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1.
Trials ; 22(1): 468, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early interventions benefit the mental health, academic performance and productivity of children and adolescents throughout their life. The present study protocol will evaluate the effectiveness of the Elos 2.0 Programme, which is a version adapted for Brazil by the Ministry of Health, in reducing problem behaviours (e.g., disruptiveness, aggressivity and shyness) and promoting social skills in the school context in children 6 to 10 years of age. The Elos Programme is based on the Good Behaviour Game, which is widely used and prevents and/or reduces students' disruptive behaviours by establishing cooperation contingencies. METHOD: A cluster-randomized controlled trial will be performed in 30 schools in three cities (15 controls and 15 in the experimental group), with a total of 3800 children participating in the test (1900 in the control group and 1900 in the intervention group). Data will be collected by having teachers in the control and experimental classes complete the Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation (TOCA) questionnaire, which is an instrument used to observe children's behaviour in the classroom. We will collect data before and after the intervention period in the same year. Due to the hierarchical structure of the data, multilevel analysis will be performed to detect simultaneous differences in prevalence over time and across groups to control for sociodemographic variables. DISCUSSION: The current study will examine the effectiveness of the Elos 2.0 Programme in reducing problem behaviours (e.g., disruptiveness, aggressivity and shyness) and promoting social skills in the school context. The findings of this school-based prevention programme for children will influence the development and implementation of similar programmes for schools and educational policymakers by identifying mechanisms that are central to achieving positive outcomes for participants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registry of Clinical Trials of the Ministry of Health RBR-86c6jp . Registered February 2, 2019.


Assuntos
Comportamento Problema , Adolescente , Brasil , Criança , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Instituições Acadêmicas , Habilidades Sociais
2.
Surg Clin North Am ; 101(4): 667-677, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242608

RESUMO

Residency programs should use a systematic method of recruitment that begins with defining unique desired candidate attributes. Commonly sought-after characteristics may be delineated via the residency application. Scores from standardized examinations taken in medical school predict academic success, and may correlate to overall performance. Strong letters of recommendation and a personal history of prior success outside the medical field both forecast success in residency. Interviews are crucial to determining fit within a program, and remain a valid measure of an applicant's ability to prosper in a particular program, even with many interviews being completed in the virtual realm.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Geral/educação , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Critérios de Admissão Escolar , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Personalidade , Habilidades Sociais , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Estados Unidos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198737

RESUMO

Early childhood and the pre-school stage of development constitute a dynamic period for acquisition of social-emotional competencies. Yoga and mindfulness practices (YMP) have become increasingly used in schools for social emotional learning, but less is known about their utility in early childhood settings. A systematic review using PRISMA guidelines was undertaken to explore the effect of YMP on social emotional function among preschool-aged children (3-5 years). The review resulted in identification of 1115 records, of which 80 full text articles were screened, with final inclusion of 16 studies. Included studies evaluated the effect of YMP on social-emotional functioning, and identified the potential for YMP to improve regulatory skills such as behavioral self-regulation and executive function. Among studies reviewed, 13 reported improvements in these domains, but quality appraisal indicated significant variability in risk of bias across studies, and heterogeneity of outcome measurements hindered comparison. Programs appeared to produce better results when implemented for at least 6 weeks and among children who had lower baseline social-emotional functioning. YMP constitute a promising strategy for social emotional development in early childhood settings, but additional rigorously designed studies are needed to expand understanding of how and why these programs are effective.


