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1.
Ann Med ; 54(1): 2115-2122, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Esophageal variceal bleeding is a common reason for hospitalization in patients with cirrhosis. The main objective of this study was to analyze the effects of gender differences on outcomes in hospitalizations related to Esophageal variceal bleeding in the United States. METHODS: A retrospective observational cohort study was performed using the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database for all hospitalizations with a discharge diagnosis of esophageal varices with hemorrhage from 2016 to 2019. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality, while secondary outcomes included rate of early endoscopy (defined as less than 1 day), AKI, blood transfusion, sepsis, ICU admission and TIPS (Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt). We also compared the length of stay and total hospitalization charges. RESULTS: We identified a total of 166,760 patients with variceal bleeding of which 32.7% were females. In-hospital mortality was higher in males, 9.91%, compared to females, 8.31% (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 0.88, p-value=.008, when adjusted for confounding factors). The odds of undergoing an EGD, length of stay, or total hospitalization charges did not differ between the two groups. Compared to men, women had lower odds of receiving TIPS (aOR = 0.83, p-value=.002). CONCLUSION: Women hospitalised with esophageal variceal bleeding are at a lower risk of death compared to males. Further research is needed to elucidate the factors associated with this lower risk.


Assuntos
Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas , Derivação Portossistêmica Transjugular Intra-Hepática , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/complicações , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 97(8): 1483-1492, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35933134

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risks of recurrent stroke and major bleeding events with clopidogrel and aspirin use among patients aged 80 years or older. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Full Population Data of the Health and Welfare Database in Taiwan. Patients aged 80 years or older who received monotherapy with clopidogrel or aspirin following hospitalization for primary acute ischemic stroke between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2018, were included. Inverse probability of treatment weighting was used to balance measured covariates between clopidogrel and aspirin users. Measured outcomes included recurrent acute ischemic stroke, acute myocardial infarction, composite cardiovascular events (recurrent stroke or acute myocardial infarction), intracranial hemorrhage, major gastrointestinal tract bleeding, and composite major bleeding events (intracranial hemorrhage or major gastrointestinal tract bleeding). RESULTS: A total of 15,045 patients were included in the study, 1979 of whom used clopidogrel and 13,066 who used aspirin following hospitalization for primary acute ischemic stroke. Clopidogrel use was associated with significantly lower risk of recurrent acute ischemic stroke (hazard ratio [HR], 0.89; 95% CI, 0.83 to 0.96; P=.002), composite cardiovascular events (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.82 to 0.95; P<.001), intracranial hemorrhage (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.90; P=.005), and composite major bleeding events (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80 to 0.99; P=.04) compared with aspirin use. CONCLUSION: In patients aged 80 years or older with primary acute ischemic stroke, clopidogrel users had lower risks of recurrent stroke and the composite cardiovascular events compared with aspirin users. Clopidogrel users also had lower risks of intracranial hemorrhage and the composite major bleeding events compared with aspirin users.


Assuntos
AVC Isquêmico , Infarto do Miocárdio , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Infarto Cerebral , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/induzido quimicamente , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Prevenção Secundária , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Curr Opin Gastroenterol ; 38(5): 443-449, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35916320

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) has significant morbidity and UGIB cases have been described in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Management of this condition can be challenging considering both the possible severe COVID-19-related pneumonia as well as the risk of the virus spreading from patients to health operators. The aim of this paper is to review the most recent studies available in the literature in order to evaluate the actual incidence of UGIB, its clinical and endoscopic manifestations and its optimal management. RECENT FINDINGS: UGIB has an incidence between 0.5% and 1.9% among COVID-19 patients, and it typically presents with melena or hematemesis. Peptic ulcers are the most common endoscopic findings. High Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), dialysis, acute kidney injury and advanced oncological disease increase the risk for UGIB. Although anticoagulants are commonly used in COVID-19 patients they are not associated with an increased incidence of UGIB. Conservative management is a common approach that results in similar outcomes compared to upper GI endoscopic treatment. Apparently, UGIB in COVID-19 seems not have a detrimental effect and only one study showed an increased mortality in those who developed UGIB during hospitalization. SUMMARY: Incidence of UGIB in COVID-19 patients is similar to that of the general population. Despite the widespread use of anticoagulants in these patients, they are not associated with an increased risk of UGIB. Conservative management could be an effective option, especially for patients that are at risk of intubation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/complicações , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Hematemese/induzido quimicamente , Hematemese/epidemiologia , Humanos , Melena/induzido quimicamente , Melena/complicações , Melena/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Gastroenterol Nurs ; 45(4): 267-275, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35833732

