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1.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol ; 16(1): 1-9, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914334

RESUMO

Background: Warfarin acts in heart valve replacement patients to minimize thromboembolic complications. We investigated whether patients can be distinguished based on their genotypes to efficiently and safely administer warfarin therapy after heart valve replacements.Research design and methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted in patients with warfarin therapy who underwent elective heart valve replacements between January 2013 and September 2018. The patients were divided into normal, sensitive, and highly sensitive bins based on their CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes. The primary endpoints were over-anticoagulation and overt bleeding.Results: 375 patients were enrolled, with 65 classified as normal, 281 as sensitive, and 29 as highly sensitive responders. Compared with normal responders, sensitive and highly sensitive responders spent more time on over-anticoagulation in the first 28 (P < 0.001) and 90 (P = 0.001) days; experienced more frequent bleeding events in the first 28 days (P = 0.029; OR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.15-4.13); required lower warfarin doses to obtain stable INR (P < 0.001); had higher warfarin sensitivity indices (P < 0.001).Conclusion: Predicting evidence have been obtained with CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes in identifying heart valve replacement patients with higher efficient sensitivity and with a higher risk of bleeding and over-anticoagulation.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/genética , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Vitamina K Epóxido Redutases/genética , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Genótipo , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/métodos , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/genética , Humanos , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
2.
Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis ; 13: 1753944719891688, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814532

RESUMO

A sizable proportion of coronary artery disease (CAD) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent implantation have an indication for treatment with oral anticoagulant therapy (OAC). The coexistence of atrial fibrillation (AF) and the need for PCI expose patients to a higher risk of developing thrombotic complications, and a multitargeted antithrombotic treatment strategy, addressing both platelet- and coagulation-mediated triggering mechanisms of thrombosis, is necessary for ensuring full protection from ischemic hazards. The increased bleeding risk identified with triple antithrombotic therapy has driven the search for alternative treatment modalities and pharmacological combination strategies aimed at achieving an optimal balance between safety and efficacy in this complex clinical scenario. Over a short time period, the paradigms surrounding the management of patients undergoing PCI who require OAC have substantially evolved. In this review, we summarize and critically evaluate the results of recent randomized clinical trials investigating the pharmacological management of patients who, in addition to antiplatelet therapy, have an indication for OAC treatment before or at the time of a PCI procedure.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Trombose Coronária/prevenção & controle , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Trombose Coronária/diagnóstico , Trombose Coronária/epidemiologia , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Presse Med ; 48(12): 1416-1421, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679898

RESUMO

Antiplatelet therapy is the cornerstone of coronary artery disease treatment and prevention. Combination of aspirin and P2Y12 inhibitor is recommended after acute coronary syndrome and after elective percutaneous coronary intervention. The optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy depends on the individual ischemic and bleeding risk of the patient. Bleeding on dual anti platelet therapy remains the most frequent complication of antiplatelet therapy even is mostly minimal or moderate. Beyond individualized evaluation of patients' bleeding risk, management of patients with severe bleeding complications is a challenging situation and requires general and specific recommendations with interruption of the dual antiplatelet therapy in the vast majority of the cases.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/terapia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia Combinada , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/patologia , Humanos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Stents/efeitos adversos , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose/epidemiologia , Trombose/etiologia
4.
Am Surg ; 85(10): 1146-1149, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657312

