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1.
Dis Colon Rectum ; 65(1): 108-116, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fecal management systems have become ubiquitous in hospitalized patients with fecal incontinence or severe diarrhea, especially in the setting of perianal wounds. Although fecal management system use has been shown to be safe and effective in initial series, case reports of rectal ulceration and severe bleeding have been reported, with a relative paucity of clinical safety data in the literature. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of rectal complications attributable to fecal management systems, as well as to characterize possible risk factors and appropriate management strategies for such complications. DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study. SETTINGS: The study was conducted at a large academic medical center. PATIENTS: All medical and surgical patients who underwent fecal management system placement from December 2014 to March 2017 were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We measured any rectal complication associated with fecal management system use, defined as any rectal injury identified after fecal management system use confirmed by lower endoscopy. RESULTS: A total of 629 patients were captured, with a median duration of fecal management system use of 4 days. Overall, 8 patients (1.3%) experienced a rectal injury associated with fecal management system use. All of the patients who experienced a rectal complication had severe underlying comorbidities, including 2 patients on dialysis, 1 patient with cirrhosis, and 3 patients with a recent history of emergent cardiac surgery. In 3 patients the bleeding resolved spontaneously, whereas the remaining 5 patients required intervention: transanal suture ligation (n = 2), endoscopic clip placement (n = 1), rectal packing (n = 1), and proctectomy in 1 patient with a history of pelvic radiotherapy. LIMITATIONS: The study was limited by its retrospective design and single institution. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest study to date evaluating rectal complications from fecal management system use. Although rectal injury rates are low, they can lead to serious morbidity. Advanced age, severe comorbidities, pelvic radiotherapy, and anticoagulation status or coagulopathy are important factors to consider before fecal management system placement. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B698. INCIDENCIA Y CARACTERIZACIN DE LAS COMPLICACIONES RECTALES DE LOS SISTEMAS DE MANEJO FECAL: ANTECEDENTES:Los sistemas de manejo fecal se han vuelto omnipresentes en pacientes hospitalizados con incontinencia fecal o diarrea severa, especialmente en el contexto de heridas perianales. Aunque se ha demostrado que el uso del sistema de tratamiento fecal es seguro y eficaz en la serie inicial, se han notificado casos de ulceración rectal y hemorragia grave, con una relativa escasez de datos de seguridad clínica en la literatura.OBJETIVO:Determinar la tasa de complicaciones rectales atribuibles a los sistemas de manejo fecal. Caracterizar los posibles factores de riesgo y las estrategias de manejo adecuadas para tales complicaciones.DISEÑO:Estudio de cohorte retrospectivo.ENTORNO CLINICO:Centro médico académico de mayor volumen.PACIENTES:Todos los pacientes médicos y quirúrgicos que se sometieron a la colocación del sistema de manejo fecal desde diciembre de 2014 hasta marzo de 2017.PRINCIPALES MEDIDAS DE VALORACION:Cualquier complicación rectal asociada con el uso del sistema de manejo fecal, definida como cualquier lesión rectal identificada después del uso del sistema de manejo fecal confirmada por endoscopia baja.RESULTADOS:Se identificaron un total de 629 pacientes, con una duración media del uso del sistema de manejo fecal de 4,0 días. En general, 8 (1,3%) pacientes desarrollaron una lesión rectal asociada con el uso del sistema de manejo fecal. Todos los pacientes que mostraron una complicación rectal tenían comorbilidades subyacentes graves, incluidos dos pacientes en diálisis, un paciente con cirrosis y tres pacientes con antecedentes recientes de cirugía cardíaca emergente. En tres pacientes el sangrado se resolvió espontáneamente, mientras que los cinco pacientes restantes requirieron intervención: ligadura de sutura transanal (2), colocación de clip endoscópico (1), taponamiento rectal (1) y proctectomía en un paciente con antecedentes de radioterapia pélvica.LIMITACIONES:Diseño retrospectivo, institución única.CONCLUSIONES:Este es el estudio más grande hasta la fecha que evalúa las complicaciones rectales del uso del sistema de manejo fecal. Si bien las tasas de lesión rectal son bajas, pueden provocar una morbilidad grave. La edad avanzada, las comorbilidades graves, la radioterapia pélvica y el estado de anticoagulación o coagulopatía son factores importantes a considerar antes de la colocación del sistema de manejo fecal. Consulte Video Resumen en http://links.lww.com/DCR/B698.


