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2.
Saudi Med J ; 45(5): 490-494, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734435

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the basic characteristics of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and whether hepatitis B surface antigen positive (HBsAg [+]) affects the survival of patients with DLBCL. METHODS: The study was carried out at Affiliated Hospital of Hebei University, Baoding, China, including 602 DLBCL cases from January 2011 to December 2021. We analyzed patients' general clinical data and applied multivariate and univariate Cox analyses to assess the factors influencing their survival times. RESULTS: The HBsAg(+) and HBsAg(-) groups comprised 154 (25.6%) and 448 (74.4%) of the 602 cases, respectively. HBsAg(+) cases tended to be later-stage (III-IV) with higher international prognostic index (IPI) points (3-5) and a greater tendency toward B symptoms, impaired liver function, and recurrence than HBsAg(-) cases (all p<0.05). After follow-up, 194 (32.2%) patients died. The median overall survival (OS) and 5-year OS rates in the HBsAg(+) and HBsAg(-) groups were 16.5 months (42%) and 35 months (63%), respectively. Cox analyses indicated that HBsAg(+) affected the prognosis of DLBCL cases (HR=1.46, 95%CI=1.07-1.99, p=0.017). CONCLUSION: The HBsAg(+) seems to be an independent hazard factor for the worse prognosis of DLBCL patients; hence, a focus on these patients in clinic is required.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Hepatite B , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , China/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estadiamento de Neoplasias
3.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0300149, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The burden of parallel and overlapping infections of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), particularly HIV, syphilis, hepatitis B (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are disproportionately higher among pregnant women globally, leading to unwanted consequences. These infections pose significant public health challenges as they can be transmitted vertically to the offspring. This study aimed to determine the sero-epidemiological patterns and predictors of STIs (HIV, syphilis, HBV, and HCV) among pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics at ten health facilities in North-eastern Ethiopia. METHODS: An institution-based multi-center cross-sectional study was conducted from May to November 2022 among 422 pregnant women selected using simple random sampling technique. Semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic characteristics and predictor variables of STIs through face-to-face interviews. Venous blood was collected and it was tested for anti-HIV, HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-Treponemal antibodies using immunochromatographic test kits. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to identify associated factors of STIs. Variables with an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and a p-value <0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of STIs was 23.9% (95% CI = 20.08-28.25). The prevalence of parallel infections of HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis were 6.4%, 9%, 1.7%, and 6.9%, respectively. The overlapping infections for HIV-HBV was 4% but HIV-HCV overlapping infection wasn't found. Increased age, tattooing, multiple sexual partners, exposure to unsafe sex, and RH status were independent factors of HBV. Likewise, increased age, rural residence, illiteracy, and tattooing were independently associated with HCV. Moreover, rural residence and a history of tattooing were independent predictors for the acquisition of HIV, whereas multiple sexual partners and RH status were found to be significant predictors of syphilis infection among pregnant women. CONCLUSION: The magnitude of overlapping and parallel STD infections is still continued to be a problem among pregnant women. Moreover, there were overlapping infections of HBV-HIV. Therefore, continuous screening of pregnant women for HIV, syphilis, hepatitis B, and C infections should be performed, and special attention should be given to pregnant women who have co-infections.


Assuntos
Hepatite B , Hepatite C , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Sífilis , Humanos , Feminino , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Gravidez , Estudos Transversais , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/transmissão , Adulto Jovem , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/transmissão , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Sífilis/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/transmissão , Adolescente , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
4.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0291155, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Central African Republic (CAR) is one of the countries with the highest prevalence of viral hepatitis infection in the world. Coinfection with HIV increases the morbidity and mortality beyond that of mono-infection with either hepatitis or HIV. The present study describes the geographic distribution of viral hepatitis infections and molecular characterization of these viruses in the CAR. METHODOLOGY: Out of 12,599 persons enrolled during the fourth Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey of 2010 in the CAR, 10,621 Dried Blood Spot (DBS) samples were obtained and stored at -20°C. Of these DBS, 4,317 samples were randomly selected to represent all regions of the CAR. Serological tests for hepatitis B, D, and C viruses were performed using the ELISA technique. Molecular characterization was performed to identify strains. RESULTS: Of the 4,317 samples included, 53.2% were from men and 46.8% from women. The HBsAg prevalence among participants was 12.9% and that HBc-Ab was 19.7%. The overall prevalence of HCV was 0.6%. Co-infection of HIV/HBV was 1.1% and that of HBV/HDV was 16.6%. A total of 77 HBV, 6 HIV, and 6 HDV strains were successfully sequenced, with 72 HBV (93.5%) strains belonging to genotype E and 5 (6.5%) strains belonging to genotype D. The 6 HDV strains all belonged to clade 1, while 4 recombinants subtype were identified among the 6 strains of HIV. CONCLUSION: Our study found a high prevalence of HBV, HBV/HDV and HBV/HIV co-infection, but a low prevalence of HCV. CAR remains an area of high HBV endemicity. This study's data and analyses would be useful for establishing an integrated viral hepatitis and HIV surveillance program in the CAR.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Infecções por HIV , Humanos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Feminino , Masculino , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Adulto , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , República Centro-Africana/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/virologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/virologia , Filogenia , Pré-Escolar , Prevalência
5.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1203, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724938

