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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18546, 2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329096

RESUMO

The simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is the predominant species causing human malaria infection, including hospitalisations for severe disease and death, in Malaysian Borneo. By contrast, there have been only a few case reports of knowlesi malaria from Indonesian Borneo. This situation seems paradoxical since both regions share the same natural macaque hosts and Anopheles mosquito vectors, and therefore have a similar epidemiologically estimated risk of infection. To determine whether there is a true cross-border disparity in P. knowlesi prevalence, we conducted a community-based malaria screening study using PCR in Kapuas Hulu District, West Kalimantan. Blood samples were taken between April and September 2019 from 1000 people aged 6 months to 85 years attending health care facilities at 27 study sites within or close to jungle areas. There were 16 Plasmodium positive samples by PCR, five human malarias (two Plasmodium vivax, two Plasmodium ovale and one Plasmodium malariae) and 11 in which no species could be definitively identified. These data suggest that, if present, simian malarias including P. knowlesi are rare in the Kapuas Hulu District of West Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo compared to geographically adjacent areas of Malaysian Borneo. The reason for this discrepancy, if confirmed in other epidemiologically similar regions of Indonesian Borneo, warrants further studies targeting possible cross-border differences in human activities in forested areas, together with more detailed surveys to complement the limited data relating to monkey hosts and Anopheles mosquito vectors in Indonesian Borneo.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Malária , Plasmodium knowlesi , Animais , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Plasmodium knowlesi/genética , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/veterinária , Malária/parasitologia , Anopheles/parasitologia , Mosquitos Vetores , Haplorrinos , Malásia/epidemiologia
2.
J Neurosci ; 42(45): 8508-8513, 2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36351824

RESUMO

Understanding the unique functions of different subregions of primate prefrontal cortex has been a longstanding goal in cognitive neuroscience. Yet, the anatomy and function of one of its largest subregions (the frontopolar cortex) remain enigmatic and underspecified. Our Society for Neuroscience minisymposium Primate Frontopolar Cortex: From Circuits to Complex Behaviors will comprise a range of new anatomic and functional approaches that have helped to clarify the basic circuit anatomy of the frontal pole, its functional involvement during performance of cognitively demanding behavioral paradigms in monkeys and humans, and its clinical potential as a target for noninvasive brain stimulation in patients with brain disorders. This review consolidates knowledge about the anatomy and connectivity of frontopolar cortex and provides an integrative summary of its function in primates. We aim to answer the question: what, if anything, does frontopolar cortex contribute to goal-directed cognition and action?


Assuntos
Cognição , Objetivos , Animais , Humanos , Cognição/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Primatas , Haplorrinos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36383890

RESUMO

Human Adenovirus 36 (HAdV-36) has been related to diverse effects on metabolism and may attenuate the lipid accumulation in kidneys with increased adiposity. Some of these effects would be related to viral persistence. However, until now, a model of persistent in vitro infection by HAdV-36 is unknown. In this study, we examined the cells of the Vero lineage to explore their permissiveness to long-term HAdV-36 infection. HAdV-36 was productively replicated in Vero cells and maintained long-term infection for up to 35 cell passages. A subculture was obtained from the cells that survived the primary infection at a low MOI (0.5). The production of the extracellular infectious virus with titers ranging from 104 to 106 TCID50/mL and DNA-bearing cells was detected. In long-term infected cells, the intracellular distribution of viral antigen was demonstrated by performing immunolocalization (IFI) and expression of cell-viral antigen in 50% of cells by flow cytometry, using anti-HAdV-36 hyperimmune rabbit serum. Furthermore, E1a and E4orf1 genes in long-term infected passages showed a decreasing trend. Our preliminary results reveal that renal epithelial monkey cells are permissive for the productive infection of HAdV-36. Vero cell culture long-term infection might be a promising model for addressing the fundamental aspects of the HAdV-36 biology that cannot reveal broadly-used cultures, which do not maintain long-term infection in primary or transformed cells.


Assuntos
Adenovírus Humanos , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humanos , Coelhos , Adenovírus Humanos/genética , Haplorrinos , Células Vero , Replicação Viral , Rim , Antígenos Virais
6.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 1087, 2022 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36224338

RESUMO

According to the Strength-and-Vulnerability-Integration (SAVI) model, older people are more motivated to avoid negative affect and high arousal than younger people. To explore the biological roots of this effect, we investigate communicative interactions and social information processing in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) living at 'La Forêt des Singes' in Rocamadour, France. The study combines an analysis of the production of (N = 8185 signals, 84 signallers) and responses to communicative signals (N = 3672 events, 84 receivers) with a field experiment (N = 166 trials, 45 subjects). Here we show that older monkeys are not more likely to specifically ignore negative social information or to employ avoidance strategies in stressful situations, although they are overall less sociable. We suggest that the monkeys have only a limited capacity for self-regulation within social interactions and rather rely on general avoidance strategies to decrease the risk of potentially hazardous social interactions.


