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1.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2022: 3905963, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36093316

RESUMO

Background: Intestinal helminth infections are still public health problems in tropical and subtropical countries including Ethiopia. This review and meta-analysis aimed to produce the pooled prevalence and associated risk factors of human intestinal helminth parasitic infections (HIHPIs) in Ethiopia. Methods: Articles written in English were searched from online databases. Sixty-seven studies were included. Meta-analysis was computed using STATA version 14. Result: The pooled prevalence of HIHPIs was (33.35%, 95% CI: 28.85%, 37.86%). Ascaris lumbricoides (10.84%, 95% CI: 9.34, 12.34), hookworm spp. (8.89%, 95% CI: 7.75, 10.04), Schistosoma mansoni (4.22%, 95% CI: 3.64, 4.81), Trichuris trichiura (2.51%, 95% CI: 2.17, 2.86), Hymenolepis nana (2.29%, 95% CI: 1.96, 2.63), Taenia species (1.01%, 95% CI: 0.80, 1.22), Strongyloides stercoralis (1.17%, 95% CI: 0.92, 1.41), and Enterobius vermicularis(0.71%, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.90) were recorded. Handwashing before food (OR: 5.22,95% CI: 3.49, 6.94), handwashing after toilet (OR: 3.03, 95%; CI: 1.01, 5.05), age (OR: 1.66, 95% CL. 1.09, 2.23), open defecation (OR: 2.42, 95% CI: 1.60, 3.24), eating raw and unwashed vegetables/fruits (OR: 1.98, 95%; CI: 1.30, 2.66), maternal education (OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 0.91, 2.72), family income (OR: 2.00, 95% CI: 0.87, 3.31), source of drinking water (OR: 3.12, 95% CI: 1.96, 4.27), swimming/contact with river water (OR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.69), barefoot (OR: 3.28, 95% CI: 1.67, 4.88), playing with soil (OR: 2.64, 95% CI: 1.40, 3.88), and family size (OR: 3.75, 95% CI: 2.03, 5.46) were factors associated with HIHPIs in Ethiopia. High heterogeneity of the prevalence of HIHPIs was observed among the studies within and among regions (I2 > 99.6% and P ≤ 0.001). Conclusion: HIHPIs in Ethiopia were significantly high. Therefore, special attention should be given by all stakeholders to minimize HIHPIs in Ethiopia.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Helmintíase , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/complicações , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
2.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274702, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has set national targets for eliminating soil-transmitted helminths (STH) as public health problems by 2020 and for breaking their transmission by 2025 using periodic mass treatment of children in endemic areas. However, the status of STH infection among the adults living in the same communities remains unknown. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine the prevalence and intensity of STH infections and associated factors among the household heads in the peri-urban areas of Jimma town, Oromia, Ethiopia. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in five peri-urban kebeles (smallest administrative unit in Ethiopia) of Jimma town from May to July 2021. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic and predisposing factors. The Kato-Katz concentration technique was utilized to detect and quantify the STH in stool samples. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were done. P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 376 household heads (19.9% women and 80.1% men) from peri-urban areas were included in the study. The overall STH prevalence was 18.1% (95% CI: 14.6-22.1) with A. lumbricoides being the predominant species (11.4%) followed by T. trichiura (7.2%) and hookworm (2.1%). Most of the STH positive household heads had single infections (85.3%) and light-intensity infections (88.5%). Wealth status (AOR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.31-5.50, P = 0.007), hand washing habits before meals (AOR = 7.07; 95% CI: 1.79-27.88, p = 0.005), fingernails status (AOR = 2.99; 95% CI: 1.59-5.65, p = 0.001), and toilet facility type (AOR = 2.06; 95% CI: 1.13-3.76, p = 0.017) were found to have statistically significant associations with the STH infection. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study showed a nearly moderate level of STH prevalence among household heads in the peri-urban community. This could serve as an important reservoir for reinfection of the treated children and other at-risk groups in the community.