RESUMO

The incidence of COVID-19 gastrointestinal manifestations has been reported to range from 3% to 61%. There are limited data on the incidence rates and risk factors associated with gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) in patients with COVID-19. A rapid review has been designed to investigate whether there is a relationship between COVID-19 and GIB in adult patients. PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Scopus databases have been analyzed. A total of 129 studies were found; 29 full texts were analyzed, and of these, 20 were found to be relevant to the topic. The key findings of the included studies present an overall GIB rate in COVID-19 patients ranging from 1.1% to 13%. The bleeding involves mucosal damage of the duodenum, stomach, colon, and rectum. The management of gastrointestinal bleeding could be conservative. The use of fecal diversion systems for the management of diarrhea in COVID-19 patients should be minimized and closely evaluated for the risk of rectal mucosal damages and erosions. It is recommended to provide an accurate nutritional assessment; an early setting up of enteral nutrition, if not contraindicated, can help protect the gut mucosa of patients and restore normal intestinal flora. Larger cohort studies are needed to increase the information about this topic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , COVID-19/complicações , Colo , Nutrição Enteral/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Humanos , Reto
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35896276

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) in women aged 20-49 years may be caused by menses or gastrointestinal cancer. Data are sparse on the yield of endoscopy/colonoscopy in this population. Our aim was to determine the association of IDA and symptoms with cancers. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study within Kaiser Permanente Northern California. Participants were women aged 20-49 years tested for iron stores and anaemia during 1998, 2004 and 2010 and followed for 5 years for outcomes of oesophageal, gastric and colon cancers. Symptoms from the three prior years were grouped into dysphagia, upper gastrointestinal (UGI), lower gastrointestinal (LGI), rectal bleeding and weight loss. RESULTS: Among 9783 anaemic women aged 20-49 years, there were no oesophageal, 6 gastric and 26 colon cancers. Incidences per 1000 for gastric cancer with and without iron deficiency (ID) were 0.60 (95% CI 0.23 to 1.55) and 0.63 (95% CI 0.17 to 2.31), and for colon cancer, 2.72 (95% CI 1.72 to 4.29) and 2.53 (95% CI 1.29 to 4.99). Endoscopies for UGI or dysphagia symptoms rather than bidirectional endoscopy for ID yielded more gastric cancers (n=5 and n=4, respectively) with fewer procedures (3793 instead of 6627). Colonoscopies for LGI or rectal bleed instead of for ID would detect more colon cancers (n=19 and n=18) with about 40% of the procedures (=2793/6627). CONCLUSIONS: UGI and colon cancers were rare in women of menstruating age and when controlled for anaemia were as common without as with ID. Using symptoms rather than IDA as an indication for endoscopy found equal numbers of cancers with fewer procedures.


Assuntos
Anemia , Neoplasias do Colo , Transtornos de Deglutição , Deficiências de Ferro , Neoplasias Gástricas , Anemia/complicações , Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/complicações , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Humanos , Ferro , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
An Pediatr (Engl Ed) ; 96(5): 402-409, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35701033

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) is commonly used in Paediatric Intensive Care Units (PICUs). However, strong evidence for this practice is lacking and there is a dire need for paediatric randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Our aim was to assess the usefulness of SUP with omeprazole in critically ill children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a randomized, controlled open-label trial, including 144 children admitted into a PICU with a paediatric Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (pSOFA) score of less than 16. We randomly allocated patients to SUP with omeprazole or no SUP. The primary outcome was development of upper gastrointestinal bleeding or nosocomial infection. RESULTS: The incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding was 27.1%, but clinically significant bleeding developed in only 5.6% of patients. We did not find a significant difference in the incidence of bleeding between the prophylaxis and control groups (27.8% vs 26.4%; P = .85). We also did not find a significant difference between the groups in the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) (9.6% vs 8.3%; P = .77). The incidence of central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) was higher in the prophylaxis group compared to the control group (30.6% vs 12.5%; P = .014). None of the patients developed Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea. We did not find significant differences in mortality, length of PICU stay or duration of mechanical ventilation. Mechanical ventilation was an independent predictor of bleeding (OR, 6.4; 95%CI, 2.73-14.9). CONCLUSION: In PICU patients with mild to moderate organ dysfunction, omeprazole does not seem to be useful for prevention of gastrointestinal bleeding while at the same time increasing the risk of CLABSI. Thus, we recommend restricting SUP to mechanically ventilated children.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Úlcera Péptica , Doença Aguda , Criança , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Omeprazol/uso terapêutico , Úlcera Péptica/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera Péptica/etiologia , Úlcera Péptica/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Úlcera/complicações , Úlcera/tratamento farmacológico
7.
Acta Gastroenterol Belg ; 85(2): 283-290, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35709772

