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2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(42): e16987, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626079

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Oral bleeding is usually diagnosed after by referral to other department for the differential diagnosis of hematemesis or hemoptysis. If a patient presents with blood in the oral cavity with no obvious source, generally upper airway, pulmonary, or gastroesophageal lesions are considered likely bleeding foci. The tongue base is an unusual site for laryngopharyngeal varices and only a few cases have been reported. PATIENT CONCERNS: Although varix at the tongue base in patients with liver cirrhosis has been rarely described, physicians must consider variceal bleeding from the tongue base when presented with oral bleeding. In such cases, bleeding foci can be identified and controlled by laryngoscopy. We describe the case of a 42-year-old woman complaining of small amount of hemoptysis with variceal bleeding at the tongue base controlled by laryngoscopic excision and cauterization. DIAGNOSIS: A diagnosis of tongue base varix was made based on medical history, clinical manifestations, laryngoscopic findings and pathologic features for the patient. INTERVENTIONS: The successful laryngoscopic procedures were performed. OUTCOMES: The patient has shown no recurrent oral bleeding during follow-up. LESSONS: Variceal bleeding in the tongue base is likely to cause serious massive hemorrhage. We need to consider this possibility when presented with a patient with intraoral bleeding but no evidence of hemoptysis or hematemesis.


Assuntos
Hemorragia/etiologia , Língua/irrigação sanguínea , Varizes/complicações , Adulto , Cauterização , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Laringoscopia/métodos , Lasers de Gás/uso terapêutico , Língua/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Varizes/patologia
4.
Am Surg ; 85(8): 871-876, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560306

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of prehospital antiplatelet and/or anticoagulant (APAC) use on treatment and outcomes in patients with severe blunt chest injury. Patients with three or more rib fractures and a hospital length of stay (LOS) > three days admitted from 2014 to 2015 were included. Demographics, mortality, complications, injuries, hospital and ICU LOS, use of blood products, and thoracostomy were studied. Of 383 patients, 27.4 per cent were on APAC medication. Patients on APAC were older (P < 0.0001), had higher Glasgow Coma Score (P < 0.0001), and had lower Injury Severity Score (P < 0.0001) and total number of fractures (P = 0.0013) than the non-APAC group. APAC was not a predictor of mortality with or without age adjustment. In multiple linear regressions, APAC did not predict an increased LOS. APAC patients did not demonstrate an increase in admission diagnosis or complication of hemothorax, blood transfusions, tube thoracostomy, tracheostomy, LOS, or mortality rates. Similar findings are present in the subgroup of patients studied with high kinetic energy mechanism of injury. Our study does not support the perceived morbidity of APAC therapy in patients with severe blunt chest injury.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Hemorragia/etiologia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Fraturas das Costelas/complicações , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fraturas das Costelas/sangue , Fraturas das Costelas/terapia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/sangue , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/terapia
5.
Am Surg ; 85(8): 904-908, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560311

RESUMO

Delayed splenic bleeding (DSB) is a poorly understood complication of blunt splenic injury. Treatment for splenic bleeding may involve splenectomy, but angioembolization is becoming a widely used adjuvant for management. Using the North Carolina Trauma Registry, this study aimed to evaluate the incidence, mortality, and risk factors for DSB in North Carolina. Using ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes, patients were stratified into two cohorts, those who underwent immediate splenectomy and those who were initially managed nonoperatively. DSB was then defined as splenectomy at greater than 24 hours after presentation. Of the 1688 patients included in the study, 269 patients (16%) underwent immediate splenectomy and 1419 (84%) were managed nonoperatively initially, with 32 (2%) having delayed splenectomy. Older age (≥30 years) was associated with increased odds of having delayed splenectomy (odds ratio 4.30; 95% confidence interval 1.08, 17.17; P = 0.04). Four per cent of patients managed nonoperatively and undergoing an angioembolization procedure eventually required splenectomy. Risk factors for DSB remain elusive. Splenic artery embolization may be used as an adjuvant to splenectomy for stable patients, but it is not always a definitive treatment, and patients may still require splenectomy.