RESUMO

Cirrhosis is associated with adverse outcomes after emergency general surgery (EGS). The objective of this study was to determine the safety of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in EGS patients with cirrhosis. We performed a two-year retrospective cohort analysis of adult patients who underwent LC for symptomatic gallstones. The primary outcome was the incidence of intraoperative complications. Of 796 patients, 59 (7.4%) were cirrhotic, with a median model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score of 15 (IQR, 7). On unadjusted analysis, patients with cirrhosis were older, more likely to be male (both P < 0.01), diabetic (P < 0.001), had a higher incidence of preadmission antithrombotic therapy use (P < 0.02), and experienced a longer time to surgery (3.2 vs 1.8 days, P < 0.001). Coarsened exact matching revealed no difference in intra- or postoperative complications between groups (P = 0.67). Operative duration was longer in patients with cirrhosis (162 vs 114 minutes, P = 0.001), who also had a nonsignificant increase in the rate of conversion to an open cholecystectomy (14% vs 4%, P = 0.07). The results of this study indicate that LC may be safely performed in EGS patients with cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/efeitos adversos , Tratamento de Emergência/efeitos adversos , Cálculos Biliares/cirurgia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Ductos Biliares/lesões , Conversão para Cirurgia Aberta/estatística & dados numéricos , Tratamento de Emergência/métodos , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Cálculos Biliares/etiologia , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Intestinos/lesões , Complicações Intraoperatórias/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Segurança , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; 18(12): 1171-1189, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623473

RESUMO

Introduction: Potent platelet inhibition reduces the risk of thrombotic complications including myocardial infarction and death in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Targeting different pathways involved in thrombotic processes have synergistic effects and more effectively counteract thrombosis both in the acute and long-term following an ACS. Unavoidably, more potent platelet inhibition increases the risk of bleeding. In light of the adverse prognostic implications associated with bleeding, including increased mortality, safety aspects with antiplatelet therapy have gained increased importance.Areas covered: This review aims at describing the safety of different antiplatelet agents, particularly with regards to the risk of bleeding complications, used in the management of ACS patients. New bleeding reduction strategies to enhance the safety of antiplatelet therapy are also reviewed.Expert opinion: The final goal of a well-structured antiplatelet treatment strategy is that of tackling the spectrum of ischemic risk without compromising patient safety. A simple mnemonic rule for guiding therapeutic decisions in this complex clinical scenario can be summarized with the acronym 'ABC', meaning the sequential process of assessing, balancing and customizing treatment strategies in individual patients on the tradeoff between bleeding and ischemic risk. This approach is recommended for maximizing the ischemic benefits, while preserving safety, with the use of antiplatelet therapy.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Trombose/etiologia , Trombose/prevenção & controle
6.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 15: 399-408, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571891

RESUMO

Stroke prevention with oral anticoagulants in patients with atrial fibrillation predisposes for bleeding. As a result, in select patient groups anticoagulation is withheld because of a perceived unfavorable risk-benefit ratio. Reasons for withholding anticoagulation can vary greatly between clinicians, often leading to discussion in daily clinical practice on the best approach. To guide clinical decision-making, we have reviewed available evidence on the most frequently reported reasons for withholding anticoagulation: previous bleeding, frailty and age, and an overall high bleeding risk.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Suspensão de Tratamento , Administração Oral , Fatores Etários , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Seleção de Pacientes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
7.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 15: 429-437, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31632047