Assuntos
Autocontrole , Interação Social , Animais , Cognição , Haplorrinos , Macaca/fisiologia
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16539, 2022 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36192455

RESUMO

Cognitive skills and the underlying neural architecture are under the influence of genetics. Cognitive genomics research explores the triadic relationship between genes, brain, and cognition, with its major strategy being genotype-driven. Here we show that an inverse strategy is feasible to identify novel candidate genes for particular neuro-cognitive phenotypes in macaques. Two monkeys, originally involved in separate psychological studies, exhibited learning delay and low levels of social performance monitoring. In one monkey, mirror neurons were fewer compared to controls and mu suppression was absent in the frontal cortex. The other monkey showed heightened visual responsiveness in both frontal cortex and dopamine-rich midbrain, with a lack of inter-areal synchronization. Exome analyses revealed that the two monkeys were most likely cousins and shared variants in MAP2, APOC1, and potentially HTR2C. This phenotype-driven strategy in cognitive genomics provides a useful means to clarify the genetic basis of phenotypic variation and develop macaque models of neuropsychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Neurônios-Espelho , Animais , Cognição/fisiologia , Dopamina , Genômica , Haplorrinos , Macaca/genética , Neurônios-Espelho/fisiologia
8.
Iran J Immunol ; 19(3): 278-298, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36190382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human polyclonal plasma-derived hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) is currently used for immunoprophylaxis of HBV infection. The development of virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) requires the use of optimized cell culture systems supporting HBV infection. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to optimize the hepatitis B virus infectivity of NTCP-reconstituted HepG2 (HepG2-NTCP) cells to establish an efficient system to evaluate the HBV-neutralizing effect of anti-HBs MAbs. METHODS: Serum-derived HBV (sHBV) and cell culture-derived HBV (ccHBV) were simultaneously used for the optimization of HBV infection in HepG2-NTCP cells by applying different modifications. RESULTS: Our results for the first time showed that in addition to human serum, monkey serum could significantly improve ccHBV infection, while fetal and adult bovine serum as well as duck and sheep serum did not have a promotive effect. In addition, sHBV and ccHBV infectivity are largely similar except that adding 5% of PEG, which is commonly used to improve in vitro infection of ccHBV, significantly reduced sHBV infection. We showed that a combination of spinoculation, trypsinization, and also adding human or monkey serum to HBV inoculum could significantly improve the permissivity of HepG2-NTCP cells to HBV infection compared with individual strategies. All anti-HBs MAbs were able to successfully neutralize both ccHBV and sHBV infection in our optimized in vitro system. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests different strategies for improving ccHBV and sHBV infection in HepG2-NTCP cells. This cell culture-based system allows assessment of HBV neutralizing MAbs and may also prove to be valuable for the analysis of other HBV neutralizing therapeutics.


Assuntos
Hepatite B , Simportadores , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Haplorrinos , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Dependentes de Sódio/farmacologia , Ovinos , Simportadores/farmacologia
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(42): e2121105119, 2022 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36215474

RESUMO

Among mammals, the order Primates is exceptional in having a high taxonomic richness in which the taxa are arboreal, semiterrestrial, or terrestrial. Although habitual terrestriality is pervasive among the apes and African and Asian monkeys (catarrhines), it is largely absent among monkeys of the Americas (platyrrhines), as well as galagos, lemurs, and lorises (strepsirrhines), which are mostly arboreal. Numerous ecological drivers and species-specific factors are suggested to set the conditions for an evolutionary shift from arboreality to terrestriality, and current environmental conditions may provide analogous scenarios to those transitional periods. Therefore, we investigated predominantly arboreal, diurnal primate genera from the Americas and Madagascar that lack fully terrestrial taxa, to determine whether ecological drivers (habitat canopy cover, predation risk, maximum temperature, precipitation, primate species richness, human population density, and distance to roads) or species-specific traits (body mass, group size, and degree of frugivory) associate with increased terrestriality. We collated 150,961 observation hours across 2,227 months from 47 species at 20 sites in Madagascar and 48 sites in the Americas. Multiple factors were associated with ground use in these otherwise arboreal species, including increased temperature, a decrease in canopy cover, a dietary shift away from frugivory, and larger group size. These factors mostly explain intraspecific differences in terrestriality. As humanity modifies habitats and causes climate change, our results suggest that species already inhabiting hot, sparsely canopied sites, and exhibiting more generalized diets, are more likely to shift toward greater ground use.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Primatas , América , Animais , Cercopithecidae , Haplorrinos , Humanos , Madagáscar , Mamíferos , Árvores
10.
Science ; 378(6618): 341-342, 2022 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36302023

RESUMO

Experiments involving eyelid suturing and maternal separation divide scientists.