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B virus infection poses a global health challenge, particularly in low- and middle-income African countries. Illicit drug use exacerbates the problem, with drug users having a higher HBV infection risk and maintaining a quiet transmission pool. This study aimed to determine HBV infection prevalence, immune status, and risk factors among illegal drug users in Enugu State, Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Enugu State, using privileged access interviewer methods to enroll drug users. Pre-tested structured questionnaires were administered after informed consent was obtained. Blood samples were tested for HBsAg, HBsAb, HBeAg, HBeAb, and HBcAb using immunochromatographic rapid test kits. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 25. RESULTS: One hundred drug users were recruited into the study. Overall, 7% of the drug users had HBV infection. 61% were found to be susceptible to HBV infection, 15% showed serological evidence of immunity from HBV vaccination and 1% developed natural immunity from HBV exposure. Significant risk factors for HBV infection were age less than 20 years, young age (≤ 20 years) at drug initiation, being single, injecting drugs more than or equal to 20 times per month and injecting with used syringes. CONCLUSION: This study shows high intermediate endemicity of HBV infection among drug users, low vaccination uptake, and high susceptibility to HBV infection. This calls for the urgent inclusion of drug users in national HBV vaccination campaigns and the adoption of the World Health Organization's recommendations on the prevention of viral hepatitis among people who inject drugs.


Assuntos
Hepatite B , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Adulto , Feminino , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem , Prevalência , Adolescente , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Usuários de Drogas/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue
6.
Cancer Med ; 13(10): e7284, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38752442

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have found a high prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), especially B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL). However, most studies did not classify it and analyze the correlation between HBV and its various subtypes. METHODS: The authors retrospectively analyzed 1424 patients with lymphoma. Differences in the prevalence of HBV infection in patients with different pathological types of lymphoma were analyzed. The clinical characteristics, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) of HBV-positive and negative B-NHL subtypes were compared according to HBV infection. RESULTS: The HBV infection rate in NHL patients was 7.65%, which was higher than that in HL patients (2.59%, p < 0.05). The HBV infection rate in the B-NHL was higher than that in the T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (T-NHL) (8.14% vs. 4.95%). The HBV infection rate in the aggressive B-NHL was similar to that of the indolent B-NHL (8.30% vs. 7.88%), and the highest HBV infection rates were found in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, but no significant differences in clinical characteristics, PFS, and OS were seen between HBV-positive and negative patients in the two subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: There was an association between HBV infection and the development of NHL and HBV infection may play a role in the pathogenesis of B-NHL, but not T-NHL.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite B/virologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem , Prevalência , Linfoma não Hodgkin/virologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Linfoma de Células B/virologia , Linfoma de Células B/epidemiologia , Linfoma de Células B/patologia , Linfoma de Células B/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão
7.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302453, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) coinfection are the major causes of liver-related morbidity and mortality among people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The burden of hepatitis among HIV-positive individuals has not been studied in the Afar region. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV coinfection and associated factors among HIV-positive patients in Afar Regional State, northeast Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 477 HIV-positive patients between February 2019 and May 2019. A structured and pretested questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and associated factors. Five milliliters of blood was collected, and Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HCV antibodies were detected using rapid test kits. Positive samples were confirmed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify associated factors. Statistical significance was set at P <0.05. RESULTS: Among the 477 study participants, 320/477(67.1%) of them were females and 157(32.9%) males. The overall prevalence of HIV-HBV and HIV-HCV coinfection was 25(5.2%) and 7(1.5%), respectively. Multi-sexual practice was significantly associated with HIV-HBV coinfection (AOR = 5.3; 95% CI: 1.2-24.4, P = 0.032). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of both HIV-HBV and HIV-HCV coinfection was intermediate. Multi-sexual practice was significantly associated with HIV-HBV coinfection. Screening of all HIV-positive patients for HBV and HCV and health education regarding the transmission modes should be considered.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Infecções por HIV , Hepatite B , Hepatite C , Humanos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite B/virologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/virologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Risco , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11275, 2024 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38760415

