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1.
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 36(2): 21-25, dic.2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1117893

RESUMO

El síndrome de lisis tumoral (SLT) es una complicación potencialmente letal provocada por la liberación masiva de ácidos nucleicos, potasio y fosfato hacia la circulación sistémica lo cual se asocia a graves trastornos del metabolismo hidroelectrolítico. Se realizó una revisión retrospectiva de historias clínicas con el objetivo de describir las características clínicas de los pacientes con sospecha de SLT que ingresaron al Servicio de Medicina Interna del Hospital General Universitario Dr. Luis Gómez López durante el lapso 2017-2018. El 50% de los pacientes tenían una edad comprendida entre 51 y 70 años, siendo el 65% de sexo femenino. Los canceres más frecuentemente encontrados fueron el cáncer de mama (29%), cáncer gástrico (15%) y el linfoma no Hodgkin (12%). Todos los pacientes presentaron al menos tres de las manifestaciones clínicas asociadas al SLT entre las cuales se encuentran náuseas, vómitos, anorexia, debilidad, calambres, hiperreflexia, oliguria, anuria, hematuria, hipotensión, convulsiones y deshidratación. El 46% de los pacientes presentaron hiperpotasemia, mientras que 36% mostraron hipocalcemia y 18% hiperfosfatemia. El 76% de los pacientes cursaron con una creatinina > 1,4 mg/dl. El diagnóstico definitivo de SLT no fue posible realizarlo en ninguno de los pacientes incluidos en este estudio debido a la falta de estudios paraclínicos necesarios para satisfacer los criterios según los lineamientos internacionales(AU)


Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a potentially lethal complication due to massive release of nucleic acids, potassium and phosphate into the systemic circulation which is associated with severe hydroelectrolitic metabolic disorders. A retrospective review of clinical charts was performed in order to describe clinical characteristics of patients with possible TLS that were admitted to the Servicio de Medicina Interna of the Hospital General Universitario Dr. Luis Gómez López during the period 2017-2018. The results show that 50% of patients were between 51 and 70 years old and 65% were female. Breast cancer (29%), stomach cancer (15%) and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (12%) were more frequent in patients with possible TLS. All patients showed at least three of the clinical features commonly associated with TLS such as nausea, vomiting, anorexia, weakness, cramps, hyperreflexia, oliguria, anuria, hematuria, hypotension, convulsion and dehydration. 46% of patients had hyperkalemia, 36% hypocalcemia and 18% hyperphosphatemia. Creatinine levels > 1,4 mg/dl were seen in 76% of patients. Definitive diagnosis of TLS was not possible in any of the patients included in this study due to the lack of laboratory studies required according to international guidelines(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Fosfatos , Potássio , Radioterapia , Neoplasias da Mama , Ácidos Nucleicos , Síndrome de Lise Tumoral/fisiopatologia , Tratamento Farmacológico , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Cuidados Críticos , Hematologia , Medicina Interna , Oncologia
7.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(8): e28297, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524737

RESUMO

Peer support has begun to gain traction as a mechanism for improving well-being in medicine. In this paper, we share our experience building, training, and piloting a peer support team based on a "critical incident stress management" model. The HOPES team (Helping Our Peers Endure Stress) is dedicated to, and composed entirely of, members of our division of pediatric hematology/oncology. Peer support will not solve all the well-being problems afflicting medicine. It is, however, a very good place to start.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Aconselhamento , Hematologia , Oncologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Pediatria , Grupo Associado , Humanos
10.
Med J Aust ; 212(10): 481-489, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245741

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A pandemic coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, causes COVID-19, a potentially life-threatening respiratory disease. Patients with cancer may have compromised immunity due to their malignancy and/or treatment, and may be at elevated risk of severe COVID-19. Community transmission of COVID-19 could overwhelm health care services, compromising delivery of cancer care. This interim consensus guidance provides advice for clinicians managing patients with cancer during the pandemic. MAIN RECOMMENDATIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic: In patients with cancer with fever and/or respiratory symptoms, consider causes in addition to COVID-19, including other infections and therapy-related pneumonitis. For suspected or confirmed COVID-19, discuss temporary cessation of cancer therapy with a relevant specialist. Provide information on COVID-19 for patients and carers. Adopt measures within cancer centres to reduce risk of nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 acquisition; support population-wide social distancing; reduce demand on acute services; ensure adequate staffing; and provide culturally safe care. Measures should be equitable, transparent and proportionate to the COVID-19 threat. Consider the risks and benefits of modifying cancer therapies due to COVID-19. Communicate treatment modifications, and review once health service capacity allows. Consider potential impacts of COVID-19 on the blood supply and availability of stem cell donors. Discuss and document goals of care, and involve palliative care services in contingency planning. CHANGES IN MANAGEMENT AS A RESULT OF THIS STATEMENT: This interim consensus guidance provides a framework for clinicians managing patients with cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic. In view of the rapidly changing situation, clinicians must also monitor national, state, local and institutional policies, which will take precedence. ENDORSED BY: Australasian Leukaemia and Lymphoma Group; Australasian Lung Cancer Trials Group; Australian and New Zealand Children's Haematology/Oncology Group; Australia and New Zealand Society of Palliative Medicine; Australasian Society for Infectious Diseases; Bone Marrow Transplantation Society of Australia and New Zealand; Cancer Council Australia; Cancer Nurses Society of Australia; Cancer Society of New Zealand; Clinical Oncology Society of Australia; Haematology Society of Australia and New Zealand; National Centre for Infections in Cancer; New Zealand Cancer Control Agency; New Zealand Society for Oncology; and Palliative Care Australia.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Hematologia/normas , Oncologia/normas , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Austrália , Consenso , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Doenças Hematológicas/virologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/virologia , Nova Zelândia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
13.
Med J Aust ; 212(10): 481-489, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401360

