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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244977, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285621

RESUMO

Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the serious global public health burden of liver disease. Approximately 170 million people in the world are infected with (HCV). In Pakistan, where the disease has high occurrence rate. The present study envisages an up-to-date prevalence of HCV and genotypic distribution in the general population of Mardan District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. The blood samples from 6,538 individuals including 3,263 males and 3,275 females were analyzed for hepatitis C surface antigen by Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT), Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). It was found that 396 (12.13%) out of 3263 individuals contained antibodies in their blood against HCV, while among the different age groups, the highest incidences of HCV antibodies were found in the 31-40 age group (11.01%). The ICT positive samples were further screened by nested PCR to determine the existence of active HCV-RNA. It was identified that 7.11% (3263) of the total population (6538) tested was positive, among which the 461 (14.07%) females possessed antibodies in their blood against HCV. Our data showed total HCV infection in the investigated population was 5.78%. Higher percentage of HCV prevalence was detected in males than females in the age group 31-40 and 41-50. To compare the prevalence of HCV genotypes age-wise in male and female genotype 3a was found most prevalent genotype followed by 1a, 2a and 3b, respectively.


Resumo O vírus da hepatite C (HCV) é o grave problema de saúde pública das doenças hepáticas. Aproximadamente 170 milhões de pessoas no mundo estão infectadas com HCV; no Paquistão, a doença tem alto índice de ocorrência. O presente estudo prevê uma prevalência atualizada do HCV e distribuição genotípica na população geral do distrito de Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Paquistão. As amostras de sangue de 6.538 indivíduos, incluindo 3.263 homens e 3.275 mulheres, foram analisadas para o antígeno de superfície da hepatite C por teste imunocromatográfico (ICT), ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA) e reação em cadeia da polimerase de transcrição reversa (PCR). Verificou-se que 396 (12,13%) de 3.263 indivíduos continham anticorpos no sangue contra o HCV, enquanto entre as diferentes faixas etárias as maiores incidências de anticorpos anti-HCV foram encontradas na faixa etária de 31 a 40 anos (11,01%). As amostras positivas para ICT foram posteriormente rastreadas por nested PCR para determinar a existência de HCV-RNA ativo. Identificou-se que 7,11% (3.263) do total da população (6.538) testada foram positivos, dentre os quais 461 (14,07%) mulheres possuíam anticorpos no sangue contra o HCV. Nossos dados mostraram que a infecção total pelo HCV na população investigada foi de 5,78%. Maior porcentagem de prevalência de HCV foi detectada em homens do que em mulheres nas faixas etárias de 31-40 e 41-50. Para comparar a prevalência de genótipos de HCV com relação à idade no genótipo masculino e feminino 3a foi encontrado o genótipo mais prevalente seguido por 1a, 2a e 3b, respectivamente.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepacivirus/genética , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Genótipo
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19257, 2022 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36357472

