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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 839, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a public health problem in Togo and transmission to the child occurs mainly during childbirth. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HBV among childbearing women and infants born to HBV positive mothers in Togo. METHODS: A national cross-sectional study was carried out in six cities in Togo in the six health regions in Togo. Mother-child pairs were recruited from immunization centers or pediatric wards in Lomé, Tsévié, Atakpamé, Sokodé, Kara and Dapaong in 2017. Women aged 18 and over with one child of at least 6 months old were included. A standardized questionnaire was used for data collection and HBV screening was performed using Determine® rapid tests. The prevalence of HBV, defined by a positive HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), was estimated in mothers and then in infants of mothers who were positive for HBsAg. Logistic regression model was performed to identify risk factors for HBsAg positivity in mothers. RESULTS: A total of 2105 mothers-pairs child were recruited. The median age of mothers and infants was 29 years, interquartile range (IQR) [25-33] and 2.1 years, IQR [1-3] respectively. About 35% of women were screened for HBV during antenatal care and 85% of infants received three doses of HBV immunization. Among mothers, the prevalence of HBV was 10.6, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) [9.4-12.0%], and 177 had detectable HBV viral load (> 10 IU/mL). Among mothers with positive HBsAg, three infants also had positive HBsAg, a prevalence of 1.3, 95% CI [0.2-3.8%]. In multivariable analysis, HIV-infection (aOR = 2.19; p = 0.018), having at least three pregnancies (aOR = 1.46; p = 0.025) and living in Tsévié (aOR = 0.31; p < 0.001) compared to those living in Lomé, were associated to HBV infection in mothers. CONCLUSION: In this study, one out of 10 childbearing women were infected with HBV, but less than 2% of infant born to HBV positive mothers under 5 years' old who received immunization under the Expanded Program on Immunization were infected. Improving antenatal screening and providing targeted interventions in babies could help eliminate HBV in Togo.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , HIV , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Prevalência , Togo/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 806, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed at determining the prevalence of and risk factors for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among incarcerated people who inject drugs (PWID) in Iran in 2015-16. METHODS: The required data was collected from a database provided by Iranian national bio-behavioral surveillance surveys (BBSSs) on 11,988 prisoners selected from among 55 prisons in 19 provinces in 2015-16. The data on demographics and behavioral variables were collected through interviews and the status of exposure to HBV and HCV were determined using ELISA blood test. A total of 1387 individuals with a history of drug injection in their lifetime were enrolled into the study. Data were analyzed using the survey package in Stata/SE software, Version 14.0. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression tests were used to investigate the relationships between risk factors and outcomes. RESULTS: The mean age of the incarcerated PWID was 36.83 ± 8.13 years. Of all the studied subjects, 98.46% were male and 50.97% were married. The prevalence of HCV and HBV among the subjects were 40.52 and 2.46%, respectively. The prevalence of HCV was associated with age ≥ 30 years, being single, illiteracy and low level of education, prison term> 5 years, history of piercing, and extramarital sex in lifetime (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HCV is alarmingly high. In general, it is recommended to adopt measures to screen and treat patients with HCV and vaccinat incarcerated PWID without a history of vaccination against HBV.


Assuntos
Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Prisioneiros , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hepacivirus , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Prevalência , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisões , Fatores de Risco , Vacinas contra Hepatite Viral/administração & dosagem
3.
Acta Gastroenterol Belg ; 83(3): 426-431, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094590

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reacti- vation in HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc-positive patients receiving chemotherapy for solid tumors is not fully known. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and outcomes of HBV reactivation in these patients. METHODS: Data among 645 HBsAg-negative/ anti-HBc-positive patients who underwent intravenous chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were categorized into two groups, based on received antiviral prophylaxis (n = 43) or not (n = 602). HBV reactivation was defined as the presence of detectable serum HBV DNA or HBsAg seroconversion from negative to positive, with or without increased liver enzymes. RESULTS: HBV reactivation was detected in 3 patients (0.49%) among non-antiviral prophylaxis group and in none of those with antiviral prophylaxis. Two of the HBV reactivation detected patients were successfully treated with rescue therapy, while the third died due to liver failure. CONCLUSIONS: HBV reactivation is rare in HBsAg-negative and anti-HBc-positive patients receiving chemotherapy for solid tumors. However, considering the fatal outcomes patients must be closely monitored in terms of HBV-DNA positivity and/or HBsAg seroreversion and pre-emptive antiviral therapy must be initiated as soon as HBV reactivation occurs.


