Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 5.859
Filtrar
1.
Parasite Immunol ; 46(2): e13026, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38372616

RESUMO

ES-62, a protein secreted by Acanthocheilonema viteae, is anti-inflammatory by virtue of covalently attached phosphorylcholine (PC) residues and thus a library of drug-like small molecule analogues (SMAs) based on its PC moieties has been designed for therapeutic purposes. Two members, SMAs 11a and 12b, were previously found to suppress production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) exposed to cytosine-phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG), agonists for Toll-like receptor 9. In order to explore the mechanism of action underlying such activities, an untargeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomics screen was undertaken. Stimulation of BMMs with CpG produced significant metabolic changes relating to glycolysis and the TCA cycle but the SMAs had little impact on this. Also, the SMAs did not promote alterations in metabolites known to be associated with macrophage M1/M2 polarization. Rather, BMMs exposed to SMAs 11a or 12b prior to CpG treatment, or even alone, revealed downregulation of metabolites of creatine, a molecule whose major role is in the transport of high energy phosphate from the mitochondria to the cytosol. These data therefore provide insight into a possible mechanism of action of molecules with significant therapeutic potential that has not previously been described for parasitic worm products.


Assuntos
Creatina , Helmintos , Animais , Camundongos , Macrófagos , Anti-Inflamatórios , Fosfatos
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(2): e0011947, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330143

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Deworming programmes of soil-transmitted helminths are generally monitored and evaluated by aggregating drug coverage and infection levels at a district level. However, heterogeneity in drug coverage at finer spatial scales means indicators may remain above thresholds for elimination as a public health problem or of transmission in some areas. This paper aims to highlight the misleading information that aggregating data at larger spatial scales can have for programme decision making. METHODS: Drug coverage data from the Geshiyaro project were compared at two spatial scales with reference to the World Health Organisation's targets. District (woreda) and village (kebele) level were compared. The association between infection levels and drug coverage was analysed by fitting a weighted least-squares function to the mean intensity of infection (eggs per gram of faeces) against drug coverage. RESULTS: The data show clearly that when the evaluation of coverage is aggregated to the district level, information on heterogeneity at a finer spatial scale is lost. Infection intensity decreases significantly (p = 0.0023) with increasing drug coverage. CONCLUSION: Aggregating data at large spatial scales can result in prematurely ceasing deworming, prompting rapid infection bounce-back. There is a strong need to define context-specific spatial scales for monitoring and evaluating intervention programmes.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Helmintíase , Helmintos , Animais , Humanos , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Solo/parasitologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Prevalência
3.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 13(1): 16, 2024 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38369483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current soil-transmitted helminth (STH) control guidelines endorse the use of albendazole or mebendazole for school-based targeted preventive chemotherapy (PC), yet their reduced efficacy against Strongyloides stercoralis and Trichuris trichiura presents significant limitations. Emerging evidence indicates that community-wide PC [or mass drug administration (MDA)] using ivermectin, commonly used in other neglected tropical disease (NTD) control programs, may play an important role in controlling these parasites. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of ivermectin PC in reducing STH prevalence in endemic populations. METHODS: We searched Pubmed, EMBASE, and Web of Science on February 14, 2023, for studies that investigated the effectiveness of ivermectin PC, either alone or in combination with other anthelmintic drugs, on STH infections, and provided a measure of STH prevalence before and after PC. We calculated pooled prevalence reductions for each STH using random-effects meta-analyses. Our protocol is available on PROSPERO (registration number CRD42023401219). RESULTS: A total of 21 were eligible for the systematic review, of which 15 were eligible for meta-analysis. All studies delivered ivermectin through MDA. The pooled prevalence reduction of S. stercoralis following MDA with ivermectin alone was 84.49% (95% CI 54.96-94.66) across five studies and 81.37% (95% CI 61.62-90.96) across seven studies with or without albendazole. The prevalence reduction of T. trichiura was 49.93% (95% CI 18.23-69.34) across five studies with ivermectin alone, and 89.40% (95% CI 73.66-95.73) across three studies with the addition of albendazole. There was high heterogeneity for all syntheses (I2 > 65%). CONCLUSIONS: This study underscores the key role of ivermectin-based MDA in addressing limitations in current global STH guidelines in terms of limited efficacy against S. stercoralis and T. trichiura. Based on these findings, revising international STH guidelines to include ivermectin is a promising option to progress the control and eventual elimination of STHs and other NTDs.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Helmintíase , Helmintos , Animais , Humanos , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Solo/parasitologia , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Prevalência
4.
J Helminthol ; 98: e18, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347824