Assuntos
Embolização Terapêutica , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/terapia , Baço/lesões , Esplenectomia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/terapia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Artéria Esplênica/lesões , Centros de Traumatologia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/mortalidade
6.
J Spec Oper Med ; 19(3): 31-44, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539432

RESUMO

The 2012 study Death on the battlefield (2001-2011) by Eastridge et al.1 demonstrated that 7.5% of the prehospital deaths caused by potentially survivable injuries were due to external hemorrhage from the cervical region. The increasing use of Tactical Combat-Casualty Care (TCCC) and other medical interventions have dramatically reduced the overall rate of combat-related mortality in US forces; however, uncontrolled hemorrhage remains the number one cause of potentially survivable combat trauma. Additionally, the use of personal protective equipment and adaptations in the weapons used against US forces has caused changes in the wound distribution patterns seen in combat trauma. There has been a significant proportional increase in head and neck wounds, which may result in difficult to control hemorrhage. More than 50% of combat wounded personnel will receive a head or neck wound. The iTClamp (Innovative Trauma Care Inc., Edmonton, Alberta, Canada) is the first and only hemorrhage control device that uses the hydrostatic pressure of a hematoma to tamponade bleeding from an injured vessel within a wound. The iTClamp is US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for use on multiple sites and works in all compressible areas, including on large and irregular lacerations. The iTClamp's unique design makes it ideal for controlling external hemorrhage in the head and neck region. The iTClamp has been demonstrated effective in over 245 field applications. The device is small and lightweight, easy to apply, can be used by any level of first responder with minimal training, and facilitates excellent skills retention. The iTClamp reapproximates wound edges with four pairs of opposing needles. This mechanism of action has demonstrated safe application for both the patient and the provider, causes minimal pain, and does not result in tissue necrosis, even if the device is left in place for extended periods. The Committee on TCCC recommends the use of the iTClamp as a primary treatment modality, along with a CoTCCC-recommended hemostatic dressing and direct manual pressure (DMP), for hemorrhage control in craniomaxillofacial injuries and penetrating neck injuries with external hemorrhage.


Assuntos
Hemorragia/terapia , Traumatismos Maxilofaciais/complicações , Medicina Militar , Lesões do Pescoço/complicações , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Lesões Relacionadas à Guerra/complicações , Ferimentos Penetrantes/complicações , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemostáticos , Humanos
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1161: 125-131, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562627

RESUMO

Ischemic strokes are caused by one or more blood clots that typically obstruct one of the major arteries in the brain, but frequently also result in leakage of the blood-brain barrier and subsequent hemorrhage. While it has long been known that the enzyme 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) is up-regulated following ischemic strokes and contributes to neuronal cell death, recent research has shown an additional major role for 12/15-LOX in causing this hemorrhagic transformation. These findings have important implications for the use of 12/15-LOX inhibitors in the treatment of stroke.