Assuntos
Hepatite B , Neoplasias , Ativação Viral , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190559, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111905

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Brazil's western Amazon basin has the highest prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the country. Coinfection with hepatitis D virus (HDV) is also endemic. To estimate the prevalence of HBV and HDV markers in a population inhabiting the northwest portion of Mato Grosso state in the western Amazon. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of the seroprevalence of antibodies against HBV core antigen (anti-HBc) in the Três Fronteiras District northwest of Mato Grosso. Anti-HBc-positive subjects were tested for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). Those positive for this marker were tested for HDV antibodies. Anti-HBc-negative participants were tested for anti-HBsAg. All tests were performed by EIA. RESULTS: A total of 623 individuals in the community were assessed; the majority (67.6%) were male, with a mean age of 30.8 ± 15.4 years. Two hundred and fourteen individuals (34.3%) were anti-HBc-positive, and 47 (7.5%) were HBsAg carriers. Only one individual was anti-HDV-positive. Among the 409 individuals without HBV infection, 18.3% were anti-HBsAg-positive. There was no association between HBV infection and known risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: The study area had intermediate-to-high endemicity for HBV infection, but a low prevalence of HDV. Our serological results suggesting low vaccination-induced protection indicate a need for reinforced immunization programs in the populations of northwest Mato Grosso.


Assuntos
Hepatite B , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite D/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 742, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The surge of methamphetamine use has been a complicating factor compounding the steeply increasing number of drug overdose deaths in the U.S. Infection from blood-borne viruses including hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV, related to methamphetamine use continue to grow. This study aims to examine the risk factors associated with HBV, HCV and HIV among people who used methamphetamine. METHODS: People who ever used methamphetamine were identified from five National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cohorts, 2007 to 2016. The outcome was either positive or negative for blood-borne viruses as identified from laboratory tests. Weighted statistics for the combined ten years of data were calculated by multiplying the weighted variable for laboratory measurements by 0.2. We examined the association of sexual activities (sexual partners, sexual identity), drug use behaviors (poly-drug use, injection drug use, frequency of drug use, age started using methamphetamine), demographics, and socio-economic status with blood-borne viruses using bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: There were 1132 participants representing approximately 11,996,319 persons who ever used methamphetamine in the U.S. Blood-borne viruses' positive rate was 13.0 per 100,000. Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed significant associations of blood-borne infections with age 40-49 years (vs. age 20-29 years, adjusted odds ratio 4.77, 95% CI 1.11-20.55), age 50-59 years (vs. age 20-29 years, 10.25, 2.40-43.82), living within poverty index 1-1.9 (vs. poverty index > = 2, 2.55; 1.19-5.49), living below the poverty threshold (vs. poverty index > = 2, 2.55; 1.11-5.86), having lower than high school education (vs. equal or higher than high school education, 3.13; 1.51-6.46), sexual identity as other than heterosexual (vs. heterosexual, 5.60; 1.72-18.28), using methamphetamine and heroin and cocaine (vs. using methamphetamine alone, 4.24; 1.06-16.92), injection drug use (vs. no injection drug use, 3.15; 1.61-6.16), and started using methamphetamine at age above 25 (vs. started using methamphetamine at age between 10 and 17, 2.09; 1.01-4.35). CONCLUSIONS: Among people who use methamphetamine, those who use polysubstance, or who inject substances, are in urgent need for vaccination and interventions to avoid further harm from blood borne infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1/imunologia , HIV-2/imunologia , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Metanfetamina , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Testes Sorológicos , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 736, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood transfusion is associated with potential risks of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs). Different strategies are needed to monitor blood safety and screen the donors' efficacy, such as evaluation of the prevalence and trends of TTIs. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and trends of TTIs, including hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV 1/2), and the impact of the donors' characteristics such as age, sex, and donor status on the prevalence of TTIs in blood donors in seven large provinces of Iran from 2010 to 2018. METHODS: This study was conducted on the data collected from all blood donations in seven Iranian Blood Transfusion Centers including Ardabil, Alborz, Guilan, West Azarbaijan, North, Razavi, and South Khorasan from April 2010 to March 2018. Demographic characteristics, number of donations, donor status, and screening and confirmatory serological results of all blood donations were collected from Iranian Blood Transfusion Organizations (IBTO) national database. The prevalence and trend of HBV, HCV, HIV, and HTLV 1/2 infections were reported according to the donation year and donor's characteristics. RESULTS: The analysis of the prevalence and trend of TTIs in 3,622,860 blood donors showed a significant decreasing trend in first-time and regular donors. Additionally, compared to first- time donors, regular donors made safer blood donations with lower risks of HBV, HIV, HCV and HTLV 1/2 (P < 0.0001). Although the prevalence of HTLV 1/2 and HBV was higher in females, TTIs had a significant decreasing trend in males and females. Finally, it was found that the prevalence of HBV and HTLV 1/2 increased with age up to 40-49 years and then decreased thereafter. CONCLUSIONS: The decreasing trends of TTIs in Iranian donors during 9 years may indicate that the various strategies implemented by IBTO have been effective in recent years. Other factors such as a decrease in the prevalence of specific TTIs in the general population might have also contributed to these declines.