RESUMO

Background and study aims: Ischemic colitis (IC) is thought to occur more frequently in the elderly, but the incidence in young and middle-aged adults is increasing. This study determined the clinical characteristics of and risk factors for young and middle-aged IC patients. Patients and methods: The medical records of 190 IC patients from 2010-2020 were reviewed. The clinical features of the young and middle-aged IC group (group A, < 60 years [n=70]) were compared to the elderly IC (group B, ≥60 years [n=120]) and age- and gender-matched colon polyp groups (group C, <60 years [n=272]). Independent risk factors for IC in group A were assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: There were no significant differences in groups A and B with respect to season of onset, symptoms, signs, treatment, or recurrences. The main symptoms of group A were abdominal pain (98.6%) and hematochezia (98.6%). Lesions commonly involved the left half of the colon (87.1%) and the clinical conditions were generally not severe. The percentage of patients with constipation (11.4% vs. 4.0%, P=0.034) and using a calcium channel antagonist (21.4% vs. 11.4%, P=0.028) was significantly higher in group A than group C. Regression analysis demonstrated that constipation (OR 2.831, P=0.037) and taking a calcium channel antagonist (OR 2.486, P=0.012) were closely associated with the occurrence of IC in group A. Conclusions: Constipation and taking a calcium channel antagonist were independent risk factors for the onset of IC in young and middle-aged adults. Among young and middle-aged adults with abdominal pain and bloody stools who also have constipation or are taking a calcium channel antagonist to treat hypertension, the diagnosis of IC should be considered.


Assuntos
Colite Isquêmica , Dor Abdominal/epidemiologia , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio , Colite Isquêmica/diagnóstico , Colite Isquêmica/epidemiologia , Colite Isquêmica/etiologia , Constipação Intestinal/epidemiologia , Constipação Intestinal/etiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 117(7): 1080-1088, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35765907

RESUMO

The most common major adverse event of endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is clinically significant post-EMR bleeding (CSPEB), with an incidence of 6%-7% in large lesions. Repeat colonoscopy, blood transfusions, or other interventions are often needed. The associated direct costs are much higher than those of an uncomplicated EMR. In this review, we discuss the aspects related to CSPEB of large nonpedunculated polyps, such as risk factors, predictive models, and prophylactic measures, and we highlight evidence for preventive treatment options and explore new methods for bleeding prophylaxis. We also provide recommendations for steps that can be taken before, during, and after EMR to minimize bleeding risk. Finally, this review proposes future directions to reduce CSPEB incidence.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Ressecção Endoscópica de Mucosa , Pólipos , Colonoscopia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Ressecção Endoscópica de Mucosa/efeitos adversos , Ressecção Endoscópica de Mucosa/métodos , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pólipos/complicações
9.
Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg ; 28(6): 762-768, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35652869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Upper gastrointestinal system bleeding (UGIB) that occurs with the effect of coagulopathy due to COVID-19 disease itself and drugs such as LMWH and steroids used in the treatment negatively affects the outcomes. In this study, we aimed to examine the frequency of gastrointestinal system bleeding in COVID-19 patients, risk factors, effect on outcomes, and management. METHODS: Institutional center (a third-level pandemic center) database was searched for patients hospitalized for COVID-19 between March 11, 2020, and December 17, 2020, retrospectively. Patients with UGIB symptoms/signs were included in the study. Age, gender, body mass index (kg/m2), hospital department where bleeding was diagnosed, previous bleeding history, comorbidities, and medication were steroid, anticoagulant, low weight molecule heparin, and proton-pomp inhibitor, endoscopic findings/treatment, transfusion, and mortality rates were evaluated. Patients were divided into two groups as survivors and non-survivors and parameters were compared. RESULTS: Forty-five of a total 5484 patients under COVID-19 treatment had upper gastrointestinal bleeding (0.8%). The average age of the patients was 70.1 years and 73% bleeders were male. Nineteen patients (44%) underwent endoscopy. The most common etiologies of bleeding were gastric/duodenal ulcer (n=9), erosive gastritis (n=4), and hemorrhagic gastritis (n=3). Active bleeding re-quiring intervention was detected in only one patient; therapeutic band ligation was applied to only 1 (2%) of all patients. The most common etiologies of bleeding were gastric/duodenal ulcer (n=9), erosive gastritis (n=4), and hemorrhagic gastritis (n=3). In terms of statistical significance, it was observed that the rate of steroid treatment (77% vs. 39%) and the number of days of steroid treatment were higher in non-survivor group. CONCLUSION: UGIB is less common in COVID-19 patients compared to other hospitalized patients. However, it significantly increases mortality. Mortality risk increases even more in patients using steroids. These risks should be considered in patients under COVID-19 treatment. The majority of the bleeding patients does not require endoscopic treatment and should be managed conser-vatively. It is worth considering reducing unnecessary endoscopies in the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Úlcera Duodenal , Gastrite , Úlcera Péptica Perfurada , Idoso , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Gastrite/complicações , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742765