Assuntos
Meditação , Atenção Plena , Ioga , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Habilidades Sociais
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065560

RESUMO

In recent decades, efforts have been made to achieve a positive coexistence among adolescents in secondary schools and create a healthy environment to prepare them to face the present-day challenges. Therefore, this study highlights the educational purpose of improving emotional management and social skills as well as decreasing antisocial and criminal behaviour among secondary education students through an educational training programme. Accordingly, to verify the effectiveness of the project, a quasi-experimental design with a pre-test/post-test structure and a control group was adopted. To achieve this, a total of 141 Spanish secondary school students participated in this study and were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions. The first (experimental) group (n = 55) participated in the training programme; correspondingly, the second group (control) (n = 57) followed the usual mentoring activities planned for the entire educational centre. Of the total number of participants, 52.7% of the sample were men and 47.3% were women. The mean age of the participants was 13.01 years old (SD = 0.935). The results showed improvements in the environment with adequate training and the correct application of a programme involving emotional intelligence (EI) among secondary education students. Furthermore, a decrease in conflicts and enhanced relations between the members of the educational community was evidenced. Finally, the practical implications for improving coexistence in secondary schools are discussed.


Assuntos
Inteligência Emocional , Habilidades Sociais , Estudantes , Adolescente , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas
5.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 488, 2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improving the quality of primary healthcare provision is a key goal in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, to develop effective quality improvement interventions, we first need to be able to accurately measure the quality of care. The methods most commonly used to measure the technical quality of care all have some key limitations in LMICs settings. Video-observation is appealing but has not yet been used in this context. We examine preliminary feasibility and acceptability of video-observation for assessing physician quality in a hospital outpatients' department in Nigeria. We also develop measurement procedures and examine measurement characteristics. METHODS: Cross-sectional study at a large tertiary care hospital in Ibadan, Nigeria. Consecutive physician-patient consultations with adults and children under five seeking outpatient care were video-recorded. We also conducted brief interviews with participating physicians to gain feedback on our approach. Video-recordings were double-coded by two medically trained researchers, independent of the study team and each other, using an explicit checklist of key processes of care that we developed, from which we derived a process quality score. We also elicited a global quality rating from reviewers. RESULTS: We analysed 142 physician-patient consultations. The median process score given by both coders was 100 %. The modal overall rating category was 'above standard' (or 4 on a scale of 1-5). Coders agreed on which rating to assign only 44 % of the time (weighted Cohen's kappa = 0.26). We found in three-level hierarchical modelling that the majority of variance in process scores was explained by coder disagreement. A very high correlation of 0.90 was found between the global quality rating and process quality score across all encounters. Participating physicians liked our approach, despite initial reservations about being observed. CONCLUSIONS: Video-observation is feasible and acceptable in this setting, and the quality of consultations was high. However, we found that rater agreement is low but comparable to other modalities that involve expert clinician judgements about quality of care including in-person direct observation and case note review. We suggest ways to improve scoring consistency including careful rater selection and improved design of the measurement procedure for the process score.


Assuntos
Médicos , Habilidades Sociais , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Nigéria , Ambulatório Hospitalar
6.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 149, 2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34006304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of breast cancer and the subsequent treatment undermine patients' participation in social activities. This study aimed to carry out a cross-cultural adaption and analysis of the construct validity and reliability of the Chinese version of the PROMIS social function short forms in patients with breast cancer. METHODS: This study utilized a cross-sectional research design, and was registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR2000035439). After a standardized cross-cultural adaption process, a psychometric evaluation was performed of the Chinese version of the PROMIS social function short forms. Using convenience sampling, eligible patients with breast cancer from tertiary hospitals in China were enrolled from January 2019 to July 2020. Participants completed the sociodemographic information questionnaire, the PROMIS social function short forms, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast, the PROMIS emotional support short form and the PROMIS anxiety short form. RESULTS: Data were collected from a sample of 633 patients whose mean age was 48.1 years. The measures showed an absence of floor and ceiling effects. Regarding construct validity, the results of confirmatory factor analysis supported the original two-factor structure of the PROMIS social function short forms. In addition, the measures were found to have acceptable known-group validity, measurement invariance, and convergent and discriminate validity. Regarding reliability, the Cronbach's α was high for all items (> 0.70). CONCLUSION: The Chinese version of the PROMIS social function short forms was demonstrated to be a valid and reliable measure for the assessment of social function in Chinese patients with breast cancer. Additional psychometric evaluation is needed to draw firm conclusions.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Psicometria/normas , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Habilidades Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Estudos Transversais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Behav Ther ; 52(3): 564-576, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990234