Assuntos
Araquidonato 15-Lipoxigenase , Isquemia Encefálica , Hemorragia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Barreira Hematoencefálica/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia
8.
Lancet Haematol ; 6(10): e500-e509, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rivaroxaban has been shown to be efficacious for treatment of venous thromboembolism in adults, and has a reduced risk of bleeding compared with standard anticoagulants. We aimed to develop paediatric rivaroxaban regimens for the treatment of venous thromboembolism in children and adolescents. METHODS: In this phase 2 programme, we did three studies to evaluate rivaroxaban treatment in children younger than 6 months, aged 6 months to 5 years, and aged 6-17 years. Our studies used a multicentre, single-arm design at 54 sites in Australia, Europe, Israel, Japan, and north America. We included children with objectively confirmed venous thromboembolism previously treated with low-molecular weight heparin, fondaparinux, or a vitamin K antagonist for at least 2 months or, in children who had catheter-related venous thromboembolism for at least 6 weeks. We administered rivaroxaban orally in a bodyweight-adjusted 20 mg-equivalent dose, based on physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modelling predictions and EINSTEIN-Jr phase 1 data in young adults, in either a once-daily (tablets; for those aged 6-17 years), twice-daily (in suspension; for those aged 6 months to 11 years), or three times-daily (in suspension; for those younger than 6 months) dosing regimen for 30 days (or 7 days for those younger than 6 months). The primary aim was to define rivaroxaban treatment regimens that match the target adult exposure range. The principal safety outcome was major bleeding and clinically relevant non-major bleeding. Analyses were per-protocol. The predefined efficacy outcomes were symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism, asymptomatic deterioration on repeat imaging at the end of the study treatment period. These trials are registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT02564718, NCT02309411, and NCT02234843. FINDINGS: Between Feb 11, 2013, and Dec 20, 2017, we enrolled 93 children (ten children younger than 6 months; 15 children aged 6 months to 1 year; 25 children aged 2-5 years; 32 children aged 6-11 years; and 11 children aged 12-17 years) into our study. 89 (96%) children completed study treatment (30 days of treatment, or 7 days in those younger than 6 months), and 93 (100%) children received at least one dose of study treatment and were evaluable for the primary endpoints. None of the children had a major bleed, and four (4%, 95% CI 1·2-10·6) of these children had a clinically relevant non-major bleed (three children aged 12-17 years with menorrhagia and one child aged 6-11 years with gingival bleeding). We found no symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism in any patients (0%, 0·0-3·9). 24 (32%) of 75 patients with repeat imaging had their thrombotic burden resolved, 43 (57%) patients improved, and eight (11%) patients were unchanged. No patient deteriorated. We confirmed therapeutic rivaroxaban exposures with once-daily dosing in children with bodyweights of at least 30 kg and with twice-daily dosing in children with bodyweights of at least 20 kg and less than 30 kg. Children with low bodyweights (<20 kg, particularly <12 kg) showed low exposures so, for future studies, rivaroxaban dosages were revised for these weight categories, to match the target adult exposure range. 61 (66%) of 93 children had adverse events during the study. Pyrexia was the most common adverse event (ten [11%] events), and anaemia and neutropenia or febrile neutropenia were the most frequent grade 3 or worse events (four [4%] events each). No children died or were discontinued from rivaroxaban because of adverse events. INTERPRETATION: Treatment with bodyweight-adjusted rivaroxaban appears to be safe in children. The treatment regimens that we confirmed in children with bodyweights of at least 20 kg and the revised treatment regimens that we predicted in those with bodyweights less than 20 kg will be evaluated in the EINSTEIN-Jr phase 3 trial in children with acute venous thromboembolism. FUNDING: Bayer AG, Janssen Research and Development.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Anemia/etiologia , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/farmacocinética , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Esquema de Medicação , Cálculos da Dosagem de Medicamento , Fator Xa/análise , Feminino , Meia-Vida , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Neutropenia/etiologia , Tempo de Protrombina , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Rivaroxabana/farmacocinética , Resultado do Tratamento , Tromboembolia Venosa/patologia
9.
Lancet Haematol ; 6(10): e530-e539, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospital-associated venous thromboembolism is a major patient safety concern. Provision of prophylaxis to patients admitted for elective total knee replacement surgery has been proposed as an effective strategy to reduce the incidence of venous thromboembolism. We aimed to assess the relative efficacy and safety of all available prophylaxis strategies in this setting. METHODS: We did a systematic review and Bayesian network meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials to assess the relative efficacy and safety of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis strategies and to populate an economic model that assessed the cost-effectiveness of these strategies and informed the updated National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline recommendations for patients undergoing elective total knee replacement surgery. The Cochrane Library (CENTRAL), Embase, and Medline were last searched on June 19, 2017, with key terms relating to the population (venous thromboembolism and total knee replacement) and the interventions compared, including available pharmacological and mechanical interventions. Outcomes of interest were deep vein thrombosis (symptomatic and asymptomatic), pulmonary embolism, and major bleeding. Risk of bias was assessed, and relevant data extracted from the included randomised controlled trials for the network meta-analyses. Relative risks (RR; with 95% credible intervals [95% CrI]) compared to no prophylaxis, median ranks (with 95% CrI), and the probability of being the best intervention were calculated. The study was done in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. FINDINGS: 25 randomised controlled trials were included in the network meta-analyses. 23 trials (19 interventions; n=15 028) were included in the deep vein thrombosis network, 12 in the pulmonary embolism network (13 interventions; n=15 555), and 19 in the major bleeding network (11 interventions; n=19 797). Risk of bias ranged from very low to high. Rivaroxaban ranked first for prevention of deep vein thrombosis (RR 0·12 [95% CrI 0·06-0·22]). Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH; standard prophylactic dose, 28-35 days) ranked first in the pulmonary embolism network (RR 0·02 [95% CrI 0·00-3·86]) and LMWH (low prophylactic dose, 10-14 days) ranked first in the major bleeding network (odds ratio 0·08 [95% CrI 0·00-1·76]), but the results for pulmonary embolism and major bleeding are highly uncertain. INTERPRETATION: Single prophylaxis strategies are more effective in prevention of deep vein thrombosis in the elective total knee replacement population than combination strategies, with rivaroxaban being the most effective. The results of the pulmonary embolism and major bleeding meta-analyses are uncertain and no clear conclusion can be made other than what is biologically plausible (eg, that no prophylaxis and mechanical prophylaxis strategies should have the lowest risk of major bleeding). FUNDING: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia do Joelho , Hemorragia/etiologia , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/efeitos adversos , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Risco , Tromboembolia Venosa/patologia
10.
Life Sci ; 233: 116711, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374233