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected emergency department (ED) usage. This study examines changes in the number of ED visits for gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and nonemergency GI conditions, such as acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and constipation, before the pandemic and at the peak and slack periods of the pandemic in Taiwan. This retrospective observational study was conducted at a referral medical center in northern Taiwan. We recorded the number of weekly ED visits for GI bleeding, AGE, and constipation from 2019 to 2021. We then compared the baseline period (calendar weeks 4-18 and 21-31, 2019) with two peak pandemic periods (period 1, calendar weeks 4-18, 2020; period 2, calendar weeks 21-31, 2021) and their corresponding slack periods. The decline in the number of ED visits during the two peak pandemic periods for GI bleeding (-18.4% and -30.2%) were not as substantial as for AGE (-64.1% and -76.7%) or for constipation (-44.4% and -63.6%), but GI bleeding cases were still significantly lower in number relative to the baseline. During the slack period, the number of ED visits for all three diagnoses rebounded but did not exceed the baseline. Our study revealed that there was a significant decline of GI complaint during the pandemic. This phenomenon was more prominent in nonemergency complaints (AGE and constipation) and less prominent in serious complaints (GI bleeding).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Gastroenterologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Constipação Intestinal/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan/epidemiologia
11.
Korean J Gastroenterol ; 79(6): 244-251, 2022 06 25.
Artigo em Coreano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35746838

RESUMO

Background/Aims: Globally, the population aged 80 years or older is growing faster due to the rising life expectancy. Korea has already entered into an advanced aged society, and a post-aged society is expected in 2025. This study evaluated the patterns of gastrointestinal disease in the population aged 80 years or older during the recent decade in Korea. Method: This study retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients admitted to the gastrointestinal department of Suwon St. Vincent's hospital, Incheon St. Mary's hospital, and Uijeongbu St. Mary's Hospital - general hospitals of Seoul-Gyeonggi province in Korea. It was a repeated cross-sectional study in 2009 and 2019. Results: The number of admitted patients aged 80 years or older increased from 549 (9.0%) in 2009 to 1,073 (14.4%) in 2019 (p<0.01). As for the in-hospital mortality, there was no significant difference (p=0.25). On the other hand, the combined morbidities increased, and the duration of admission also increased (7.2±7.8 days vs. 8.1±8.2 days, p=0.03). The number of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and patients who are bleeding associated with drugs users increased (p<0.01). The proportion of lower gastrointestinal disease decreased (p<0.01) because of the decrease in procedure-related admissions (p<0.01). The number of those with pancreaticobiliary tract disease increased markedly (p<0.01), and the rate of cases that could not perform the procedure decreased (p=0.04). Conclusion: The patterns of gastrointestinal disease in the population aged 80 years or older have changed in the recent decade in Korea. Hence, more preparation for this medical environment is needed.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias , Estudos Transversais , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Humanos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e057991, 2022 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35697453