RESUMO

A new species of the free-living nematode genus Trachactinolaimus, collected in natural habitats of northern Iran, is described, including morphological and molecular (28S-rDNA) data. Trachactinolaimus persicus sp. n. is characterized by its 1.95-2.44 mm long body, lip region weakly offset by depression and 18-20 µm wide, odontostyle 25-27 µm long, neck 540-636 µm long, pharyngeal expansion occupying one-half of the total neck length, bipartite uterus 2.6-3.9 body diameters long, vulva (V = 49-53) pore-like, tail long and filiform in both sexes (174-223 µm, c = 10.0-13.4, c' = 5.9-7.0 in females, 165-196 µm, c = 10.7-13.8, c' = 4.6-5.8 in males), spicules 68-75 µm long, and 12-14 almost contiguous ventromedian supplements with hiatus. Molecular data supports the monophyly of the genus and the hypothesis that Dorylaimidae are the sister group of actinolaims. The taxonomy of Trachactinolaimus is updated, including diagnosis, list of species, key to their identification, and a compendium of their main morphometrics. Dominiactinolaimus is regarded as its junior synonym.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Nematoides , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Irã (Geográfico) , Evolução Biológica , Filogenia
5.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 27(1): 82-88, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may be more prone to helminthic infestation because they have depleted immunity, which increases their susceptibility to infection and infestations, even with minimally pathogenic organisms such as helminths. AIM: The prevalence and pattern of intestinal helminthiasis among children living with HIV attending the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study in which 70 HIV-infected children were consecutively recruited from the Pediatric HIV clinic and matched for age and sex with 70 children recruited from the children outpatient clinic (CHOP) of UNTH Ituku-Ozalla. Stool samples of study participants were collected and analyzed using the Kato-Katz method and subsequently examined under the microscope for helminths' eggs and larvae. The worm intensity was determined using the theoretical analytic sensitivity (TAS) of 24 eggs per gram (EPG) to obtain the number of eggs per gram of feces. The CD4+ count, which describes the severity of immunosuppression in HIV-positive children was determined using the PARTEC Cyflow counter for the CD4+ lymphocyte count, whereas HIV screening was performed using the rapid diagnostic tests for HIV (Determine, Statpack and Unigold). Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS. RESULTS: The prevalence of intestinal helminthiasis among HIV-infected and non-infected children was 27.1% and 12.9%, respectively (P = 0.038). HIV-positive children were more likely to have intestinal helminthiasis than HIV-negative children (odds ratio [OR] =2.525, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.052-6.063). Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant helminthic species in both HIV-infected and non-infected groups; however, there was no statistical significance between intestinal helminthic species and HIV status (P = 0.655) but the severity of intestinal helminthiasis was significantly associated with decreasing CD4+ count (P = 0.028). The risk factors for intestinal helminthic infestation examined were similar in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative children (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: There was a significantly higher prevalence of helminthic infestation among HIV-infected children compared to their HIV-negative counterparts. The severity of intestinal helminthiasis was significantly associated with decreasing CD4+ count.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Soropositividade para HIV , Helmintíase , Helmintos , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Criança , Animais , Humanos , HIV , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hospitais de Ensino , Fezes/parasitologia
6.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 33(1): e013823, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359299