RESUMO

Adolescents experiencing social anxiety often engage in safety behaviors-covert avoidance strategies for managing distress (e.g., avoiding eye contact)-that factor into the development and maintenance of their concerns. Prior work supports the psychometric properties of the Subtle Avoidance Frequency Examination (SAFE), a self-report survey of safety behaviors. Yet, we need complementary methods for assessing these behaviors within contexts where adolescents often experience concerns, namely, interactions with unfamiliar peers. Recent work indicates that, based on short, direct social interactions with adolescents, individuals posing as unfamiliar peers (i.e., peer confederates) and without assessment training can capably report about adolescent social anxiety. We built on prior work by testing whether we could gather valid SAFE reports from unfamiliar untrained observers (UUOs), who observed adolescents within archived recordings of these short social interactions. A mixed clinical/community sample of 105 adolescents self-reported on their functioning and participated in a series of social interaction tasks with peer confederates, who also provided social anxiety reports about the adolescent. Based on video recordings of these tasks, trained independent observers rated adolescents' observed social skills, and an additional set of UUOs completed SAFE reports of these same adolescents. Unfamiliar untrained observers' SAFE reports (a) related to adolescents' SAFE self-reports, (b) distinguished adolescents on clinically elevated social anxiety concerns, (c) related to trained independent observers' ratings of adolescent social skills within interactions with peer confederates, and (d) related to adolescents' self-reported arousal within these same interactions. Our findings support use of unfamiliar observers' perspectives to understand socially anxious adolescents' interpersonal functioning.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Interação Social , Adolescente , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Grupo Associado , Habilidades Sociais
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946399

RESUMO

Social-emotional skills have been an important object of study in recent years due to their relationship with academic, personal and professional success. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between these skills and different influential variables. The participants had a mean age of 14.18 years. The instruments used were the Social Emotional Competence Questionnaire (SECQ) and the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PACQ-A). Generally, the results indicated gender differences and no influence of age. Those who engaged in after-school activities scored higher on social awareness. In addition, artistic and musical extracurricular activities were associated with social-emotional skills, whereas sports activities were not. It was also found that the physical activity index was not related to socioemotional factors, except in self-awareness and in a negative way. It is necessary to analyse the quality of the extracurricular programmes offered and the training of the professionals in charge of their development. It also seems important to take into account the gender perspective in competence work, increasing self-management in girls and relationship management in boys.


Assuntos
Emoções , Esportes , Adolescente , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Habilidades Sociais
9.
Hum Mov Sci ; 77: 102802, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33894651

RESUMO

Motor abnormalities are generally observed in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and motor difficulties are certainly evident during the early years of life and may thus precede social-communication impairments. The main aim of the present study was to examine ASD subtypes based on the relationship between motor skills and social communication abilities. Motor skills and social communication abilities were evaluated through the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition, the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Second Version and the Psychoeducational Profile-Third Edition. In addition, social communication abilities were classified according to the Autism Classification System of Functioning: Social Communication-ACSF:SC criteria. We found that children with ASD presented poorer motor skills than their TD peers, and motor impairments correlated with poorer social communication abilities in children with ASD. In addition, children with lower social and communication functioning showed a more prominent impairment in manual dexterity and fine motor skills than children with better social and communication functioning. In conclusion, we suggest that stratifying children with ASD based on motor and social endophenotypes may be useful to understand the neurobiological mechanisms of ASD and lead to new types of treatment.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Comunicação , Testes de Inteligência , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Habilidades Sociais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/classificação , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918703

