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1.
An. psicol ; 40(1): 54-68, Ene-Abri, 2024. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-229027

RESUMO

En la actualidad ha aumentado el desarrollo de programas de entrenamiento en habilidades socioemocionales en la infancia, debido a que se los considera como una herramienta válida para la adaptación y afrontamiento de una gran variedad de situaciones, tanto académicas como personales. Sin embargo, son escasos los estudios que aporten una visión integral de las evidencias disponibles en el contexto de educación primaria. Se presenta una revisión sistemática de tipo paraguas basada en el método PRISMA, que incluye revisiones sobre programas de desarrollo socioemocional aplicados en educación primaria, con el objetivo de sintetizar sus características y recopilar los principales resultados reportados. Se utilizaron las bases de datos: ERIC, WOS, PSYCINFO, SCOPUS y COCHRANE. Tras un proceso por pares ciegos se seleccionaron y analizaron 15 revisiones. Utilizando las herramientas AMSTAR-2 y SANRA se encontró que el 60% de los estudios secundarios presenta una calidad críticamente baja o baja. Se identificaron 39 programas reportados en revisiones de buena calidad, un 51.2% presentaron evidencias moderadas o fuertes e informaron efectos significativos principalmente en ajuste del comportamiento, competencia social y emocional y habilidades académicas. Se discute el impacto de la calidad metodológica encontrada y las evidencias reportados en la interpretación y generalización de los hallazgos.(AU)


Currently, the development of training programs in socioemo-tional skills in childhood has increased because they are considered as a valid tool for adaptation and coping with a variety of situations, both aca-demic and personal. However, there are few studies that show a compre-hensive view of available evidences. This research presents an umbrella re-view based on PRISMA method guidelines. It includes reviews on socio-emotional development programs applied in Primary Education with the aim of synthesizing their characteristics and compiling the main results on their effectiveness. The following databases were used: ERIC, WOS, PSYCINFO, SCOPUS and COCHRANE. After a blind peer process, 15 reviews that met the inclusion criteria were selected and analysed. Using the AMSTAR-2 and SANRA tools, it was found that 60% of secondary studies have critically low or low quality. Thirty nine programs reported in good quality reviews were identified, 51.2% presented moderate or strong evidence and reported significant effectsmainly on behavioral adjustment, social and emotional competencies and academic skills. The impact of the methodological quality found and the evidences on the interpretation and generalization of the findings is discussed.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Ensino Fundamental e Médio , Estudantes/psicologia , Habilidades Sociais , Ensino , Aprendizagem , Psicologia Educacional
2.
Recurso na Internet em Espanhol | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-49563

RESUMO

Este espacio de salud mental enfocado en el desarrollo de habilidades para la vida y bienestar psicosocial, está pensado en cada persona que requiera información para fomentar el desarrollo personal, el cual sea de fácil comprensión, por lo tanto cuenta con herramientas de fácil comprensión y aplicación en la vida cotidiana, igualmente las actividades con enfoque holístico permiten integrar la mente, el cuerpo y el espíritu, conformando comunidades con bienestar psicológico y habilidades para la vida en pro de una mejor salud mental.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar Psicológico , Qualidade de Vida , Habilidades Sociais
3.
J Youth Adolesc ; 53(4): 784-798, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38285161

RESUMO

Although an increasing body of literature has linked social experiences to physical health, research has yet to consider how specific aspects of social experiences taking place on social media during late adolescence may predict future physical health outcomes. This study thus examined qualities of social media posts received from peers at age 21 as predictors of participants' physical health (e.g., Interleukin-6 (inflammation), sleep problems, problems with physical functioning, and BMI) at age 28. Participants included 138 youth (59 men and 79 women); 57% of participants identified as White, 30% as Black/African American, and 13% as from other or mixed racial/ethnic groups. Posts from friends and participants at age 21 characterized by social ties predicted lower levels of future physical health problems, whereas socially inappropriate "faux pas" posts that deviated from peer norms by friends predicted higher levels of physical health problems at age 28. These associations were found after accounting for factors typically associated with physical health outcomes, including participants' baseline social competence, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, alcohol use, observed physical attractiveness, and history of prior hospitalizations. The results of this study suggest the importance of both achieving social integration with peers online and adhering to peer norms in the online domain as key predictors of future physical health.