Assuntos
Incontinência Fecal/terapia , Fissura Anal/diagnóstico , Hemorragia/diagnóstico , Doenças Retais/patologia , Reto/lesões , Idoso , Comorbidade/tendências , Gerenciamento Clínico , Endoscopia do Sistema Digestório/métodos , Incontinência Fecal/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fissura Anal/epidemiologia , Fissura Anal/cirurgia , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/cirurgia , Humanos , Incidência , Ligadura/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pelve/patologia , Pelve/efeitos da radiação , Protectomia/métodos , Doenças Retais/cirurgia , Reto/diagnóstico por imagem , Reto/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Segurança , Suturas , Cirurgia Endoscópica Transanal/métodos
2.
BMJ ; 375: e068037, 2021 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34933893

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the association between untreated, community acquired, respiratory tract infections and bleeding in oral anticoagulant users. DESIGN: Self-controlled case series. SETTING: General practices in England contributing data to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink GOLD. PARTICIPANTS: 1208 adult users of warfarin or direct oral anticoagulants with a general practice or hospital admission record of a bleeding event between January 2010 and December 2019, and a general practice record of a consultation for a community acquired respiratory tract infection for which immediate antibiotics were not prescribed (that is, untreated). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relative incidence of major bleeding and clinically relevant non-major bleeding in the 0-14 days after an untreated respiratory tract infection, compared to unexposed time periods. RESULTS: Of 1208 study participants, 58% (n=701) were male, median age at time of first bleed was 79 years (interquartile range 72-85), with a median observation period of 2.4 years (interquartile range 1.3-3.8). 292 major bleeds occurred during unexposed time periods and 41 in the 0-14 days after consultation for a respiratory tract infection. 1003 clinically relevant non-major bleeds occurred during unexposed time periods and 81 in the 0-14 days after consultation for a respiratory tract infection. After adjustment for age, season, and calendar year, the relative incidence of major bleeding (incidence rate ratio 2.68, 95% confidence interval 1.83 to 3.93) and clinically relevant non-major bleeding (2.32, 1.82 to 2.94) increased in the 0-14 days after an untreated respiratory tract infection. Findings were robust to several sensitivity analyses and did not differ by sex or type of oral anticoagulant. CONCLUSIONS: This study observed a greater than twofold increase in the risk of bleeding during the 0-14 days after an untreated respiratory tract infection. These findings have potential implications for how patients and clinicians manage oral anticoagulant use during an acute intercurrent illness and warrant further investigation into the potential risks and how they might be mitigated.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Varfarina/efeitos adversos , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Varfarina/administração & dosagem
3.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261348, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941921

RESUMO

The postmortem diagnosis of drowning death and understanding the mechanisms leading to drowning require a comprehensive judgment based on numerous morphological findings in order to determine the pathogenesis and epidemiological characteristics of the findings. Effortful breathing during the drowning process can result in intramuscular hemorrhage in respiratory and accessory respiratory muscles. However, the characteristics of this phenomenon have not been investigated. We analyzed the epidemiological characteristics of 145 cases diagnosed as drowning, in which hemorrhage, not due to trauma, was found in the respiratory muscles and accessory respiratory muscles. Hemorrhage was observed in 31.7% of these cases, and the incidence did not differ by gender or drowning location. The frequency of hemorrhage was significantly higher in months with a mean temperature below 20°C than in months above 20°C, suggesting a relationship between the occurrence of hemorrhage and low environmental temperature. Moreover, the frequency of hemorrhage was significantly higher in the elderly (aged ≥65 years) compared to those <65 years old. In the elderly, the weakening of muscles due to aging may contribute to the susceptibility for intramuscular hemorrhage. Moreover, these intramuscular hemorrhages do not need to be considered in cases of a potential bleeding tendency due to disease such as cirrhosis or medication such as anticoagulants. Our results indicate that intramuscular hemorrhage in respiratory and accessory respiratory muscles can serve as an additional criterion to differentiate between fatal drowning and other causes of death, as long as no cutaneous or subcutaneous hematomas above the muscles with hemorrhages are observed. In addition, the epidemiological features that such intramuscular hemorrhage is more common in cold environments and in the elderly may provide useful information for the differentiation.