RESUMO

Innovative testing approaches and care pathways are required to meet HIV, hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) elimination goals. Routine testing for blood-borne viruses (BBVs) within emergency departments (EDs) is suggested by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control but there is a paucity of supporting evidence. We evaluated the introduction of routine BBV testing in EDs at a large teaching hospital in northern England. In October 2018, we modified the electronic laboratory ordering system to reflex opt-out HIV, HBV and HCV testing for all ED attendees aged 16-65 years who had a routine blood test for urea and electrolytes (U&Es). Linkage to care (LTC) was attempted for newly diagnosed patients, those never referred and those who had previously disengaged from care. The project operated for 18 months, here we present evaluation of the initial nine months (2 October 2018-1 July 2019). We analysed testing uptake, BBV seropositivity, LTC and treatment initiation within six months post-diagnosis. Over 9 months, 17,026/28,178 (60.4%) ED attendees who had U&Es performed were tested for ≥ 1 BBV. 299 active BBV infections were identified: 70 HIV Ab/Ag-positive (0.4% seroprevalence), 73 HBsAg-positive (0.4%) and 156 HCV RNA-positive (1.0%). Only 24.3% (17/70) HIV Ab/Ag-positive individuals required LTC, compared to 94.9% (148/156) HCV RNA-positive and 53.4% (39/73) HBsAg-positive individuals. LTC was successful in 94.1% (16/17) HIV Ab/Ag-positive and 69.3% (27/39) HBsAg-positive individuals. However, at 6 months LTC was just 39.2% (58/148) for HCV RNA-positive individuals, with 64% (37/58) of these commencing treatment. Universal opt-out ED BBV testing proved feasible and effective in identifying active BBV infections, especially among marginalised populations with reduced healthcare access. Our integrated approach achieved good LTC rates although further service development is necessary, particularly for HCV RNA-positive people who inject drugs.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Hepatite B , Hepatite C , Humanos , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepacivirus , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido , RNA
4.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2026, 2022 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36335324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although several studies on hepatitis B (HBV), C (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have been conducted in Greece, little is known on the knowledge level of the Greek population towards these three infections. Our aim was to assess the knowledge level of the adult Greek general population about the HBV, HCV and HIV. METHODS: Data were derived from the first general population health survey, Hprolipsis. The sample was selected by multistage stratified random sampling. A standardized questionnaire was administered by trained interviewers during home visits. A knowledge score was constructed based on responses to 17 per infection selected items and categorized in three levels; high (12-17 correct replies) medium (6-11) and low (0-5). Among 8,341 eligible individuals, 6,006 were recruited (response rate: 72%) and 5,878 adults (≥ 18 years) were included in the analysis. The statistical analysis accounted for the study design. RESULTS: Only 30.4%, 21.6%, and 29.6% of the participants had a high overall knowledge level of HBV, HCV and HIV, respectively. These low percentages were mainly attributed to the high levels of misconception about transmission modes (65.9%, 67.2%, and 67.9%, respectively). Results showed that increasing age and living out of the big metropolitan cities were associated with decreased odds of having higher knowledge. Female gender, higher education level, higher monthly family income, higher medical risk score, history of testing and being born in Greece or Cyprus, were associated with increased odds of having higher knowledge. CONCLUSIONS: There are significant knowledge gaps in the Greek general population regarding modes of transmission, preventive measures and treatment availability for HBV, HCV and HIV. There is an urgent need for large scale but also localized awareness activities targeted to less privileged populations, to fill the gaps in knowledge and increase population engagement in preventive measures.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Hepatite B , Hepatite C , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Vírus da Hepatite B , Inquéritos e Questionários , HIV , Hepatite C/epidemiologia
5.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(12): 4389-4396, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36383852

RESUMO

We aimed to report the experience in managing action research on hepatitis C investigation in the prison community in the Triângulo Mineiro region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The proposal was developed from March 2019 to March 2020, reaching 240 people to contain the spread of the disease through a survey, testing, and monitoring of positive cases. We adopted intersectoral action with articulation between Universities, Medical Society, Teaching Hospital, and State Secretariat for Justice and Public Security. Strategies for the management of action research are described: study settings and stakeholders, registration and formalization of the activity, application of tests, and management of reagent inmates. We identified difficulties regarding the accommodation of routines among the research team and the proper functioning of the penitentiary, which required extensive training between the parties and managerial articulations. We consider that the report collaborates with the organization of future research aimed at accessing this still invisible population, the prison community when it highlights the strategies adopted to conduct the research.