Assuntos
Amigos , Mídias Sociais , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Grupo Associado , Habilidades Sociais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas
4.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 67(2): 573-585, 2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38215350

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aims of this study were (a) to evaluate the convergent validity of the Language Use Inventory (LUI) with measures of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms, language, and social skills and (b) to assess discriminant validity of the LUI with measures of nonlanguage skills, including daily living skills and motor development. METHOD: This study sample included participants from a longitudinal study (n = 239) of infant siblings with elevated familial likelihood of ASD and lower familial likelihood. Assessment measures completed at 36 months included the LUI, the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Second Edition (ADOS-2), the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Second Edition. Bivariate Pearson correlations were estimated between ADOS-2 comparison scores and four language and social skills measures. Additional correlations were estimated between LUI total scores and standard scores from nonlanguage measures. A series of Fisher's Z transformations were applied to evaluate whether bivariate correlations were significantly different. RESULTS: All four language and social skill measures were moderately to strongly associated with each other and ASD symptom severity scores. The correlation between ADOS-2 comparison scores and LUI total scores was significantly stronger than ADOS-2 correlations with all other measures. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide support for the LUI as a feasible, pragmatic language-targeted instrument for inclusion in early developmental evaluations prompted by language concerns. Administration of the LUI may accelerate earlier referral for a comprehensive assessment of ASD symptoms. Given the high correlation with ADOS-2 scores, an LUI total score in a clinical range of concern may encourage a clinician to refer families for a full diagnostic evaluation of ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Criança , Lactente , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Estudos Longitudinais , Idioma , Habilidades Sociais
5.
J Youth Adolesc ; 53(3): 595-608, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38183533

RESUMO

The decline of curiosity during adolescence has received increasing concerns in education. The present study aimed to identify the key factors in the environment that promote young people's curiosity from a needs-based ecological perspective, focusing on family and school. To enable a better understanding of the developmental effects, this study compared two age groups: 10-year-olds and 15-year-olds. A total of 5482 Finnish students (3034 aged 10 and 2448 aged 15; 48% female and 51% male) from the OECD Survey on Social-emotional Skills participated in the study, and their family and school factors related to basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, relatedness) were assessed through surveys. Hierarchical Linear Modeling results revealed that: (1) contrary to the expectations, factors that support competence and relatedness facilitated youth curiosity to a greater extent than factors that support autonomy; (2) positive relationships with teachers were more beneficial for curiosity among older youth than younger youth; whereas, a sense of belonging at school was the most important factor for younger youth's curiosity. These findings have significant implications for promoting curiosity in general as well as during different age periods.


Assuntos
Comportamento Exploratório , Estudantes , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Criança , Estudantes/psicologia , Escolaridade , Instituições Acadêmicas , Habilidades Sociais
6.
Nurse Educ Pract ; 75: 103874, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38244336

RESUMO

AIM: To delineate the prevalence of smartphone addiction among nursing students. Further, to identify associated harms and underlying risk factors based on established theoretical models. BACKGROUND: Smartphones have become indispensable tools for students. However, excessive use can lead to smartphone addiction, causing physiological, psychological and social harm. Nursing students represent a unique population whose smartphone use may differ from other disciplines due to clinical training demands. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted following the Arksey and O'Malley framework. Seven databases were systematically searched from inception to August 2023. Inclusion criteria encompassed original research on smartphone addiction, harms and risks among nursing students. Data were extracted and thematically synthesized. RESULTS: Studies (n=39) met inclusion criteria, representing 15 countries. Rates of smartphone addiction among nursing students ranged from 19% to 72%, averaging 40-50%. Incorporated into Engel's biopsychosocial models, the harm is emphasized across individual inclinations, emotional aspects, cognitive processes and executive functions. Physiological harms include sleep disruption, vision concerns,other physiological concerns. psychologically, addiction correlated with increased anxiety and depression,decline in self-esteem, learning and attention and other psychological concerns. socially, it encompasses harms such as interpersonal relationships challenges, career development and decline in social abilities. The I-PACE model identifies various risk factors for smartphone addiction among nursing students, including personal factors such as interpersonal relationship anxiety and perceived academic pressure, affective factors like high stress and learning burnout, cognitive factors such as the need for online social interaction and low perception of social support, as well as executive factors like extended usage duration, poor self-control and usage before sleep. CONCLUSION: Smartphone addiction among nursing students presents tangible harms. A proposed theoretical model integrating established frameworks provides avenues to better comprehend addiction genesis and potential intervention strategies. Given addiction's multi-factorial nature, future research investigating harm mitigation through optimizing predisposing, precipitating and perpetuating factors is warranted.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Habilidades Sociais , Smartphone , Fatores de Risco
7.
J Youth Adolesc ; 53(4): 755-771, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38280178