Assuntos
Afogamento/fisiopatologia , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Músculos Respiratórios/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Afogamento/epidemiologia , Feminino , Patologia Legal/métodos , Hematoma/patologia , Hemorragia/patologia , Humanos , Músculos Intercostais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Doenças Musculares/patologia , Músculos do Pescoço/patologia , Músculos Respiratórios/irrigação sanguínea , Sistema Respiratório/patologia
4.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(12)2021 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34946276

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI) is frequently required following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) or oral anticoagulation therapy (OAK) is often necessary in these patients since they are at higher risk of thromboembolic events due to TAVR implantation, high incidence of coronary artery diseases (CAD) with the necessity of coronary intervention, and high rate of atrial fibrillation with the need of stroke prevention. We sought to evaluate the safety, efficiency, and clinical outcomes of early PPI following TAVR using the PlasmaBlade™ (Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA) pulsed electron avalanche knife (PEAK) for bleeding control in patients under DAPT or OAK. Materials and Methods: This retrospective single-center study included patients who underwent PPI after transfemoral TAVR (TF) at our center between December 2015 and May 2020. All PPI were performed using the PlasmaBlade™ Device. Results: The overall PPI rate was 14.1% (83 of 587 patients; 82.5 ± 4.6 years; 45.8% male). The PPI procedures were used to treat high-grade atrioventricular block (81.9%), severe sinus node dysfunction (13.3%), and alternating bundle branch block (4.8%). At the time of the procedure, 35 (42.2%) patients received DAPT, and 48 (57.8%) patients received OAK (50% with vitamin K antagonist (VKA) and 50% with novel oral anticoagulants (NOAK)). One device-pocket hematoma treated conservatively occurred in a patient (1.2%) receiving NOAK. Two re-operations were necessary in patients due to immediate lead dislocation (2.4%). Conclusions: The results of this study illustrate that the use of PlasmaBlade™ for PPI in patients after a TAVR who require antithrombotic treatment is feasible and might result into lower rates of severe bleeding complications compared to rates reported in the literature. Use of the PlasmaBlade device may be considered in this specific group of patients because of their high risk of bleeding.


Assuntos
Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Marca-Passo Artificial , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Feminino , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Hematology ; 26(1): 860-869, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a rare disease, characterized by increased platelet destruction/suboptimal platelet production, leading to thrombocytopenia and risk of severe bleeding events. METHODS: Interviews with 23 physicians and 12 payors, a survey with 113 physicians and validation using published data were used to define the current treatment paradigm and healthcare resource utilization and to determine the costs associated with managing acute bleeds in six European countries (Germany, Spain, France, Italy, Netherlands, UK). The study estimated a prevalence of 9 to 10 per 100,000 adults in 2020 across all six countries (disease severity split: 34% mild, 32% moderate, 33% severe (due to rounding up some values might not sum up to 100%). RESULTS: Physician feedback showed that most patients with ITP (60%) received first-line treatment or were monitored by their physician; ∼75% of patients relapsed within 3-4 months. Thrombopoietin-receptor agonists (TPO-RAs) and rituximab were used to achieve disease stabilization in patients who relapse; patients could switch to an alternative TPO-RA to control symptoms, manage side-effects or improve adherence. The costs of rescue therapies and hospital services (e.g. surgery and admissions) accounted for the majority of healthcare resources to manage bleeding events. CONCLUSION: Physicians would welcome earlier use of TPO-RAs to help maintain long-term control of ITP bleeds and potentially reduce both hospitalization and therapy costs.