RESUMO

AIMS: Insulin is a central peptide hormone required for carbohydrate metabolism; however, its role in diabetes-associated pulmonary disease is unknown. Here, we investigated the preventative effect of insulin against hyperglycemia-induced pulmonary vascular leakage and its molecular mechanism of action in the lungs of diabetic mice. MAIN METHODS: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) activated transglutaminase 2 (TGase2) by sequentially elevating intracellular Ca2+ and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in primary human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMVECs). KEY FINDINGS: Insulin inhibited VEGF-induced TGase2 activation, but did not affect intracellular Ca2+ elevation and ROS generation. Insulin prevented VEGF-induced vascular leakage by inhibiting TGase2-mediated c-Src phosphorylation, disassembly of VE-cadherin and ß-catenin, and stress fiber formation. Insulin replacement therapy prevented hyperglycemia-induced TGase2 activation, but not ROS generation, in the lungs of diabetic mice. Insulin also prevented vascular leakage and cancer metastasis in the diabetic lung. Notably, vascular leakage was not detectable in the lungs of TGase2-null (Tgm2-/-) diabetic mice. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate that insulin prevents hyperglycemia-induced pulmonary vascular leakage in diabetic mice by inhibiting VEGF-induced TGase2 activation rather than ROS generation.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/antagonistas & inibidores , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Insulina/farmacologia , Pneumopatias/prevenção & controle , Transglutaminases/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/fisiologia , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/patologia , Humanos , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Pneumopatias/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Masculino , Melanoma Experimental/metabolismo , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Melanoma Experimental/prevenção & controle , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Transglutaminases/fisiologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
12.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (7): 52-57, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355815

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare incidence of thromboembolic and hemorrhagic complications in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing elective surgery on different schemes of perioperative anticoagulant therapy (ACT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: There were 86 patients (56 (65.1%) men and 30 (34.9%) women, mean age was 69 (64; 78) years) with non-valvular AF who underwent elective interventions. Forty (46.5%) patients underwent abdominal surgery, 34 (39.5%) - cardiovascular procedures, 12 (14.0%) patients underwent surgery for malignant diseases. We have analyzed incidence of thromboembolic and hemorrhagic events and compliance of perioperative ACT modes with current international guidelines. RESULTS: Thromboembolic and hemorrhagic events developed in 14 (16.3%) patients. Thromboembolic complications were noted in 6 (7.0%) patients, hemorrhagic events - in 8 (9.3%) cases. Maximum complication rate was observed in case of bridge-therapy (n=12, 20.0%). Cancellation of ACT was followed by 2 (9.5%) complications, bridge-therapy - by 4 (6.7%) thromboembolic complications. Hemorrhagic events were 2 times more common in case of this therapy (n=8, 13.3%). It was found that ESC guidelines for perioperative ACT were applied in less than half of patients (41, 47.7% patients with AF undergoing elective surgery). Half of complications (8 out of 16) occurred if unapproved modes of ACT were used (including 7 cases of bridge-therapy was not necessary). The causes of these complications were inadequate assessment of perioperative risk of thromboembolic and hemorrhagic events; unreasonable administration of bridge therapy. CONCLUSION: An unambiguous clinical effect of bridge therapy has not been confirmed in patients with high risk of thromboembolic complications. Cancer patients have higher risk of complications compared with others. These events occur mainly due to non-compliance with clinical guidelines and insufficient prevention of thromboembolic events.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tromboembolia/etiologia
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(27): e16184, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277124