RESUMO

The big-headed Amazon River turtle, Peltocephalus dumerilianus, is endemic to the Orinoco and Amazon River basins. It is a food source for local communities, often unsustainably. Knowledge about P. dumerilianus' parasitological fauna and host-parasite relationships is limited. Thus, ecological aspects of gastrointestinal parasitism in this species were investigated. Helminths were found in the gastrointestinal tract of 21 turtles, morphologically identified, and infection descriptors calculated. All animals harbored helminths: nematodes Ancyracanthus pinnatifidus, Paratractis hystrix, Atractis trematophila, Klossinemella conciliatus indeterminate three Klossinemella species, and digeneans Nematophila grandis, Helicotrema spirale, and Telorchis hagmanni. The highest parasite load occurred in the large intestine, followed by the small intestine and stomach. Shell length directly correlated with parasite burden of heteroxenic helminths, with males having higher burden than females. This is the first record of A. trematophila, K. conciliatus, and T. hagmanni in P. dumerilianus, and new location record for A. trematophila, P. hystrix, N. grandis, H. spirale, and T. hagmanni. Three potentially new Klossinemella species are presented.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Parasitos , Tartarugas , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Tartarugas/parasitologia , Brasil , Parques Recreativos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária
7.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0287893, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324542

RESUMO

Wildlife trafficking creates favorable scenarios for intra- and inter-specific interactions that can lead to parasite spread and disease emergence. Among the fauna affected by this activity, primates are relevant due to their potential to acquire and share zoonoses - infections caused by parasites that can spread between humans and other animals. Though it is known that most primate parasites can affect multiple hosts and that many are zoonotic, comparative studies across different contexts for animal-human interactions are scarce. We conducted a multi-parasite screening targeting the detection of zoonotic infections in wild-caught monkeys in nine Peruvian cities across three contexts: captivity (zoos and rescue centers, n = 187); pet (households, n = 69); and trade (trafficked or recently confiscated, n = 132). We detected 32 parasite taxa including mycobacteria, simian foamyvirus, bacteria, helminths, and protozoa. Monkeys in the trade context had the highest prevalence of hemoparasites (including Plasmodium malariae/brasilianum, Trypanosoma cruzi, and microfilaria) and enteric helminths and protozoa were less common in pet monkeys. However, parasite communities showed overall low variation between the three contexts. Parasite richness (PR) was best explained by host genus and the city where the animal was sampled. Squirrel (genus Saimiri) and wooly (genus Lagothrix) monkeys had the highest PR, which was ~2.2 times the PR found in tufted capuchins (genus Sapajus) and tamarins (genus Saguinus/Leontocebus) in a multivariable model adjusted for context, sex, and age. Our findings illustrate that the threats of wildlife trafficking to One Health encompass exposure to multiple zoonotic parasites well-known to cause disease in humans, monkeys, and other species. We demonstrate these threats continue beyond the markets where wildlife is initially sold; monkeys trafficked for the pet market remain a reservoir for and contribute to the translocation of zoonotic parasites to households and other captive facilities where contact with humans is frequent. Our results have practical applications for the healthcare of rescued monkeys and call for urgent action against wildlife trafficking and ownership of monkeys as pets.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Parasitos , Plasmodium , Humanos , Animais , Peru/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Haplorrinos , Saguinus
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(2): e0011819, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38319937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminth infections (STH) are associated with substantial morbidity in low-and-middle-income countries, accounting for 2.7 million disability-adjusted life years annually. Current World Health Organization guidelines recommend controlling STH-associated morbidity through periodic deworming of at-risk populations, including children and women of reproductive age (15-49 years). However, there is increasing interest in community-wide mass drug administration (cMDA) which includes deworming adults who serve as infection reservoirs as a method to improve coverage and possibly to interrupt STH transmission. We investigated determinants of cMDA coverage by comparing high-coverage clusters (HCCs) and low-coverage clusters (LCCs) receiving STH cMDA in three countries. METHODS: A convergent mixed-methods design was used to analyze data from HCCs and LCCs in DeWorm3 trial sites in Benin, India, and Malawi following three rounds of cMDA. Qualitative data were collected via 48 community-level focus group discussions. Quantitative data were collected via routine activities nested within the DeWorm3 trial, including annual censuses and coverage surveys. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) guided coding, theme development and a rating process to determine the influence of each CFIR construct on cMDA coverage. RESULTS: Of 23 CFIR constructs evaluated, we identified 11 constructs that differentiated between HCCs and LCCs, indicating they are potential drivers of coverage. Determinants differentiating HCC and LCC include participant experiences with previous community-wide programs, communities' perceptions of directly observed therapy (DOT), perceptions about the treatment uptake behaviors of neighbors, and women's agency to make household-level treatment decisions. CONCLUSION: The convergent mixed-methods study identified barriers and facilitators that may be useful to NTD programs to improve cMDA implementation for STH, increase treatment coverage, and contribute to the successful control or elimination of STH. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The parent trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03014167).


