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1.
Acta Clin Croat ; 60(2): 216-230, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744271

RESUMO

Dental health care workers, particularly dental medicine students (DMS), are at an increased risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The aim of our study was to assess the level of knowledge on HBV and HCV, estimate needlestick injury (NSI) prevalence and reporting practice in DMS at the University of Zagreb, and analyze how enrolment in obligatory and supplemental courses affects knowledge and NSI reporting practice. The knowledge was assessed by our questionnaires based on the Centers for Disease Control general handouts. Additional information was collected to examine the prevalence and reporting practice of NSI. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistical analysis, independent-samples t-test, proportion analyses, and combined factor analyses of categorical and quantitative variables in SPSS and R. In total, 206 students participated in the survey. The overall level of HBV- and HCV-related knowledge was poor, with the mean scores of 61.90% and 51.35%, respectively. Moreover, students enrolled in the first year demonstrated significantly lower levels of knowledge in comparison with their older peers. Of all participants, 18.2% had sustained a NSI and the majority of them (78.95%) had never reported the injury. In conclusion, DMS have low levels of knowledge on important occupational pathogens and poor NSI reporting practice. Moreover, formal education in the current form has failed to significantly improve student competence and theoretical knowledge translates poorly into more conscientious injury reporting practice. We should look for a better way to increase student awareness and level of knowledge on this topic.


Assuntos
Hepatite B , Hepatite C , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hepacivirus , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) ; 19(73): 132-139, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812172

RESUMO

Background Hepatitis B and C (HBV and HCV) are viral infections caused by corresponding viruses. Here in this study we planned to conduct this meta-analysis to pool data on the prevalence and risk factors of HBV and/or HCV among HIV patients in Nepal. Method We used MOOSE guideline for the systemic review of available literature. We searched online databases using appropriate keywords. We used CMA-3 for data synthesis. Odds ratio, and proportion were used to estimate the outcome with a 95% confidence interval where appropriate. We assessed the heterogeneity using the I-squared (I2 ) test. Result We included nine studies for our synthesis. Pooling of data showed HBV in 4.6% (CI: 3.7-5.6), HCV in 19.7% (CI: 10.8-33.0), both HBV and HCV in 1.3% (CI: 0.5-3.7) in HIV affected individuals. Among HBV co-infected HIV positive patients, 59.5% (CI: 25.5-86.3) were male; 76.1% (CI: 30.1-96.0) were married and 43.6% (CI: 3.8-93.8) had a history of intravenous drug use (IVDU). Among HCV co-infected HIV positive individuals 88.3% (CI: 73.6-95.4) were male; 63.6% (CI: 55.4-71.1) were married; 91.5% (CI: 68.6-98.1) were literate; 59.2% (CI: 49.9-67.9) were on ART; and 92.2% (95%CI: 84.9-96.1) had a history of IVDU. Conclusion The pooled prevalence of co-infection with HBV, HCV, and combined HBV and HCV were 4.6%, 19.7% and 1.3% respectively among HIV positive patients. Thus, it is necessary to appropriately screen for HBV and HCV in individuals diagnosed with HIV and high-risk populations. IVDU remains the most common risk factor found in co-infected individuals.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Infecções por HIV , Hepatite B , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Nepal/epidemiologia , Prevalência
3.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(4): 613-619, 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814439

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the changes in the morbidity and mortality of hepatitis B in China from 1990 to 2017, and provide evidence for prevention and control of hepatitis B. Methods: The reported incidence and death data of hepatitis B from the Data-Center of China Public Health Science and demographic data from the National Bureau of Statistics were used, Excel 2016 was used to establish the databases of reported hepatitis B cases and deaths, respectively. The Joinpoint regression model was used through Joinpoint software 4.8.0.1 to estimate the average annual percent change of annual reported incidence and mortality of hepatitis B in different age groups and provinces in China from 1990 to 2017 in order to further explore the trend of hepatitis B incidence. Software R 3.6.2 was used for statistical analysis and data visualization. Results: A total of 20 793 233 hepatitis B cases were reported from January 1990 to December 2017 in China with average annual reported incidence of 58.19/100 000. The average annual reported incidence appeared highest in age group 25-29 years (119.67/100 000) and the annual reported incidence increased in group aged 45 years and above. Besides, the reported case fatality rate reached the highest in group aged 85 years and above (2.26/1 000). The reported incidence showed increasing trends in 23 provinces (P<0.05), stable in 7 provinces (P>0.05), and decreasing in 2 provinces (P<0.05). Conclusions: The report of hepatitis B was mainly from adult population in China, and the reported incidence of hepatitis B in this population was in increase. In some provinces of the eastern China where immunization measures have been in place and the treatment level is relatively high, the incidence of hepatitis B has been leveled off; the incidences in most provinces in western China are still in increase. Therefore, more targeted prevention and control strategies should be taken in different provinces.