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Microcoils are a permanent embolic material, and blood vessels that have been embolized by a microcoil remain occluded for a prolonged period of time. The pudendal artery is an important functional vessel for penile erection. Whether simultaneous embolization of the bilateral pudendal artery using microcoils can seriously affect penile erection has not been sufficiently studied. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 47-year-old male patient, after undergoing brain surgery, accidentally pulled out the Foley catheter causing a urethral hemorrhage. The patient was immediately treated using a new larger Foley catheter inserted under urethroscopic guidance and medication. However, massive bleeding occurred on the tenth day after the procedure. DIAGNOSIS: A right internal iliac angiography performed after the bleeding event demonstrated a rupture at the end of the right internal pudendal artery with the contrast agent flowing out directly from the urethra. A super selective internal pudendal angiogram showed a small amount of hemorrhage at the end of the left internal pudendal artery. INTERVENTIONS: The patient underwent interventional treatment. After the bilateral internal iliac angiography was performed, super-selective internal pudendal artery embolization with microcoils was performed. A subsequent bilateral internal pudendal angiogram did not show any abnormality. OUTCOMES: During the follow up period of 2 months, the patient had no complaints of difficulty in urination or sexual dysfunction. LESSONS: Some doctors do not advocate the use of coils as embolic agents in bilateral pudendal artery lesions because of concerns over erectile dysfunction. There is rich vascular circulation in the perineum. Thus, in arterial embolization for the treatment of penile bleeding, regardless of the type of embolic material used, the key is to ensure accurate embolization to maintain good collateral circulation. This principle can help limit the occurrence of sexual dysfunction to the lowest possible levels after such procedures.


Assuntos
Embolização Terapêutica/instrumentação , Hemorragia/etiologia , Doenças Uretrais/etiologia , Cateteres de Demora/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Artéria Ilíaca/lesões , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pênis/irrigação sanguínea , Pênis/lesões , Ruptura/etiologia
14.
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 57(7): 534-539, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269617

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the prognostic factors of hyperamylasemia following pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) . Methods: Clinical data of 359 patients were collected prospectively who underwent PD by the same group at Changhai Hospital of Navy Medical University from January 2017 to June 2018.There were 212 males and 147 females.The median age was 63 years old (range: 23 to 82 years old) .According to whether the patient's serum amylase was greater than 120 U/L at 0 or 1 day after surgery,the patients were divided into hyperamylasemia group and non-hyperamylasemia group. Univariate analysis and multivariate analysis were used to find out the prognostic factors of hyperamylasemia after PD. Results: Of the 359 patients, 238 cases (66.3%) developed hyperamylasemia.The incidence rate of clinically related pancreatic fistula (15.1% vs.2.5%, P<0.01) , grade B/C post pancreatectomy hemorrhage (8.8% vs. 2.5%, P<0.01) , and surgical site infection (9.2% vs. 3.3%, P=0.04) was significantly higher in the hyperamylasemia group.The severity of complications (CD grade≥Ⅲ: 11.3% vs.4.1%, P=0.023) and postoperative hospital stay (11 days vs. 9 days, P=0.001) were higher in the hyperamylasemia group.In the multivariate analysis, the main pancreatic duct diameter (MPD) ≤3 mm (OR=4.469, 95% CI: 2.563-7.793, P<0.01) , pathological type of disease (pancreatic cancer or pancreatitis) (OR=0.230, 95% CI: 0.122-0.436, P<0.01) and soft texture of pancreas (OR=3.297, 95%CI: 1.930-5.635, P<0.01) were independent prognostic factors for hyperamylasemia. Conclusions: Post-PD hyperamylasemia increased the incidence and severity of postoperative complications after PD.MPD≤3 mm, soft texture of pancreas and pathological type of disease were independent prognostic factors of hyperamylasemia.