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Glutamatos , Helmintíase , Helmintos , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Compostos de Mostarda Nitrogenada , Infecções por Trematódeos , Criança , Adulto , Animais , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/métodos , Solo/parasitologia , Benin , Malaui , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Trematódeos/tratamento farmacológico , Prevalência
9.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1099, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321011

RESUMO

Control of soil-transmitted helminths relies heavily on regular large-scale deworming of high-risk groups (e.g., children) with benzimidazole derivatives. Although drug resistance has not yet been documented in human soil-transmitted helminths, regular deworming of cattle and sheep has led to widespread benzimidazole resistance in veterinary helminths. Here we predict the population dynamics of human soil-transmitted helminth infections and drug resistance during 20 years of regular preventive chemotherapy, using an individual-based model. With the current preventive chemotherapy strategy of mainly targeting children in schools, drug resistance may evolve in soil-transmitted helminths within a decade. More intense preventive chemotherapy strategies increase the prospects of soil-transmitted helminths elimination, but also increase the speed at which drug efficacy declines, especially when implementing community-based preventive chemotherapy (population-wide deworming). If during the last decade, preventive chemotherapy against soil-transmitted helminths has led to resistance, we may not have detected it as drug efficacy has not been structurally monitored, or incorrectly so. These findings highlight the need to develop and implement strategies to monitor and mitigate the evolution of benzimidazole resistance.


Assuntos
Helmintíase , Helmintos , Criança , Humanos , Animais , Bovinos , Ovinos , Solo/parasitologia , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Prevalência
10.
Syst Rev ; 13(1): 55, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soil transmitted helminth (STH) infections are estimated to impact 24% of the world's population and are responsible for chronic and debilitating morbidity. Disadvantaged communities are among the worst affected and are further marginalized as infection prevalence fuels the poverty cycle. Ambitious targets have been set to eliminate STH infections, but accurate epidemiological data will be required to inform appropriate interventions. This paper details the protocol for an analysis that aims to produce spatial prediction mapping of STH prevalence in the Western Pacific Region (WPR). METHODS: The protocol follows the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocol (PRISMA-P) guidelines. The study design will combine the principles of systematic review, meta-analysis, and geospatial analysis. Systematic searches will be undertaken in PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, Embase, and Web of Science for studies undertaken post 2000, to identify surveys that enable the prevalence of human STH infection within the WPR to be calculated. Covariate data for multivariable analysis will be obtained from publicly accessible sources. Survey data will be geolocated, and STH prevalence and covariates will be linked to produce a spatially referenced dataset for analysis. Bayesian model-based geostatistics will be used to generate spatially continuous estimates of STH prevalence mapped to a resolution of 1 km2. A separate geospatial model will be constructed for each STH species. Predictions of prevalence will be made for unsampled locations and maps will be overlaid for each STH species to obtain co-endemicity maps. DISCUSSION: This protocol facilitates study replication and may be applied to other infectious diseases or alternate geographies. Results of the subsequent analysis will identify geographies with high STH prevalence's and can be used to inform resource allocation in combating this neglected tropical disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Open Science Framework: osf.io/qmxcj.