Assuntos
Experimentação Animal , Haplorrinos , Privação Materna , Animais , Pálpebras , Técnicas de Sutura/ética
11.
Am J Primatol ; 84(12): e23447, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36314412

RESUMO

There are strong physiological and behavioral differences that allow animals to live in forests versus savannas. For example, terrestrial forest-dwelling mammals tend to be small compared to species living in savannas. Robust capuchin monkeys (genus Sapajus) are widespread in tropical South America, occurring in both forest and savanna environments, with forest species considered basal in an evolutionary context. Whether or not skull shape and size variations are associated with variation in resource use remains unknown, particularly for the two species living in savanna (Sapajus libidinosus and S. cay). Here we show that savanna species present convergent size and skull characteristics that may facilitate living in this new environment. Geometric morphometric methods were used to assess skull size and shape variation for 184 Sapajus specimens distributed across South America. We used phylogenetic generalized least squares to test size against environmental variables and multivariate morphological trajectories/partial least square analyses on the skull shape to detect shape differences in specimens between forest and savanna biomes. Our findings reveal Sapajus size reduction in the evolutionary transition from forest to savanna, a process related to increasing seasonality. Moreover, we found morphological parallelism in the skull (e.g., muzzle shortening) and (large) molars in the two savanna species, features that may facilitate the processing of harder food such as fallback resources. We associate these phenotypic differences to the evolutionary process of colonizing the savannas by primates (including early hominins), leading to morphological adaptations to tolerate stressful, seasonal environments, such as body size reduction and ingestion and mastication of tough foods.


Assuntos
Platirrinos , Sapajus , Animais , Pradaria , Filogenia , Haplorrinos , Florestas , Cebus , Mamíferos
12.
Stem Cell Reports ; 17(11): 2392-2408, 2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36306783

RESUMO

Transplantation of embryonic/induced pluripotent stem cell-derived retina (ESC/iPSC-retina) restores host retinal ganglion cell light responses in end-stage retinal degeneration models with host-graft synapse formation. We studied the immunological features of iPSC-retina transplantation using major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-homozygote monkey iPSC-retinas in monkeys with laser-induced retinal degeneration in MHC-matched and -mismatched transplantation. MHC-mismatched transplantation without immune suppression showed no evident clinical signs of rejection and histologically showed graft maturation without lymphocytic infiltration, although immunological tests using peripheral blood monocytes suggested subclinical rejection in three of four MHC-mismatched monkeys. Although extensive photoreceptor rosette formation was observed on histology, evaluation of functional integration using mouse models such as mouse ESC-retina (C57BL/6) transplanted into rd1(C3H/HeJ, MHC-mismatched model) elicited light responses in the host retinal ganglion cells after transplantation but with less responsiveness than that in rd1-2J mice (C57BL/6, MHC-matched model). These results suggest the reasonable use of ESC/iPSC-retina in MHC-mismatched transplantation, albeit with caution.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Degeneração Retiniana , Camundongos , Animais , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/patologia , Degeneração Retiniana/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Retina/patologia , Primatas , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade , Haplorrinos , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade
13.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 35(11): 2133-2144, 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36287557