Assuntos
Hiperamilassemia/etiologia , Pancreatopatias/cirurgia , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amilases/sangue , Feminino , Hemorragia/sangue , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Hiperamilassemia/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pancreatopatias/sangue , Pancreatopatias/etiologia , Fístula Pancreática/sangue , Fístula Pancreática/etiologia , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/métodos , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/sangue , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(26): e16201, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To compare the efficacy and safety of the modified sandwich method with lauromacrogol in the treatment of gastric variceal bleeding (GVB) caused by liver cirrhosis with the traditional sandwich method no accompanied by lauromacrogol via a meta-analysis. METHODS: The Cochrane Library, Pubmed, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database, the Chinese Wanfang database, and the Chongqing VIP database were searched to identify cohort studies comparing modified to traditional sandwich method in the treatment of GVB with liver cirrhosis. The relative risk for hemostasis rate, gastric varices (GV) remission rate, re-bleeding rate, the incidence of post-operative complications (pain, fever, ulcer or erosion, ectopic embolism), and all-cause mortality were calculated. The mean difference for average tissue adhesive dosage per case was calculated. Relevant data were analyzed with the Reviewer Manager 5.3.5. RESULTS: Four cohort studies with a total of 587 patients were included in this meta-analysis. In the treatment of GVB with liver cirrhosis, compared with the traditional sandwich method, the modified sandwich method was associated with a higher GV remission rate (RR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.09-1.42; P = .001) according to the pooled results. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 methods in the rate of hemostasis, re-bleeding, pain, fever, ulcer or erosion, ectopic embolism, and all-cause mortality (P ≧ .05). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis indicated that the modified sandwich method with lauromacrogol is more effective than the traditional sandwich method without lauromacrogol. Due to the limited number of studies and samples, more RCT studies are needed to further validate the efficacy and safety of the modified sandwich method with lauromacrogol in the treatment of GVB with liver cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/terapia , Hemorragia/terapia , Cirrose Hepática/terapia , Escleroterapia , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/complicações , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Polidocanol/uso terapêutico , Soluções Esclerosantes/uso terapêutico , Escleroterapia/métodos , Adesivos Teciduais/uso terapêutico
16.
Cancer Treat Res ; 179: 191-203, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317489

RESUMO

Cancer can be associated with several distinct coagulation defects which can lead to bleeding complications. The primary hyperfibrinolytic syndrome associated with acute promyelocytic leukemia has been well recognized and is one of the most severe bleeding disorders. Acquired hemophilia, while rare and not only seen in the oncology setting, can be triggered by a malignancy and must be promptly recognized in order to prevent catastrophic hemorrhage. Other, less serious coagulopathic states have been linked to cancer, including acquired von Willebrand disease. Finally, several anti-neoplastic drugs can alter hemostasis and increase the risk of bleeding. A good understanding of this field can help mitigate the risk of complications in the cancer patient.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/etiologia , Neoplasias/complicações , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemostasia/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico
17.
Cancer Radiother ; 23(5): 385-394, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300328

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the outcomes of stereotactic radiation therapy for primary and secondary liver tumours in Jean-Perrin cancer centre (Clermont-Ferrand, France) in terms of efficacy and safety. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between December 2013 and June 2016, 25 patients were included. Treatment was performed on a linear accelerator Novalis TX®. The prescription dose was 42 to 60Gy in three to five fractions. Local control at 1 year was evaluated with modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (mRECIST) and RECIST criteria. Acute and late toxicity were evaluated with Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v4.0 criteria. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 10.5 months. Treatment tolerance was good with few side effects grade 3 or above, no acute toxicity and only one late toxicity. We have highlighted that hepatic artery haemorrhage was associated with the presence of a biliary prosthesis in contact with the artery (P=0.006) and in the irradiation field. There was no correlation with the dose delivered to the artery and hepatic artery haemorrhage. CONCLUSION: Stereotactic radiation therapy for liver tumours allows a good local control with few secondary effects. Caution should be exercised when treating patients with biliary prostheses in the vicinity of the target volume because there is a risk of haemorrhage of the hepatic artery in contact with the prosthesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hepáticas/radioterapia , Hipofracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma/radioterapia , Carcinoma/secundário , Carcinoma/terapia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/radioterapia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Colangiocarcinoma/radioterapia , Colangiocarcinoma/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Embolização Terapêutica , Feminino , Seguimentos , França/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hepatectomia , Artéria Hepática/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polietileno/efeitos da radiação , Polímeros/efeitos da radiação , Lesões por Radiação/epidemiologia , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Estudos Retrospectivos , Stents
18.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 12(9): 859-865, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352834

RESUMO

Introduction: Thrombocytopenia is a common hematological abnormality in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD), occurring in 64%~84% of patients with cirrhosis or fibrosis. Due to the increased risk of bleeding, thrombocytopenia potentially affects management of CLD, such as surgery or liver biopsy. Avatrombopag is a new oral thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor agonist, activating TPO receptor and increasing megakaryocytic proliferation/differentiation and platelet production. Areas covered: This review summarizes the collected data concerning pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability profiles of avatrombopag for the management of thrombocytopenia in patients with CLD. Expert opinion: Avatrombopag is recently approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of thrombocytopenia in patients with CLD who are scheduled to undergo a procedure. Based on the available clinical trials, avatrombopag is superior to placebo in reducing the need for platelet transfusions or rescue procedures for bleeding. Avatrombopag is also recommended as alternative to platelet transfusions.