Assuntos
Helmintíase , Helmintos , Animais , Humanos , Solo , Prevalência , Teorema de Bayes , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Metanálise como Assunto , Helmintíase/epidemiologia
11.
Trends Parasitol ; 40(2): 164-175, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38172015

RESUMO

The dissemination of protozoan and metazoan parasites through host tissues is hindered by cellular barriers, dense extracellular matrices, and fluid forces in the bloodstream. To overcome these diverse biophysical impediments, parasites implement versatile migratory strategies. Parasite-exerted mechanical forces and upregulation of the host's cellular contractile machinery are the motors for these strategies, and these are comparably better characterized for protozoa than for helminths. Using the examples of the protozoans, Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium, and the metazoan, Schistosoma mansoni, we highlight how quantitative tools such as traction force and reflection interference contrast microscopies have improved our understanding of how parasites alter host mechanobiology to promote their migration.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Parasitos , Plasmodium , Toxoplasma , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Helmintos/fisiologia , Toxoplasma/fisiologia
12.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 110(2): 263-269, 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38190744

RESUMO

More than 1.5 billion people are infected by soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) worldwide, comprising one of the world's most serious public health problems. School-age children are the most affected as a result of precarious hygienic habits, especially in economically poor areas that lack appropriate sanitation. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate a didactic method via a health education approach as a complement to the school curriculum of the sixth-grade students of public schools, distributed among six cities in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. For this, a didactic booklet was elaborated with educational explanatory activities about worms, their life cycle, and how to avoid infections. The intervention was measured by the change caused by knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP), in students before and after using the notebook, through a questionnaire with high validity and internal consistency. Schools were assigned randomly into intervention and control groups, receiving both the didactic material and the questionnaires, versus the questionnaires only, respectively. The results were submitted to an analysis of covariance that revealed a significant difference pre- and postintervention for knowledge (P < 0.001), with greater means (0.54) compared with the control group (0.44); attitude (P < 0.005), with respective means of 0.56 versus 0.48; and practice (P < 0.001), with means of 0.75 versus 0.57. These findings set the didactic material as a potential tool to complement the school curriculum through KAP without disrupting the teaching system, in addition to assisting teachers in health education at schools aiming to prevent children's infections by STHs.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Solo , Criança , Humanos , Animais , Solo/parasitologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Brasil , Instituições Acadêmicas
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(1): e0011772, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38175837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The control of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) is achieved through mass drug administration (MDA) with deworming medications targeting children and other high-risk groups. Recent evidence suggests that it may be possible to interrupt STH transmission by deworming individuals of all ages via community-wide MDA (cMDA). However, a change in delivery platforms will require altering implementation processes. METHODS: We used process mapping, an operational research methodology, to describe the activities required for effective implementation of school-based and cMDA in 18 heterogenous areas and over three years in Benin, India, and Malawi. Planned activities were identified during workshops prior to initiation of a large cMDA trial (the DeWorm3 trial). The process maps were updated annually post-implementation, including adding or removing activities (e.g., adaptations) and determining whether activities occurred according to plan. Descriptive analyses were performed to quantify differences and similarities at baseline and over three implementation years. Comparative analyses were also conducted between study sites and areas implementing school-based vs. cMDA. Digitized process maps were developed to provide a visualization of MDA processes and inspected to identify implementation bottlenecks and inefficient activity flows. RESULTS: Across three years and all clusters, implementation of cMDA required an average of 13 additional distinct activities and was adapted more often (5.2 adaptations per year) than school-based MDA. An average of 41% of activities across both MDA platforms did not occur according to planned timelines; however, deviations were often purposeful to improve implementation efficiency or effectiveness. Visualized process maps demonstrated that receipt of drugs at the local level may be an implementation bottleneck. Many activities rely on the effective setting of MDA dates and estimating quantity of drugs, suggesting that the timing of these activities is important to meet planned programmatic outcomes. CONCLUSION: Implementation processes were heterogenous across settings, suggesting that MDA is highly context and resource dependent and that there are many viable ways to implement MDA. Process mapping could be deployed to support a transition from a school-based control program to community-wide STH transmission interruption program and potentially to enable integration with other community-based campaigns. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03014167.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Glutamatos , Helmintíase , Helmintos , Compostos de Mostarda Nitrogenada , Criança , Animais , Humanos , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/métodos , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Solo/parasitologia
14.
PeerJ ; 12: e16820, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38288465