Assuntos
Helmintíase , Helmintos , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Solo/parasitologia
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 941977, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36119098

RESUMO

Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) like cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory diseases, cancers, diabetes, and neuropsychiatric diseases cause significant global morbidity and mortality which disproportionately affect those living in low resource regions including low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In order to reduce NCD morbidity and mortality in LMIC it is imperative to understand risk factors associated with the development of NCDs. Certain infections are known risk factors for many NCDs. Several parasitic helminth infections, which occur most commonly in LMICs, have been identified as potential drivers of NCDs in parasite-endemic regions. Though understudied, the impact of helminth infections on the development of NCDs is likely related to helminth-specific factors, including species, developmental stage and disease burden. Mechanical and chemical damage induced by the helminth in combination with pathologic host immune responses contribute to the long-term inflammation that increases risk for NCD development. Robust studies from animal models and human clinical trials are needed to understand the immunologic mechanisms of helminth-induced NCDs. Understanding the complex connection between helminths and NCDs will aid in targeted public health programs to reduce helminth-induced NCDs and reduce the high rates of morbidity that affects millions of people living in parasite-endemic, LMICs globally.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Animais , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Humanos , Morbidade , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 953053, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36105811

RESUMO

Despite significant increases in human lifespan over the last century, adoption of high calorie diets (HCD) has driven global increases in type-2 diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease, disorders precluding corresponding improvements in healthspan. Reflecting that such conditions are associated with chronic systemic inflammation, evidence is emerging that infection with parasitic helminths might protect against obesity-accelerated ageing, by virtue of their evolution of survival-promoting anti-inflammatory molecules. Indeed, ES-62, an anti-inflammatory secreted product of the filarial nematode Acanthocheilonema viteae, improves the healthspan of both male and female C57BL/6J mice undergoing obesity-accelerated ageing and also extends median lifespan in male animals, by positively impacting on inflammatory, adipose metabolic and gut microbiome parameters of ageing. We therefore explored whether ES-62 affects the osteoimmunology axis that integrates environmental signals, such as diet and the gut microbiome to homeostatically regulate haematopoiesis and training of immune responses, which become dysregulated during (obesity-accelerated) ageing. Of note, we find sexual dimorphisms in the decline in bone health, and associated dysregulation of haematopoiesis and consequent peripheral immune responses, during obesity-accelerated ageing, highlighting the importance of developing sex-specific anti-ageing strategies. Related to this, ES-62 protects trabecular bone structure, maintaining bone marrow (BM) niches that counter the ageing-associated decline in haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) functionality highlighted by a bias towards myeloid lineages, in male but not female, HCD-fed mice. This is evidenced by the ability of ES-62 to suppress the adipocyte and megakaryocyte bias and correspondingly promote increases in B lymphocytes in the BM. Furthermore, the consequent prevention of ageing-associated myeloid/lymphoid skewing is associated with reduced accumulation of inflammatory CD11c+ macrophages and IL-1ß in adipose tissue, disrupting the perpetuation of inflammation-driven dysregulation of haematopoiesis during obesity-accelerated ageing in male HCD-fed mice. Finally, we report the ability of small drug-like molecule analogues of ES-62 to mimic some of its key actions, particularly in strongly protecting trabecular bone structure, highlighting the translational potential of these studies.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Helminto , Helmintos , Envelhecimento , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Helmintos/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade
5.
Zootaxa ; 5159(2): 281-293, 2022 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095547