RESUMO

The five-to-fifteen (FTF) questionnaire is a screening tool completed by parents that is able to distinguish developmental disorders in children aged 5 to 15 years old. The current study aimed to characterize the developmental difficulties by gender and school age (kindergarten and first grade) of children in their transition to primary school, using the Spanish-language version of the FTF questionnaire. The participants were 541 parents of typically developed children from kindergarten and first grade in public schools in Chile. Developmental difficulties were revealed, showing that boys displayed significantly more difficulties in their social skills when compared to girls, and that kindergartners displayed significantly more developmental difficulties than first graders. The children's developmental difficulties in executive functions, social skills, and emotional/behavioral problems exhibited interactions between gender and school age. The findings were discussed in terms of current conceptualizations of both executive functions and self-regulatory processes. These processes and functions are configured early in development, are gradually consolidated over the course of school age, and can be strengthened or weakened by conditions experienced in childhood. Early screening of developmental difficulties from the parents' perspective would facilitate early detection of problems, as early as in kindergarten, and considering the normal adaptable development of children.


Assuntos
Comportamento Problema , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Chile , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Habilidades Sociais
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806563

RESUMO

Background: This study evaluates the effectiveness of parent-assisted children's friendship training intervention for enhancing friendship quality and social skills among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We conducted a quasi-experimental study to investigate the effective outcomes of social skills and friendship quality in the pre-and post-parent-assisted CFT intervention phases; Methods: to conduct a 12-week field session, 30 children with their parents were selected. The Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales and the Quality of Play Questionnaire-Parent were used to assess the effectiveness of the parent-assisted children's friendship training during pre-and post-intervention. A semi-structured interview with parents was conducted at the end of the session; Results: findings revealed that intervention improved the social skills of these children. Additionally, the friendship quality of children with ASD improved before and after the intervention, however, engagement remained unchanged. Parents also showed some sort of improvement after the session as they reported a heightened sense of fear and resistance, awareness, learning and adjustment, change is not easy, and identifying support; Conclusions: there was clear evidence that children with ASD benefitted from parent-assisted CFTs in terms of social skills and friendship quality. However, larger and controlled studies are required to draw firm conclusions about this kind of intervention.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil , Criança , Amigos , Humanos , Malásia , Habilidades Sociais
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803581

RESUMO

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a constellation of social deficits and repetitive sensory-motor behaviours. Aquatic therapy (AT) may be effective in improving the social interactions and behaviours in children with ASD. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of an AT program on social competence and quality of life and to understand participant's experiences related to the intervention by obtaining qualitative data. A mixed methods intervention study was conducted among 6 children with ASD and their parents, with two research phases in a concurrent embedded design (an aquatic intervention as the quantitative design and a qualitative design in second step). The intervention and qualitative design followed international guidelines and were integrated into the method and reporting subheadings. Significant improvement was observed in the physical competence (p = 0.026) and important improvements in school functioning and aquatic skills, with no adverse events. Qualitative findings described: the meaning of AT intervention, patterns of behaviour and activities changes, social communication and social interaction. The aquatic intervention showed positive results for the social and physical competence, with elements of discordance, expansion, and confirmation between quantitative and qualitative results.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Qualidade de Vida , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Criança , Comunicação , Humanos , Habilidades Sociais
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804140

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to analyse the impact of physical education based on the adventure education programme on the social competences of adolescent boys. The participants (n = 70) were 1st grade high school students between 15 and 16 years old. Adolescents' social competences were measured using the Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and Social Competence Questionnaire (SCQ) before and after the intervention. An experimental repeated-measures design was used, with a comparison group. ANOVA (2 × 2) for interaction group x time showed statistical significance in competences revealed in situations of social exposure (F1, 68 = 5.16, p < 0.05, partial η2 = 0.07) and competences revealed in situations requiring assertiveness (F1, 68 = 4.73, p < 0.05, partial η2 = 0.07). Using the adventure education (AE) programme may be recommended as a way of developing social skill competences revealed in situations of social exposure and competences revealed in situations requiring the assertiveness of adolescents through physical activity that can be easily integrated into the school environment.