Objetivou-se relatar a experiência no gerenciamento de pesquisa-ação sobre inquérito de hepatite C junto à comunidade carcerária no Triângulo Mineiro, Minas Gerais. A proposta foi desenvolvida entre março de 2019 e março de 2020, alcançando 240 pessoas, com o intuito de conter a disseminação do agravo por meio de inquérito, testagem e acompanhamento dos casos positivos. Adotou-se ação intersetorial, com articulação entre universidades, sociedade médica, hospital de ensino e Secretaria de Estado de Justiça e Segurança Pública. As estratégias para o gerenciamento da pesquisa-ação foram: cenários e atores do estudo, registro e formalização da atividade, aplicação dos testes e manejo dos internos reagentes. Dificuldades foram identificadas quanto à acomodação de rotinas entre equipe de pesquisadores e funcionamento próprio da penitenciária, o que exigiu treinamento ostensivo entre as partes e articulações gerenciais. Considera-se que o relato, quando destaca as estratégias adotadas para a condução da pesquisa, colabora para a organização de investigações futuras que visem acessar essa população ainda invisibilizada.


Assuntos
Hepatite C , Prisioneiros , Humanos , Prisões , Brasil/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/terapia , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde
6.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366422

RESUMO

Although blood transfusion is an important therapeutic resource, transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) are still a cause for concern. Measures to mitigate this risk involve improvement of donor screening criteria and improvements in laboratory tests, especially the use of nucleic acid test (NAT). In this retrospective study we evaluated HIV, HTLV, HCV and HBV infection rates in blood donors of the Hematology and Hemotherapy Foundation of Bahia (Hemoba), Brazil, through serological and NAT results and the characteristics of donors. From February/2008 to December/2017, 777,446 blood donations were made. Most donors were male, aged 25-44 years, black and mixed race, and single or divorced. The density-type incidence (DTI; per 100,000) for each virus was 91.1 for HBV; 66.5 for HCV; 54.3 for HIV; and 33.9 for HTLV, with a decreasing trend observed over the period studied, except in the last biennium. NAT detected only 1 donor in immunological window for HIV (0.46/100,000 donations) and 3 donors in immunological window for HBV (1.8/100,000 donations). Serological positivity for all viruses studied was higher in the metropolitan region of Salvador, the state capital. Conclusion: DTI rates show a decreasing trend over the years studied, with a predominance of HBV infection. NAT allowed the detection of donors in immunological window periods, having an important role in improving transfusion safety.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Hepatite B , Hepatite C , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doadores de Sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto
7.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New technologies and therapies allow the possibility of a single-visit test and treat model for hepatitis C virus (HCV), addressing some of the barriers to care faced by people who inject drugs. METHODS: The TEMPO Pilot Study was an interventional cohort study evaluating a single-visit test and treat intervention among people with recent injecting drug use at a one peer-led needle and syringe program (NSP) in Sydney, Australia between September 2019 and February 2021. This analysis evaluated awareness of HCV status and agreement of self-report with HCV RNA test results. The analysis also assessed acceptability of: modality of result delivery, modality of blood sampling, site of treatment, and duration of treatment. RESULTS: Among 101 participants (median age 43; 31% female), 100 had a valid HCV RNA test result and 27% (27/100) were HCV RNA detectable. Overall, 65% (65/100) were aware of their status. Among people with a positive HCV RNA result, 48% (13/27) were aware of their status. People preferred same-day HCV test results (95%, 96/101), and preferred to receive results in person (69%, 70/101). Receiving treatment at an NSP was acceptable (100%, 101/101) and 78% (79/101) were willing to discuss their health with a peer NSP worker. CONCLUSION: Half of people with current HCV infection were aware of their status. The high acceptability of simplified testing and treatment pathways delivered at NSPs indicates that this is an appropriate strategy to improve HCV awareness and treatment uptake in this population.


Assuntos
Hepatite C , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos de Coortes , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Projetos Piloto , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Seringas , RNA Viral
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19925, 2022 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36402865