RESUMO

Background: Diversity in clinical signs and symptoms are associated with soil transmitted diseases (STD), which are spread to humans by intestinal worms and transmitted in a variety of ways. There is a need for the present study, which aimed to investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasites and to compare between the common detection techniques for soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) among newly arrived expatriate labors in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A total of 188 stool samples were analyzed by macroscopic examination, and microscopic examination using direct iodine smear and the formal ether sedimentation technique. Trichrome and modified Kinyoun's stains were used to confirm the morphology of any detected protozoa stages and oocyst of Cryptosporidium, respectively. A chromatographic immunoassay kit was used for Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium. In addition, real-time PCR was employed only to identify various STHs. Results: Out of 188, several types of parasites were detected in 35 samples (18.62%), of which some with multiple infections. Nine samples (4.79%) were positive for Entamoeba coli, seven samples (3.72%) for Trichuris trichiura, six samples (3.19%) for Necator americanus, four samples (2.13%) for Strongyloides stercoralis, four samples (2.13%) for Ascaris lumbricoides, four samples (2.13%) for E. histolytica, three samples (1.60%) for Blastocystis hominis and two samples (1.06%) for Ancylostoma duodenale. In comparison between laboratory techniques for STHs, real-time PCR was able to detect the DNA of 19 samples (10.1%) followed by Ritchie sedimentation technique (18, 9.6%), and direct smear (7, 3.7%) (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The high rate of newly arrived foreign workers infected with intestinal parasites could lead to a risk to society. Continuous and regular surveys are needed to deal with the occurrence of intestinal parasitic infections including STHs. To improve the identification of these infections, we recommend a supporting infrastructure for the application of concentration methods and molecular assays.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Helmintos , Parasitos , Humanos , Animais , Parasitos/genética , Solo/parasitologia , Prevalência , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
15.
Acta Trop ; 251: 107119, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38195005