Assuntos
Educação Física e Treinamento , Habilidades Sociais , Adolescente , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Masculino , Autoimagem , Estudantes
15.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 52(1): 45-57, ene.-mar. 2021. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-201648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study explores the relationship between quality of life (QoL) and employability skills in a non-random sample of 100 employees of occupa­tional centres (OCs) in Barcelona (Spain). The influence of gender, age and level of in­tellectual disability (ID) is also explored. METHOD: A quantitative approach was adopted to collect and examine data, gathered through two different instruments: the GENCAT SCALE (Verdugo et al., 2008) (and the Employability Skills Scale (Jariot, Laborda and González, 2020). RESULTS: A correlation between QoL and employability skills has been found. A relationship between age and employability skills was also found, in which younger individuals reported better in employability skills. Age was also found to have an effect on some QoL domains. The ID level turned out to be a significant factor in the development of employability skills, as well as in some QoL domains. The crucial role of job placement in personal development is underlined, as well as the need for more inclusive procedures in occupancy services


INTRODUCCIÓN: el estudio explora la relación entre calidad de vida y com­petencias de empleabilidad en una muestra no aleatoria de 100 empleados de centros ocupacionales en Barcelona (España). También se explora la influencia del género, la edad y el nivel de discapacidad intelectual en ambas variables. MÉTODO: se adoptó un en­foque cuantitativo para recopilar y examinar datos, reunidos a través de dos instrumen­tos diferentes: la Escala GENCAT (Verdugo et al., 2008) y la Escala de Competencias de Empleabilidad (Jariot, Laborda y González, 2020). RESULTADOS: existe una correlación entre la calidad de vida y las competencias de empleabilidad. También se encontró rela­ción entre la edad y dichas competencias, en la cual las personas más jóvenes obtuvieron puntuaciones más altas. También se descubrió que la edad influye en algunos dominios de calidad de vida. El grado de discapacidad resultó ser un factor significativo en el desarrollo de competencias de empleabilidad, así como en algunos dominios de calidad de vida. Se subraya el papel crucial de la inserción laboral en el desarrollo personal, así como la necesidad de procedimientos más inclusivos en los servicios de ocupación


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pessoas com Deficiência Mental/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Aptidão , Emprego/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Testes Psicológicos , Habilidades Sociais , Avaliação da Capacidade de Trabalho , Espanha
16.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 72(5): 168-176, 1 mar., 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202076

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: El trastorno del espectro alcohólico fetal (TEAF) es la principal causa conocida y prevenible de discapacidad intelectual en el mundo occidental y afecta hasta al 1-5% de la población. Se considera un trastorno infradiagnosticado e infratratado, y las intervenciones psicológicas con evidencia empírica son escasas. OBJETIVO: Revisar los estudios publicados hasta el momento sobre tratamiento psicológico del TEAF a lo largo de la vida. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica mediante las bases de datos de Medline, PsychINFO, PubMed y Cochrane Library usando los términos fetal alcohol syndrome disorder AND cognitive behavioral intervention OR psychological intervention OR psychological treatment OR therapy OR psychotherapy. Se incluyeron los trabajos publicados que evaluaran la eficacia de tratamientos psicológicos para estos pacientes. DESARROLLO: Cumplieron los criterios de inclusión 20 estudios publicados. Los tratamientos se clasificaron en función del tipo de intervención: la regulación emocional y conductual, el entrenamiento en habilidades sociales y las intervenciones familiares. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados indican que los tratamientos psicológicos dirigidos a trabajar la regulación emocional y conductual, el entrenamiento en habilidades sociales y las intervenciones familiares son los que tienen mayor evidencia en el tratamiento para el TEAF. La mayoría se basa en principios cognitivo-conductuales y a niños de edad escolar, y son escasas todavía las investigaciones de tratamientos para adultos con TEAF. A pesar del progreso en las intervenciones psicológicas para el TEAF, la investigación aún refleja marcadas limitaciones