Assuntos
Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/terapia , Adulto , Gerenciamento Clínico , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/economia , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/terapia , Humanos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/economia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/epidemiologia
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 212, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630824

RESUMO

Introduction: left ventricular thrombus (LVT) may lead to thromboembolism and has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Little is known about the incidence, etiology and outcomes in patients with LVT in Africa. The objective was to determine the etiology, treatment practices, rate of resolution and clinical outcomes in patients with LVT in the region. Methods: a review of all echocardiograms performed in 2017 and 2018 at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi was carried out and patients with LVT identified. Physician review of charts was performed to document clinical characteristics and outcomes. Results: during the study period 100 patients with LVT were identified (1.3% of adult echoes). The mean LVEF was 28.5% (±11.0%) and 88 (88%) patients had an LVEF of less than 40%. Underlying etiology of LV dysfunction was post myocardial infarction (MI) in 28 (28%), chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy in 42(42%) and non-ischemic cardiomyopathy in 30 (30%) patients. In 15 (15%) patients a stroke or TIA predated the diagnosis of LVT. Long term anticoagulation was given to 92 (92%) patients. Among these, 34 (37%) received warfarin while 58 (63%) were treated with a DOAC. In the 64 patients who had reassessment imaging (median duration 177 days), complete thrombus resolution was noted in 38 (59.4%). One-year clinical outcome data was available for 85 patients: 13 (15.3%) patients had died, 4 (4.7%) had suffered a stroke, and 8(9.4%) had had a bleeding episode. Rates of thrombus resolution (warfarin 64%, DOAC 55.6%, p=0.51), stroke (warfarin 2.9%, DOAC 1.7%, p=1.0) and bleeding (warfarin 5.9%, DOAC 5.2%, p = 1.00 were not significantly different among patients treated with warfarin and DOAC. Conclusion: we noted a high incidence of LVT compared to contemporary Western series. The majority of our patients were treated with DOACs. There were no significant differences in outcomes between patients treated with a DOAC and those receiving warfarin. Prospective evaluation on the efficacy and safety of DOACs for this indication is needed.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/tratamento farmacológico , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Quênia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Trombose/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose/etiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
9.
Am J Cardiol ; 159: 79-86, 2021 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656316

RESUMO

Dronedarone may increase exposure and the risk of major bleeding when prescribed with a direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC). This retrospective cohort study examined the risk of the first occurrence of major bleeding (hospitalization or emergency room visit for gastrointestinal [GI] bleeding, intracranial hemorrhage [ICH], or bleeding at other sites) among new users of apixaban, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban in patients with AF ≥18 years (January 1, 2007 to September 30, 2017) from the United States Truven Health MarketScan claims, comparing concomitant users of dronedarone to DOAC alone users in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). No increased risk of major bleeding was associated with use of dronedarone and apixaban (adjusted Hazard Ratio [aHR]: 0.69 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.40, 1.17], p = 0.16), a modestly increased risk of GI bleeding but not overall bleeding was associated with use of dronedarone and dabigatran (aHR bleeding: 1.18 [95% CI: 0.89, 1.56], p = 0.26; aHR GI bleeding: 1.40 [95% CI: 1.01, 1.93]; p = 0.04) and an increased risk of overall bleeding, driven by GI bleeding, was associated with use of dronedarone and rivaroxaban (aHR bleeding: 1.31 [95% CI: 1.01, 1.69]; p = 0.04; aHR GI bleeding: 1.39 [95% CI: 0.98, 1.95]; p = 0.06), compared to each DOAC respectively. There was no increased risk of ICH associated with combined use of dronedarone and any DOAC. Prospective analyses, preferably randomized controlled studies, are needed to further explore the risk of major bleeding with concomitant use of DOACs and CYP3A4/P-gp inhibitors such as dronedarone.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Dronedarona/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Dronedarona/uso terapêutico , Interações Medicamentosas , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(37): e27053, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664830