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal protist (GP) and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections cause significant morbidity among children in poor-resource settings of tropical and sub-tropical countries including Colombia. Few prospective transversal studies investigating how GP and STH infections affect growth development and nutritional status during childhood have been conducted in this country, none of them in the Antioquia Department. This microscopy-based study estimated the prevalence of GP and helminth (including STH) infections in faecal samples from schoolchildren (n = 384) collected during April-May 2019 in three municipalities of the Antioquia Department. Demographic, epidemiological, and household data were elicited through face-to-face interviews. Parasite detection was carried out by direct microscopic examination of both fresh smears and concentrated faecal material. Children (aged 6-15 years) also had their haemoglobin (Hb) levels, height and weight data collected, and BMI estimated. Data were analysed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Overall, 60.7 % (233/384) of schoolchildren were infected by at least one intestinal parasitic species. Among GPs, Blastocystis sp. was the most common species found (47.7 %, 95 % CI: 42.6-52.8), followed by G. duodenalis (15.9 %, 95 % CI: 12.4-19.9). Cryptosporidium spp. and Cyclospora cayetanensis were sporadically identified (0.3 %, 95 % CI: 0.1-1.4 each). Among helminths, the most prevalent species found were Trichuris trichiura (6.0 %, 95 % CI: 3.8-8.9) and Enterobius vermicularis (1.0 %, 95 % CI: 0.3-2.6). Hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Strongyloides stercoralis were found at prevalence rates <1 %. Underweight, overweigh, or obese schoolchildren had 1.2 times greater chance of being infected with intestinal parasites than their counterparts with a healthy weight (P-value: 0.015). Variables significantly associated with an increased likelihood of being infected by intestinal parasites include living in a household with unfinished flouring, not wearing shoes, being in close proximity to rodents, and having improper waste disposal. Relatively simple interventional measures directed towards the improvement of household conditions, access to sanitary toilets, and promoting shoe wearing can significantly reduce childhood infections by GP and helminths in the Antioquia Department.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Helmintíase , Helmintos , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Parasitos , Humanos , Criança , Animais , Estado Nutricional , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Solo/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Prevalência
16.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 11, 2024 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38172854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mass drug administration is one of the key interventions recommended by WHO to control certain NTDs. With most support from donors, health workers distribute antihelminthic drugs annually in Malawi. Mean community coverage of MDA from 2018 to 2020 was high at 87% for praziquantel and 82% for albendazole. However, once donor support diminishes sustaining these levels will be challenging. This study intended to compare the use of the community-directed intervention approach with the standard practice of using health workers in delivery of MDA campaigns. METHODS: This was a controlled implementation study carried out in three districts, where four health centres and 16 villages in each district were selected and randomly assigned to intervention and control arms which implemented MDA campaigns using the CDI approach and the standard practice, respectively. Cross-sectional and mixed methods approach to data collection was used focusing on quantitative data for coverage and knowledge levels and qualitative data to assess perceptions of health providers and beneficiaries at baseline and follow-up assessments. Quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed using IBM SPSS software version 26 and NVivo 12 for Windows, respectively. RESULTS: At follow-up, knowledge levels increased, majority of the respondents were more knowledgeable about what schistosomiasis was (41%-44%), its causes (41%-44%) and what STH were (48%-64%), while knowledge on intermediate host for schistosomiasis (19%-22%), its types (9%-13%) and what causes STH (15%-16%) were less known both in intervention and control arm communities. High coverage rates for praziquantel were registered in intervention (83%-89%) and control (86%-89%) communities, intervention (59%-79) and control (53%-86%) schools. Costs for implementation of the study indicated that the intervention arm used more resources than the control arm. Health workers and community members perceived the use of the CDI approach as a good initiative and more favorable over the standard practice. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the CDI in delivery of MDA campaigns against schistosomiasis and STH appears feasible, retains high coverages and is acceptable in intervention communities. Despite the initial high costs incurred, embedding into community delivery platforms could be considered as a possible way forward addressing the sustainability concern when current donor support wanes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Pan-African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR202102477794401, date: 25/02/2021.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Esquistossomose , Animais , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Malaui/epidemiologia , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Prevalência , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Solo/parasitologia
17.
J Helminthol ; 98: e8, 2024 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38234205

RESUMO

Little is known about helminth parasites of the Bismarck Archipelago, in either archaeological or modern contexts. This study presents a parasitological analysis of soil samples from Early Lapita habitation layers at Kamgot (3300-3000 BP). Evidence for the presence of pigs and dogs and the timing of their arrival in Early Lapita contexts have been contested in the literature. The finding of parasite eggs in samples from Kamgot supports the presence of pigs and dogs at the site. Six types of helminth eggs were identified: pig nematode Trichuris suis, dog nematode Toxocara canis, and cestode Dipylidium caninum, as well as two unknown trematodes and a possible anoplocephalid cestode, thereby indicating the local presence of other mammals or birds. This study represents the first confirmed record of ancient helminth parasites in tropical Oceania.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Doenças do Cão , Helmintos , Nematoides , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Cães , Suínos , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Óvulo , Fezes/parasitologia , Prevalência , Mamíferos
18.
Zootaxa ; 5397(3): 301-341, 2024 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38221200

RESUMO

A parasite-host, host-parasite and distribution-based checklist of helminths found in bats (Chiroptera) of North America north of Mexico is presented. The parasite-host checklist includes a total of 93 species (including records without a species identification) of helminth parasites reported in the literature from 30 species of bats. These include 54 trematodes, 11 cestodes, and 28 nematodes. Each helminth species is listed under its most current accepted name, with all known synonyms, distribution by state/province, and references for each geographic location. Lists of helminths reported from individual species of bats as well as states of the United States and provinces/territories of Canada are also provided. The following new combinations are proposed: Paralecithodendrium alaskensis (Neiland, 1962) n. comb. for Prosthodendrium alaskensis Neiland, 1962; Paralecthodendrium longiforme (Bhalerao, 1926) n. comb. for Lecithodendrium longiforme Bhalerao, 1926; and Paralecithodendrium singularium (Byrd & Macy, 1942) n. comb. for Prosthodendrium singularium Byrd & Macy, 1942. The state of knowledge of helminths of bats in North America is briefly discussed.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Helmintos , Parasitos , Trematódeos , Animais , Quirópteros/parasitologia , México , América do Norte
19.
J Helminthol ; 98: e6, 2024 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38213187