RESUMO

Although the smoking rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected people was much higher than that of the general population, smoking cessation interventions have long been ineffective. We aimed to examine the estimates of prevalence, time-trend, and association of smoking among people living with HIV, HBV, or HCV. This cohort was composed of 32,115 individuals from the NHANES database (1999-2018) and they were collected in the US. The time trend analysis of smoking and quitting rates was conducted using different years of survey follow-up and different infected groups. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors related to smoking behavior of these infected people. Compared to non-infected smokers, infected smokers were more likely to be older (aged 30-39, OR = 9.92, CI 6.07-16.21; aged 40-49,OR = 3.51, CI 2.49-4.94), males (1.99, 1.54-2.55), lower education and economic level (1.78, 1.39-2.29; 2.05, 1.59-2.65), unemployed (1.63, 1.21-2.20), suffering depression (1.35, 1.05-1.72), and drug users (7.65, 5.04-11.59). Taken together, our study showed that these complex psychosocial characteristics and unhealthy behavioral factors might be major independent risk factors for increasing smoking rate and decreasing smoking cessation rate among these infected people.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Hepatite C , Humanos , Adulto , Masculino , Hepacivirus , Vírus da Hepatite B , Prevalência , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/complicações , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações
9.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1018724, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36388309

RESUMO

Background: Female sex workers (FSWs) are considered highly vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs), but available data on the prevalence of STIs among FSWs in China is limited at a provincial level. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of STIs and risk factors among FSWs in Jiangsu, China. Methods: We conducted a multicenter cross-sectional study in seven cities of Jiangsu to investigate the prevalence and risk factors associated with HIV and other STIs. Blood and urine were collected to test for HIV, syphilis, Hepatitis C (HCV), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections. Results: We enrolled 3,580 FSWs. The overall prevalence of bacterial STIs was 6.2% (5.4%-7.0%). The prevalence of HIV, syphilis infection, HCV, NG and CT were 0.1% (95%CI, 0.0-0.2), 1.8% (95%CI, 1.4-2.3), 0.3% (95%CI, 0.1-0.5), 0.3% (95%CI, 0.2-0.5) and 4.3% (95%CI, 3.6-5.0), respectively. Most FSWs (85.6%) reported consistent condom use with clients in the past month. Only 10.6% of FSWs reported group sex, and 68.3% self-reported HIV testing in the previous year. According to the multivariable model, having group sex in the past year (aOR, 2.521, 95%CI: 1.366-4.651) and HIV infection (aOR, 26.260, 95%CI: 2.432-283.563) were associated with a higher risk of syphilis infection. Migrants (aOR, 1.669, 95%CI: 1.163-2.395), having a history of STIs in the past year (aOR, 4.601, 95%CI: 1.003-21.118), and NG infection (aOR, 38.549, 95%CI: 11.214-132.514) were associated with a higher risk of CT infection. On the contrary, FSWs aged older than 25 were associated with lower risk of syphilis infection (25-34: aOR, 0.339, 95%CI: 0.151-0.763) and CT infection (25-34: aOR, 0.503, 95%CI: 0.316-0.802; ≥35: aOR, 0.578, 95%CI: 0.362-0.925). Conclusion: This study's prevalence rates of syphilis and CT infections show the need to promote comprehensive STIs control and prevention strategies, including behavioral intervention and STIs screening, especially in younger high-risk populations. With the increasing coverage of HIV testing, integrating other STIs screening with HIV testing may be a reasonable way to implement comprehensive STIs control and prevention.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Hepatite C , Profissionais do Sexo , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Sífilis , Feminino , Humanos , Idoso , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Chlamydia trachomatis , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia
10.
Front Public Health ; 10: 998768, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36388362