RESUMO

Objectives: 1) To evaluate anticoagulation treatment patterns and health care resource use in adult patients with a discharge diagnosis of non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) in an Italian real-world setting and 2) to describe the characteristics of NVAF patients in relation to treatment. Design: A retrospective cohort study in a "real-world" setting. Setting: Data were analysed by integrating administrative databases that included approximately 2,000,000 individuals assisted by the National Health System from two Italian Local Health Units. Participants: All adult patients with at least one hospital discharge or ≥2 outpatient visits with a diagnosis code for NVAF from 1/01/2011 to 31/12/2015 were included. Main outcome measures: Anticoagulation treatment patterns, health care resource use and major bleeding events that occurred during the follow-up period were evaluated. Results: 32,863 NVAF patients were included, of whom 7,831 had at least one prescription of oral anticoagulants. Among them, 6,876 patients were vitamin K antagonists (VKA) users and 955 were non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC) users at index date (ID). During the follow-up period, the use of antiplatelet drugs was higher among VKA-naïve users than the NOAC-naïve users. Among NOAC users, 76.1% showed an adherence level ≥80% during follow-up. The rate of bleeding events resulted higher for VKA patients compared to NOAC patients. The unadjusted incidence rate was 10.46 per 1000 person-year for VKA patients and 4.55 per 1,000 person-years for NOAC patients. The overall annual cost (in term of drugs, hospitalisations and outpatient specialist services) was € 5,156.13 for VKA and € 4,630.57 for NOAC. Conclusion: This unselected cohort study, on NVAF patients being prescribed oral anticoagulants, highlights that VKA was largely prescribed and the great majority of patients on NOACs were adherent to treatment. Most of the OAC patients still received antiplatelet agents in combination, and in NOAC patients, we registered a lower number of bleeding events compared with VKA.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Padrões de Prática Médica , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/economia , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/economia , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Custos de Medicamentos , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Padrões de Prática Médica/economia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
N Engl J Med ; 381(14): 1309-1320, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with stable coronary artery disease and diabetes mellitus who have not had a myocardial infarction or stroke are at high risk for cardiovascular events. Whether adding ticagrelor to aspirin improves outcomes in this population is unclear. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind trial, we assigned patients who were 50 years of age or older and who had stable coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus to receive either ticagrelor plus aspirin or placebo plus aspirin. Patients with previous myocardial infarction or stroke were excluded. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. The primary safety outcome was major bleeding as defined by the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) criteria. RESULTS: A total of 19,220 patients underwent randomization. The median follow-up was 39.9 months. Permanent treatment discontinuation was more frequent with ticagrelor than placebo (34.5% vs. 25.4%). The incidence of ischemic cardiovascular events (the primary efficacy outcome) was lower in the ticagrelor group than in the placebo group (7.7% vs. 8.5%; hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81 to 0.99; P = 0.04), whereas the incidence of TIMI major bleeding was higher (2.2% vs. 1.0%; hazard ratio, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.82 to 2.94; P<0.001), as was the incidence of intracranial hemorrhage (0.7% vs. 0.5%; hazard ratio, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.18 to 2.48; P = 0.005). There was no significant difference in the incidence of fatal bleeding (0.2% vs. 0.1%; hazard ratio, 1.90; 95% CI, 0.87 to 4.15; P = 0.11). The incidence of an exploratory composite outcome of irreversible harm (death from any cause, myocardial infarction, stroke, fatal bleeding, or intracranial hemorrhage) was similar in the ticagrelor group and the placebo group (10.1% vs. 10.8%; hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.02). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with stable coronary artery disease and diabetes without a history of myocardial infarction or stroke, those who received ticagrelor plus aspirin had a lower incidence of ischemic cardiovascular events but a higher incidence of major bleeding than those who received placebo plus aspirin. (Funded by AstraZeneca; THEMIS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01991795.).


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Ticagrelor/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Actas dermo-sifiliogr. (Ed. impr.) ; 110(6): 482-489, jul.-ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185276

RESUMO

Antecedentes y objetivo: La biopsia selectiva de ganglio centinela (BSGC) no tiene utilidad terapéutica y solo se utiliza por su valor pronóstico. Su beneficio ha sido menor del esperado, por lo que los riesgos cobran más valor y no están claramente definidos. Nos hemos propuesto describir las complicaciones y secuelas sufridas por pacientes con melanoma expuestos a la técnica de BSGC en la práctica clínica habitual. Pacientes y métodos: En este estudio de cohortes retrospectivo unicéntrico hemos recogido los datos de todos los pacientes diagnosticados de melanoma y sometidos a la BSGC en nuestro centro (Vigo) entre enero de 2011 y julio de 2017, revisando sus historias clínicas. Resultados: Se realizaron 124 BSGC. El tiempo de seguimiento medio fue de 52,7 meses (rango 10,8-88,7 meses). El 37,9% de los pacientes presentaron complicaciones. Excluyendo a aquellos en los que se realizó linfadenectomía, el porcentaje de complicaciones fue del 30,9%. De las complicaciones totales, 14 (11,3%) fueron alteraciones en la cicatrización, 13 (10,5%) infecciones de la herida quirúrgica, 12 (9,7%) linfedemas, 11 (8,9%) seromas, 4 (3,2%) hematomas, 4 (3,2%) heridas dehiscentes, 2 (1,6%) linforragias, 2 (1,6%) alteraciones sensitivas y una (0,8%) infección del tracto urinario. El 15,3% de los pacientes presentaron secuelas, siendo el linfedema la más frecuente. Entre los pacientes sin linfadenectomía completa presentaron secuelas el 7,5%. El tabaquismo se asoció con un aumento en el porcentaje de complicaciones de un 33 a un 73%. La principal limitación de este estudio es que pueda haber un sesgo de información que infravalore los resultados por un seguimiento incompleto de los pacientes. Conclusiones: La BSGC es una técnica de estadificación del melanoma no exenta de complicaciones y secuelas. La recomendación de su uso rutinario en las guías de práctica clínica debería revisarse, sopesando los riesgos y los beneficios en cada caso. En especial tienen un alto riesgo de presentar complicaciones los pacientes fumadores. El desarrollo de otras herramientas de estadificación menos invasivas puede ser de gran utilidad para los pacientes con melanoma


