assuntos
Criança Institucionalizada/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/reabilitação , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Habilidades Sociais , Adolescente , Criança , Alemanha , Humanos , Saúde Mental
18.
J Sport Health Sci ; 9(3): 228-239, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One main purpose of the World Anti-Doping Agency was to harmonize anti-doping efforts, including the provision of anti-doping education. A multifaceted approach to doping prevention can play a key role in preventing intentional and unintentional doping. This article aimed to systematically record and evaluate doping prevention approaches in the form of information and education activities of national anti-doping organizations (NADOs) and assess the extent to which a multifaceted doping prevention approach has been realized. METHODS: Data on anti-doping information and education activities of 53 NADOs were collected via a survey and an online search of the NADOs' websites. Prevention activities were classified into knowledge focused, affective focused, social skills, life skills, and ethic- and value- based. The implementation of the prevention activities was assessed by 4 independent raters using a modified visual analogue scale. RESULTS: In total, 59% of the NADOs (n = 38) returned the survey and 70% (n = 45) had information available online. The data were combined for the visual analogue scale assessment. Overall, 58% of the NADOs (n = 37) reported offering activities including elements of all 5 approaches. Results of the raters' assessments indicated that the knowledge-focused approach was best implemented; the implementation of the other 4 approaches was largely unsatisfactory. The most common barriers to implementing doping prevention programs reported by the NADOs were lack of resources (n = 26) and difficulties in collaborating with sports organizations (n = 8). CONCLUSION: Results show a discrepancy between NADOs' self-report data and the implementation assessment. Even though the NADOs indicated otherwise, most of their education-based approaches did not address aspects of the visual analogue scale (e.g., resisting peer pressure) and only a few programs were ongoing. Possible explanations might be found in the reported barriers (e.g., financial). Concrete guidelines defining multifaceted, values-based education, and best practice examples should be developed to indicate how to include all 5 approaches in prevention.


Assuntos
Doping nos Esportes/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde , Agências Internacionais/organização & administração , Adolescente , Adulto , Apoio Financeiro , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Agências Internacionais/economia , Agências Internacionais/ética , Colaboração Intersetorial , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Habilidades Sociais , Esportes/economia , Esportes/ética
19.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232968, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401789

RESUMO

This study investigated the relationships among psychosocial factors that contribute to smartphone dependency among South Korean adolescents. This cross-sectional study involved the secondary data analysis of the 2016 Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey, a nationwide multistage cluster survey. Data were collected from 1,840 7th grade students in South Korea and analyzed with descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation coefficients, and a path analysis using SPSS 21.0 and AMOS 23.0. The path analysis showed that self-esteem and aggressiveness directly influenced smartphone dependency, while affective parenting attitude, peer attachment, resilience, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms indirectly influenced it. The explanatory variables accounted for 18.3% of the total variance. In conclusion, parents' education on positive parenting and guidance concerning adolescents' smartphone use is necessary to reduce adolescents' smartphone dependency. It may also prove effective to promote adolescents' interpersonal skills and self-esteem to foster positive peer relationships and self-control concerning smartphone use.


Assuntos
Smartphone , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Psicologia , Psicologia do Adolescente , República da Coreia , Autoimagem , Mídias Sociais , Habilidades Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349359

RESUMO

Significant progress has been made in developing intervention programmes for adolescents at high risk of delinquency, school failure and emotional problems. The most effective programmes incorporate behavioural and skills training aimed at changing attitudes and promoting psychosocial and emotional skills in adolescents. This study examined the effectiveness of a school-based intervention programme based on the Reasoning and Rehabilitation V2 (R&R2). R&R2 is a cognitive behavioural programme developed using psychological theories about the aetiology of delinquency, as well as the cognitive, behavioural and socioemotional deficits in high-risk youth populations. A sample of 142 students (aged 13-17 years old) who were attending alternative education provision in Spain were randomly assigned to two experimental conditions (68 experimental group, 74 control group). The results showed that the R&R2 improved participants' self-esteem, social skills, empathy and rational problem-solving with a medium-large effect size (η2 = 0.08 to 0.26). The effects of the programme were significant after controlling for age and the pre-test scores in baseline. These findings confirm the effectiveness of the Reasoning and Rehabilitation V2 programme in Spanish adolescent students and offer additional evidence regarding the implementation of the R&R2 programme in both alternative educational and mainstream school settings.


Assuntos
Resolução de Problemas , Habilidades Sociais , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Espanha , Estudantes
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