RESUMO

Previous reviews have synthesized the impacts of universal school-based social emotional learning (SEL) programs. However, they have yet to attempt a meta-analytic approach with rigorous inclusion criteria to identify the key SEL components and explore what make these programs work. This study aims to fill that gap by examining the impacts of SEL programs and exploring the moderating effects of methodological characteristics, implementation features, and program components on SEL effectiveness. The final sample consisted of 12 high-quality SEL programs, 59 studies, and 83,233 participants, with an overall effect size of 0.15. Meta-regression results indicated that these SEL programs could significantly improve youth social emotional skills, reinforce affect and attitudes, promote academic performance, increase prosocial behaviors, and reduce antisocial behaviors. Training teachers' social emotional skills and reducing cognitive elements in SEL curricula were found to be effective components of SEL programs, whereas pedagogical activities, climate support, and family engagement were not. Large-scale studies of SEL programs tended to generate smaller effect sizes, and those with low program dosages were found to be less effective than those approaching the recommended dosage. Policy and practical implications on how to scale SEL programs are discussed.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Social , Adolescente , Humanos , Emoções , Habilidades Sociais , Instituições Acadêmicas , Cognição
8.
Nat Hum Behav ; 8(1): 32-42, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38191845

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a widespread shift to remote work, reducing the level of face-to-face interaction between workers and changing their modes and patterns of communication. This study tests whether this transformation in production processes has been associated with disruptions in the longstanding labour market trend of increasing demand for interpersonal skills. To address this question, we integrate a skills taxonomy with the text of over 12 million Australian job postings to measure skills demand trends at the aggregate and occupational levels. We find that since the start of the pandemic, there has been an acceleration in the aggregate demand for interpersonal skills. We also find a strong positive association between an occupation's propensity for remote work and the acceleration in interpersonal skills demand for the occupation. Our findings suggest that interpersonal skills continue to grow in importance for employment in the post-pandemic, remote work friendly labour market.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Habilidades Sociais , Humanos , Austrália , Emprego , Ocupações
10.
Behav Brain Res ; 461: 114819, 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38141783

RESUMO

Behavioural interactions between conspecifics rely on the appreciation of social cues, which is achieved through biochemical switching of pre-existing neurophysiological pathways. Serotonin is one of the major neurotransmitters in the central nervous system responsible for the modulation of physiological and behavioural traits, in particular social behaviour. The relative importance of serotonin in modulating optimal social responses to the available social information (i.e., social competence) is yet unknown. Here we investigate how serotonin and the serotonin 1 A receptor (5-HT1A) modulate social competence in a competitive context. In the cooperatively breeding cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher, we pharmacologically manipulated the serotonin availability and 5-HT1A activity to test their effects on social behaviours during an asymmetric contest between the owner of a defended territory containing a shelter and an intruder devoid of a territory. In this contest, the adequate response by the intruders, the focal individuals in our study, is to show submissive behaviour in order to avoid eviction from the vicinity of the shelter. While the serotonin enhancer Fluoxetine did not affect the frequency of submission towards territory owners, reducing serotonin by a low dosage of 4-Chloro-DL-phenylalanine (PCPA) increased submissive behaviour. Furthermore, threat displays towards territory owners were reduced at high dosages of Fluoxetine and also at the lowest dosage of PCPA. 5-HT1A activation increased threat displays by intruders, indicating that this receptor may not be involved in regulating social competence. We conclude that serotonin, but not its receptor 5-HT1A plays an important role in the regulation of social competence.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Serotonina , Animais , Habilidades Sociais , Fluoxetina/farmacologia , Comportamento Social , Ciclídeos/fisiologia , Fenclonina/farmacologia , Receptor 5-HT1A de Serotonina
11.
J Affect Disord ; 344: 8-17, 2024 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37802322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is effective in treating various neurological and psychiatric diseases. It improves anxiety symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder, gaining considerable empirical support. However, social skills results are mixed, leading to debate over its effectiveness, highlighting the need for further development. While the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is a secondary indicator to measure anxiety symptoms, it primarily evaluates social skills, which are essential for rehabilitating children with autism. Therefore, evaluating social disorder improvement in children with autism is imperative. Social impairment is a core autism symptom. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of randomised controlled trials assessing the effects of CBT on social skills in this population. METHODS: We reviewed articles published in several databases through October 2022 and relevant reference lists. We used the standardised mean difference (SMD) as the main effect size indicator and focused on SRS metrics from baseline to endpoint. We analysed subgroups, heterogeneity, bias risk, and publication bias. RESULTS: Our meta-analysis included 214 children from seven randomised controlled trials with nine datasets. Forest plot analysis shows CBT improved social skills in children with autism compared to controls. Subgroup analysis revealed parents' and teachers' SRS scores for children, SRS scores of CBT versus waitlist controls, and those of CBT versus non-waiting-list controls. LIMITATIONS: Most randomised controlled CBT trials for children with autism have explored anxiety symptom improvement. Further, social skill assessment was a secondary outcome or not assessed. Thus, social skills data are insufficient. CONCLUSIONS: CBT is effective in improving social impairment in children with autism. REGISTRATION: This meta-analysis was registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42022363423).