Background and objective: Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is a staging, not a therapeutic, procedure. The benefits of SLN biopsy have been more modest than expected and could be outweighed by the risks, which remain unclear. The aim of this study was to describe complications and sequelae observed in patients with melanoma who underwent routine SLN biopsy at our hospital. Patients and methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we performed a chart review of all patients with melanoma who underwent SLN biopsy at our hospital in Vigo, Spain, between January 2011 and July 2017. Results: In the period analyzed, 124 SLN biopsies were performed. Over a mean follow-up of 52.7 months (range 10.8-88.7 months). A percentage of 37.9 of the patients experienced complications. The complication rate after excluding patients who underwent lymph node dissection was 30.9%. In the full chort group, there were 14 scar-related complications (11.3%), 13 surgical wound infections (10.5%), 12 lymphedemas (9.7%), 11 seromas (8.9%), 4 hematomas (3.2%), 4 wound dehiscences (3.2%), 2 cases of lymphorrhagia (1.6%), 2 cases of sensitivity alteration (1.6%), and one urinary tract infection (0.8%). The most common sequela was lymphedema. Sequelae were on record for 15.3% of patients in the full cohort (7.5% of the patients who did not undergo lymphadenectomy). Smoking was associated with a 33 to 73% increased risk of complications. The main limitation of this study is the risk of information bias due to incomplete follow-up. Conclusions: SLN biopsy is a melanoma staging procedure that causes complications and sequelae. Recommendations for its use in clinical practice guidelines should be revised and the risks and benefits carefully evaluated in each case. Smokers in particular seem to have a high risk of complications. Patients with melanoma could benefit greatly from the development of less invasive staging tools


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Melanoma/secundário , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela/efeitos adversos , Cicatriz/epidemiologia , Linfedema/etiologia , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Cicatriz/etiologia , Seguimentos , Hemorragia/etiologia , Excisão de Linfonodo , Linfedema/epidemiologia , Melanoma/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela/métodos , Deiscência da Ferida Operatória
10.
Transfus Apher Sci ; 58(4): 495-497, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303509

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The ISTH bleeding assessment tool (ISTH-BAT) is developed for standardization of bleeding symptoms in bleeding disorders. The aim of this study is to apply this bleeding score for FXIII deficient patients and its relation to the frequency and severity of symptoms. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 63 patients with severe FXIII deficiency were evaluated for the assessment of bleeding score according to the standard ISTH-BAT questionnaire. All patients were registered at two major thrombosis and hemostasis centers in Iran affiliated to Zahedan University of medical sciences (50 patients) and Shiraz University of medical sciences (13 patients). RESULTS: Significant correlations between the bleeding score and number of symptoms (r = 0.668, P < 0.001) and with a number of severe symptoms (r = 0.938, P < 0.001) were detected. There was no significant relationship between the mean bleeding score and CNS bleeding (P = 0.390). CONCLUSION: The ISTH-BAT score is an acceptable bleeding assessment tool for standardization and evaluation of patients with FXIII deficiency.