Assuntos
Hepatite B , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Morbidade , Saúde Pública
4.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(6): 1061-1066, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814507

RESUMO

Objective: To compare the seroprevalence of hepatitis B in Guangzhou in 2008 and 2018. Methods: According to the proportion of Guangzhou population size, two-stage cluster sampling was used to select the residents aged 1-59 years in the two surveys. Results: 4 989 and 3 980 people aged 1-59 years were involved in 2008 and 2018, respectively. HBsAg prevalence was 9.50% (95%CI:7.34%-11.66%) in 2018 and 12.45% (95%CI:10.58%-14.33%) in 2008 among the people aged 1-59 years, with no significant difference statistically (χ2=18.302, P=0.075). The decrease of HBsAg prevalence was mainly in the population aged 7-16 years. For the people aged 7-16 years, the HBsAg prevalence was 0.88% (95%CI: 0.35%-1.42%) in 2018 and decreased by 80.62% as compared with the rate 4.54% (95%CI:2.71%-6.36%) in 2008, with statistically significant difference (χ2=34.144,P=0.000). Anti-HBs prevalence was 72.30% (95%CI:69.56%-75.04%) in 2018 and ascended by 11.35% as compared with the rate of 64.93% (95%CI:61.65 %-68.22%) in 2008 among the people aged 1-59 years, with statistically significant difference (χ2=51.618, P=0.001). The rise of anti-HBs prevalence was mainly in the population aged 17-59 years. For the people aged 17-59 years, the anti-HBs prevalence was 71.93% (95%CI: 68.90%-74.96%) and risen by 12.80% as compared with the rate of 63.77% (95%CI: 60.16%-67.37%) in 2008, with a statistically significant difference (χ2=28.422, P=0.001). HBV infection rate was 48.10% (95%CI: 43.20%-53.00%) in 2018 and decreased by 22.76% as compared with the rate of 62.27% (95%CI: 59.11%-65.44%) in 2008, with statistically significant difference (χ2=167.138, P=0.000). The HBV infection rates in the population aged 1-6 years, 7-16 years, and 17-59 years were 4.58%, 5.13%, and 56.56% (a decrease of 81.83%, 85.91%, and 18.47%), respectively. The infection rate of HBV was 48.87% (a decrease of 24.70%) in high epidemic areas and 28.81% (a decrease of 38.75%) in people with a history of hepatitis B immunization. Conclusion: The prevention and control of hepatitis B in Guangzhou have achieved remarkable results it already reached the national goal of reducing HBsAg prevalence to less than 1% among children under five years since 2008. However, the target goal of reducing the hepatitis B mortality rate is quite demanding. The neonatal hepatitis B vaccination and monitoring and screening in adults are still needed.


Assuntos
Hepatite B , Pré-Escolar , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Humanos , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
5.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(9): 1527-1531, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814579

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis B in China, evaluate the performance of elimination hepatitis B in China and provide scientific evidence for the prevention and control of hepatitis B. Methods: An analysis was conducted by using the data of hepatitis B cases reported to the National Notifiable Disease Reporting System (NNDRS) from the areas with low, moderate and high hepatitis B prevalence in China from 2013 to 2020, and the information about the diagnoses of the hepatitis B cases were collected, the incidence of hepatitis B was estimated according to the reporting and diagnosis information and the characteristics of acute and chronic hepatitis B were compared. Results: A total of 27 013 hepatitis B cases were reported to NNDRS, including 4 070 acute cases, 21 971 chronic cases and 972 unclassified cases. Among the reported acute hepatitis B cases, 69.9% (2 845/4 070) were confirmed. Among the reported chronic hepatitis B cases, 89.0% (19 548/21 971) were confirmed, and 2.1% (452/21 971) were confirmed as acute cases. It was estimated that the incidence of acute hepatitis B was 4.6/100 000 and the incidence of chronic hepatitis B cases was 54.5/100 000. The case number of acute hepatitis B in age group 31-45 years was highest, accounting for 35.3% (1 164/3 297). The case number of acute hepatitis B in children under 15 years old was lowest, accounting for 0.4% (13/3 297). The case number of chronic hepatitis B in age group 46-60 years was highest, accounting for 34.4% (7 211/20 932). Conclusions: The incidence of acute hepatitis B was in decrease and the incidence of chronic of hepatitis B was in increase in China year by year. It is important to strengthen the standardized diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis B to decrease the morbidity and mortality of hepatitis B. At the same time, it is necessary to standardize the management and reporting of hepatitis B cases reported to NNDRS to improve the accuracy of the reporting of hepatitis B.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica , Hepatite B , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(9): 1532-1536, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814580