Assuntos
Segurança do Sangue , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HTLV-I/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HTLV-I/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Reação Transfusional/diagnóstico , Reação Transfusional/epidemiologia , Reação Transfusional/virologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e925932, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly emerging disease that is still not fully characterized. It is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel virus that can be transmitted easily from human to human mainly by the respiratory route. Currently, there is no specific treatment for COVID-19 or a vaccine for prevention. The disease has various degrees of severity. It often presents with nonspecific symptoms such as fever, headache, and fatigue, accompanied by respiratory symptoms (e.g., cough and dyspnea) and other systemic involvement. Severe disease is associated with hemophagocytic syndrome and cytokine storm due to altered immune response. Patients with severe disease are more likely to have increased liver enzymes. The disease can affect the liver through various mechanisms. CASE REPORT We report an unusual case of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a 24-year-old man with no previous medical illness, who presented with mild respiratory involvement. He had no serious lung injury during the disease course. However, he experienced acute fulminant hepatitis B infection and cytokine release syndrome that led to multiorgan failure and death. CONCLUSIONS It is uncommon for SARS-CoV-2 infection with mild respiratory symptoms to result in severe systemic disease and organ failure. We report an unusual case of acute hepatitis B infection with concomitant SARS-CoV-2 leading to fulminant hepatitis, multiorgan failure, and death.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Falência Hepática Aguda/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Humanos , Falência Hepática Aguda/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pandemias , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi ; 117(10): 896-906, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041301

RESUMO

We conducted a questionnaire survey on the status of implementation of hepatitis B vaccination and HBs antibody testing. It involved medical personnel covering 484 regional medical institutions in the Osaka Province. Results showed that the recognition rate was 30.1%, the hepatitis B vaccination implementation rate was 38.9%, and that of HBs antibody testing was 38.9%. Although 42.5% of the medical institutions had experienced needle-stick injuries, some medical institutions did not respond properly. The low implementation rate of hepatitis B vaccination and HBs antibody test could be explained by lack of recognition for hepatitis B infection control guidelines. Therefore, we can achieve a possible improvement in the control of infection in the Province, if sensitization programs on hepatitis B infection control are organized in the various regional medical institutions in order to provide adequate information and raise awareness on the importance of respecting these guidelines.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Hepatite B , Hepatite B , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação
9.
Ann Epidemiol ; 49: 13-19, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951803