Assuntos
Deficiência do Fator XIII/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino
11.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 8919230, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317041

RESUMO

Several previous studies demonstrated the risk of stroke in asthma patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke in asthma patients, independent of age, sex, income, region of residence, and past medical histories. The Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service-National Sample Cohort from 2002 through 2013 was used. Overall, 111,364 asthma patients ≥ 20 years old were matched to 111,364 control participants for age, sex, income, region of residence, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Asthma was classified using ICD-10 codes (J45 and J46) and medication history. The admission histories were investigated for hemorrhagic stroke (I60-I62) and ischemic stroke (I63) using ICD-10 codes. The crude and adjusted (age, sex, income, region of residence, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, ischemic heart disease, and depression) hazard ratios (HRs) for hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke in asthma patients were analyzed using a Cox proportional hazards model. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to age and sex. Hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke were found in 0.7% (795/117,364) and 2.4% (922/117,364) of the asthma group and in 0.8% (922/117,364) and 2.6% (93,079/117,364) of the control group, respectively. The asthma group demonstrated adjusted HRs of 0.86 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.78-0.94, p = 0.002) for hemorrhagic stroke and 0.91 (95% CI = 0.86-0.95, p = 0.002) for ischemic stroke. None of the subgroups of asthma patients showed higher HRs for stroke. Asthma did not elevate the risk of either hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Isquemia/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/complicações , Asma/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Isquemia/etiologia , Isquemia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , República da Coreia , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Am J Surg ; 218(3): 579-583, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multi-detector computed tomography imaging is now the reference standard for identifying solid organ injuries, with a high sensitivity and specificity. However, delayed splenic hemorrhage (DSH), defined as no identified injury to the spleen on the index scan but delayed bleeding from a splenic injury, has been reported. We hypothesized that the occurrence of DSH would be minimized by utilization of modern imaging techniques. METHODS: Data was retrospectively collected from 2006 to 2016 in 12 adult Level I and II trauma centers. All patients had an initial CT scan demonstrating no splenic injury but subsequently were diagnosed with splenic bleeding. Demographic, injury characteristics, imaging parameters and results, interventions and outcomes were collected. RESULTS: Of 6867 patients with splenic injuries, 32 cases (0.4%) of blunt splenic hemorrage were identified. Patients were primarily male, had blunt trauma, severely injured (ISS 32 (9-57) and with associated injuries. Injuries of all grades were identified up to 16 days following admission. Overall, half of patients required splenectomy. All index images were obtained using multi-detector CT (16-320 slice). Secondary review of imaging by two trauma radiologists judged 72% (n = 23) of scans as suboptimal. This was due to poor scan quality primary from artifact(23), single phase contrast imaging (16), and/or poor contrast bolus timing or volume (6). Notably, only 28% of scans in patients with DSH were performed with optimal scanning techniques. CONCLUSION: This is the largest reported series of DSH in the era of modern imaging. Although the incidence of DSH is low, it still occurs despite the use of multi-detector imaging and when present, is associated with a high rate of splenectomy. Most cases of DSH can be attributed to missed diagnosis from suboptimal index imaging and ultimately be avoided.


Assuntos
Hemorragia/etiologia , Baço/diagnóstico por imagem , Baço/lesões , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Invasive Cardiol ; 31(7): E162-E169, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257209

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Patients with cirrhosis have increased bleeding risk due to coagulopathy and platelet sequestration, as well as inherent cardiovascular risk. We aim to assess the impact of cirrhosis on the revascularization rates and in-hospital outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: We queried the National Inpatient Sample Database from 2010 to 2014 and identified hospitalizations with a primary diagnosis of AMI (n = 612,547); of these, a total of 3135 patients had a concomitant diagnosis of cirrhosis. We compared clinical outcomes between patients with cirrhosis and a propensity-score matched cohort without cirrhosis (n = 3086). RESULTS: Patients with cirrhosis had a lower rate of ST-elevation MI (18.9% vs 26.7% in the cohort with no cirrhosis; P<.001), a lower rate of coronary angiography (51.4% vs 63.9% in the cohort with no cirrhosis; P<.001), and lower rates of revascularization by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (28.7% vs 39.2% in the cohort with no cirrhosis; P<.001) or coronary artery bypass grafting (6.0% vs 12.9% in the cohort with no cirrhosis; P<.001). Gastrointestinal and postprocedural hemorrhage was more common in patients with cirrhosis (12.3% vs 7.1% in the cohort with no cirrhosis; P<.001), regardless of revascularization status, and cirrhosis patients also had a higher in-hospital mortality rate (8.7% vs 6.9% in the cohort with no cirrhosis; P<.01). PCI was independently associated with lower mortality in patients with cirrhosis (odds ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.98; P=.04). CONCLUSION: Patients with cirrhosis presenting with AMI were highly selected to undergo coronary angiography and subsequent revascularization, and had higher mortality than those without cirrhosis. However, PCI was independently associated with lower mortality in patients with cirrhosis, although to less effect than non-cirrhotics, perhaps due to higher bleeding rates.