RESUMO

A list of the type specimens of helminth endoparasites in the Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense (MZB), Indonesia, is presented. There are types of 93 helminth endoparasite species consisting of 63 species of nematodes, 22 species of cestodes, and 8 species of trematodes that have been deposited in MZB. Altogether, there are currently 211 deposited numbers of type-specimens at MZB, which contain 817 specimens wet preserved and 85 specimens mounted. The list has now been added to the scientific publication record and museum catalog.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Helmintos , Nematoides , Animais , Indonésia , Museus
6.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 311, 2022 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36057606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasite contamination from infected dogs can place other dogs and humans at risk. A study was initiated to estimate the prevalence of canine intestinal parasitism by collecting fecal samples in cities across Western Europe. METHODS: Fresh fecal samples were collected from 2469 dogs visiting 164 parks in 33 cities across 12 countries. Each owner responded to a questionnaire focusing on their dog's signalment and recent anthelmintic treatment history. The collected samples were examined for hookworms, whipworms, ascarids and Giardia using a coproantigen diagnostic immunoassay and microscopy following centrifugal flotation. RESULTS: Nematodes or Giardia were detected in at least one sample from 100% of cities and in 93.3% of parks. Nematodes were detected in 57% of parks. Overall, 22.8% of dogs tested positive for an intestinal parasite, with Giardia being the most commonly identified parasites (17.3% of dogs, 83.5% of parks). For nematode infection, 7.6% of all dogs tested positive, with 9.9% of dogs aged < 1 year infected, 7.7% of those aged 1-3 years, 7.3% of those aged 4-6 years and 6.6% of those aged ≥ 7 years. Among the nematodes detected, ascarids were the most prevalent (3.6% of dogs, parks, 28.7% of parks), being most common in dogs aged < 1 year but also present in older dogs, including those aged ≥ 7 years. Hookworms and whipworms were detected in 3.2% and 2.3% of dogs of all ages, respectively, and in 37.2% and 17.7% of parks, respectively. A larger proportion of fecal samples tested positive with the coproantigen immunoassay than with centrifugal flotation. Positive test results for Giardia were sevenfold higher when both diagnostic tests were used than when centrifugal flotation alone was used, and there were 60% more positive test results for nematodes when both tests were used than when flotation alone was used. Overall, 77.2% of owners reported previous anthelmintic treatment, among whom at least 62.7% failed to follow recommended treatment frequency. Dogs receiving anthelmintic within the previous month had a lower percentage of nematode infection than those in which > 1 month had passed since the previous dose. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence estimates of intestinal parasite infections in dogs reported here highlight the need for owner education concerning guidelines for regular testing and treatment, even in older dogs. Failure to adhere to guidelines can result in ongoing transmission of these infections, including those with zoonotic potential. Combining coproantigen immunoassay with centrifugal flotation for diagnostic testing and regular anthelmintic treatment are important measures for ensuring optimal intestinal parasite control.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Doenças do Cão , Giardíase , Helmintos , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Nematoides , Infecções por Nematoides , Parasitos , Tricuríase , Animais , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Giardia , Giardíase/diagnóstico , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/veterinária , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Trichuris
7.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 314, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The local distribution of helminths in dogs and cats and the evaluation of risk of contamination represent an important challenge for veterinarians due to their effects on animal health and their potential zoonotic risk. The overall goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the digestive and respiratory helminths infecting client-owned dogs and cats in France. METHODS: Faecal samples were collected from 414 pet dogs and 425 pet cats at 20 study sites during 2017-2018 and analysed by coproscopy. The samples included specimens collected from animals of both genders and various breeds and ages from a variety of living environments, and with different lifestyles and feeding regimes. Associations between parasitic infection and qualitative factors were explored. RESULTS: Overall, 125 (14.9%) samples (15.2% in dogs and 14.6% in cats) were positive for at least one of the species of helminths identified. Infection rates were highest for Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati (8.5% and 11.3%, respectively), while Toxascaris leonina was found only in one cat (0.2%). The apparent prevalence of Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala in dogs was 1.7% and 4.3%, respectively. No hookworms were found in cats. Whipworms (Trichuris vulpis) were identified in 2.7% of the dogs. Tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taeniidae) were rarely found (< 1% in dogs and < 3% in cats). The prevalence of Angiostrongylus vasorum Crenosoma vulpis, and Strongyloides stercoralis in dogs, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in cats and Eucoleus spp. / Capillaria spp. in both dogs and cats was < 1%. Significantly higher fecal parasite emission rates were identified in young individuals, in animals with outdoor access, in animals living in the countryside and in intact animals (especially in cats). In addition, cats not fed exclusively with commercial diets and living with other animals (dogs and/or cats) were at higher risk for parasites. For dogs, hunting/herding and walking off-leash were found to be additional risk factors. Furthermore, pets with no reported history of deworming or dewormed > 1 year before the study were positive for parasites significantly more often than pets dewormed < 1 year before study participation. CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence of helminths (some of which are zoonotic), the risk factors and the reportedly low deworming frequencies identified in this study (20.5% animals having never been dewormed and only 26.4% dewormed ≥ 3 times/year) illustrate the need for improving pet owners' adherence to anthelmintic guidelines in France.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Helmintos , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Metastrongyloidea , Parasitos , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Masculino , Prevalência
8.
Parasite ; 29: 43, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36125313

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal parasites are frequently encountered in captive non-human primates and infestation may have severe consequences on the animal's health status. Most of these parasites are also transmissible to humans. Nevertheless, little is known about the prevalence and monitoring modalities of gastrointestinal parasitoses in non-human primates housed in zoological institutions and there are currently no guidelines available for their detection and identification. The objective of this study was to identify the main gastrointestinal parasites that may be observed in non-human primates in zoological institutions in France, as well as to develop a decision-making tree to ease their identification. Twenty-four zoological institutions were surveyed, most of which performed fecal examinations routinely on their non-human primates (91.7%). Most institutions used flotation enrichment protocols to detect gastrointestinal parasites (95.2%) and nematodes were the most frequently encountered parasites (73.0%). A total of 252 fecal samples corresponding to 68 different non-human primate species from these institutions were analyzed using sedimentation and flotation protocols. Protozoa (47.3%) were found to be more frequent than helminths (15.6%). Furthermore, old-world monkeys exhibited a higher parasite load (93.6%) than any other non-human primate species category. Compiled data from fecal examinations allowed the development of a decision-making tree and diagnostic atlas to facilitate parasite diagnosis in captive non-human primates.