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A pandemic coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, causes COVID-19, a potentially life-threatening respiratory disease. Patients with cancer may have compromised immunity due to their malignancy and/or treatment, and may be at elevated risk of severe COVID-19. Community transmission of COVID-19 could overwhelm health care services, compromising delivery of cancer care. This interim consensus guidance provides advice for clinicians managing patients with cancer during the pandemic. MAIN RECOMMENDATIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic: In patients with cancer with fever and/or respiratory symptoms, consider causes in addition to COVID-19, including other infections and therapy-related pneumonitis. For suspected or confirmed COVID-19, discuss temporary cessation of cancer therapy with a relevant specialist. Provide information on COVID-19 for patients and carers. Adopt measures within cancer centres to reduce risk of nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 acquisition; support population-wide social distancing; reduce demand on acute services; ensure adequate staffing; and provide culturally safe care. Measures should be equitable, transparent and proportionate to the COVID-19 threat. Consider the risks and benefits of modifying cancer therapies due to COVID-19. Communicate treatment modifications, and review once health service capacity allows. Consider potential impacts of COVID-19 on the blood supply and availability of stem cell donors. Discuss and document goals of care, and involve palliative care services in contingency planning. CHANGES IN MANAGEMENT AS A RESULT OF THIS STATEMENT: This interim consensus guidance provides a framework for clinicians managing patients with cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic. In view of the rapidly changing situation, clinicians must also monitor national, state, local and institutional policies, which will take precedence. ENDORSED BY: Australasian Leukaemia and Lymphoma Group; Australasian Lung Cancer Trials Group; Australian and New Zealand Children's Haematology/Oncology Group; Australia and New Zealand Society of Palliative Medicine; Australasian Society for Infectious Diseases; Bone Marrow Transplantation Society of Australia and New Zealand; Cancer Council Australia; Cancer Nurses Society of Australia; Cancer Society of New Zealand; Clinical Oncology Society of Australia; Haematology Society of Australia and New Zealand; National Centre for Infections in Cancer; New Zealand Cancer Control Agency; New Zealand Society for Oncology; and Palliative Care Australia.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Hematologia/normas , Oncologia/normas , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Austrália , Consenso , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Doenças Hematológicas/virologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/virologia , Nova Zelândia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
19.
Pharmacol Res ; 157: 104866, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387301

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a medical emergency, with 20 % of patients presenting with severe clinical manifestations. From the pathogenetic point of view, COVID-19 mimics two other well-known diseases characterized by cytokine storm and hyper-activation of the immune response, with consequent organ damage: acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). Hematologists are confident with these situations requiring a prompt therapeutic approach for switching off the uncontrolled cytokine release; here, we discuss pros and cons of drugs that are already employed in hematology in the light of their possible application in COVID-19. The most promising drugs might be: Ruxolitinib, a JAK1/2 inhibitor, with a rapid and powerful anti-cytokine effect, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), with their good anti-inflammatory properties, and perhaps the anti-Cd26 antibody Begelomab. We also present immunological data from gene expression experiments where TKIs resulted effective anti-inflammatory and pro-immune drugs. A possible combined treatment algorithm for COVID-19 is here proposed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Hematologia/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias
20.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 42 Suppl 1: 11-18, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-602630

RESUMO

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic originated in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, in December 2019. The etiologic agent is a novel coronavirus of presumed zoonotic origin with structural similarity to the viruses responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). Like SARS and MERS, COVID-19 infection manifests most frequently with lower respiratory symptoms. A minority of patients progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome/ diffuse alveolar damage. In addition to its central role in the diagnosis of COVID-19 infection, the clinical laboratory provides critical information to clinicians regarding prognosis, disease course, and response to therapy. The purpose of this review is to (a) provide background context about the origins and course of the pandemic, (b) discuss the laboratory's role in the diagnosis of COVID-19 infection, (c) summarize the current state of biomarker analysis in COVID-19 infection, with an emphasis on markers derived from the hematology laboratory, (d) comment on the impact of COVID-19 on hematology laboratory safety, and (e) describe the impact the pandemic has had on organized national and international educational activities worldwide.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Linfopenia/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Trombocitopenia/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , China/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Hematologia/métodos , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Laboratórios/organização & administração , Linfopenia/diagnóstico , Linfopenia/fisiopatologia , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pró-Calcitonina/sangue , Distância Social , Trombocitopenia/diagnóstico , Trombocitopenia/fisiopatologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Proteínas Virais/sangue
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