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: For patients with ischemic stroke, intravenous (IV) thrombolysis with Urokinase within 6 hours has been accepted as beneficial, but its application is limited by high risk of hemorrhagic complications after thrombolysis. This study aimed to analyze the risk factors of hemorrhagic complications after intravenous thrombolysis using Urokinase in acute cerebral infarction (ACI) patients.Total 391 consecutive ACI patients were enrolled and divided into 2 groups: the hemorrhagic complications group and the non-hemorrhagic complications group. The related data were collected and analyzed.Univariate analysis showed significant differences in prothrombin time, atrial fibrillation (AF), Mean platelet volume, large platelet ratio (L-PLR), triglyceride (TG), Lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), high-density lipoprotein, and baseline National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score between the hemorrhagic complications and the non-hemorrhagic complications group (P < .1). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that AF (odds ratio [OR] = 2.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06-7.99 P = .039) was the risk factor of hemorrhagic complications, while ALT (OR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.10-0.72 P = .009) and TG (OR = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.06-0.45 P = .000) were protective factors of hemorrhagic complications.For patients with AF and lower levels of ALT or TG, the risk of hemorrhagic complications might increase after ACI.


Assuntos
Hemorragia/etiologia , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intravenosa/efeitos adversos , Administração Intravenosa/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Terapia Trombolítica/estatística & dados numéricos , Trombose/epidemiologia , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/efeitos adversos , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/uso terapêutico
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(43): e27513, 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34713827

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Prevalence of bleeding disorders vary due to several factors including geographical location. Mild bleeding disorders can lead to iron deficiency, morbidity, and in severe cases mortality. Quantification of haemorrhagic symptoms is a key component in management of bleeding disorders and a challenging task for clinicians.An abridged version of MCMDM-1vWD questionnaire with validated Arabic translation was used to quantify bleeding disorders in adult students (n = 1138) in 4 different regions of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Statistical analysis was performed to indicate gender disparity and prevalence.74.5% of respondents answered at least 1 question with affirmation, with 32.3% affected in Riyadh showing the highest prevalence and 14.03% affected in Dammam showing the least prevalence (P-value < .001). Gender-wise, higher prevalence of bleeding disorders in females 54.9% than in males 45.1% was observed (P-value .01). Epistaxis prevalence was significantly higher in males 30.7% vs 23.2% in females (P-value .0004), while cutaneous symptoms were reported significantly more by female participants 29.7% vs 12.3% in males (P-value < .001). Menorrhagia was reported by 28% of females, with heavy bleeding experienced by 57.6% female participants for <7 days while in 42.4% of females for >7 days.The current study signifies the ethnic distribution and gender disparity of mild bleeding disorders, and highlights the need for national surveillance system in order to improve management of patients with bleeding disorders.


Assuntos
Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Epistaxe/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Menorragia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 23(9): 595-600, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited data exist regarding the safety of ultrasound-guided femoral nerve blockade (US-FNB) in patients with hip fractures treated with anti-Xa direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC). OBJECTIVES: To compare the safety outcomes of US-FNB to conventional analgesia in patients with hip fractures treated with anti-Xa DOAC. METHODS: This observational exploratory prospective study included 69 patients who presented to our emergency department (ED) in 3 years with hip fracture and who were treated with apixaban or rivaroxaban. Patients received either a US-FNB (n=19) or conventional analgesics (n=50) based on their preference and, and the presence of a trained ED physician qualified in performing US-FNB. Patients were observed for major bleeding events during and 30 days after hospitalization. The degree of preoperative pain and opioid use were also observed. RESULTS: We found no significant difference in the number of major bleeding events between groups (47.4% vs. 54.0%, P = 0.84). Degree of pain measured 3 and 12 hours after presentation was found to be lower in the US-FNB group (median visual analog scale of pain improvement from baseline of -5 vs. -3 (P = 0.002) and -5 vs.-4 (P = 0.023), respectively. Opioid administration pre-surgery was found to be more than three times more common in the conventional analgesia group (26.3% vs.80%, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Regarding patients treated with Anti-Xa DOAC, US-FNB was not associated with an increase in major bleeding events compared to conventional analgesia, although it was an effective means of pain alleviation. Larger scale randomized controlled trials are required to determine long-term safety and efficacy.