RESUMO

Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a leading cause of candidate attrition during drug development in the pharmaceutical industry. This study evaluated liver toxicity signals for 249 approved drugs (114 of "most-DILI concern" and 135 of "no-DILI concern") using PharmaPendium and assessed the association between nonclinical and clinical injuries using contingency table analysis. All animal liver findings were combined into eight toxicity categories based on nature and severity. Together, these analyses revealed that cholestasis [odds ratio (OR): 5.02; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-24.03] or liver aminotransferase increases (OR: 1.86; 95% CI 1.09-3.09) in rats and steatosis (OR-1.9; 95% CI 1.03-3.49) or liver aminotransferase increases (OR-2.57; 95% CI 1.4-4.7) in dogs were significant predictors of human liver injury. The predictive value further improved when the liver injury categories were combined into less severe (steatosis, cholestasis, liver aminotransferase increase, hyperbilirubinemia, or jaundice) and more-severe (liver necrosis, acute liver failure, or hepatotoxicity) injuries. In particular, less-severe liver injuries in the following pairs of species predicted human hepatotoxicity {[dog and mouse] (OR: 2.70; 95% CI 1.25-5.84), [dog and rat] (OR-2.61; 95% CI 1.48-4.59), [monkey and mouse] (OR-4.22; 95% CI 1.33-13.32), and [monkey and rat] (OR-2.45; 95% CI 1.15-5.21)} were predictive of human hepatotoxicity. Meanwhile, severe liver injuries in both [dog and rat] (OR-1.9; 95% CI 1.04-3.49) were significant predictors of human liver toxicity. Therefore, we concluded that the occurrence of DILI in humans is highly likely if liver injuries are observed in one rodent and one nonrodent species and that liver aminotransferase increases in dogs and rats can predict DILI in humans. Together, these findings indicate that the liver safety signals observed in animal toxicity studies indicate potential DILI risk in humans and could therefore be used to prioritize small molecules with less potential to cause DILI in humans.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Colestase , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Fígado Gorduroso , Humanos , Ratos , Camundongos , Cães , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Transaminases , Haplorrinos
14.
Differentiation ; 128: 33-42, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36265360

RESUMO

Non-human primates are important models for investigations of neural development and evolution, and the use of Japanese macaque monkeys has especially contributed to the advancement of neuroscience studies. However, these studies are restricted by the number of animals able to be evaluated and the invasiveness of the methodologies. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can provide an alternative strategy for investigating neural development in vitro. We have established direct neurosphere (dNS) formation cultures of primate iPSCs as an in vitro model of early neurodevelopment in primate species. Here, we used dNS formation and neuronal differentiation cultures established from Japanese macaque iPSCs (jm-iPSCs) to investigate the usefulness of these cells as an in vitro model of early neural development. Time-course analyses of developmental potency and gene expression kinetics were performed during dNS formation culture of jm-iPSCs. During a 1-week culture, jm-iPSC-derived dNSs became neurogenic by day 3 and underwent stepwise expression changes of key developmental regulators along early neural development in a similar manner to chimpanzee dNS formation previously reported. Meanwhile, a subset of genes, including CYP26A1 and NPTX1, showed differential expression propensity in Japanese macaque, chimpanzee, and human iPSC-derived dNSs. Spontaneous upregulation of NOTCH signaling-associated genes HES5 and DLL1 was also observed in neuronal differentiation cultures of Japanese macaque but not chimpanzee dNSs, possibly reflecting the earlier neurogenic competence in Japanese macaques. The use of jm-iPSCs provides an alternative approach to neurological studies of primate development. Furthermore, jm-iPSCs can be used to investigate species differences in early neural development that are key to primate evolution.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Animais , Macaca fuscata/genética , Macaca , Haplorrinos , Neurogênese/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética
15.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5865, 2022 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36195614

RESUMO

Primates can richly parse sensory inputs to infer latent information. This ability is hypothesized to rely on establishing mental models of the external world and running mental simulations of those models. However, evidence supporting this hypothesis is limited to behavioral models that do not emulate neural computations. Here, we test this hypothesis by directly comparing the behavior of primates (humans and monkeys) in a ball interception task to that of a large set of recurrent neural network (RNN) models with or without the capacity to dynamically track the underlying latent variables. Humans and monkeys exhibit similar behavioral patterns. This primate behavioral pattern is best captured by RNNs endowed with dynamic inference, consistent with the hypothesis that the primate brain uses dynamic inferences to support flexible physical predictions. Moreover, our work highlights a general strategy for using model neural systems to test computational hypotheses of higher brain function.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Redes Neurais de Computação , Animais , Haplorrinos , Humanos
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17736, 2022 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36273090

RESUMO

In vivo imaging has been widely used for investigating the structure and function of neurons typically located within ~ 800 µm below the cortical surface. Due to light scattering and absorption, it has been difficult to perform in-vivo imaging of neurons in deep cortical and subcortical regions of large animals with two-photon microscopy. Here, we combined a thin-wall quartz capillary with a GRIN lens attached to a prism for large-volume structural and calcium imaging of neurons located 2 mm below the surface of rabbit and monkey brains. The field of view was greatly expanded by rotating and changing the depth of the imaging probe inside a quartz capillary. Calcium imaging of layer 5/6 neurons in the rabbit motor cortex revealed differential activity of these neurons between quiet wakefulness and slow wave sleep. The method described here provides an important tool for studying the structure and function of neurons located deep in the brains of large animals.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Microscopia , Animais , Coelhos , Cálcio/fisiologia , Haplorrinos , Quartzo , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroimagem/métodos
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17240, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36243745