Title: Parasites gastro-intestinaux chez les primates non-humains dans les parcs zoologiques français. Abstract: Les parasites gastro-intestinaux sont fréquemment rencontrés chez les primates non-humains en captivité et peuvent avoir des conséquences graves sur l'état de santé de l'animal. La plupart sont également transmissibles à Homme. Néanmoins, on sait peu de choses sur la prévalence et les modalités de surveillance des parasitoses gastro-intestinales chez les primates non-humains hébergés dans des institutions zoologiques et il n'existe actuellement aucune ligne directrice disponible pour leur détection et leur identification. L'objectif de cette étude était d'identifier les principaux parasites gastro-intestinaux pouvant être observés chez les primates non-humains dans les institutions zoologiques françaises, ainsi que de développer un arbre décisionnel pour faciliter leur identification. Vingt-quatre institutions zoologiques françaises ont été interrogées : la plupart (91,7 %) effectuaient des examens fécaux en routine sur leurs primates non-humains. La plupart des établissements utilisaient des protocoles d'enrichissement par flottation pour détecter les parasites gastro-intestinaux (95,2 %) et les nématodes étaient les parasites les plus fréquemment rencontrés (73,0 %). Un total de 252 échantillons fécaux correspondant à 68 espèces différentes de primates non-humains provenant de ces institutions ont été analysés à l'aide de protocoles de sédimentation et de flottation. Les protozoaires (47,3 %) étaient plus fréquents que les helminthes (15,6 %). De plus, les singes de l'ancien monde présentaient une charge parasitaire plus élevée (93,6 %) que toute autre catégorie d'espèces de primates non-humains. Les données compilées des examens fécaux ont permis le développement d'un arbre décisionnel et d'un atlas diagnostique pour faciliter le diagnostic des parasites chez les primates non-humains en captivité.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Parasitos , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Primatas/parasitologia
9.
Trends Parasitol ; 38(10): 841-853, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931639

RESUMO

Migrations performed by helminths are impressive and diverse, and accumulating evidence shows that many are controlled by sophisticated sensory programs. The migrations of vector-borne helminths are particularly complex, requiring precise, stage-specific regulation. We review the contrasting states of knowledge on snail-borne schistosomes and mosquito-borne filarial nematodes. Rich observational data exist for the chemosensory behaviors of schistosomes, while the molecular sensory pathways in nematodes are well described. Recent investigations on the molecular mechanisms of sensation in schistosomes and filarial nematodes have revealed some features conserved within their respective phyla, but adaptations correlated with parasitism are pronounced. Technological developments are likely to extend these advances, and we forecast how these technologies may be applied.


Assuntos
Culicidae , Helmintos , Nematoides , Animais , Culicidae/parasitologia , Vetores de Doenças , Helmintos/fisiologia , Mosquitos Vetores , Nematoides/fisiologia
10.
J Parasitol ; 108(4): 395-402, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36027573

RESUMO

Using microscopy and/or immunodiagnosis, the authors analyzed 284 fecal samples from the Brazilian rock cavy, Kerodon rupestris, that were collected between 1984 and 2015 in Serra da Capivara National Park for the presence of helminths and protozoa. Fourteen morphospecies of helminth eggs of the following taxa were found: Trematoda, Nematoda, Strongylidae, Lagochilascaris sp., Strongylida, Trichuris (2 species), Oxyuridae (3 species), Ancylostomatidae (2 species), and Ascarididae (2 species), along with 3 protozoan taxa: Coccidia, Cryptosporidium sp., and Balantidium sp. During the last 30 yr, the population of K. rupestris has increased in the region as a consequence of the creation and management of the National Park, and data from this study show a concurrent increase in the diversity of intestinal parasites in this host, including new reports. Some of these species have zoonotic potential, which suggests that K. rupestris may be in contact with domestic farm animals and/or human feces. These results show the importance of integrating different diagnostic approaches for the identification of protozoa in the region and indicate that further methods need to be employed to increase recovery. This work highlights the usefulness of parasite studies in assessing the health of ecosystems, especially in protected areas, which should be considered by park managers and health agencies.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Helmintos , Parasitos , Animais , Brasil , Ecossistema , Fezes , Cobaias , Humanos , Roedores
11.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272600, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36006929