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Habilidades Sociais , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
12.
J Sch Psychol ; 102: 101257, 2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38143092

RESUMO

Intrapersonal perfectionism is the dispositional tendency to impose perfectionistic expectations on oneself and is considered a bidimensional construct that consists of standards perfectionism and discrepancy perfectionism. Although scholars established the links between standards perfectionism and psychological adjustment and between discrepancy perfectionism and psychopathology, the mechanisms that explain these associations remain relatively unknown. Thus, a better understanding of these mechanisms, especially in children, is warranted given their high prevalence in this developmental population and potential destructiveness on psychological well-being. The present study examined whether social skills with peers mediated the link between the dimensions of interpersonal perfectionism and psychological outcomes due to the salience of social skills acquisition in middle childhood. The study included 225 students (nfemale = 114; nmale = 111) with ages ranging from 7 to 10 years at Time 1 (T1; Mage = 8.55, SD = 1.15) and from 8 to 11 years at Time 2 (T2; Mage = 9.52, SD = 1.10). Participants provided responses on measures concerning standards perfectionism, discrepancy perfectionism, social skills, and psychological well-being at both time points. Longitudinal structural equation modeling indicated that standards perfectionism was positively associated with increases in social skills over time and psychological well-being, whereas discrepancy perfectionism was linked with decreases in social skills over time followed by psychological maladjustment. The study discusses implications for interventions and treatments.


Assuntos
Perfeccionismo , Humanos , Masculino , Criança , Feminino , Habilidades Sociais , Bem-Estar Psicológico , Personalidade , Ajustamento Emocional
13.
Psicol. esc. educ ; 28: e246235, 2024. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1529263

RESUMO

Pesquisas sobre o campo das habilidades sociais vêm crescendo nas últimas décadas e, em paralelo, estudos que buscam sistematizar o que vem sendo produzido. Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar, por meio de uma revisão da literatura, estudos empíricos realizados por autores brasileiros publicados em periódicos que investigam diretamente as habilidades sociais de pessoas com deficiência. Foi realizada uma busca nas bases de dados SciELO, PEPSIC, LILACS, Index Psi, BDENF e Periódicos CAPES com os descritores habilidades sociais e competência social, sem restrição quanto ao período de publicação. Foram caracterizados 43 artigos quanto a aspectos bibliográficos e metodológicos. Os resultados indicam alto volume de pesquisas com delineamento descritivo, maior frequência de participantes com deficiência intelectual, predomínio de inventários como forma de avaliação e escassez de pesquisas instrumentais sobre validação ou desenvolvimento de medidas. Essa revisão poderá contribuir com informações para auxiliar novas pesquisas sobre habilidades sociais junto a pessoas com deficiência.