RESUMO

Background: Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) use has become popular in China. This study explored ATS use status and related risk factors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among ATS users in Jinghong City, Xishuangbanna Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted by questionnaires from January to July 2021 in border area in Yunnan. Respondent driving sampling and consecutive sampling was carried out among border drug users, and blood samples were tested for HCV antibodies. HCV infection and related risk factors among ATS users were measured. Descriptive, univariate and multivariate analysis were conducted separately by Software SPSS 26.0. Results: The ATS users accounted for 85.82% (345/402) among drug users, while anti-HCV antibody prevalence was 6.38% (22/345) among ATS users. The combined use of other types of drugs (OR = 7.29, 95%CI: 1.982-26.81, P = 0.003), injection drug use (OR = 6.823, 95%CI: 1.898-24.525, P = 0.003), average monthly income (OR = 4.825, 95%CI: 1.325-17.566, P = 0.017) might increase the risk of HCV infection among ATS users. ATS users with high school or above had higher HCV infection rates than those with primary school or below (OR = 5.718, 95%CI: 1.172-27.908, P = 0.031). Conclusion: Taken together, among drug users using ATS in Jinghong City, Xishuangbanna Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, combined use of multiple drugs and intravenous drug use was the high risk factor for HCV infection. Therefore, corresponding education and intervention measures should be taken.


Assuntos
Usuários de Drogas , Hepatite C , Humanos , Anfetamina , Estudos Transversais , China/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepacivirus , Fatores Econômicos
11.
Am J Health Behav ; 46(5): 586-594, 2022 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36333834

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In Poland, 1.9% of the population is infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). About 70%- 80% of the infected patients develop chronic hepatitis. The higher the level of health-promoting behaviors a person infected with HCV has, the higher their quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess health behaviors of patients with hepatitis C and determine the relationship with selected social and demographic characteristics. METHODS: This survey study included 220 patients infected with HCV and used the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI), and an author-constructed questionnaire. RESULTS: Overall, 40.5% of respondents reported average health behaviors (5-6 stens), with 30.9% low (1-4 stens), and 28.6% high (7-10 stens). The highest mean value was observed for 3 HBI categories: prophylactic behaviors (3.4±0.7), positive psychological attitude (3.4±0.6), and health practices (3.4±0.7). The lowest value related to few health-promoting behaviors concerned positive eating habits (3.3±0.7). CONCLUSIONS: Patients diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C presented an average level of health behavior. Significant differences in health behavior were noted by sex, age, marital status, and employment status. These patients should be provided with health education, especially regarding high-level nutrition.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus , Hepatite C , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0274389, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36409689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The UK National Screening Committee currently recommends against antenatal screening for Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in England due to lack of HCV prevalence data and treatment licensed for use in pregnancy. We aimed to produce regional and national estimates of the number and proportion of livebirths to HCV seropositive women in England in 2013 and 2018. METHODS: A logistic regression model fitted in the Bayesian framework estimated probabilities of HCV seropositivity among 24,599 mothers delivering in the North Thames area of England in 2012 adjusted by maternal age and region of birth. These probabilities were applied to the underlying population structures of women delivering livebirths in England in 2013 and 2018 to estimate the number of livebirths to HCV seropositive women in these years nationally and by region. The Bayesian approach allowed the uncertainty associated with all estimates to be properly quantified. RESULTS: Nationally, the estimated number of livebirths to women seropositive for HCV for England was 464 (95% credible interval [CI] 300-692) in 2013 and 481 (95%CI 310-716) in 2018, or 70.0 (95%CI 45.0-104.1) per 100,000 and 76.9 (95%CI 49.5-114.4) per 100,000 in these years respectively. Regions with the highest estimated number of livebirths to HCV seropositive women in 2013 and 2018 included London with 118.5 and 124.4 and the South East with 67.0 and 74.0 per 100,000 livebirths. CONCLUSION: Few previous studies have investigated HCV among pregnant women in England. These findings complement and supplement existing research by providing national and regional estimates for the number of livebirths to HCV seropositive women in England. Bayesian modelling allows future national and regional estimates to be produced and the associated uncertainty to be properly quantified.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus , Hepatite C , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Teorema de Bayes , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Gravidez Múltipla
14.
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2022: 3449938, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36276913