Assuntos
Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Coortes , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Nervo Femoral/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Bloqueio Nervoso/efeitos adversos , Medição da Dor , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
13.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(9): 2186-2191, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580512

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the prevalence of risk factors for bleeding and high bleeding risk in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. METHODS: The single-centre retrospective observational study was conducted at Ittefaq Hospital Lahore and comprised data of patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention from February 2018 to December 2019. Minor and major bleeding risk factors were identified on the basis of the consensus definition of the Academic Research Consortium. Patients with high bleeding risk were identified according to the consensus-based criteria of at least one major criterion or two minor criteria. Data was analysed using SPSS 20. RESULTS: Of the 385 patients, 280(72.7%) were males. The overall mean age was 57.9±11.9 years. The indication of procedure was acute coronary syndrome in 367(95%) patients. Of all the patients, 171(45%) had bleeding risk, with 94(24%) patients having a high bleeding risk. Of these, 60(15.6%) patients had high risk based on the presence of at least one major criterion and 34(8.8%) patients because of the presence of two or more minor criteria. Patients with high bleeding risk were more likely to be older and female with more co-morbidities (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Almost half of the patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention were found to have at least one bleeding risk factor, and one in four patients had high bleeding risk.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/cirurgia , Idoso , Feminino , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
14.
Curr Hematol Malig Rep ; 16(5): 455-463, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586561

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a high rate of respiratory failure, thromboembolism, bleeding, and death. Patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are prone to both thrombosis and bleeding, calling for special care during COVID-19. We reviewed the clinical features of MPN patients with COVID-19, suggesting guidance for treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: One study by the European LeukemiaNet collected 175 MPN patients with COVID-19 during the first wave of the pandemic, from February to May 2020. Patients with primary myelofibrosis (PMF) were at higher risk of mortality (48%) in comparison with essential thrombocythemia (ET) (25%) and polycythemia vera (19%); the risk of death was higher in those patients who abruptly discontinued ruxolitinib. In patients followed at home, in regular wards, or in ICU, the thrombosis rate was 1.0%, 2.8%, and 18.4%, respectively. Independent risk factors for thrombosis were ET phenotype, transfer to ICU, and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio; major bleeding occurred in 4.3% of patients, particularly those with PMF. MPN patients with non-severe COVID-19 treated at home should continue their primary or secondary antithrombotic prophylaxis with aspirin or oral anticoagulants. In the case of hospitalization, patients assuming aspirin should add low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) at standard doses. In contrast, LMWH at intermediate/therapeutic doses should replace oral anticoagulants prescribed for atrial fibrillation or previous venous thromboembolism. Intermediate/high doses of LMWH can also be considered in ICU patients with ET, particularly in the case of a rapid decline in the number of platelets and progressive respiratory failure.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Leucemia Mieloide Crônica Atípica BCR-ABL Negativa , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Crônica Atípica BCR-ABL Negativa/complicações , Leucemia Mieloide Crônica Atípica BCR-ABL Negativa/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Crônica Atípica BCR-ABL Negativa/epidemiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Crônica Atípica BCR-ABL Negativa/terapia , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/complicações , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/terapia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Trombose/epidemiologia
15.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0255950, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506501