RESUMO

Limited data exist on viral hepatitis among migrant populations. This study investigated the prevalence of current hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and lifetime hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among Qatar's migrant craft and manual workers (CMWs), constituting 60% of the country's population. Sera collected during a nationwide COVID-19 population-based cross-sectional survey on CMWs between July 26 and September 9, 2020, underwent testing for HBsAg and HCV antibodies. Reactive samples underwent confirmatory testing, and logistic regression analyses were employed to explore associations with HBV and HCV infections. Among 2528 specimens tested for HBV infection, 15 were reactive, with 8 subsequently confirmed positive. Three samples lacked sufficient sera for confirmatory testing but were included in the analysis through multiple imputations. Prevalence of current HBV infection was 0.4% (95% CI 0.2-0.7%). Educational attainment and occupation were significantly associated with current HBV infection. For HCV infection, out of 2607 specimens tested, 46 were reactive, and 23 were subsequently confirmed positive. Prevalence of lifetime HCV infection was 0.8% (95% CI 0.5-1.2%). Egyptians exhibited the highest prevalence at 6.5% (95% CI 3.1-13.1%), followed by Pakistanis at 3.1% (95% CI 1.1-8.0%). Nationality, geographic location, and occupation were significantly associated with lifetime HCV infection. HBV infection is relatively low among CMWs, while HCV infection falls within the intermediate range, both compared to global and regional levels.