Investigaciones sobre el campo de las habilidades sociales siguen creciendo en las últimas décadas y, en paralelo, estudios que buscan sistematizar lo que vienen siendo producido. En este estudio se tuvo como objetivo caracterizar, por intermedio de una revisión de la literatura, estudios empíricos realizados por autores brasileños publicados en periódicos que investigan directamente las habilidades sociales de personas con discapacidad. Se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos SciELO, PEPSIC, LILACS, Index Psi, BDENF y Periódicos CAPES con los descriptores habilidades y competencia sociales, sin restricción al período de publicación. Se caracterizaron 43 artículos cuanto al aspectos bibliográficos y metodológicos. Los resultados indican alto volumen de investigaciones con delineamento descriptivo, mayor frecuencia de participantes con discapacidad intelectual, predominio de inventarios como forma de evaluación y escasez de investigaciones instrumentales sobre validación o desarrollo de medidas. Esta revisión podrá contribuir con informaciones para ayudar nuevas investigaciones sobre habilidades sociales junto a personas con discapacidad.


ABSTRACT Research about the social skills field has been growing in recent decades and, in parallel, studies that seek to systematize what has been produced. This study aimed to characterize, through a literature review, empirical studies carried out by Brazilian authors published in journals that directly investigate the social skills of people with disabilities. A search was carried out in the SciELO, PEPSIC, LILACS, Index Psi, BDENF and Periodicals CAPES databases with the descriptors social skills and social competence, without restriction regarding the period of publication. It was found 43 articles were characterized in terms of bibliographic and methodological aspects. The results indicate a high volume of research with a descriptive design, a higher frequency of participants with intellectual disabilities, a predominance of inventories as a means of evaluation and a scarcity of instrumental research on validation or development of measures. This review may contribute with information to support further research on social skills with people with disabilities.


Assuntos
Revisão , Educação Especial , Habilidades Sociais
14.
Psicol. esc. educ ; 28: e250049, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1529265

RESUMO

As habilidades sociais têm importante papel na vida escolar e profissional. Este estudo, de natureza descritiva e correlacional, analisa os efeitos de um Curso de extensão intitulado "Imersão na Universidade: você protagonista do seu futuro", sobre as habilidades sociais de estudantes do Ensino Médio da rede pública. Para tanto, aplicou-se o Inventário de Habilidades Sociais em Adolescentes (IHSA-DelPrette) no momento inicial e três meses após o término do curso, considerando dois indicadores: (1) frequência e (2) dificuldade com que reagiam às diferentes demandas de interação social. Verificou-se diferença estatisticamente significante entre os escores pré e pós intervenção (p = 0,014), evidenciando aumento da frequência das habilidades. Para a dificuldade não foi observada diferença significante, embora tenha ocorrido uma diminuição de 13,45%. A universidade pode ser um espaço não apenas para capacitação analítica e instrumental, mas para o desenvolvimento interpessoal tanto da comunidade interna quanto externa.


Las habilidades sociales poseen importante papel en la vida escolar y profesional. En este estudio, de naturaleza descriptiva y correlacional, se analiza los efectos de un Curso de extensión intitulado "Inmersión en la Universidad: usted es protagonista de su futuro", sobre las habilidades sociales de estudiantes de la enseñanza secundaria de la red pública. Para tanto, se aplicó el Inventario de Habilidades Sociales en Adolescentes (IHSA-DelPrette) en el momento inicial y tres meses tras el término del curso, considerando dos indicadores: (1) frecuencia y (2) dificultad con que reaccionaran a las diferentes demandas de interacción social. Se verificó diferencia estadísticamente significante entre los escores pre y tras intervención (p = 0,014), evidenciando aumento de la frecuencia de las habilidades. Para la dificultad no se observó diferencia significante, aunque haya sucedido una disminución del 13,45%. La universidad puede ser un espacio no solo para capacitación analítica e instrumental, pero también para el desarrollo interpersonal de la comunidad interna y externa.


Social skills play an important role in school and professional life. This descriptive and correlational study analyzes the effects of an extension course entitled "Immersion in the University: you are the protagonist of your future", about the social skills of High School students in public schools. To this end, the Inventory of Social Skills in Adolescents (IHSA-DelPrette) was applied at the beginning and three months after the end of the course, considering two indicators: (1) assiduity and (2) difficulties they had when handling the different demands of social interaction. There was a statistically significant difference between the pre and post intervention scores (p = 0.014), showing an increase in the frequency of skills. For difficulty, no significant difference was observed, although there was a decrease of 13.45%. The university can be a space not only for analytical and instrumental training, but for the interpersonal development of both the internal and external community.