RESUMO

PURPOSE: China has the world's largest burden of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, there are few studies reported on the latest prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) among pregnant women in China. We aimed to assess the prevalence of HBV infection and its associated risk factors among pregnant women in Yunnan, which is a province with relatively high prevalence of blood-borne viruses. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 15,641 pregnant women who underwent routine antenatal screening for HBsAg in Yunnan between 2013 and 2016. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between HBV infection and risk factors. RESULTS: Overall, 7.89% (95% confidence interval (CI), 7.47%-8.31%) of the 15,641 pregnant women tested positive for HBsAg. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that advanced age (≥35 years old; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.43-2.59), Hani ethnicity (aOR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.22-3.17), unemployed women (aOR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.30-2.72), multigravidas (aOR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.05-1.40), and multiparas (aOR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.10-1.49) were more likely to be infected with HBV. HBV infection was associated with cesarean section and preterm birth, with aORs of 1.31 (1.17-1.48) and 1.23 (1.00-1.51), respectively. In the subgroup analysis, the association between Hani ethnicity and HBV infection was significantly higher in women aged 35 years or older (aOR = 5.15; 95% CI, 1.51-17.55) than in women younger than 35 years of age (aOR = 1.69; 95% CI, 1.00-2.86). CONCLUSIONS: HBV infection among 15,641 pregnant women was of high-intermediate endemicity in Yunnan, China. Advanced age, Hani ethnicity, unemployment, and multigravid and multiparous statuses were associated with an increased prevalence of HBV infection. High-risk pregnant women should be paid more attention during routine antenatal examination.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hepatite B/complicações , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Gestantes , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(33): e20877, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871973

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of different nucleos(t)ide analogues in the prognosis of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients after curative treatment by network meta-analysis. METHODS: Literature retrieval was conducted in globally recognized databases, namely, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library databases, and Science Citation Index Expanded, to address relative studies investigating nucleot(s)ide analogues for HBV-related HCC patients after curative resection. Relative parametric data, including 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rate and 1-, 3-, and 5-year recurrence-free survival rate were quantitatively pooled and estimated. The inconsistency factor, the cumulative ranking curve, and the publication bias were evaluated. RESULTS: Fourteen observational studies of 2481 adults performed between 2000 and 2019 were eligible. In terms of overall survival, ADV (Adefovir dipivoxil) (Odds ratio (OR): 2.35, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17-4.73), Lamivudine (OR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.78-5.58), and Entecavir (OR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.59-2.88) were found to be more beneficial than control group while ADV has the highest probability of having the most efficacious treatment (SCURA values 66.3) for 5-year overall survival. In late recurrence-free survival, ADV (OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.77-4.60), Entecavir (OR = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.36-2.55), and Lamivudine (OR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.06-2.82) all had better significant prognosis than patients without antiviral therapy postoperatively and patients with ADV as postoperative antiviral therapy has significantly recurrence-free survival benefit at 5-year follow-up compared to those undertaking Entecavir (OR = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.52-7.38) and Lamivudine (OR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.09-3.01). Moreover, the application of ADV possessed the highest possibility of having the best clinical effects on 1- (surface under the cumulative ranking probabilities (SUCRA), 64.7), 3- (SUCRA, 64.7), and 5-year (SUCRA, 70.4) recurrence survival rate for HBV-related HCC patients. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with postoperative nucleos(t)ide analogues antiviral therapy had better survival benefit than those without antiviral therapy for HBV-related HCC patients after curative treatment. Additionally, nucleotide analogues like ADV and Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate has better impact on early and late recurrence-free survival of patients after curative treatment than those undertaking nucleoside analogues.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/complicações , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Metanálise em Rede
11.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0236456, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941424

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sub-Saharan Africa houses over two-thirds of the 37 million people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) globally and of this, 5-20% are co-infected with Hepatitis B virus (HBV). This is double jeopardy, especially for women of reproductive age in these settings, who can transmit both viruses vertically as well as horizontally to their children. The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence and determinants of HBV among women of reproductive age living with HIV. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of HIV-infected women of reproductive age in Benue State, Nigeria. Participants were eligible for the study if they were HIV-infected women (ages 18-45 years) receiving care from any of the selected study sites. A global rapid hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) antibody test strip was used to test for HBsAg in plasma. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect data on sociodemographic, clinical and lifestyle characteristics of participants. We estimated prevalence of HBV infection and used multivariable logistic regression to determine factors associated with the infection at a significance level of <0.05. RESULTS: A total of 6577 women were screened for HBsAg. The prevalence of HBV was 10.3% (95% CI: 9.5-10.9%). Age, parity and male partner's HIV status were found to be associated with having HBV infection. Compared to women older than 40 years, the odds of HBV infection increased significantly with increasing age until age 35 years and decreased significantly with increasing parity (versus no parity). Women with HIV-infected partners and those without a partner had higher odds of HBV infection compared to women with HIV-negative partners. CONCLUSION: HBV is hyperendemic among HIV-infected women of reproductive age in North Central Nigeria. Specific programs targeting HBV testing, vaccination and treatment of all women of reproductive age need to be developed in this resource-limited, high-need setting.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/complicações , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Nigéria , Prevalência , Testes Sorológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238839, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915862