Assuntos
Hepatite B , Hepatite C , Migrantes , Humanos , Catar/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Hepatite B/sangue , Feminino , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Adulto , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Adulto Jovem , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Adolescente , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 460, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38693473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Existing research in Ethiopia has primarily focused on the individual epidemiology of HIV and HBV, often overlooking the intricate dynamics of co-infection. This study aims to address this gap by comprehensively exploring the prevalence of HBV and HIV co-infection and the associated factors influencing co-infection rates within the specific context of ART clinics. The existing study provides limited insights into the unique challenges posed by this dual infection in the Ethiopian population receiving ART. METHODS: An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted among people living with HIV aged 18 years and above attending ART clinics in northeast Ethiopia from April to May 2022. A sample size of 350(97% response rate) participants was selected by using a systematic random sampling method. Data were collected using a pre-tested interviewer-administered structured questionnaire. Data was entered into Epi Data version software and was exported to SPSS version 25 for further analysis. Descriptive statistics using Frequency, proportion, and summary measures were done. Binary logistic regressions were done to identify independent variables associated with HBV infection among HIV patients. A P-value less than 0.05 and adjusted odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval non-inclusive of one was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) was identified constituting 7.14% of the study population. Females [AOR] 0.14; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] [0.041-0.478]). Participants with an educational status of only reading and writing (AOR 8.7; 95% CI [1.143-66.5]). Single individuals (AOR 2.04; 95% CI [1.346-28.6]) were associated factors. Moreover, participants with a viral load exceeding 1000 copies/ml were 6.5 times more likely to be infected with HBV compared to those with undetectable viral loads (AOR 6.53, 95% CI [1.87-22.72]). Additionally, individuals with a CD4 count ranging from 351 to 500 cells/ml were 1.2 times more likely to be infected with HBV compared to those with a CD4 count of 500 cells/ml or above (AOR 10.4, 95% CI [1.28-85]). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HBV infection was found to be intermediate in HIV-infected patients in the study area. Being male, marital status of single and divorced, educational level was only read and written, current viral load of > 1000 copies/ml &<1000 copies/ml, and current CD4 < 250 cells/ml were found statistically associated factors for HBV infection. Thus, we recommend the provision of routine screening for HBsAg and appropriate treatment with accurate information on risk factors for HBV to improve quality of life and reduce morbidity.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Infecções por HIV , Hepatite B , Humanos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Masculino , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Prevalência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Fatores de Risco , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B
12.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0298771, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the availability of a safe and effective vaccine coupled with the awareness of the potential risk of Healthcare Workers acquiring Hepatitis B Virus infection, some HCWs never get vaccinated. Generally, hepatitis B vaccination coverage globally is below the expected level as adherence has remained poor in various healthcare settings, especially in developing countries. The objective of this study was to assess the completion of a three-dose Hepatitis B virus vaccination cycle and associated factors among healthcare workers in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. METHODS AND MATERIALS: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted and included 363 healthcare workers selected using probability sampling procedures. The participants were recruited from five facilities within the Greater Accra Region in the first half of 2018. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect data which was analyzed using SPSS version 21. The proportion of healthcare workers receiving the recommended 3 doses of the hepatitis vaccine was computed. The multivariable analysis procedure identified the factors associated with adherence to the receipt of three doses of the hepatitis B vaccine. Odds ratios were estimated with corresponding confidence intervals with the level of significance set at 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 340 sample units were included in the analysis. Most of the participants (252/340, 74.1%) were females, mainly nurses/midwives (162/340, 47.6%) with a mean age of 34.5 (SD ±7.7). A high proportion of the participants (82.7%) have tertiary/post-tertiary level education and ever participated in at least one training workshop on the prevention of blood-borne infections (80.6%). Overall vaccination uptake was 60.9% (207/340) (95% CI = 55.7%-66.1%). Complete vaccination coverage (three doses) was 46.8% (159/340). High-risk perception (AOR = 4.0; 95% CI = 1.3-12.5), and previous training in infection prevention (AOR = 2.8; 95% CI = 1.1-7.5) were significantly associated with adherence to receipt of three doses of hepatitis B vaccine. CONCLUSION: Adherence to three-dose hepatitis B vaccination cycles is not universal among the healthcare workers in the Greater Accra Region. Receipt of the three-dose regimen is significantly associated with high-risk perception and attendance of training in infectious disease prevention. Interventions to increase risk perception and training in the prevention of blood-borne infections could improve adherence to complete/full vaccination protocol among healthcare workers who are at constant risk of exposure to the hepatitis B virus.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Hepatite B , Hepatite B , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Masculino , Infecções Transmitidas por Sangue , Gana , Estudos Transversais , Pessoal de Saúde , Vírus da Hepatite B , Vacinação , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301973, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) cause considerable morbidity and mortality from their acute and chronic infections. The transmission of the viruses within the prisons is high due to overcrowding, and other risk behaviors such as drug use, and unsafe sexual practices. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and associated factors of HBV and HCV infections among prisoners in Gondar city, Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Gondar City Prison Center from May 1, 2022, to July 30, 2022. A total of 299 prison inmates were selected by using a systematic random sampling technique. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data on sociodemographic, clinical, behavioral and prison related factors. Five milliliters of blood sample were collected, and the serum was separated from the whole blood. The serum was tested for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV antibody by using an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Data was entered using EpiData version 4.6.0 and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Logistic regression analysis was done to assess the association between the independent variables and HBV and HCV infections. P-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence of HBV or HCV infections was 10.4%. The seroprevalence of HBV and HCV infections was 7.0% and 4.0%, respectively. It has been demonstrated that having several heterosexual partners, sharing sharp materials in prison, having longer imprisonment, and having a body tattoo are significantly associated with HBV infection. The presence of a body tattoo, a history of surgical procedures, and previous imprisonment are associated risk factors for HCV infection. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HBV and HCV were high-intermediate and high, respectively. Therefore, preventative and control initiatives are needed in prisons to decrease the rate of infection and transmission.