RESUMO

Case detection remains a major challenge for hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination. We have previously published results from a pilot of an emergency department (ED) semiautomated screening program, SEARCH; Screening Emergency Admissions at Risk of Chronic HCV. Several refinements to SEARCH have been developed to streamline and reduce cost. All direct costs of HCV testing until direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy initiation were calculated. Cost was assessed in 2018 Australian Dollars. A cost analysis of the initial program and refinements are presented. Sensitivity analysis to understand impact of variation in staff time, laboratory test cost, changes in HCV antibody (Ab) prevalence, RNA positivity percentage, and rate of linkage to care was conducted. Impact of refinements (SEARCH (2)) to cost is presented. The total SEARCH pilot, testing 5000 patients was estimated to cost $110,549.52 (range $92,109.79-$129,581.24) comprising of $68,278.67 for HCV Ab testing, $21,568.99 for follow-up and linkage to care of positive patients and $20,701.86 to prepare HCV RNA positive patients for treatment. Internal program refinements resulted in a 25% cost reduction. Following refinements, the cost of HCV antibody screening was $8.46 per test and the total cost per positive HCV Ab, positive HCV RNA, and per treated patient were $611.77, $2,168.64, and $3,566.11, respectively. Our sensitivity analysis indicates costs per HCV case found are modest so long as HCV Ab prevalence was at least 1%. ED screening is an affordable strategy for HCV case detection and elimination.


Assuntos
Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Humanos , Hepacivirus/genética , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Austrália , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , RNA
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 804, 2022 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36303137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Agile, accessible and cheap diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is essential to achieve the elimination of this infection, worldwide, as mandated by the World Health Organzation as part of its strategy for 2030. Dried blood spots (DBS) can be an attractive alternative for sample collection among people living in remote areas and vulnerable populations due to the less invasive collection, its biosafety, and storage & transportation of samples at room temperature. DESIGN: This study aims to estimate the usefulness of dried blood spot samples for the diagnosis and the assessment of HCV infection rates in three different settings in Brazil. Cross-sectional analysis of a sample collection from different populations, aiming to assess the performance of the testing algorithms and respective procedures among different populations with diverse background infection rates. METHODS: We reported the evaluation of DBS as alternative samples for detecting anti-HCV in different groups in real life conditions: (I) Vulnerable subjects living in remote areas of Southeast, North and Northeast Brazil (n = 1464); (II) Beauticians (n = 288); (III) People who use non-injectable drugs (n = 201); (IV) patients referred to outpatient care (n = 275). RESULTS: General assay accuracy was 99%, with a weighted kappa value of 0.9, showing an excellent performance. Sensitivities ranged from 87.5% to 100.0% between groups and specificities were above 99.2%. A total of 194 individuals had HCV RNA in serum and concordance of anti-HCV detection in DBS was 98.4%. CONCLUSIONS: DBS samples could be used for anti-HCV detection in different populations recruited in real life conditions and ambulatory settings, with a high overall sensitivity and specificity.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus , Hepatite C , Humanos , Hepacivirus/genética , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Estudos de Viabilidade , Populações Vulneráveis , RNA Viral , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
16.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36298695

RESUMO

Persons who inject drugs (PWID) and their risk-related behaviors (e.g., unprotected sex and sharing needles/syringes/other injection equipment) have caused severe public health problems, especially in the rapid spread of HIV-1 and HCV. Here, we reconstructed the epidemic history of HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF) 01_AE, CRF07_BC, and HCV subtype-6w among Taiwanese PWID. The timescales were estimated using phylogenetic and Bayesian coalescent analyses. The results revealed that CRF01_AE started to circulate in the Taiwanese PWID population in central Taiwan at 1992.5 (95% credible region: 1988.8-1995.9) and spread to other regions of Taiwan, while CRF07_BC was first identified in southern Taiwan at 2000.0 (95% CR: 1997.8-2002.2) and then spread northward to central-northern Taiwan. All HCV-6 strains were from Asia (that is, China, Myanmar, Taiwan, and Vietnam) and originated in 1928.1 (95% CR: 1890.2-1966.0). Furthermore, subtype-6w isolates from different regions of Taiwan appeared to share a common source that existed in the mid-1990s (95% CR: 1985.0-2001.8) or thereabouts. The routes of drug trafficking and the resulting high prevalence of HIV-1/HCV co-infections among PWID might have contributed to the virus transmission and promoted its spread worldwide. Long-term monitoring and policy implementation in at-risk populations would be useful for disease control.