RESUMO

The Australasian harrier Circus approximans, a native of Australia, New Zealand and the South Pacific, is an opportunistic hunter of small prey, although a large part of its diet consists of carrion, mainly from roadkill. Besides a record of a single, unnamed species of capillariid nematode there have been no investigations into the parasites of Australasian harriers in New Zealand. In this study, a helminthological survey of sixty-five deceased harriers from southern New Zealand uncovered a gastrointestinal helminth fauna consisting of six parasite species. Porrocaecum circinum (Nematoda) was previously described only from fragmented females, and a redescription is presented here. Procyrnea fraseri n. sp. (Nematoda) is described, and distinguished from its congeners by its slender body shape and shorter spicules. Strigea falconis (Trematoda) is reported for the first time in New Zealand. Cladotaenia anomalis (Cestoda) and Polymorphus circi (Acanthocephala) were previously described as new species elsewhere. An unnamed species of capillariid appears to be mainly confined to North Island and is rare in South Island. Prevalence and intensity metrics are given, and DNA sequences provided to accompany new re/descriptions. Potential intermediate hosts are discussed, and the origins of the helminths and their potential for pathogenicity are considered.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos , Cestoides , Helmintos , Nematoides , Espirurídios , Trematódeos , Feminino , Animais , Nova Zelândia , Nematoides/genética , Helmintos/genética , Aves/parasitologia
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(1): e36835, 2024 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38181246

RESUMO

Anemia is one of the severe clinical outcomes associated with concomitant infection of malaria and soil-transmitted helminths (STH). Since STH infections mostly share similar geographical areas with malaria, the influence of co-infections on the epidemiology and course of Anemia deserves greater consideration to assess the impact of interventions, the adequacy of strategies implemented, and the progress made in the fight against Anemia. So, this study was done to investigate Anemia among STH-negative malaria patients and malaria patients co-infected with single or multiple STHs, in 3 health facilities of Arba Minch, 2020 to 2021. An institutional-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted at 3 Governmental Health Institutions, Arba Minch, and southern Ethiopia from November 2020 to February 2021 on a total of 321 malaria-positive study participants. Thick and thin blood films were prepared for microscopic examination of malaria parasites and identification of species. A malaria parasite count was done to determine the intensity of the infection. A stool wet mount was done to identify STHs. Kato-Katz was done for microscopic quantitative examination of STHs. A complete blood cell count was done to determine hemoglobin level. Socio-demographic data were collected using a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 25. Independent samples t test and one-way analysis of variance were done. Anemia magnitude in this study was 38.3% and it was higher in malaria with multiple STH co-infection groups (55.1%). Malaria parasite density was significantly higher in malaria with multiple STHs co-infected study participants F (2, 318) = 20.075. It increased with the increasing intensity of hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, and several co-infecting helminth species. But it decreased with increasing intensity of Ascaris lumbricoides. The mean hemoglobin concentration of malaria with multiple STHs co-infection study participants was significantly lower than mono malaria-infected and malaria with single STHs co-infection study participants. The management of malaria should take account of STH infections and optimal modalities of treatment should be devised. Anti-helminthic treatments of malaria patients through regular, inexpensive, single-dose, and highly effective drugs must be seriously considered to protect the population from exacerbation of Anemia by intestinal helminth infections.


Assuntos
Anemia , Coinfecção , Helmintos , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano , Humanos , Animais , Solo , Estudos Transversais , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Anemia/epidemiologia , Instalações de Saúde , Hemoglobinas
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...