Assuntos
Hepatite B , Hepatite C , Prisioneiros , Humanos , Hepacivirus , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Vírus da Hepatite B , Prevalência
14.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 995, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver tissue. It is one of the serious public health problems. Though an individuals' knowledge, attitude, and practice level is very vital in order to ensure the control of its adverse health impacts, little is known regarding these issues in the community level. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice towards hepatitis B and C virus infection and associated factors among adults living at selected woredas in Gamo Zone, Southern Ethiopia. METHODS: Community based cross-sectional study design was conducted among 633 adults living at selected woredas in Gamo Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Data were collected by pretested, well-structured questionnaire. The collected data were checked, coded and entered into Epi-data version 4.6.0.2 and were exported to SPSS version 25 for analyses. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression were done to identify independent factors associated with knowledge, attitude, and practice towards hepatitis B and C virus infection. RESULTS: According to this study, 366(58.1%), 95% CI: (54.23-61.96) of the participants had good knowledge. 381(60.5%), 95% CI: (56.65-64.30) of the participants had favourable attitude. 317(50.3%), 95% CI: (46.40-54.23) of the participants had good practice. From factor analysis, sex, number of sexual partners, sharing sharp material, and vaccination status were significantly associated with knowledge; residence, occupational status, income level, sharing sharp material, and vaccination status were significantly associated with attitude; and residence, occupational status, and vaccination status were identified to be significantly associated with practice towards Hepatitis B and C virus infection. CONCLUSION: Based on the study findings, it could be observed that good knowledge, favourable attitude, and good practice were indicated nearly above the half, only by half, and nearly above the half of the study participants respectively. Implementing actions that could increase awareness regarding limiting the number of sexual partner, not sharing sharp materials, and urbanization is recommended. Moreover, woreda administrators, and other related authorities should consider knowledge, attitude, and practice as an implementation area, and also it would be better to create an opportunities to promote vaccination practices.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hepatite B , Adulto , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1366431, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38601498

RESUMO

Background: When employing the transcription-mediated amplification method for screening blood donors, there are some non-discriminatory reactive results which are screening assay reactive but HBV-DNA discriminatory assay negative. This raises concerns regarding the possibility of false positives among donors, which may lead to permanent deferral of blood donors and affect blood supply. This study aimed to elucidate the infection status of these non-discriminatory reactive blood donors and develop and validate a model to predict individualized hepatitis B status to establish an optimal screening strategy. Methods: Supplementary tests were conducted on initial non-discriminating reactive donations to determine their HBV infection status, including repeat testing, viral load, serological marker detection, and follow-up. Primary clinical variables of the donors were recorded. Based on the Akaike information criterion, a stepwise forward algorithm was used to identify the predictive factors for information and construct a predictive model. The optimal screening strategy was determined through cost-effectiveness analysis. Results: At the Blood Center of Zhejiang Province, 435 cases of initial non-discriminatory reactive donations were collected over two successive periods and sub-categorized through repeated testing into the following three groups: non-repeated positive group, non-discriminated positive group, and non-repeated HBV-DNA positive group. The HBV discriminatory rate increased after repeated testing (110/435, 25.29%). According to supplementary tests, the HBV-DNA positivity rate was 65.52% (285/435), and occult HBV infection was a significantly different among groups (χ2 = 93.22, p < 0.01). The HBV serological markers and viral load in the non-repeated positive group differed from those in the other two groups, with a lower viral load and a higher proportion of false positives. The predictive model constructed using a stepwise forward algorithm exhibited high discrimination, good fit, high calibration, and effectiveness. A cost-effectiveness analysis indicated that utilizing repeated discriminatory testing and the predictive model is an extremely beneficial screening approach for non-discriminatory reactive blood donors. Conclusion: Nearly two-third (65.52%) of the non-discriminatory reactive blood donors were HBV-DNA positive. Our innovative approach of constructing a predictive model as a supplementary screening strategy, combined with repeated discriminatory experiments, can effectively identify the infection status of non-discriminatory reactive blood donors, thereby increasing the safety of blood transfusions.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B , Humanos , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Doadores de Sangue , DNA Viral/análise , DNA Viral/genética , China/epidemiologia
17.
World J Gastroenterol ; 30(14): 1958-1962, 2024 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38681123

RESUMO

According to the report from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection exceeded 1.2 million individuals by the year 2022, with an annual increase of about 80000 cases. The overall prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen among individuals co-infected with HIV reached 13.7%, almost twice the rate of the general population in China. In addition to the well-documented susceptibility to opportunistic infections and new malignancies, HIV infected patients frequently experience liver-related organ damage, with the liver and kidneys being the most commonly affected. This often leads to the development of end-stage liver and kidney diseases. Therefore, organ transplantation has emerged as an important part of active treatment for HIV infected patients. However, the curative effect is not satisfactory. HIV infection has been considered a contraindication for organ transplantation. Until the emergence of highly active anti-retroviral therapy in 1996, the once intractable replication of retrovirus was effectively inhibited. With prolonged survival, the failure of important organs has become the main cause of death among HIV patients. Therefore, transplant centers worldwide have resumed exploration of organ transplantation for HIV-infected individuals and reached a positive conclusion. This study provides an overview of the current landscape of HIV-positive patients receiving liver transplantation (LT) in mainland China. To date, our transplant center has conducted LT for eight end-stage liver disease patients co-infected with HIV, and all but one, who died two months postoperatively due to sepsis and progressive multi-organ failure, have survived. Comparative analysis with hepatitis B virus-infected patients during the same period revealed no statistically significant differences in acute rejection reactions, cytomegalovirus infection, bacteremia, pulmonary infections, acute kidney injury, new-onset cancers, or vascular and biliary complications.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Transplante de Fígado , Humanos , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , China/epidemiologia , Coinfecção , Doença Hepática Terminal/cirurgia , Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Doença Hepática Terminal/diagnóstico , Doença Hepática Terminal/virologia , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Prevalência , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7920, 2024 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575642