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the characteristics of hepatitis B cases reported through the National Notifiable Disease Reported System (NNDRS) of China in 2019, analyze the quality of hepatitis B reporting. Methods: The survey forms and reporting cards of hepatitis B cases in 200 surveillance points in China in 2019 were collected from NNDRS, the completeness rate of the reporting card was calculated, and the reported hepatitis B cases were verified based on the diagnostic criteria (WS 299-2008). The clinical types of the cases after verification were compared with the reported ones, the consistency was evaluated with Kappa test. The reasons for the inconsistent clinical types of the cases were analyzed. Results: In 2019, a total of 64 686 hepatitis B cases were reported through NNDRS. Acute, chronic and unclassified hepatitis B cases accounted for 5.8%, 92.4% and 1.8%, respectively. The average age of reported cases was 47 (47±15) years, and males accounted for 64.4%. The average level of alanine aminotransferase was 214.2 (214.2±1 253.4) U/L. The reported cases mainly worked in agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, fishery, and water conservancy (50.6%, 32 722). The proportions of cases reported from the eastern, western and central regions were 42.5% (27 501),22.1% (14 315) and 35.4% (22 870), respectively. The consistent rate of the clinical types between the reported cases and the verified cases was 58.8%, with a Kappa value of 0.15. For the 39 271 cases confirmed as acute and chronic hepatitis B cases in the reporting cards, the consistent rate of the clinical types between the reported cases and the verified cases was 96.9%, with a Kappa value of 0.73. In 94.5% (24 267/25 681) of the cases with inconsistent clinical types, the reporting card information were incomplete. Conclusion: The diagnosis of hepatitis B has been improved in the hepatitis B surveillance in China, but it is necessary to improve the completeness of the reporting cards of hepatitis B cases to NNDRS.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica , Hepatite B , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Masculino
7.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(9): 1553-1558, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814583

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the intensity and epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation among inactive HBsAg carriers (IHC) of rural areas in Ji'nan. Methods: In 2018 and 2020, follow-up investigations were conducted on IHC identified in the population physical examination in Zhangqiu district of Ji'nan. The results of the two follow-up visits were compared to analyze the incidence and distribution characteristics of HBV reactivation in IHC at the community level. Results: A total of 424 IHC completed two follow-up visits, and 47 cases of HBV reactivation were found, the cumulative reactivation rate was 11.08%, and the incidence density was 5.46/100 person-years. Multivariate analysis showed that gender, age, smoking, drinking , family history of liver disease and chronic diseases were not associated with HBV reactivation (P>0.05), and baseline HBV DNA load was associated with reactivation (P<0.05), in the HBV DNA level ≥1 000 IU/ml group, the reactivation rate could reach 18.92%. After reactivation, the mean level of ALT increased from baseline and the abnormal rate increased, liver function tended to be abnormal in reactivated patients. 4 (8.51%) reactivators had hepatitis, and 1 (2.13%) had jaundice hepatitis. Conclusions: The incidence of HBV reactivation was higher among IHC in rural communities in Ji'nan. Most of the reactivators were asymptomatic or mildly reactivated. Follow-up of inactive HBsAg patients should be strengthened and changes in ALT and HBV DNA levels should be closely monitored.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica , Hepatite B , DNA Viral , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Humanos , População Rural , Ativação Viral
8.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(36): 6025-6038, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629817

RESUMO

Elimination of viral hepatitis in sub-Saharan Africa by 2030 is an ambitious feat. However, as stated by the World Health Organization, there are unprecedented opportunities to act and make significant contributions to the elimination target. With 60 million people chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) of whom 38800 are at risk of developing highly fatal hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) every year, sub-Saharan Africa faces one of the greatest battles towards elimination of viral hepatitis. There is a need to examine progress in controlling the disproportionate burden of HBV-associated HCC in sub-Saharan Africa within the context of this elimination target. By scaling-up coverage of hepatitis B birth dose and early childhood vaccination, we can significantly reduce new cases of HCC by as much as 50% within the next three to five decades. Given the substantial reservoir of chronic HBV carriers however, projections show that HCC incidence and mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa will double by 2040. This warrants urgent public health attention. The trends in the burden of HCC over the next two decades, will be determined to a large extent by progress in achieving early diagnosis and appropriate linkage to care for high-risk chronic HBV infected persons.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Hepatite B , Hepatite Viral Humana , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/prevenção & controle , Pré-Escolar , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/prevenção & controle
10.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(4): 897-902, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605453