RESUMO

In patients who are HIV infected, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is an important co-morbidity. However, antiretroviral options for HIV/HBV co-infected children are limited and, at the time of this study, only included lamivudine. These children may remain on this regimen for many years until late adolescence. They are at high risk of developing HBV drug resistance and uncontrolled HBV disease. The aim of this study was to characterize HBV infection in HIV/HBV co-infected children. Known HIV-infected/HBsAg-positive children, previously exposed to lamivudine monotherapy against HBV, and their mothers were recruited at the Katutura Hospital paediatric HIV clinic in Windhoek, Namibia. Dried blood spot and serum samples were collected for HBV characterization and serological testing, respectively. Fifteen children and six mothers participated in the study. Eight of the 15 children (53.3%) tested HBV DNA positive; all eight children were on lamivudine-based ART. Lamivudine-associated resistance variants, together with immune escape mutants in the surface gene, were identified in all eight children. Resistance mutations included rtL80I, rtV173L, rtL180M, rtM204I/V and the overlapping sE164D, sW182*, sI195M and sW196LS variants. HBV strains belonged to genotypes E (6/8, 75%) and D3 (2/8, 25%). Further analysis of the HBV core promoter region revealed mutations associated with reduced expression of HBeAg protein and hepatocarcinogenesis. All six mothers, on HBV-active ART containing tenofovir and lamivudine, tested HBV DNA negative. This study confirms the importance of screening HIV-infected children for HBV and ensuring equity of drug access to effective HBV treatment if co-infected.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Mutação , Proteínas do Core Viral/genética , Carga Viral , Adolescente , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Coinfecção/genética , Coinfecção/virologia , Estudos Transversais , DNA Viral/análise , Feminino , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Namíbia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 655, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People who use drugs including people who inject drugs (PWUD/ID), sex workers (SWs) and men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk of HIV and viral hepatitis infection. Limited epidemiological data on the infections exists in key populations (KPs) in South Africa. We investigated the prevalence of hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and HIV and selected risk factors among these KPs to inform effective responses. METHODS: We used convenience sampling to recruit a targeted 3500 KPs accessing HIV-related health services across Cape Town (SWs, MSM, PWUD/ID), Durban (SWs, PWUD/ID), Pietermaritzburg (SWs), Mthatha (SWs), Port Elizabeth (SWs), Johannesburg (MSM) and Pretoria (MSM and PWUD/ID) into a cross-sectional survey. An interviewer questionnaire to assess socio-demographic characteristics, drug use and sexual risk practices, was administered. HBV surface antigen (HBsAg); HCV antibody, viral load and genotype, and HIV antibody, was tested. RESULTS: Among the 3439 people included in the study (1528 SWs, 746 MSM, 1165 PWUD/ID) the median age was 29 years, most participants were black African (60%), and 24% reported homelessness. 82% reported substance use in the last month, including alcohol (46%) and heroin (33%). 75% were sexually active in the previous month, with condom use at last sex at 74%. HIV prevalence was 37% (highest among SWs at 47%), HBsAg prevalence 4% (similar across KPs) and HCV prevalence was 16% (highest among PWUD/ID at 46%). CONCLUSIONS: HBV, HCV and HIV pose a health burden for KPs in South Africa. While HIV is key for all included KPs, HCV is of particular importance to PWUD/ID. For KPs, HBV vaccination and behavioural change interventions that support consistent condom and lubricant access and use are needed. Coverage of opioid substitution therapy and needle and syringe services, and access to HCV treatment for PWUD/ID need to be expanded.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV/imunologia , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Genótipo , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/etiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Hepatite B/etiologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite C/etiologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Profissionais do Sexo , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 634, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) have increased risk of acquiring blood-transmitted chronic viral infections such as Hepatitis B (HBV), Hepatitis C (HCV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) as well as increased risk of acquiring bacterial infections. We aimed to identify and describe bacteraemic episodes, their recurrence rates, predictive and prognostic factors amongst hospitalised PWID. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we included 257 hospitalised PWID during 2000-2006 with follow up at the Department of Infectious Diseases, Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark. Data collection included comorbidity (HBV-, HCV-, HIV-, and psychiatric comorbidities), social information (contact to an addiction treatment centre, homelessness), opioid substitution treatment (OST), treatment completion and microbiology findings. There was a 10-years follow-up regarding mortality. RESULTS: The study identified 257 patients classified as PWID. Of these, 58 (22.6%) had at least one episode of bacteraemia during their first hospital admission. Recurrence was found in 29 (50.0%) of the bacteraemia cases. Staphylococcus aureus was the dominant microorganism of both first and recurrent episodes with 24 (41.4%) and nine (31.4%) of cases, respectively. A psychiatric diagnose was significantly associated with a lower risk of bacteraemia in the multivariate analysis (OR: 0.29, [95%CI: 0.11-0.77], P = 0.01). Mortality was significantly higher in patients with bacteraemia (17.2% vs. 3.0%, P < 0.01, OR: 6.67 [95%CI: 2.33-20], P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalised PWID, bacteraemia was found in 22.6% and was associated with at higher mortality. The most common microorganism of bacteraemia was S. aureus. Psychiatric comorbidity was significantly associated with a lower risk of bacteraemia.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Adulto , Comorbidade , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , HIV/imunologia , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/mortalidade
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(34): e21799, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846815