RESUMO

Blood safety is a critical aspect of healthcare systems worldwide involving rigorous screening, testing, and processing protocols to minimize the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs). The present study offers a comprehensive assessment of the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and syphilis among blood donors in southern Thailand. It explores the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on the blood transfusion service, donor characteristics, and the prevalence of TTIs. A retrospective analysis of 65,511 blood donors between 2018 and 2022 was conducted at Songklanagarind Hospital, Thailand. The socio-demographic characteristics of the donors were examined using the Chi-square test to assess the relationship between TTIs serological positivity and donor characteristics. The donors were divided into pre-COVID-19 (2018-2019) and during COVID-19 (2020-2022) groups to evaluate the impacts of COVID-19. The study found that HBV had the highest overall prevalence at 243 per hundred thousand (pht), followed by syphilis (118 pht), HCV (32 pht), and HIV (31 pht) over a five-year period of study. After COVID-19, the prevalence of HBV decreased by 21.8%; HCV decreased by 2.1%; HIV increased by 36.4%; and syphilis increased by 9.2%. The socio-demographic characteristics and TTIs prevalence were significantly altered over time. This study provides insights into blood donor characteristics and TTIs prevalence in southern Thailand, highlighting the understanding of the impact of COVID-19 on the spread of TTIs.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , Hepatite B , Hepatite C , Sífilis , Reação Transfusional , Humanos , Doadores de Sangue , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pandemias , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/diagnóstico
20.
Pan Afr Med J ; 47: 67, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38681098

RESUMO

Introduction: Nigeria offers universal hepatitis B birth-dose vaccine (HepB-BD) for the prevention and control of hepatitis B (HepB). While prior studies suggest low coverage of HepB-BD in Nigeria, there is a paucity of evidence on the association between the uptake of HepB-BD and maternal HepB status. This study aimed to determine HepB-BD coverage and the associated factors among infants of HepB-positive and -negative women in Nigeria. Methods: the study was a secondary analysis of data from the Healthy Beginning Initiative program conducted between June 2016 and October 2018 in Benue State, Nigeria. The analysis was restricted to data from a cohort of 6269 mothers who had HepB screening during pregnancy and completed the HepB infant immunization question in the post-delivery survey. The association between the coverage of HepB-BD and maternal HepB status, sociodemographic characteristics, and obstetric factors were determined using crude and adjusted relative risks. Results: about 10% of the women tested HepB positive. The coverage of HepB-BD was 64% (63.2% among infants of HepB-positive mothers and 63.8% among HepB-negative mothers). The likelihood of infants of HepB-positive mothers receiving HepB-BD was not significantly different from infants of HepB-negative mothers (aRR=0.97, 95%CI= 0.92-1.04). Among HepB-positive mothers, infants of mothers younger than 20 years (aRR=1.49, 95%CI=1.03-2.16) or those who received antenatal care (aRR=1.41, 95%CI=1.16-1.71) were more likely to receive HepB-BD, while mothers with no previous pregnancies (aRR=0.73, 95%CI=0.59-0.91) were less likely to receive HepB-BD. Among HepB-negative mothers, infants of less-educated mothers were less likely to receive HepB-BD (aRR=0.96, 95%CI=0.92-0.99), whereas infants of mothers who received antenatal care (aRR=1.23, 95%CI=1.16-1.31) or had an institutional delivery were more likely (aRR=1.29, 95%CI=1.23-1.36) to receive HepB-BD. Conclusion: our findings highlight the need to improve HepB-BD uptake, particularly among HepB-exposed infants who are at risk of perinatal transmission of HepB.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Hepatite B , Hepatite B , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Cobertura Vacinal , Humanos , Nigéria , Feminino , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Recém-Nascido , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Lactente , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Programas de Imunização , Estudos de Coortes , Adolescente , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
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