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 affects mainly the lungs, however, other manifestations, including neurological manifestations, have also been described during the disease. Some of the neurological findings have involved intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage, strokes, and other thrombotic/hemorrhagic conditions. Nevertheless, the gross pathology of hemorrhagic lesions in the central nervous system has not been previously described in Brazilian autopsy cases. This study aimed to describe gross and microscopic central nervous system (CNS) pathology findings from the autopsies and correlate them with the clinical and laboratory characteristics of forty-five patients with COVID-19 from Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Forty-four patients were autopsied of which thirty-eight of these (86.36%) were positive by RT-PCR for COVID-19, and six (13.3%) were positive by the serological rapid test. Clinical and radiological findings were compatible with the infection. The patients were classified in two groups: presence (those who had hemorrhagic and/or thrombotic manifestations in the CNS) and absence (those who did not present hemorrhagic and/or thrombotic manifestations in the CNS). For risk assessment, relative risk and respective confidence intervals were estimated. Macroscopic or microscopic hemorrhages were found in twenty-three cases (52,27%). The postmortem gross examination of the brain revealed a broad spectrum of hemorrhages, from spots to large and confluent areas and, under microscopy, we observed mainly perivascular discharge. The association analyses showed that the use of corticosteroid, anticoagulant and antibiotic had no statistical significance with a risk of nervous system hemorrhagic manifestations. However, it is possible to infer a statistical tendency that indicates that individuals with diabetes had a higher risk for the same outcome (RR = 1.320, 95% CI = 0.7375 to 2.416, p = 0.3743), which was not observed in relation to other comorbidities. It is unknown whether the new variants of the virus can cause different clinical manifestations, such as those observed or indeed others. As a result, more studies are necessary to define clinical and radiologic monitoring protocols and strategic interventions for patients at risk of adverse and fatal events, such as the extensive hemorrhaging described here. It is imperative that clinicians must be aware of comorbidities and the drugs used to treat patients with COVID-19 to prevent CNS hemorrhagic and thrombotic events.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Trombose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
16.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(11): e010476, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early bleeding after percutaneous coronary intervention is associated with increased risk of death and myocardial infarction; however, the association between bleeding and subsequent major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) remains unclear in patients with atrial fibrillation and stable coronary artery disease. We thus aimed to investigate this association. METHODS: The AFIRE trial (Atrial Fibrillation and Ischemic Events With Rivaroxaban in Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease) was a multicenter, open-label trial conducted in Japan. This post hoc analysis included 2215 patients with atrial fibrillation and stable coronary artery disease treated with rivaroxaban or rivaroxaban plus an antiplatelet agent. MACCE was defined as a composite of stroke, systemic embolism, myocardial infarction, unstable angina requiring revascularization, or death from any cause. The association of bleeding with subsequent MACCE risk was investigated using time-adjusted Cox multivariate analysis after adjusting for baseline characteristics and time from bleeding. Bleeding events were classified according to the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis criteria. RESULTS: Among the 2215 patients, 386 (17.4%) had bleeding during follow-up, of whom 63 (16.3%) also experienced MACCE; MACCE incidence was higher in patients with bleeding than in those without (8.38% versus 4.20% per patient-year; hazard ratio, 2.01 [95% CI, 1.49-2.70]; P<0.001). The proportion of patients with both bleeding and MACCE (developed after bleeding) was 73.0% (46 of 63); 27.0% (17 of 63) experienced MACCE before bleeding. Time-adjusted Cox multivariate analysis revealed a temporal association between major bleeding and subsequent MACCE, with particularly high MACCE risks within 30 days after major bleeding (hazard ratio, 7.81 [95% CI, 4.20-14.54]). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with atrial fibrillation and stable coronary artery disease, major bleeding was strongly associated with subsequent MACCE. Thus, it is important to prevent major bleeding to avoid cardiovascular events and death. Registration: URL: https://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr; Unique identifier: UMIN000016612. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02642419. Graphic Abstract: A graphic abstract is available for this article.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Acta Clin Croat ; 60(1): 82-88, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588726

RESUMO

Massive pulmonary hemorrhage (MPH) in neonates is a severe condition followed by many complications and associated with a high mortality rate. The aim of this study was to present the incidence, possible risk factors, and short-term outcome of neonatal MPH in Tuzla Canton. We retrospectively analyzed data on neonates with MPH from January 2015 to December 2017. On statistical analysis, standard methods of descriptive statistics were used. During the three-year study period, 16 neonates developed MPH, 5 (31.25%) male and 11 (68.75%) female. Their mean gestational age was 29.48±2.21 weeks and mean birth weight 1276.69±387.65 grams. Seven (43.75%) neonates survived and 9 (56.25%) died. Significant differences between the two outcome groups (survivors/died) were found in gestational age, birth weight, birth length, 5-minute Apgar score, and length of treatment at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. In Tuzla Canton, MPH occurred mainly in preterm neonates requiring mechanical ventilation, with the incidence of 1.91% of total premature births. The short-term outcome was uncertain, with a high mortality rate of 56.25%. Lower gestational age, lower birth weight, lower birth length and lower 5-minute Apgar score were confirmed as risk factors for poor short-term outcome.