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used for primary and secondary prevention of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. However, there remains controversy about the overall net clinical benefit of PPIs (omeprazole, rabeprazole, pantoprazole, lansoprazole) when coprescribed with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs; dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban). Our objective is to explore the risk of clinically relevant events, including bleeding, thromboembolic events and death, in patients prescribed DOACs while taking PPIs versus no PPI. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The protocol describes a retrospective cohort study of all Ontario residents aged 66 years or older with atrial fibrillation and at least one pharmacy dispensation for a DOAC identified using linked administrative healthcare databases covering 2009-2020. Ontario drug benefit dispensation records will be used to ascertain PPI exposure during DOAC therapy. The primary outcome is a composite of clinically relevant bleeding, thrombotic events or all-cause death. A minimum of 520 patients in total with at least one of the components of the composite outcome are needed. Poisson regression with a generalised estimating equation model will be used to calculate the adjusted incidence rate difference, incidence rate ratios 95% CI, adjusting for propensity for PPI use using inverse probability of treatment weights. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This research is exempt from REB review under section 45 of Ontario's Personal Health Information Protection Act. We will report our findings in a peer-reviewed biomedical journal and present them at conferences. The study will provide useful evidence to optimise the coprescription of DOACs and PPIs in practice.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Coortes , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Am J Cardiol ; 177: 76-83, 2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35773040

RESUMO

To investigate the effectiveness of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) for resolving gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) in patients with severe GIB and severe aortic stenosis. This was an observational study of consecutive TAVI procedures from 2011 to 2018, identified through a prospectively maintained institutional database. Patients with severe GIB defined as abnormal hemoglobin/hematocrit and overt bleeding or positive fecal occult blood test. Groups were compared for differences in baseline clinical and procedural characteristics and post-TAVI outcomes. A total of 1,192 patients who underwent TAVI were identified, of which 164 patients (13.8%) were found to have had severe GIB. Society of Thoracic Surgeons-Predicted Risk of Mortality scores were higher in the severe GIB group than in the non-GIB group (8.8 ± 5.3 vs 7.6 ± 4.5, p = 0.002). The 30-day mortality was similar across each group (p >0.05), with overall 30-day mortality being 3.2% (38 of 1,192) for the entire cohort. Of the 164 TAVIs with severe GIB, 130 (79.3%) had resolution of their GIB after their TAVI. Patients without resolution of their GIB had higher aortic valve mean pressure gradients after their TAVI (15.0 ± 5.3 vs 9.0 ± 4.3). In conclusion, TAVI was associated with substantial reductions in severe GIB. Despite higher baseline risk, patients with severe GIB achieved similar outcomes, including 30-day mortality, compared with patients without GIB. TAVI may be a safe and effective treatment for patients with severe aortic stenosis and severe GIB, whereas persistently high transvalvular pressure gradients after TAVI may be related to the likelihood of recurrent GIB.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Fluoroscopia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 32(5): 586-590, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35546692

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish and verify a nomogram for individualized prediction of patients with oesophageal and gastric variceal rupture and haemorrhage in cirrhosis. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Digestive Internal Medicine, Funan County People's Hospital, Anhui, China, from June 2017 to June 2020. METHODOLOGY: Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify the risk factors for oesophageal and gastric variceal bleeding in cirrhosis. An individualized risk prediction model was established, which was validated by the parallel bootstrap method and an external validation set. RESULTS: It was found that emotional stimuli (OR=4.591, 95% CI: 1.419-14.852), improper diet (OR=3.702, 95% CI: 1.606-8.526), overwork (OR=3.529, 95% CI: 1.331-9.366), lower temperature (OR=3.013, 95% CI: 1.242-7.308), and increased abdominal pressure (OR=2.416, 95% CI: 0.900-6.487) were independent risk factors for oesophageal and gastric variceal bleeding in cirrhosis. A risk prediction model was established based on the five risk factors, and the R equation test showed that the C-index of the modelling group and the verification group was 0.815 (95% CI: 0.794-0.836) and 0.812 (95% CI: 0.793-0.831), respectively. CONCLUSION: The results of the correction curve showed little difference, which indicated that the risk prediction model has good accuracy and differentiation. KEY WORDS: Cirrhosis, Oesophagus varices and gastric fundus varices, Bleeding, Risk factors, Risk model, Validation.