Assuntos
Usuários de Drogas , Infecções por HIV , Soropositividade para HIV , HIV-1 , Hepatite C , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Humanos , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Teorema de Bayes , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Genótipo
17.
Clin Lab ; 68(10)2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36250835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The systematic detection of HIV, hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses in any blood donor has been in effect at the University hospital of Kinshasa since 2005. However, no data on the monitoring of blood donors is available today. The purpose of this thesis was to draw up the sero-epidemiological assessment of the afore-mentioned virus during the period 2014 - 2018. METHODS: This is an observational study conducted in the University Hospital of Kinshasa donor population. RESULTS: A total of 9,128 blood donors were admitted to the Kinshasa University Clinics Blood Bank during the period from 01/01/2014 to 12/31/2018 for 11,054 blood donations. The highest attendance (50%) of blood donors was observed in 2014 and 2015. On the other hand, 2018 (11.9%; n = 1,085) was that of the lowest frequency of blood donors. The mean age of the blood donors was 34.72 ± 10.66 years. The minimum and maximum age corresponded to 16 years and 65 years, respectively. The median age was 34 years (interquartile range (IQR): 27 - 40 years). The majority of the study population (75%; n = 6,841) were at most 40 years old. There were significantly more male blood donors (77.3%; n = 7,060) than female blood donors (22.7%; n = 2,066). The difference between the two gender proportions was statistically significant (p < 0.0001) at risk α = 5%. The male/female gender ratio was 3:4. The seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and Treponema pallidum was estimated at 2.6% (n = 237), 4.7% (n = 429), 3.3% (n = 297) and 0.4% (n = 33), respectively. A total of 927 (10.16%) donors were infected with at least one agent transmissible by blood transfusion. CONCLUSIONS: The present surveillance proves that infectious transfusion safety in Kinshasa is still very low.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Hepatite B , Hepatite C , Sífilis , Adulto , Doadores de Sangue , República Democrática do Congo , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(9): 1512-1516, 2022 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36223629

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) affect a significant proportion of the populace in developing countries. Pregnant women and deprived segments of the population are disproportionately affected. The aim of our study was to assess the awareness regarding the three blood-borne infections amongst pregnant Pakistani women belonging to low socioeconomic classes. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 297 pregnant women at two antenatal healthcare facilities in Islamabad, Pakistan between September and November 2019. A pretested structured questionnaire was employed for data collection and knowledge levels were classified into three categories i.e. "Good", "Average", and "Poor" according to pre-set criteria. Data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2016 and SPSS Version 21. RESULTS: None of the study participants had "Good" knowledge regarding the three blood-borne infections. Around 52% of the women had "Poor" while 47% had "Average" knowledge. None of the study participants were aware that HIV can be transmitted during delivery. Women aged 30-35 years had significantly higher knowledge as compared to other age groups (p < 0.001). The difference in knowledge amongst women in association with education, income status, and previous pregnancies was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Awareness regarding Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and HIV amongst pregnant Pakistani women of low socioeconomic status is insufficient which can lead to an increased risk of acquiring these infections, especially during childbirth. It is vital to impart health education regarding these diseases and monitor hygiene standards in health care facilities.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Hepatite B , Hepatite C , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Infecções Transmitidas por Sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepacivirus , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Gestantes
19.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 30(9): 1002-1006, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36299198

RESUMO

The prevalence of hepatitis C among drug users in China is high, and thus it is one of the populations that needs attention to achieve hepatitis C elimination. However, due to the complexities of this population's situation, hepatitis C elimination still faces many challenges, such as difficult screening, low cure rate, poor compliance, and high reinfection rates. Therefore, the existing diagnostic and therapeutic system cannot meet the needs of this population. China has pledged to establish a unified system for drug users that will integrate drug treatment programs, education, medical care, and rehabilitation, creating favorable conditions for integrating hepatitis C diagnosis and treatment and improving the accessibility of drug users. Starting with the current situation and challenges of eliminating hepatitis C among drug users in China, in combination with cases from other countries, this paper discusses the strategy for eliminating hepatitis C and introduces what Hainan Province did to eliminate hepatitis C among drug users.