RESUMO

Much effort has been devoted by the World Health Organization (WHO) to eliminate soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections by 2030 using mass drug administration targeted at particular risk groups alongside the availability to access water, sanitation and hygiene services. The targets set by the WHO for the control of helminth infections are typically defined in terms of the prevalence of infection, whereas the standard formulation of STH transmission models typically describe dynamic changes in the mean-worm burden. We develop a prevalence-based deterministic model to investigate the transmission dynamics of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in humans, subject to continuous exposure to infection over time. We analytically determine local stability criteria for all equilibria and find bifurcation points. Our model predicts that STH infection will either be eliminated (if the initial prevalence value, y(0), is sufficiently small) or remain endemic (if y(0) is sufficiently large), with the two stable points of endemic infection and parasite eradication separated by a transmission breakpoint. Two special cases of the model are analysed: (1) the distribution of the STH parasites in the host population is highly aggregated following a negative binomial distribution, and (2) no density-dependent effects act on the parasite population. We find that disease extinction is always possible for Case (1), but it is not so for Case (2) if y(0) is sufficiently large. However, by introducing stochastic perturbation into the deterministic model, we discover that chance effects can lead to outcomes not predicted by the deterministic model alone, with outcomes highly dependent on the degree of worm clumping, k. Specifically, we show that if the reproduction number and clumping are sufficiently bounded, then stochasticity will cause the parasite to die out. It follows that control of soil-transmitted helminths will be more difficult if the worm distribution tends towards clumping.


Assuntos
Helmintíase , Helmintos , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Prevalência , Saneamento , Solo/parasitologia
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13935, 2022 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35978014

RESUMO

Preventive chemotherapy (PC) that remains the main control strategy recommended by the World Health Organization to achieve the elimination of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections as a public health problem must be strengthened by identifying the remaining transmission hot-spots for the deployment of appropriate control measures. This study was designed to assess the prevalence and infections intensities of soil-transmitted helminths and perform micro scale mapping in order to identify transmission hot-spots for targeted control operations. Stool samples were collected from 1775 children in ten primary schools of eight sub-districts of Makenene in Cameroon. Kato Katz technique was used to process and examine stool samples to detect the eggs of soil-transmitted nematodes. The prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth species as well as the infection intensities was compared. Data visualizations in forms of maps were made using Quantum geographic information system (QGIS) software. The overall prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections was 4.8% with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 3.8-5.9%: 3.0% (95% CI 2.2-3.9) for Ascaris lumbricoides, 1.4% (95% CI 0.9-2.0) for Trichuris trichiura and 0.8% (95% CI 0.5-1.4) for hookworms. The prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth species differ significantly between schools and sub-districts. The intensity of infections was light (2.4%, 1.1% and 0.8%), moderate (0.4%, 0.1% and 0.1%) and heavy (0.2%, 0.2% and 0%) for A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and hookworm respectively. The mean intensity of infections was 7255 EPG for A. lumbricoides, 2900 EPG for T. trichiura and 298 EPG for hookworm. Between schools, significant difference was recorded in the means of infection intensities of T. Trichiura and hookworms but not for A. lumbricoides. This difference was also significant for T. Trichiura when comparison were between sex. No significant difference were recorded when the comparison were between age. Fine mapping revealed that children harbouring heavy infections were clustered in the same sub-districts; highlighting the presence of high endemicity sub-districts and hot-spots for the transmission of different soil-transmitted helminth species. This study showed a diversity in the prevalence and transmission of different soil-transmitted helminth species. It also hightlighted the need for micro scale mapping to enable the localisation of high endemicity sub-districts and transmission hot-spot sites where targeted control operations must be deployed to achieve STH elimination.


Assuntos
Helmintíase , Helmintos , Infecções por Uncinaria , Ancylostomatoidea , Animais , Ascaris lumbricoides , Criança , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Uncinaria/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Solo/parasitologia , Trichuris
13.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 31(3): e007522, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36000608