Assuntos
Estudantes , Adolescente , Habilidades Sociais , Autoteste
15.
J Neurodev Disord ; 15(1): 42, 2023 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38044457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relatively little is known about social cognition in people with intellectual disability (ID), and how this may support understanding of co-occurring autism. A limitation of previous research is that traditional social-cognitive tasks place a demand on domain-general cognition and language abilities. These tasks are not suitable for people with ID and lack the sensitivity to detect subtle social-cognitive processes. In autism research, eye-tracking technology has offered an effective method of evaluating social cognition-indicating associations between visual social attention and autism characteristics. The present systematic review synthesised research which has used eye-tracking technology to study social cognition in ID. A meta-analysis was used to explore whether visual attention on socially salient regions (SSRs) of stimuli during these tasks correlated with degree of autism characteristics presented on clinical assessment tools. METHOD: Searches were conducted using four databases, research mailing lists, and citation tracking. Following in-depth screening and exclusion of studies with low methodological quality, 49 articles were included in the review. A correlational meta-analysis was run on Pearson's r values obtained from twelve studies, reporting the relationship between visual attention on SSRs and autism characteristics. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Eye-tracking technology was used to measure different social-cognitive abilities across a range of syndromic and non-syndromic ID groups. Restricted scan paths and eye-region avoidance appeared to impact people's ability to make explicit inferences about mental states and social cues. Readiness to attend to social stimuli also varied depending on social content and degree of familiarity. A meta-analysis using a random effects model revealed a significant negative correlation (r = -.28, [95% CI -.47, -.08]) between visual attention on SSRs and autism characteristics across ID groups. Together, these findings highlight how eye-tracking can be used as an accessible tool to measure more subtle social-cognitive processes, which appear to reflect variability in observable behaviour. Further research is needed to be able to explore additional covariates (e.g. ID severity, ADHD, anxiety) which may be related to visual attention on SSRs, to different degrees within syndromic and non-syndromic ID groups, in order to determine the specificity of the association with autism characteristics.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Deficiência Intelectual , Humanos , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Cognição Social , Habilidades Sociais
16.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 23(4)oct.-dic. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-226364

RESUMO

Objective: Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) negatively affects social functioning; however, its neurological underpinnings remain unclear. Altered Default Mode Network (DMN) connectivity may contribute to social dysfunction in ADHD. We investigated whether DMN's dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) alterations were associated with social dysfunction in individuals with ADHD. Methods: Resting-state fMRI was used to examine DMN subsystems (dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dMPFC), medial temporal lobe (MTL)) and the midline core in 40 male ADHD patients (7-10 years) and 45 healthy controls (HCs). Connectivity correlations with symptoms and demographic data were assessed. Group-based analyses compared rsFC between groups with two-sample t-tests and post-hoc analyses. Results: Social dysfunction in ADHD patients was related to reduced DMN connectivity, specifically in the MTL subsystem and the midline core. ADHD patients showed decreased dFC between parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and left superior frontal gyrus, and between ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) and right middle frontal gyrus compared to HCs (MTL subsystem). Additionally, decreased dFC between posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), anterior medial prefrontal cortex (aMPFC), and right angular gyrus (midline core) was observed in ADHD patients relative to HCs. No abnormal connectivity was found within the dMPFC. Conclusion: Preliminary findings suggest that DMN connectional abnormalities may contribute to social dysfunction in ADHD, providing insights into the disorder's neurobiology and pathophysiology. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Habilidades Sociais , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Cérebro/diagnóstico por imagem , Entrevistas como Assunto
17.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 18(1)2023 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37930994

RESUMO

Social attention involves selectively attending to and encoding socially relevant information. We investigated the neural systems underlying the wide range of variability in both social attention ability and social experience in a neurotypical sample. Participants performed a selective social attention task, while undergoing fMRI and completed self-report measures of social functioning. Using connectome-based predictive modeling, we demonstrated that individual differences in whole-brain functional connectivity patterns during selective attention to faces predicted task performance. Individuals with more cerebellar-occipital connectivity performed better on the social attention task, suggesting more efficient social information processing. Then, we estimated latent communities of autistic and socially anxious traits using exploratory graph analysis to decompose heterogeneity in social functioning between individuals. Connectivity strength within the identified social attention network was associated with social skills, such that more temporal-parietal connectivity predicted fewer challenges with social communication and interaction. These findings demonstrate that individual differences in functional connectivity strength during a selective social attention task are related to varying levels of self-reported social skill.