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus infection is an important cause of liver disease. Hepatitis B Virus may present with varying degree of severity. In older children, 5-10% cases leading to chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. This descriptive cross sectional study was done to assess the prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus infection among hospitalized children with liver disease in pediatric department of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh from December 2015 to October 2016. All the children of both sexes having age between six months to twelve years admitted in the pediatric ward with acute or chronic liver disease were included in this study by purposive sampling. A written consent was obtained from legal guardian of children before inclusion. Ethical clearance was obtained from competent authority. A detailed history was taken from parents in each case according to pre-designed questionnaire about demography of the patients and the risk factors of the liver disease. A thorough clinical examination and available relevant investigations like serological testing for HBV infection was done in all patients. We had figure out the seropositivity of HBV among patients having liver disease by doing HBsAg and Anti-HBc IgM. Progress of the patient was monitored by daily clinical examinations and by investigating HBsAg and Anti-HBc IgM. Finally data analysis was done by SPSS version 21.0. Among total 100 patients most (44%) patients were in 7-10 years old and most (62%) of the participants were male. Acute liver disease was 58% cases and chronic liver disease was 42% cases. HBsAg was positive in 1 case among acute liver disease and 5 cases among chronic cases. Total 6 (six) patients were found positive for HBsAg. Anti HBc IgM was positive in 4 patients among acute liver disease. Among these Anti HBc IgM positive (4) patients only one had both HBsAg and Anti HBc IgM positive. So, four patients were confirming suffered from acute viral hepatitis because they had anti HBc IgM positive. On the contrary 5 patients suffered from chronic hepatitis by hepatitis B because they were only HBsAg positive. So, in this study 9 patients (9%) were confirming suffered from HBV infection. Possible transmission factors of hepatitis B were history of (H/O) blood transfusion/trauma/parenteral injection, H/O umbilical sepsis, H/O maternal illness/infection during pregnancy. HBV still is a major cause of morbidity. All the children with liver disease should be routinely tested for HBV.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Hepatite B , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Gravidez , Prevalência
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1028, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tanzania ranks as the fourth country in the world with respect to the number of sickle cell disease (SCD) births; it is also endemic to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the hepatitis B virus (HBV). This study was done to determine the prevalence of HIV and HBV infections among SCD patients in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS: A multicenter hospital-based descriptive cross sectional study was carried out among participants aged ≥ 16 years with a proven diagnosis of SCD. Socio-demographic and clinical data were recorded. Blood samples were drawn for HIV and HBV diagnosis. All categorical variables were summarized into frequencies. RESULTS: There were 185/325 (56.9 %) females. The mean age (SD) was 23.0 ± 7.5 years. The prevalence of HIV was 1.8 %; the prevalence of HBV was 1.2 %. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of both HIV and HBV in SCD patients is no greater than in the general population of Dar es Salaam or Tanzania. For associations, a large study would be needed. From a detailed blood transfusion history of SCD patients we found no evidence that HIV or HBV infection was transmitted through blood transfusion.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Infecções por HIV , Hepatite B , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Anemia Falciforme/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Int J Circumpolar Health ; 80(1): 1986975, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668463