RESUMO

Birds of prey harbor a wide spectrum of various parasites, mostly with a heteroxenous life cycle. However, most reports on their parasites come from Europe. Although the Harris's hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus) is a widespread species in America, parasitological surveys on this hawk are mostly focused on coprological findings and ectoparasites, with poor attention paid to helminths. The aim of this study was to gather new and additional data on host-parasite associations for the Harris's hawk. Twenty-nine birds from central and southern Chile were necropsied. Further, nine birds from a rehabilitation center and 22 museum specimens were inspected for ectoparasites. Sixty-eight percent of birds hosted at least one parasite species. Four lice species, one mite species and eight helminth species (five nematodes, two platyhelminthes and one acanthocephalan) were recorded. Parasitic lice Colpocephalum nanum and Nosopon chanabense, and a nematode Cyathostoma (Hovorkonema) americana were recorded for the first time in raptors from the Neotropics. A feather mite, Pseudalloptinus sp., nematodes, Physaloptera alata and Microtetrameres sp., and a trematode Neodiplostomim travassosi, were recorded for the first time in Chile. The presence of diverse heteroxenous helminths reported here in the Harris's hawk could be explained by the generalist diet of this raptor.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Falconiformes , Helmintos , Ácaros , Nematoides , Parasitos , Ftirápteros , Aves Predatórias , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Chile , Falconiformes/parasitologia
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(8): e0010593, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35917364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Periodic administration of anthelmintic drugs is a cost-effective intervention for morbidity control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections. However, with programs expanding, drug pressure potentially selecting for drug-resistant parasites increases. While monitoring anthelmintic drug efficacy is crucial to inform country control program strategies, different factors must be taken into consideration that influence drug efficacy and make it difficult to standardize treatment outcome measures. We aimed to identify suitable approaches to assess and compare the efficacy of different anthelmintic treatments. METHODOLOGY: We built an individual participant-level database from 11 randomized controlled trials and two observational studies in which subjects received single-agent or combination therapy, or placebo. Eggs per gram of stool were calculated from egg counts at baseline and post-treatment. Egg reduction rates (ERR; based on mean group egg counts) and individual-patient ERR (iERR) were utilized to express drug efficacy and analyzed after log-transformation with a linear mixed effect model. The analyses were separated by follow-up duration (14-21 and 22-45 days) after drug administration. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The 13 studies enrolled 5,759 STH stool-positive individuals; 5,688 received active medication or placebo contributing a total of 11,103 STH infections (65% had two or three concurrent infections), of whom 3,904 (8,503 infections) and 1,784 (2,550 infections) had efficacy assessed at 14-21 days and 22-45 days post-treatment, respectively. Neither the number of helminth co-infections nor duration of follow-up affected ERR for any helminth species. The number of participants treated with single-dose albendazole was 689 (18%), with single-dose mebendazole 658 (17%), and with albendazole-based co-administrations 775 (23%). The overall mean ERR assessed by day 14-21 for albendazole and mebendazole was 94.5% and 87.4%, respectively on Ascaris lumbricoides, 86.8% and 40.8% on hookworm, and 44.9% and 23.8% on Trichuris trichiura. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommended criteria for efficacy were met in 50%, 62%, and 33% studies of albendazole for A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and hookworm, respectively and 25% of mebendazole studies. iERR analyses showed similar results, with cure achieved in 92% of A. lumbricoides-infected subjects treated with albendazole and 93% with mebendazole; corresponding figures for hookworm were 70% and 17%, and for T. trichiura 22% and 20%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Combining the traditional efficacy assessment using group averages with individual responses provides a more complete picture of how anthelmintic treatments perform. Most treatments analyzed fail to meet the WHO minimal criteria for efficacy based on group means. Drug combinations (i.e., albendazole-ivermectin and albendazole-oxantel pamoate) are promising treatments for STH infections.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Helmintíase , Helmintos , Infecções por Uncinaria , Tricuríase , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Ancylostomatoidea , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Uncinaria/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Mebendazol/uso terapêutico , Solo/parasitologia , Tricuríase/tratamento farmacológico , Trichuris
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(36): e2202795119, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037362

RESUMO

Parasitic helminth infections, while a major cause of neglected tropical disease burden, negatively correlate with the incidence of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). To evade expulsion, helminths have developed sophisticated mechanisms to regulate their host's immune responses. Controlled experimental human helminth infections have been assessed clinically for treating inflammatory conditions; however, such a radical therapeutic modality has challenges. An alternative approach is to harness the immunomodulatory properties within the worm's excretory-secretory (ES) complement, its secretome. Here, we report a biologics discovery and validation pipeline to generate and screen in vivo a recombinant cell-free secretome library of helminth-derived immunomodulatory proteins. We successfully expressed 78 recombinant ES proteins from gastrointestinal hookworms and screened the crude in vitro translation reactions for anti-IBD properties in a mouse model of acute colitis. After statistical filtering and ranking, 20 proteins conferred significant protection against various parameters of colitis. Lead candidates from distinct protein families, including annexins, transthyretins, nematode-specific retinol-binding proteins, and SCP/TAPS were identified. Representative proteins were produced in mammalian cells and further validated, including ex vivo suppression of inflammatory cytokine secretion by T cells from IBD patient colon biopsies. Proteins identified herein offer promise as novel, safe, and mechanistically differentiated biologics for treating the globally increasing burden of inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios , Produtos Biológicos , Colite , Proteínas de Helminto , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Helminto/genética , Proteínas de Helminto/farmacologia , Helmintos , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/parasitologia , Camundongos
16.
Immunohorizons ; 6(8): 569-580, 2022 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35926975