Assuntos
Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas , Varizes , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/complicações , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações
15.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 60(248): 360-363, 2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35633214

RESUMO

Introduction: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a common medical emergency with significant morbidity and mortality. Its causes can be classified under variceal bleeding or non-variceal bleeding. Peptic ulcer and variceal bleeding are common causes. Thus, this study aims to find the prevalence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding among patients attending the Department of Emergency in a tertiary care centre. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted on patients admitted to the Department of Emergency a tertiary care centre from September 2020 to August 2021 among 3375 patients. The ethical approval was obtained from the Institutional Review Committee of the hospital (Reference number: 328). Patients presenting with the clinical features of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in the form of hematemesis or melena were enrolled after written informed consent. Data entry was done in Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences version 20.0. for descriptive analysis. Point estimate at 95% Confidence Interval was calculated along with frequency and percentage for binary data. Results: Out of 3375 admissions in the Department of Emergency, 85 (2.52%) (1.99-3.05 at 95% Confidence Interval) patients presented with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Conclusions: The prevalence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding is lower in comparison to other studies done in similar settings. Keywords: bleeding; emergency medicine; upper gastrointestinal tract; varices.


Assuntos
Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal , Estudos Transversais , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/complicações , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Humanos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
16.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 56(2): 251-262, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35621052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low-dose aspirin is a risk factor for peptic ulcer disease but previous, population-based cohort studies may have underestimated the low-dose aspirin risk because they did not use a new-user design. Gastrointestinal bleeding occurs more frequently early after initiation of low-dose aspirin therapy than in later years. AIM: To assess the associations of low-dose aspirin with gastric and duodenal ulcer incidence in prevalent- and new-user design. METHODS: Multivariate Cox regression models in the German ESTHER study (N = 7737) and the UK Biobank (N = 213,598) with more than 10 years of follow-up. RESULTS: In the prevalent-user design, there was no significant association between low-dose aspirin and gastric ulcer observed in both cohorts. Furthermore, low-dose aspirin was weakly, statistically significantly associated with prevalent duodenal ulcer in the UK Biobank (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.27 [1.07-1.51]) but not in the ESTHER study (1.33 [0.54-3.29]). When restricting the exposure to only new users, the hazard ratios for incident gastric and duodenal ulcer disease were 1.82 [1.58-2.11] and 1.66 [1.36-2.04] in the UK Biobank, respectively, and 2.83 [1.40-5.71] and 3.89 [1.46-10.42] in the ESTHER study, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that low-dose aspirin is an independent risk factor for both gastric and duodenal ulcers. The associations were not significant or weak in the prevalent-user design and strong and statistically significant in the new-user design in both cohorts. Thus, it is important to weigh risks against benefits when low-dose aspirin treatment shall be initiated and to monitor adverse gastrointestinal symptoms after the start of low-dose aspirin therapy.


Assuntos
Úlcera Duodenal , Úlcera Péptica , Úlcera Gástrica , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Úlcera Duodenal/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Duodenal/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Úlcera Péptica/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/epidemiologia
17.
Artif Organs ; 46(8): 1682-1688, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35377471

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the risk factors for gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in congenital heart disease (CHD) patients supported with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-A ECMO) after open-heart surgery. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on children with (GI group: 26 cases) and without (control group: 122 cases) GI bleeding during ECMO at Shanghai Children's Medical Center from 2017 to 2020. Clinical data were analyzed and compared between groups to search for risk factors for GI bleeding. RESULTS: A total of 148 cases were included in the study. The overall incidence of GI bleeding was 17.6% (26/148). The in-hospital mortality rate in the GI group was 61.5% (16/26) versus 45.9% (56/122) in the control group. Twenty-six patients suffered cardiac arrest before ECMO support. The GI bleeding incidence among extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) patients was 50.0% (13/26) versus 28.7 (35/122) among non-ECPR patients, p = 0.035. The activated clotting time (ACT) was 201.40 s (180.47 to 247.27) in the GI group versus 177.63 s (167.79 to 203.13) (p = 0.050) in the control group. The lowest antithrombin level (Min AT) was 27.00 ± 13.07% versus 37.62 ± 15.18 (p = 0.001). The pH and lactate levels before ECMO (Pre PH and Pre Lac) were lower in the GI group than in the control group. (7.31 ± 0.23 vs. 7.35 ± 0.17, p = 0.035 and 12.2 ± 6.11 vs. 7.78 ± 6.67, p = 0.003). Liver function during ECMO support was statistically worse in the GI group than in the control group. Multivariate analysis showed that Pre Lac (OR = 1.106 [1.018-1.202], p = 0.0016) was an independent risk factor for GI bleeding. ROC analysis of Pre Lac and GI bleeding showed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.700 (95% CI: 0.600-0.800, p = 0.002) and a cutoff value of 9.30 mmol/L (sensitivity, 73.1%; specificity, 62.7%). CONCLUSIONS: As the first study in this field, the probability of GI bleeding and related mortality was found to be high in children supported with V-A ECMO after open-heart surgery. A higher lactate level before ECMO was an independent risk factor for GI bleeding.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Criança , China , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Humanos , Lactatos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Intern Med J ; 52(4): 663-666, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35419961