Assuntos
Hemorragia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Índice de Apgar , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 38(9): 916-922, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The combination of low-dose aspirin (LDA) and low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) until the end of gestation are the currently the accepted standard of care for the treatment of antiphospholipid-related obstetric disorders. In refractory cases, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) can be added to this standard of care. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the haemostatic safety of LDA and LMWH (medium to high prophylactic doses) during pregnancy and the puerperium in women with both full-blown obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome (OAPS) (Sydney criteria) and noncriteria - incomplete - OAPS. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective/prospective multicentre observational study. Obstetric background, laboratory categories, delivery mode, antithrombotic regimens and bleeding complications were compared. SETTING: A total of 30 tertiary European hospitals. PATIENTS: Mainly, Caucasian/Arian pregnant women were included. Other ethnicities were minimally present. Women were controlled throughout pregnancy and puerperium. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary end-point was to evaluate the number of major and minor haemorrhagic complications in this cohort of women. Neuraxial anaesthetic bleeding complications were particularly assessed. Secondly, we aimed to compare local/general bleeding events between groups. RESULTS: We studied 1650 women, of whom 1000 fulfilled the Sydney criteria of the OAPS and 650 did not (noncriteria OAPS). Data on antithrombotic-related complications were available in 1075 cases (65.15%). Overall, 53 (4.93%) women had bleeding complications, with 34 being considered minor (3.16%) and 19 major (1.76%). Neither obstetric complications nor laboratory categories were bleeding-related. Assisted vaginal delivery and caesarean section were related to local haemorrhage. Heparin doses and platelet count were not associated with major bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: LDA and medium to high prophylactic LMWH during pregnancy in women with full-blown OAPS/noncriteria OAPS are safe. A slight increase in bleeding risk was noted in instrumental deliveries. No women who underwent spinal or epidural anaesthesia suffered bleeding complications. No haemorrhage was observed in cases where HCQ was added to standard therapy.


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos , Complicações na Gravidez , Cesárea , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/diagnóstico , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 79(4): 315-324, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405808

RESUMO

Since direct oral anticoagulants have been marketed, the management of major bleeding in emergency departments has become more challenging. In 2013 and 2016, the Working Group in Perioperative Haemostasis made several proposals for this. The objective of the present study was to evaluate conformity with these proposals in daily clinical practice. We performed a retrospective single-center cohort study addressing the management of major bleeding in patients treated by direct oral anticoagulant in an emergency department. Patients were included between January 1, 2015 and November 30, 2017. Among 3,365 patients admitted to the emergency department for bleeding, a total of 191 were treated by direct oral anticoagulant and 55 (28.8%) with major bleeding were included in the present study. The majority of patients received rivaroxaban (n = 44, 80.0%) and were treated for atrial fibrillation (n = 47, 85.0%). Bleeding concerned gastrointestinal (n = 30, 54.6%) and (n = 14, 25.5%) intracranial location. Twenty-one patients (38.2%) were treated by prothrombin complex concentrate, and 31 patients (56.4%) were transfused. Intervention for hemostatic control was performed for 30 patients (54.6%). Thirty-three patients (60.0%) presented a deviation from protocol. There is no significant difference for mortality at 3 months according to whether or not there was a deviation from protocol. Nearly two-thirds of patients with major bleeding associated with direct oral anticoagulant administration had protocol deviation, but there was no effect on mortality.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes , Hemorragia , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/terapia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos
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