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a global health threat. The World Health Organization (WHO) established a goal to eliminate HBV infection as a public health threat by 2030, and defined targets for key interventions to achieve that goal. We evaluated HBV burden and relevant national recommendations for progress towards WHO targets in circumpolar countries. Viral hepatitis experts of circumpolar countries were surveyed regarding their country's burden of HBV, achievement of WHO targets and national public health authority recommendations for HBV prevention and control. Eight of nine circumpolar countries responded. All countries continue to see new HBV infections. Data about HBV prevalence and progress in reaching WHO 2030 elimination targets are lacking. No country was able to report data for all seven WHO target measures. All countries have recommendations targeting the prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Only the USA and Greenland recommend universal birth dose vaccination. Four countries have recommendations to screen persons at high risk for HBV. Existing recommendations largely address prevention; however, recommendations for universal birth dose vaccination have not been widely introduced. Opportunities remain for the development of trackable targets and national elimination planning to screen and treat for HBV to reduce incidence and mortality.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B , Feminino , Saúde Global , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Organização Mundial da Saúde
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1120, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an infectious disease of global significance, causing a significant health burden in Africa due to complications associated with infection, such as cirrhosis and liver cancer. In Nigeria, which is considered a high prevalence country, estimates of HBV cases are inconsistent, and therefore additional clarity is required to manage HBV-associated public health challenges. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature (via PubMed, Advanced Google Scholar, African Index Medicus) was conducted to retrieve primary studies published between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2019, with a random-effects model based on proportions used to estimate the population-based prevalence of HBV in the Nigerian population. RESULTS: The final analyses included 47 studies with 21,702 participants that revealed a pooled prevalence of 9.5%. A prevalence estimate above 8% in a population is classified as high. Sub-group analyses revealed the highest HBV prevalence in rural settings (10.7%). The North West region had the highest prevalence (12.1%) among Nigeria's six geopolitical zones/regions. The estimate of total variation between studies indicated substantial heterogeneity. These variations could be explained by setting and geographical region. The statistical test for Egger's regression showed no evidence of publication bias (p = 0.879). CONCLUSIONS: We present an up-to-date review on the prevalence of HBV in Nigeria, which will provide critical data to optimise and assess the impact of current prevention and control strategies, including disease surveillance and diagnoses, vaccination policies and management for those infected.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência
14.
Clin Nephrol ; 96(1): 119-126, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643503

RESUMO

AIMS: To estimate the prevalence of anti-HBc-positive patients with functioning kidney graft, to detect the anti-HBc-positive patients in danger for hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation and to update Slovenian guidelines on hepatitis B follow-up, vaccination, introduction of chemoprophylaxis or treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Slovenian national cohort of kidney transplant patients with functioning graft managed at the University Medical Center Ljubljana was included. In a cross-sectional study between March and September 2020, all included patients were screened for the presence of anti-HBc; all anti-HBc-positive patients were additionally tested for anti-HBs, HBsAg, and HBV DNA. RESULTS: Out of a total of 778 included patients, 72 were anti-HBc positive (9.2%). Eight patients (1%) presented with asymptomatic chronic HBV infection: 6 were HBsAg-positive/HBV DNA-negative, and 2 were HBsAg-negative/HBV DNA positive. In one of the latter, HBsAg mutant variant P120QD144E was proven. By the time of the study, 12 anti-HBc-positive patients (16.6%) have already been receiving chemoprophylaxis. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of anti-HBc-positive patients in the national cohort of kidney transplant patients in Slovenia was 9.2%. Based on the specific combination of HBV markers (anti-HBc, anti-HBs, HBsAg, HBV DNA) we stratified patients into six subgroups. Algorithm on follow-up, hepatitis B vaccination, chemoprophylaxis, or treatment is presented for each of the specific subgroups.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica , Hepatite B , Transplante de Rim , Estudos Transversais , DNA Viral , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite B Crônica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos
15.
Clin Liver Dis ; 25(4): 673-687, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593147

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus infection remains a global public health problem with changing epidemiology due to several factors including vaccination policies and migration.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B , Demografia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Humanos , Vacinação
16.
Clin Liver Dis ; 25(4): 711-724, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593149

RESUMO

This article reviews the incidence of acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, its clinical course, strategies to prevent acute HBV infection in susceptible individuals, and the management of patients with acute HBV.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Humanos
17.
Clin Liver Dis ; 25(4): 859-874, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593158

RESUMO

Owing to standard precautions and initiatives for universal hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination in the general population and health care workers, risk of transmission of HBV infection from the patient to a health care worker (and vice versa) is very low. The need for mandatory HBV screening and vaccination in health care workers is less clear than in the past. Health care workers with chronic HBV infection neither require restrictions on professional practice nor disclosure of infection status to a patient. Further study is required to develop effective revaccination strategies to manage health care workers who are vaccine nonresponders.