RESUMO

Hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) viruses are hepatotropic and lymphotropic viruses that can proliferate either in lymphocytes and monocytes or hepatocytes.The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in patients with plasma cell disorders. We also aimed to compare patients with plasma cell disorders and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in terms of HBV, HCV, and HIV seropositivity.This is a retrospective study. The patients who had patient file in the Multiple Myeloma Outpatient Unit of our hospital and were followed in our outpatient unit between January 1, 2012 and September 15, 2019, with diagnoses of either of the plasma cell disorders were included in the study. In addition, 272 CLL patients who were admitted to the Leukemia Outpatient Unit of our hospital were also enrolled in the study. The 2 disease groups were compared in terms of HBV, HCV, and HIV seropositivity.A statistically significant relationship was found between disease groups according to hepatitis B surface antigen (P < .05). Hepatitis B positivity were found to be more common in CLL patients. There was also a statistically significant relationship between the disease groups in terms of hepatitis B e antigen positivity (P = .001).We found that hepatitis B surface antigen positivity rate in CLL patients was higher than in patients with plasma cell disorders. Seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, and HIV was found to be very low in patients with plasma cell disorders.


Assuntos
Soroprevalência de HIV , Antígenos da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/epidemiologia , Paraproteinemias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Comorbidade , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos da Hepatite B/imunologia , Antígenos do Núcleo do Vírus da Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos do Núcleo do Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/epidemiologia , Plasmócitos/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
18.
Ann Afr Med ; 19(3): 176-181, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820729