INTRODUCTION. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the leading known and preventable cause of intellectual disability in the western world, affecting up to 1-5% of the population. It is considered an underdiagnosed and undertreated disorder, with few psychological interventions with empirical evidence. AIM. To review all the studies published to date on the psychological treatment of FASD throughout life. A bibliographic search was carried out using the MEDLINE, PsychINFO, PubMed and Cochrane Library databases using the terms fetal alcohol syndrome disorder AND cognitive behavioral intervention OR psychological intervention OR psychological treatment OR therapy OR psychotherapy. The review included published works which evaluate the efficacy of psychological treatments for these patients. DEVELOPMENT: Twenty published studies met the inclusion criteria. The treatments were classified according to the type of intervention: emotional and behavioral regulation, social skills training and family interventions for patients with FASD. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that psychological treatments focused on emotional and behavioral regulation, social skills training and family interventions are the most evidenced treatments for these patients. These treatments are based on cognitive-behavioral principles and include school-age children. However, more research is needed on psychological interventions for adults with FASD. Despite the progress in psychological interventions for FASD, the research still reflects highlighted limitations


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/terapia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/terapia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Emoções , Habilidades Sociais , Família/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo
18.
J Sports Sci Med ; 20(1): 110-125, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33707994

RESUMO

This systematic review aimed to examine the main findings concerning to the investigations focused on compare, within Physical Education context, the influence of Sport Education (SE) and Traditional Teaching (TT) on students' learning outcomes. A literature search was conducted on nine electronic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, SCOPUS, Academic Search Ultimate, ERIC, Education Source, APA PsycINFO and APA PsycARTICLES). Inclusion criteria were defined before the selection process. Accordingly, were only included articles that (i) were published in peer-reviewed international journals indexed in Journal Citation Reports or Scientific Journal Rankings; (ii) were available in full-text; (iii) were published in English, Portuguese or Spanish; (iv) were performed within Physical Education context; and (v) provided specifically a comparison between the effects of SE and TT on students' learning outcomes. Globally, twenty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria. The manuscripts' methodological quality was assessed through Downs and Black checklist, with all studies displaying moderate quality. Results showed that comparisons among SE and TT tend to analyze team sports activities sampling high-school students via quasi-experimental designs, with more than half of them were published over the past five years. Also, these investigations typically focused on the differences between both models on the development of personal and social skills, as well as its impact on the motor and cognitive domains. In this respect, although the results tend to point out increases in both SE and TT, superior values are achieved when SE is implemented. The analysis of the teaching-learning process using alternative research methods and designs (i.e., experimental studies, qualitative data, longitudinal analysis, action-research and case studies), longer units with appropriate planning, and the report of model's fidelity so that robust findings can endorse the teachers' praxis, must be a concern in future studies.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Educação Física e Treinamento , Esportes/educação , Estudantes , Ensino , Adolescente , Cognição , Humanos , Habilidades Sociais
20.
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 82(2): 1-9, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646028

RESUMO

Research carried out in 2016 by the authors investigated the challenges that doctors in training experience around leadership and followership in the NHS. The study explored contemporary healthcare leadership culture and the role of followership from the perspective of early career doctors. It found that the leadership and followership challenges for these doctors in training were associated with issues of social and professional identity, communication, the medical hierarchy, and relationships with senior colleagues (support and trust). These challenges were exacerbated by the busy and turbulent clinical environment in which they worked. To cope with various clinical situations and forms of leadership, doctors in training engage in a range of different followership behaviours and strategies. The study raised implications for medical education and training and suggested that followership should be included as part of formal training in communication and team working skills. The importance of both leadership and followership in the delivery of safe and effective patient care has been brought sharply into focus by the COVID-19 pandemic. This article revisits these challenges in light of the pandemic and its impact on the experiences of doctors in training.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Educação Médica , Liderança , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar , Ensino/tendências , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Comportamento Cooperativo , Educação Médica/métodos , Educação Médica/tendências , Humanos , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/educação , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/psicologia , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/normas , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , SARS-CoV-2 , Habilidades Sociais
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