Assuntos
Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/cirurgia , Revascularização Miocárdica/métodos , Pontuação de Propensão , Idoso , Angiografia Coronária , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
BMJ ; 366: l4416, 2019 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358508

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between experience in the management of acute pulmonary embolism, reflected by hospital case volume, and mortality. DESIGN: Multinational population based cohort study using data from the Registro Informatizado de la Enfermedad TromboEmbólica (RIETE) registry between 1 January 2001 and 31 August 2018. SETTING: 353 hospitals in 16 countries. PARTICIPANTS: 39 257 consecutive patients with confirmed diagnosis of acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Pulmonary embolism related mortality within 30 days after diagnosis of the condition. RESULTS: Patients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism admitted to high volume hospitals (>40 pulmonary embolisms per year) had a higher burden of comorbidities. A significant inverse association was seen between annual hospital volume and pulmonary embolism related mortality. Admission to hospitals in the highest quarter (that is, >40 pulmonary embolisms per year) was associated with a 44% reduction in the adjusted odds of pulmonary embolism related mortality at 30 days compared with admission to hospitals in the lowest quarter (<15 pulmonary embolisms per year; adjusted risk 1.3% v 2.3%; adjusted odds ratio 0.56 (95% confidence interval 0.33 to 0.95); P=0.03). Results were consistent in all sensitivity analyses. All cause mortality at 30 days was not significantly reduced between the two quarters (adjusted odds ratio 0.78 (0.50 to 1.22); P=0.28). Survivors showed little change in the odds of recurrent venous thromboembolism (odds ratio 0.76 (0.49 to 1.19)) or major bleeding (1.07 (0.77 to 1.47)) between the low and high volume hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism, admission to high volume hospitals was associated with significant reductions in adjusted pulmonary embolism related mortality at 30 days. These findings could have implications for management strategies.


Assuntos
Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hospitais com Alto Volume de Atendimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais com Baixo Volume de Atendimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Recidiva , Sistema de Registros , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 17(6): 435-447, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213156

RESUMO

Introduction: The radial artery is currently the most widely used access site for PCI procedures both acute and stable patient settings. Thanks to advantages in pharmacological therapy as well as in interventional devices, the rate of ischemic complications following PCI has significantly decreased. Nevertheless, this has been counterbalanced by an increased risk of periprocedural and late bleeding event, that can occur both at access and non-access sites. Choice of access site for PCI is of paramount importance to reduce the risk of access-related bleeding events. Areas covered: The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the actual available evidence comparing the transradial versus transfemoral approach to reduce hemorrhagic events. The most robust evidence comes from large randomized trials, partly also from observational registries, which compared the transradial and transfemoral approach. Expert opinion: Results show that radial access has proved to be decisive in reducing the incidence of hemorrhagic events. Furthermore, it showed a significant reduction in mortality and AKI compared to transfemoral access. However, increased experience in the use of the radial approach has led to less practice in the use of the femoral approach, which may be useful in cases of emergency, complications or inability to use the radial artery.