Assuntos
Usuários de Drogas , Hepatite C , Humanos , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepacivirus , China/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento , Antivirais/uso terapêutico
20.
West Afr J Med ; 39(10): 1084-1088, 2022 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36260916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B and C viruses and HIV infections contribute a significant proportion to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in low and middle-income countries. While the burden of hepatitis B and C viruses is higher in low and middle-income countries, Nigeria also has the second largest burden of HIV. OBJECTIVES: To determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C viruses and HIV infections among antenatal women who sought care at a secondary health facility in Lagos. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of patients managed in the antenatal clinic of 68 Nigerian Army Reference Hospital over one year. A study proforma was used to collect relevant data which were entered and analyzed using the IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Statistics) Version 23. RESULTS: A total of 347 women attended prenatal care during the study period, however, only 329 cases with complete data were included in the final statistical analysis. The prevalence of HIV in our study was 6.4%, while HBV and HCV accounted for 6.2% and 1.8% respectively. Hepatitis B, and hepatitis C viruses and HIV Infections occurred in 3 (0.9%) of our patients, 6 (1.8%) of the women had HIV-HBV co-infection while 1 (0.3%) was infected with HIV-HCV. CONCLUSION: Our study re-emphasizes the public health importance of HBV, HCV and HIV screening in our antenatal clinics. This knowledge is very important for the implementation of effective prevention and control measures that will further decrease the mother-to-child transmission of these viruses.


CONTEXTE: Les virus de l'hépatite B et C et les infections par le VIH contribuent pour une part importante à la morbidité et à la mortalité maternelles et périnatales dans les pays à revenu faible et intermédiaire. Alors que le fardeau des virus de l'hépatite B et C est plus élevé dans les pays à revenu faible et moyen, le Nigeria a également le deuxième plus grand fardeau du VIH. OBJECTIFS: Déterminer la séroprévalence des virus de l'hépatite B et C et des infections par le VIH chez les femmes en période prénatale qui ont consulté dans un établissement de santé secondaire de Lagos. MÉTHODES: Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective des patientes prises en charge dans la clinique prénatale de 68 références de l'armée nigériane sur une période d'un an. Un formulaire d'étude a été utilisé pour recueillir les données pertinentes qui ont été saisies et analysées à l'aide du progiciel statistique pour les sciences sociales IBM (SPSS Statistics) version 23. RÉSULTATS: Un total de 347 femmes ont suivi des soins prénataux pendant la période d'étude, cependant, seuls 329 cas avec des données complètes ont été inclus dans l'analyse statistique finale. La prévalence du VIH dans notre étude était de 6,4%, tandis que le VHB et le VHC représentaient respectivement 6,2% et 1,8%. Les virus de l'hépatite B et de l'hépatite C ainsi que le VIH étaient présents chez 3 (0,9%) de nos patientes, 6 (1,8%) des femmes avaient une co-infection VIHVHB tandis qu'une (0,3%) était infectée par le VIH-VHC. CONCLUSION: Notre étude souligne à nouveau l'importance pour la santé publique du dépistage du VHB, du VHC et du VIH dans nos cliniques prénatales. Ces connaissances sont très importantes pour la mise en œuvre de mesures de prévention et de contrôle efficaces qui permettront de diminuer davantage la transmission mère-enfant de ces virus. Mots clés: Hépatite B, VIH, Hépatite C, Séroprévalence, Coinfection, Lagos.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Hepatite B , Hepatite C , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/complicações , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepacivirus , Instalações de Saúde
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