RESUMO

Type 2 immunity plays an important role in host defense against helminths and toxins while driving allergic diseases. Despite progress in understanding the biology of type 2 immunity, the fundamental mechanisms regulating the type 2 immune module remain unclear. In contrast with structural recognition used by pattern recognition receptors, type 2 immunogens are sensed through their functional properties. Functional recognition theory has arisen as the paradigm for the initiation of type 2 immunity. However, the vast array of structurally unrelated type 2 immunogens makes it challenging to advance our understanding of type 2 immunity. In this article, we review functional recognition theory and organize type 2 immunogens into distinct classes based on how they fit into the concept of functional recognition. Lastly, we discuss areas of uncertainty in functional recognition theory with the goal of providing a framework to further define the logic of type 2 immunity in host protection and immunopathology.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Imunidade Inata , Animais , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão , Incerteza
17.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0273503, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36006980

RESUMO

The Ministry of Public Health in Yemen continues the implementation of school and community-based preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel and albendazole for the control and elimination of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths (STH). The latest remapping to update the distribution of schistosomiasis and STH was conducted seven years ago. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence, intensity and associated risk factors of Schistosoma mansoni and STH among schoolchildren in An-Nadirah District, Ibb Governorate, Yemen. A cross-sectional study was carried out among schoolchildren aged 6-15 years in four selected schools. Biological, demographic, socioeconomic and environmental data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. S. mansoni and STH eggs were detected and counted by the microscopic examination of Kato-Katz fecal smears. Out of 417 schoolchildren, 17.0% were infected with at least one intestinal helminth. Prevalence of S. mansoni and STH were 6.5% and 9.1%, respectively. The most prevalent parasite among STH was Ascaris lumbricoides (8.4%). Unemployed fathers (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 3.2; 95% Confidence interval (CI): 1.23, 8.52; P = 0.018), eating exposed food (AOR: 2.9; 95%CI = 1.24, 6.89; P = 0.014), not washing hands before eating and after defecation (AOR: 4.8; 95%CI = 1.77, 12.81; P = 0.002), and schools located close to water stream (AOR: 22.1; 95%CI = 5.12, 95.46; P <0.001) were independent risk factors of ascariasis. Swimming in ponds/stream (AOR: 3.9; 95%CI = 1.63, 9.55; P = 0.002), and schools close to the stream (AOR: 24.7; 95%CI = 3.05, 200.07; P = 0.003) were independent risk factors of intestinal schistosomiasis. The present study does not indicate a reduction in the prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis in this rural area since the latest remapping conducted in 2014, although ascariasis was reduced by half. The prevalence of the two parasites was highly focal in areas close to the valley, suggesting a significant role of the stream in sustaining and accelerating the parasitic infection. Children practicing swimming and having poor hygienic practices were at high exposure to S. mansoni and A. lumbricoides, respectively. Water, Sanitation and Hygiene intervention, school-based health education, and snail control, in addition to mass drug administration, will help in the interruption of transmission of schistosomiasis and STH.


Assuntos
Ascaríase , Helmintíase , Helmintos , Esquistossomose mansoni , Esquistossomose , Animais , Ascaríase/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Prevalência , Schistosoma mansoni , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/prevenção & controle , Solo/parasitologia , Água , Iêmen/epidemiologia
18.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 477, 2022 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STHs) are the major public health problem in the world especially in school age children. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the burden of soil transmitted helminths and Schistosoma mansoni among Ambesame primary school children, North-West Ethiopia. METHOD: A cross sectional study was carried out at Ambasame primary school children from March to May, 2019. Study participants were selected using systematic random sampling technique. Socio-demographic characteristics and other factors were collected using structured questionnaire. Moreover, stool samples were examined microscopically using wet mount and formol ether concentration techniques. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Logistic regression analysis was done to investigate the association between dependent and independent variables. P-value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULT: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 117(31.2%). The prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthes and S.mansoni was 110 (29.3%) using formol ether concentration technique. The most predominant parasite was S. mansoni (10.7%), followed by hookworm (5.6%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that, helminthic infection was associated with children less than 7 years of age (P-value = 0.019, AOR = 3.29, 95% CI (1.21-8.91)); fathers who are able to read and write (P-value< 0.001, AOR = 5.4, 95% CI (2.37-12.33)); absence of latrine (P-value = 0.016, AOR = 12.96, 95% CI (1.60-104.87)) and untrimmed nail (P-value = 0.043, AOR = 2.09, 95% CI (1.02-4.27)). CONCLUSION: This study revealed that the prevalence of intestinal helminthes among Ambasame primary school children was relatively high. The lower educational status of father, absence of latrine and untrimmed finger nail showed statistically significant association with intestinal helminthic infection. This indicates the school community, health offices and other stakeholders should plan a strategy to tackle problems associated with sanitary condition. Furthermore, Health policy makers, healthcare workers and health extension workers should enhance their effort of awareness creation for school children, parents, school community about personal hygiene, environmental sanitation, intestinal parasites transmission, prevention and control. Moreover, mass deworming of school children and periodic screening for parasitic infection should be done.