Assuntos
Hepatite B , Pessoal de Saúde , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B , Vacinas contra Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(42): e27378, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678864

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This article was to investigate risk factors influencing liver cancer prognosis after hepatectomy.Patients undergoing hepatectomy after being diagnosed with liver cancer in Zhongshan Hospital Affiliated to Xiamen University were collected in the retrospective cohort study between January 2012 and December 2017, and divided into disease progression and non-progression groups based on their prognostic status. Univariate analysis was performed on the patients' baseline and laboratory test data, with multivariate logistic regression further conducted to investigate the independent risk factors for liver cancer progression after hepatectomy.Among the 288 subjects, 159 had adverse outcomes (death or cancer recurrence). Hepatitis B and high levels of aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), direct bilirubin, and total bilirubin as well as low level of lymphocyte (LYM) were found to be associated with disease progression in the univariate analysis, and were introduced into the multivariate logistic regression. The results indicated that patients with high ALP level (odds ratio [OR] = 1.004, 95%CI: 1.002-1.007, P = .003) and with a history of hepatitis B (OR = 2.182, 95%CI: 1.165-4.086, P = .015) had a higher risk of liver cancer progression compared with those of lower ALP level and those without hepatitis B respectively, whereas the elevated level of LYM (OR = 0.710, 95%CI: 0.516-0.978, P = .034) had favorable progression.The elevated ALP level and a history of hepatitis B may increase the risk of death or cancer recurrence, whereas high LYM level may decrease poor progression among liver cancer patients after hepatectomy. More importance should be attached to the improvement of the liver function and treatment of hepatitis B to enable a better outcome for the patients.


Assuntos
Hepatectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Comorbidade , Feminino , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Humanos , Testes de Função Hepática , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
19.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e048463, 2021 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620657

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose was to explore the association between self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among people with diabetes. DESIGN: A cross-sectional comparative study. SETTING: Six township hospitals in Gansu Province, China in October 2018. PARTICIPANTS: 408 patients with diabetes were systematically recruited, and based on their characteristics 408 people without diabetes were randomly matched 1:1. INTERVENTIONS: Venous blood was collected for HBV serological testing and blood glucose testing. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was comparison of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive rates between the two groups. The secondary outcome was the relationship between frequency of SMBG and HBsAg positivity. RESULTS: HBsAg positive rate in people without diabetes was 2.0% and in those with diabetes was 4.2%. Whether in people without diabetes or patients with diabetes, higher frequency of SMBG was associated with higher HBsAg positive rate. Increases in the duration of diabetes were correlated with increasing rates of HBsAg. Compared with people without diabetes, logistic regression identified an association between diabetes and HBV infection (OR=2.8; 95% CI 1.0 to 7.6), but impaired fasting glucose was not (OR=2.3; 95% CI 0.5 to 9.9). CONCLUSION: Routine blood glucose monitoring at home was associated with HBV infection, which meant people with diabetes may be at high risk of HBV infection. China is a country with high prevalence of both HBsAg and diabetes, and the increased risk of HBV infection in populations with diabetes needs more attention.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hepatite B , Glicemia , Automonitorização da Glicemia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos , Prevalência
20.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1831, 2021 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In July 1984, Taiwan officially began a nationwide hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination program where only infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers were vaccinated free of charge until June 1986. However, from July 1986, all infants were vaccinated against HBV. The impact of the July 1986 HBV vaccination program on first-time blood donors has not been exhaustively studied. We, therefore, determined the risk of HBV among male and female first-time blood donors born before and after the July 1986 HBV vaccination program in Taiwan. METHODS: Initially, we recruited 857,310 first-time blood donors whose data were collected between 2013 and 2018 from 5 blood donation centers in Taiwan. However, we excluded donors with incomplete and outlying data (n = 12,213) and those born between July 1984 and June 1986 (n = 21,054). The final study participants comprised 9118 HBV positive and 814,925 HBV negative individuals. We divided the participants into two birth cohorts (born before and after July 1986) and assumed that those born before July 1986 were not vaccinated at birth while those born after July 1986 were vaccinated. RESULTS: The prevalence of HBV among those born before and after July 1986 was 4.53 and 0.25%, respectively. Individuals born after July 1986 had a lower risk of HBV than those born before July 1986. The adjusted odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI) was 0.16, 0.13-0.19. Men had a higher risk of HBV than women (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.34-1.47). The interaction between sex and birth date was significant (p-value = 0.0067). Stratification of participants by birth date revealed a higher risk of HBV in men compared to women in both birth cohorts. The OR, 95% CI was 1.47, 1.40-1.55 for those born before July 1986 but declined to 1.15, 1.02-1.29 for those born after July 1986. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of HBV was lower among those born after than those born before the July 1986 vaccination program. In both cohorts, the risk was high in men relative to women. The seemingly protective effect among those born after July 1986 was higher in women than men.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B , Doadores de Sangue , Feminino , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Vacinas contra Hepatite B , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Vacinação
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