Assuntos
Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Artéria Femoral , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Artéria Radial , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
BMJ ; 365: l2222, 2019 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253632

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of standard term (12 months) or long term (>12 months) dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) versus short term (<6 months) DAPT after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stent (DES). DESIGN: Systematic review and network meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Relevant studies published between June 1983 and April 2018 from Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library for clinical trials, PubMed, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Clinicaltrialsregister.eu. REVIEW METHODS: Randomised controlled trials comparing two of the three durations of DAPT (short term, standard term, and long term) after PCI with DES were included. The primary study outcomes were cardiac or non-cardiac death, all cause mortality, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, and all bleeding events. RESULTS: 17 studies (n=46 864) were included. Compared with short term DAPT, network meta-analysis showed that long term DAPT resulted in higher rates of major bleeding (odds ratio 1.78, 95% confidence interval 1.27 to 2.49) and non-cardiac death (1.63, 1.03 to 2.59); standard term DAPT was associated with higher rates of any bleeding (1.39, 1.01 to 1.92). No noticeable difference was observed in other primary endpoints. The sensitivity analysis revealed that the risks of non-cardiac death and bleeding were further increased for ≥18 months of DAPT compared with short term or standard term DAPT. In the subgroup analysis, long term DAPT led to higher all cause mortality than short term DAPT in patients implanted with newer-generation DES (1.99, 1.04 to 3.81); short term DAPT presented similar efficacy and safety to standard term DAPT with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) presentation and newer-generation DES placement. The heterogeneity of pooled trials was low, providing more confidence in the interpretation of results. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with all clinical presentations, compared with short term DAPT (clopidogrel), long term DAPT led to higher rates of major bleeding and non-cardiac death, and standard term DAPT was associated with an increased risk of any bleeding. For patients with ACS, short term DAPT presented similar efficacy and safety with standard term DAPT. For patients implanted with newer-generation DES, long term DAPT resulted in more all cause mortality than short term DAPT. Although the optimal duration of DAPT should take personal ischaemic and bleeding risks into account, this study suggested short term DAPT could be considered for most patients after PCI with DES, combining evidence from both direct and indirect comparisons. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42018099519.


Assuntos
Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Stents Farmacológicos/normas , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/cirurgia , Clopidogrel/administração & dosagem , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Trombose/epidemiologia , Trombose/mortalidade
17.
Int J Hematol ; 110(2): 197-204, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165409

RESUMO

Patients with lupus anticoagulant (LA), a thrombotic risk factor, along with decreased prothrombin (FII) activity are classified as lupus anticoagulant-hypoprothrombinemia syndrome (LAHPS) and occasionally show bleeding symptoms, although this is not essential for diagnosis. We treated 20 cases of LAHPS over a 3-year period. Median FII activity was 20.9% and the anti-prothrombin antibody (anti-II Ab), shown by ELISA findings, was detected in 55%. Bleeding symptoms were observed in 20%, although that finding was not correlated with FII activity or anti-FII Ab quantity. We also observed 21 LA cases with decreased activity of coagulation factors other than FII, which we have designated LAHPS-like syndrome (LLS). Among LLS patients, anti-FII Ab and bleeding symptoms were seen in 47.6% and 14.3%, respectively. Our findings suggest that bleeding in LAHPS and LLS cannot be explained only by FII activity decreased by anti-FII Ab. Low FVIII activity and the anti-FVIII antibody (anti-FVIII Ab) were detected in some LAHPS and LLS patients, making it difficult to distinguish those from acquired hemophilia A cases. Detection of anti-FVIII Ab quantity by ELISA may be useful for accurate determination, as that was not performed in our LAHPS or LLS patients.