RESUMO

External eye appearance across primate species is diverse in shape and colouration, yet we still lack an explanation for the drivers of such diversity. Here we quantify substantial interspecific variation in eye shape and colouration across 77 primate species representing all extant genera of anthropoid primates. We reassess a series of hypotheses aiming to explain ocular variation in horizontal elongation and in colouration across species. Heavier body weight and terrestrial locomotion are associated with elongated eye outlines. Species living closer to the equator present more pigmented conjunctivae, suggesting photoprotective functions. Irises become bluer in species living further away from the equator, adding to existing literature supporting a circadian clock function for bluer irises. These results shift the current focus from communicative, to ecological factors in driving variation in external eye appearance in anthropoid primates. They also highlight the possibility that similar ecological factors contributed to selection for blue eyes in ancestral human populations living in northern latitudes.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Ecológicos e Ambientais , Cor de Olho , Olho , Haplorrinos , Animais , Olho/anatomia & histologia , Haplorrinos/anatomia & histologia
18.
Curr Biol ; 32(20): R1037-R1039, 2022 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283354

RESUMO

An enduring question in the study of human evolution is why tool use evolved. A new study has found that stone tools improve diet quality in wild capuchin monkeys. Tools may have similarly increased the nutritional security in ancestral hominins.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Utilização de Ferramentas , Animais , Humanos , Haplorrinos , Cebus , Comportamento Animal , Dieta
19.
J Neural Eng ; 19(5)2022 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36206725

RESUMO

Objective.With practice, the control of brain-computer interfaces (BCI) would improve over time; the neural correlate for such learning had not been well studied. We demonstrated here that monkeys controlling a motor BCI using a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) decoder could learn to make the firing patterns of the recorded neurons more distinct over a short period of time for different output classes to improve task performance.Approach.Using an LDA decoder, we studied two Macaque monkeys implanted with microelectrode arrays as they controlled the movement of a mobile robotic platform. The LDA decoder mapped high-dimensional neuronal firing patterns linearly onto a lower-dimensional linear discriminant (LD) space, and we studied the changes in the spatial coordinates of these neural signals in the LD space over time, and their correspondence to trial performance. Direction selectivity was quantified with permutation feature importance (FI).Main results.We observed that, within individual sessions, there was a tendency for the points in the LD space encoding different directions to diverge, leading to fewer misclassification errors, and, hence, improvement in task accuracy. Accuracy was correlated with the presence of channels with strong directional preference (i.e. high FI), as well as a varied population code (i.e. high variance in FI distribution).Significance.We emphasized the importance of studying the short-term/intra-sessional variations in neural representations during the use of BCI. Over the course of individual sessions, both monkeys could modulate their neural activities to create increasingly distinct neural representations.


Assuntos
Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Animais , Análise Discriminante , Movimento/fisiologia , Aprendizagem , Neurônios , Haplorrinos , Macaca , Eletroencefalografia
20.
Phys Med Biol ; 67(19)2022 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067784

RESUMO

Objective. Improving the local uniformity ofB1+field for awake monkey brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at ultra-high fields while facilitating convenient placement and fixation of MRI-compatible multimodal devices for neuroscience study, can eventually advance our understanding of the primate's brain organization.Approach. A group of single-channel RF coils including conventional loop coils and loopole coils sharing the same size and shape were designed for comparison; their performance as the transmit coil was quantitatively evaluated through a series of numerical electromagnetic (EM) simulations, and further verified by using 7T MRI over a saline phantom and a monkeyin vivo. Main results. Compared to conventional loop coils, the optimized loopole coil brought up to 23.5%B1+uniformity improvement for monkey brain imaging in EM simulations, and this performance was further verified over monkey brain imaging at 7Tin vivo. Importantly, we have systematically explored the underlying mechanism regarding the relationship between loopole coils' current density distribution andB1+uniformity, observing that it can be approximated as a sinusoidal curve.Significance. The proposed loopole coil design can improve the imaging quality in awake and behaving monkeys, thus benefiting advanced brain research at UHF.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Ondas de Rádio , Animais , Desenho de Equipamento , Haplorrinos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imagens de Fantasmas
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