Assuntos
Helmintíase , Helmintos , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Esquistossomose mansoni , Animais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Éteres , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Formaldeído , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Solo/parasitologia
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13725, 2022 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35961997

RESUMO

Ascaris species are soil-transmitted helminths that infect humans and livestock mainly in low and middle-income countries. Benzimidazole (BZ) class drugs have predominated for many years in the treatment of Ascaris infections, but persistent use of BZs has already led to widespread resistance in other nematodes, and treatment failure is emerging for Ascaris. Benzimidazoles act by binding to ß-tubulin proteins and destabilising microtubules. Three mutations in the ß-tubulin protein family are associated with BZ resistance. Seven shared ß-tubulin isotypes were identified in Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum genomes. Benzimidazoles were predicted to bind to all ß-tubulin isotypes using in silico docking, demonstrating that the selectivity of BZs to interact with one or two ß-tubulin isotypes is likely the result of isotype expression levels affecting the frequency of interaction. Ascaris ß-tubulin isotype A clusters with helminth ß-tubulins previously shown to interact with BZ. Molecular dynamics simulations using ß-tubulin isotype A highlighted the key role of amino acid E198 in BZ-ß-tubulin interactions. Simulations indicated that mutations at amino acids E198A and F200Y alter binding of BZ, whereas there was no obvious effect of the F167Y mutation. In conclusion, the key interactions vital for BZ binding with ß-tubulins have been identified and show how mutations can lead to resistance in nematodes.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Helmintos , Aminoácidos/genética , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Ascaris , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Mutação , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(8): e0010721, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35976976

RESUMO

Despite that the impact of different helminth species is not well explored, the current dogma states that helminths affect the Th1/Th2 balance which in turn affects the risk of tuberculosis (TB) reactivation and severity of disease. We investigated the influence of helminth species on cytokine profiles including IL-17A in TB patients and healthy community controls (CCs). In total, 104 newly diagnosed pulmonary TB patients and 70 HIV negative and QuantiFERON negative CCs in Gondar, Ethiopia were included following helminth screening by stool microscopy. Plasma samples and ex vivo stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with purified protein derivative (PPD) and Staphylococcus enterotoxin B (SEB) was used to determine cytokine profiles by cytometric bead array. In CCs, Ascaris lumbricoides or Schistosoma mansoni infections were associated with an impaired Th1-type response (IFN-gamma, IL-6 and TNF-alpha) in PBMCs mainly with SEB stimulations, whereas in TB patients only hookworm infection showed a similar pattern. Among CCs, the IL-17A response in PBMCs stimulated with SEB was higher only for S. mansoni, whereas in TB patients, the elevated systemic IL-17A plasma level was significantly suppressed in hookworm infected TB patients compared to patients without helminth coinfection. Following treatment of TB and helminth infection there was a general decrease in ex vivio IL-10 and TNF-alpha production in unstimulated, PPD or SEB stimulated PBMCs that was the most pronounced and significant in TB patients infected with S. mansoni, whereas the follow-up levels of IFN-gamma and IL-17A was significantly increased only in TB patients without helminth coinfection from PBMCs stimulated mainly with SEB. In summary, in addition to confirming helminth specific effects on the Th1/Th2 response before and after TB treatment, our novel finding is that IL-17A was impaired in helminth infected TB patients especially for hookworm, indicating a helminth species-specific immunoregulatory effect on IL-17A which needs to be further investigated.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Citocinas , Helmintíase , Interleucina-17 , Tuberculose , Animais , Citocinas/imunologia , Helmintíase/imunologia , Helmintos/classificação , Humanos , Interleucina-17/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Tuberculina , Tuberculose/complicações , Tuberculose/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
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