Assuntos
Hipoprotrombinemias/epidemiologia , Inibidor de Coagulação do Lúpus/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Trombofilia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Fator VIII/imunologia , Feminino , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Hipoprotrombinemias/etiologia , Hipoprotrombinemias/imunologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Inibidor de Coagulação do Lúpus/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Protrombina/análise , Protrombina/imunologia , Síndrome , Trombofilia/etiologia , Trombofilia/imunologia
18.
Am J Med Sci ; 358(2): 95-103, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Triple antithrombotic therapy (TT) is recommended for patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, there is a lack of comparative data in a real-world clinical setting between non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC) and vitamin K antagonists (VKA). The aim of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of TT with NOAC or VKA after PCI in patients with AF at 1-year of follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an observational retrospective study in 2 tertiary care hospitals during 2013-2016. Patients with indication for anticoagulation due to AF from an initial registry of 5,269 patients undergoing PCI were identified. Safety primary endpoint was the occurrence of major bleeding events as defined by Bleeding Academic Consortium (BARC ≥ 3). The primary efficacy endpoint was defined as major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). RESULTS: A total of 187 consecutive patients on TT were identified: 45.4% of were discharged on NOAC and 54.6% on VKA. Patients who received VKA presented more comorbidities and had a higher bleeding risk than those who received NOACs. Major bleeding events occurred in 17 patients (9%), with a higher rate in the VKA group (3.5% vs. 13% confidence interval, 0.19-0.86, P = 0.02). There were no differences in the rates of major adverse cardiovascular events, stroke or net clinical benefit. CONCLUSIONS: In this real-world study, patients with AF undergoing PCI treated on NOAC-based TT showed lower bleeding rates than those on VKA, with a lower rate of major bleeding events, while efficacy was similar between groups.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Urology ; 131: 190-195, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201826

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if reported incidence rates of hemorrhagic cystitis after radiation therapy for prostate cancer are accurate, to investigate the effect of different radiation modalities on the development of hemorrhagic cystitis and to assess its morbidity and treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review was completed of 709 patients at 2 Detroit Medical Center hospitals who underwent radiation therapy for prostate cancer between January 2000 and September 2015. In patients who developed hemorrhagic cystitis, we analyzed the incidence, radiation modality, morbidity, treatment, and complications. RESULTS: The incidence rate of hemorrhagic cystitis after radiation for prostate cancer was 11.1%. There was no significant difference between external beam and intensity-modulated radiation therapy and the development of hemorrhagic cystitis (P = .18). Patients developed hemorrhagic cystitis an average of 79.1 months (4-230 months) after radiation. The average number of admissions was 2.5 (1-9) with an average length of stay of 7.6 days (1-42 days). Fifty-two percent of patients required blood transfusion with an average of 4.3 units transfused per patient (1-33U). The most common treatment was cystoscopy with fulguration/clot evacuation in 86% of patients. Complications included urinary tract infection, acute kidney injury, urosepsis, and even death. CONCLUSION: The incidence of hemorrhagic cystitis following radiation therapy for prostate cancer is under-reported in the literature. Hemorrhagic cystitis is associated with high morbidity and complications for patients, requiring multiple hospitalizations, blood transfusions, and procedures. Advances in radiation have not significantly reduced the risk of developing hemorrhagic cystitis.


Assuntos
Cistite/epidemiologia , Cistite/etiologia , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/etiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Lesões por Radiação/complicações , Lesões por Radiação/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Breast ; 46: 163-169, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220790

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Balance between embolic and bleeding risk is challenging among patients with cancer. There is a lack of specific recommendations for the use of antithrombotic therapy in oncologic patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We compared the embolic and bleeding risk, the preventive management and the incidence of events between patients with and without cancer. We further evaluated the effectiveness and safety of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) and vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) within patients with cancer. METHODS AND RESULTS: The AMBER-AF registry is an observational multicentre study that analysed patients with non-valvular AF treated in Oncology and Cardiology Departments in Spain. 1,237 female patients with AF were enrolled: 637 with breast cancer and 599 without cancer. Mean follow-up was 3.1 years. Both groups were similar in age, embolic risk and bleeding risk. Lack of guidelines-recommended therapies was more frequent among patients with cancer. Compared with patients without cancer, adjusted rates of stroke (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]) in cancer patients were higher (1.56 [1.04-2.35]), whereas bleeding rates remained similar (1.25 [0.95-1.64]). Within the group of patients with cancer, the use of DOACs vs VKAs did not entail differences in the adjusted rates of stroke (0.91 [0.42-1.99]) or severe bleedings (1.53 [0.93-2.53]). CONCLUSIONS: Antithrombotic management of AF frequently differs in patients with breast cancer. While breast cancer is associated with a higher risk of incident stroke, bleeding events remained similar. Patients with cancer treated with DOACs experienced similar rates of stroke and bleeding as those with VKAs.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , 4-Hidroxicumarinas/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Feminino , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Indenos/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina K/administração & dosagem , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores
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