RESUMO

Objectives: The study sought to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with Hepatitis B surface antigenemia (HBsAg) positivity among pregnant women in Jos, Nigeria. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study carried out among the pregnant population in five healthcare facilities in Jos, between November 1, 2017 and April 30, 2018. Informed consent was obtained, and data on sociodemographic and risk factors for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection were collected. Hepatitis B viral infection was assessed using the in vitro HBsAg diagnostic rapid kit (Acon Laboratories, USA). Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, and logistic regression were performed to identify predictors of HBV infection in the study population. All statistical analyses were carried out on STATA version 15. Results: Of the 3,238 women enrolled, 7.4% (241/3238) (95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.6% to 8.4%) were HBsAg positive. The absence of HBV vaccination (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.49; 95% CI = 1.49-4.09; P < 0.001), co-infection with HIV (AOR = 1.90; 95% CI = 1.18-3.08; P = 0.009), and higher parity (AOR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.04-1.79; P = 0.024) were independently associated with HBV infection in pregnancy. Conclusions: The prevalence of HBV infection among pregnant women was high, especially among those without prior vaccination for HBV, those with HIV co-infection and higher parity.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Adulto , Coinfecção/complicações , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 617, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Millions of lives around the world are being saved annually through blood transfusion. However, blood transfusion is among the essential vehicles for transmitting infections. The overall prevalence of Transfusion Transmissible Infections among blood donors differs around the world, reflecting the variation in the prevalence of these infections. This study aims to assess the prevalence and trends of Transfusion Transmissible Infections among blood donors in Qatar. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study utilizing donation records of 5 years from January 2013 to December 2017. We included in the study results for all screening and confirmatory tests for Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, Human T-lymphotropic Virus-I/II, Syphilis and Malaria. RESULTS: Among the 190,509 donations received at the donation centre during the study period, about 91% of donations were received from males and 9% from females. The overall positivity rate for all tests was 1.87, 2.23, 1.78, 2.31, 2.67% for the years 2013 through 2017, with an increasing yearly trend by 6% each year. The overall positivity rates for Hepatitis C Virus, Human T-lymphotropic Virus-I/II, Hepatitis B Virus, Syphilis and Malaria (2013-2017) were 0.60, 0.18, 0.30, 0.43 and 0.20%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The overall positivity rate of all tests combined for the Transfusion Transmissible Infections demonstrated a gradually increasing trend from 2013 to 2017. However, the trend for each infection (Hepatitis C Virus, Hepatitis B Virus, Syphilis and Malaria) was fluctuating except for Human T-lymphotropic Virus-I/II, which was increasing. Supporting the development of effective prevention and control strategies requires further comprehensive investigations for better estimation of the burden of these infections.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Reação Transfusional/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HTLV-II/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Catar/epidemiologia , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(34): 1161-1165, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853186

RESUMO

In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) set hepatitis elimination targets of 90% reduction in incidence and 65% reduction in mortality worldwide by 2030 (1). Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection prevalences are high in Uzbekistan, which lacks funding for meeting WHO's targets. In the absence of large financial donor programs for eliminating HBV and HCV infections, insufficient funding is an important barrier to achieving those targets in Uzbekistan and other low- and middle-income countries. A pilot program using a catalytic funding model, including simplified test-and-treat strategies, was launched in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, in December 2019. Catalytic funding is a mechanism by which the total cost of a program is paid for by multiple funding sources but is begun with upfront capital that is considerably less than the total program cost. Ongoing costs, including those for testing and treatment, are covered by payments from 80% of the enrolled patients, who purchase medications at a small premium that subsidizes the 20% who cannot afford treatment and therefore receive free medication. The 1-year pilot program set a target of testing 250,000 adults for HBV and HCV infection and treating all patients who have active infection, including those who had a positive test result for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and those who had a positive test result for HCV core antigen. During the first 3 months of the program, 24,821 persons were tested for HBV and HCV infections. Among those tested, 1,084 (4.4%) had positive test results for HBsAg, and 1,075 (4.3%) had positive test results for HCV antibody (anti-HCV). Among those infected, 275 (25.4%) initiated treatment for HBV, and 163 (15.2%) initiated treatment for HCV, of whom 86.5% paid for medications and 13.5% received medications at no cost. Early results demonstrate willingness of patients to pay for treatment if costs are low, which can offset elimination costs. However, improvements across the continuum of care are needed to recover the upfront investment. Lessons learned from this program, including the effectiveness of using simplified test-and-treat guidelines, general practitioners in lieu of specialist physicians, and innovative financing to reduce costs, can guide similar initiatives in other countries and help curb the global epidemic of viral hepatitis, especially among low- and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças/economia , Saúde Global/economia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Modelos Econométricos , Adulto , Feminino , Objetivos , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Prevalência , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Uzbequistão/epidemiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde
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