RESUMO

Low-dose aspirin is commonly used for primary or secondary prophylaxis against cardiovascular disease in older people. However, the potential risk of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) ulceration and bleeding associated with low-dose aspirin use is often not appreciated by prescribers and older consumers. Among 133 serial patients with UGI bleeding, aspirin-users aged ≥70 years had a ninefold increased likelihood of overt UGI bleeding compared with non-users, reducing by 90% in regular proton-pump inhibitor users (adjusted odds ratio 0.10). We recommend risk-versus-benefit discussions when recommending aspirin to older people.


Assuntos
Aspirina , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons , Idoso , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Prevenção Secundária
19.
Gastroenterology ; 163(1): 257-269.e6, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35398042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The impact of proton pump inhibitory (PPI) medications on adverse outcomes in cirrhosis remains controversial. We aimed to evaluate the association between PPI exposure and all-cause mortality, infection, and decompensation in a large national cohort. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of patients with cirrhosis in the Veterans Health Administration. PPI exposure was classified as a time-updating variable from the index time of the cirrhosis diagnosis. Inverse probability treatment weighting-adjusted Cox regression was performed with additional adjustment for key time-varying covariates, including cardiovascular comorbidities, gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB), and statin exposure. RESULTS: The study included 76,251 patients, 23,628 of whom were on a PPI at baseline. In adjusted models, binary (yes/no) PPI exposure was associated with reduced hazard of all-cause mortality in patients with hospitalization for GIB (hazard ratio [HR], 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84-0.91; P < .001) but had no significant association in all others (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.97-1.02; P = .58). However, cumulative PPI exposure was associated with increased mortality in patients without hospitalization for GIB (HR, 1.07 per 320 mg-months [omeprazole equivalents]; 95% CI, 1.06-1.08; P < .001). PPI exposure was significantly associated with severe infection (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.18-1.24; P < .001) and decompensation (HR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.61-1.68; P < .001). In a cause-specific mortality analysis, PPI exposure was associated with increased liver-related mortality (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.19-1.28) but with decreased nonliver-related mortality (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.85-0.91). CONCLUSIONS: PPI exposure is associated with increased risk of infection and decompensation in cirrhosis, which may mediate liver-related mortality. However, PPI use was associated with reduced all-cause mortality in those with prior GIB, suggesting benefit in the presence of an appropriate indication.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons , Veteranos , Estudos de Coortes , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/complicações , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Am J Med ; 135(8): e263-e278, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35469734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical characteristics of patients with acute myocardial infarction after gastrointestinal bleeding are poorly characterized. We sought to evaluate the incidence, management and outcomes of myocardial infarction following hospitalization for gastrointestinal bleeding. METHODS: Patients admitted with a diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding with and without subsequent hospital readmissions for acute myocardial infarction within 90 days were identified in the 2014 U.S. Nationwide Readmission Database. Patients with myocardial infarction with and without a recent prior gastrointestinal bleed were compared to determine differences in management and in-hospital outcomes. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds of invasive management and all-cause in-hospital mortality after covariate adjustment. RESULTS: A total of 644,622 patients with gastrointestinal bleeding were identified, of which 7523 (1.2%) were readmitted for myocardial infarction within 90 days. Compared to patients with myocardial infarction without recent gastrointestinal bleeding, patients with myocardial infarction within 90 days after gastrointestinal bleeding were older, more likely to be women, have kidney disease, presented with non-ST segment elevation myocarsdial infarction, and were less likely to undergo invasive management of acute myocardial infarction (28% vs 63%, P < .01). Prior gastrointestinal bleeding was associated with higher all-cause in-hospital myocardial infarction mortality (22% vs 9%, P < .01). CONCLUSION: In the first 3 months after hospitalization for gastrointestinal bleeding, 1 of every 83 patients was readmitted with acute myocardial infarction. Patients with myocardial infarction after gastrointestinal bleeding were less likely to undergo invasive management and coronary revascularization and had higher mortality than those without recent bleeding.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
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