Assuntos
Conectoma , Habilidades Sociais , Humanos , Individualidade , Encéfalo , Cognição , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Atenção
18.
J Sch Psychol ; 101: 101251, 2023 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37951664

RESUMO

Due to their promise as a feasible tool for evaluating the effects of school-based interventions, Direct Behavior Ratings (DBR) have received much research attention over the past 2 decades. Although DBR methodology has demonstrated much promise, favorable psychometric characteristics only have been demonstrated for tools measuring a small number of constructs. Likewise, although a variety of methods of DBR have been proposed, most extant studies have focused on the use of single-item methods. The present study examined the dependability of four methods of formative behavioral assessment (i.e., single-item and multi-item ratings administered either daily [DBR] or weekly [formative behavior rating measures or FBRM]) across eight psychological constructs (i.e., interpersonal skills, academic engagement, organizational skills, disruptive behavior, oppositional behavior, interpersonal conflict, anxious depressed, and social withdrawal). School-based professionals (N = 91; i.e., teachers, paraprofessionals, and intervention specialists) each rated one student across all eight constructs after being assigned to one of the four assessment conditions. Dependability estimates varied substantially across methods and constructs (range = 0.75-0.96), although findings of the present study support the use of the broad set of formative assessment tools evaluated.


Assuntos
Comportamento Problema , Humanos , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Instituições Acadêmicas , Habilidades Sociais , Ansiedade
19.
Support Care Cancer ; 31(12): 688, 2023 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37947858

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although identified as a key competency domain and a needed area of professional development, interpersonal communication in breast cancer care patient navigation is understudied. Moreover, the patient-navigator relationship may be influenced by the interpersonal communication skills and behaviors of the patient navigator. This paper reports on the interpretation step of a concept mapping study, where key stakeholders shared their perspectives on six identified interpersonal communication components of breast cancer care patient navigation. METHODS: This study utilized concept mapping, a community-engaged mixed method approach. After conducting brainstorming, sorting, and concept mapping analysis, a six-cluster concept map of interpersonal communication in breast cancer care patient navigation was identified. Interpretation sessions with each participant group (patients, patient navigators, administrators) allowed both naming and more in-depth exploration of the six clusters. The sessions were led by a facilitator, the PI, and were audio recorded and transcribed. RESULTS: Six 2-h interpretation sessions were conducted with 21 participants, including patients with breast cancer, breast cancer patient navigators (lay or medically trained), and patient navigation administrators from Western Pennsylvania. Through a group consensus process, the six clusters were named. Participants identified that all six identified components were essential to patient navigation, but the ability to build patient-centered trust and relationships and maintain professional communication were the most impactful components of the patient-navigator relationship. CONCLUSION: These findings validate the importance of interpersonal skills and behaviors of patient navigators in breast cancer care. These findings can inform the patient navigation role description, competencies, and the development of curriculum for training and metrics for evaluation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Navegação de Pacientes , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Navegação de Pacientes/métodos , Assistência ao Paciente , Comunicação , Habilidades Sociais
20.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 18(1)2023 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37930841

RESUMO

The rapid brain maturation in childhood and adolescence accompanies the development of socio-emotional functioning. However, it is unclear how the maturation of the neural activity drives the development of socio-emotional functioning and individual differences. This study aimed to reflect the age dependence of inter-individual differences in brain responses to socio-emotional scenarios and to develop naturalistic imaging indicators to assess the maturity of socio-emotional ability at the individual level. Using three independent naturalistic imaging datasets containing healthy participants (n = 111, 21 and 122), we found and validated that age-modulated inter-individual concordance of brain responses to socio-emotional movies in specific brain regions. The similarity of an individual's brain response to the average response of older participants was defined as response typicality, which predicted an individual's emotion regulation strategies in adolescence and theory of mind (ToM) in childhood. Its predictive power was not superseded by age, sex, cognitive performance or executive function. We further showed that the movie's valence and arousal ratings grounded the response typicality. The findings highlight that forming typical brain response patterns may be a neural phenotype underlying the maturation of socio-emotional ability. The proposed response typicality represents a neuroimaging approach to measure individuals' maturity of cognitive reappraisal and ToM.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Teoria da Mente , Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Emoções/fisiologia , Habilidades Sociais , Função Executiva
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