Assuntos
Hepatopatias/complicações , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico , Tiofenos/uso terapêutico , Trombocitopenia/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Crônica , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Hepatopatias/fisiopatologia , Transfusão de Plaquetas/métodos , Receptores de Trombopoetina/agonistas , Tiazóis/efeitos adversos , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Tiofenos/efeitos adversos , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Trombocitopenia/etiologia
19.
Lancet ; 394(10194): 230-239, 2019 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal technique of percutaneous coronary intervention in patients at high bleeding risk is not known. The hypothesis of the DEBUT trial was that percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-coated balloons is non-inferior to percutaneous coronary intervention with bare-metal stents for this population. METHODS: The DEBUT trial is a randomised, single-blind non-inferiority trial done at five sites in Finland. Patients were eligible if they had an ischaemic de-novo lesion in a coronary artery or bypass graft that could be treated with drug-coated balloons, at least one risk factor for bleeding, and a reference vessel diameter of 2·5-4·0 mm. Those with myocardial infarction with ST-elevation, bifurcation lesions needing a two-stent technique, in-stent restenosis, and flow-limiting dissection or substantial recoil (>30%) of the target lesion after predilation were excluded. After successful predilation of the target lesion, patients were randomly assigned (1:1), by use of a computer-generated random sequence, to percutaneous coronary intervention with a balloon coated with paclitaxel and iopromide or a bare-metal stent. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiac events at 9 months. Non-inferiority was shown if the absolute risk difference was no more than 3%. All prespecified analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01781546. FINDINGS: Between May 22, 2013, and Jan 16, 2017, 220 patients were recruited for the study and 208 patients were assigned to percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-coated balloon (n=102) or bare metal stent (n=106). At 9 months, major adverse cardiac events had occurred in one patient (1%) in the drug-coated balloon group and in 15 patients (14%) in the bare-metal stent group (absolute risk difference -13·2 percentage points [95% CI -6·2 to -21·1], risk ratio 0·07 [95% CI 0·01 to 0·52]; p<0·00001 for non-inferiority and p=0·00034 for superiority). Two definitive stent thrombosis events occurred in the bare metal stent group but no acute vessel closures in the drug-coated balloon group. INTERPRETATIONS: Percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-coated balloon was superior to bare-metal stents in patients at bleeding risk. The drug-coated balloon-only coronary intervention is a novel strategy to treat this difficult patient population. Comparison of this approach to the new generation drug-eluting stents is warranted in the future. FUNDING: B Braun Medical AG, AstraZeneca, and Competitive State Research Funding of the Kuopio University Hospital Catchment Area.


Assuntos
Angioplastia Coronária com Balão/instrumentação , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angioplastia Coronária com Balão/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Reestenose Coronária/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Método Simples-Cego , Stents , Moduladores de Tubulina/administração & dosagem
20.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 17(6): 435-447, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213156

RESUMO

Introduction: The radial artery is currently the most widely used access site for PCI procedures both acute and stable patient settings. Thanks to advantages in pharmacological therapy as well as in interventional devices, the rate of ischemic complications following PCI has significantly decreased. Nevertheless, this has been counterbalanced by an increased risk of periprocedural and late bleeding event, that can occur both at access and non-access sites. Choice of access site for PCI is of paramount importance to reduce the risk of access-related bleeding events. Areas covered: The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the actual available evidence comparing the transradial versus transfemoral approach to reduce hemorrhagic events. The most robust evidence comes from large randomized trials, partly also from observational registries, which compared the transradial and transfemoral approach. Expert opinion: Results show that radial access has proved to be decisive in reducing the incidence of hemorrhagic events. Furthermore, it showed a significant reduction in mortality and AKI compared to transfemoral access. However, increased experience in the use of the radial approach has led to less practice in the use of the femoral approach, which may be useful in cases of emergency, complications or inability to use the radial artery.


Assuntos
Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Artéria Femoral , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Artéria Radial , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
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