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1.
Emergencias ; 36(1): 25-32, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38318739

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of active hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Spain is estimated to be 0.2%, but a large number of persons are unaware of their infection status. Additional approaches to early diagnosis of HCV infection in vulnerable populations with scarce contact with the national health care system are therefore needed. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of an opportunistic screening program to detect HCV-infected patients attended in our university hospital emergency department (ED). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Opportunistic screening was implemented from August 2021 to April 2023 in ED patients aged 18 to 69 years. The test was ordered if HCV screening had not been done in the last year and blood extraction for testing was indicated for any reason as part of routine ED care. RESULTS: A total of 110 267 patients were seen; 22 712 of them (20.6%) were eligible for screening. Serology for HCV was done for 11 368 of the eligible patients (50.1%). Forty-three cases (in 0.4% of tested samples) of active HCV infection (viremia) were found. In 24 of these cases (56%) the patients had not been aware that they were infected. Their mean (SD) age was 57 (6) years, 34 (79.1%) were men, and 5 (11.6%) were citizens of countries other than Spain. No risk factors related to HCV infection could be found for 22 of the patients (51.2%), and 41 (95.3%) could have been diagnosed during previous contact with the health care system. Of the 18 patients evaluated by transient elastography (FibroScan), 7 (38.8%) had signs of cirrhosis at the time of diagnosis. Thirty-three of the patients with active infections (77%) were subsequently able to access care. CONCLUSION: The rate of active HCV infection in the screening program was higher than the prevalence estimated for the general population. Opportunistic screening for HCV during ED visits is useful for increasing the number of diagnoses and should be considered as a tool for eradicating this disease.


OBJETIVO: Se estima que la prevalencia de infección activa por el virus de la hepatitis C (VHC) en España es de un 0,2%, pero un gran número de personas desconocen su estado de infección. Por ello, se requiere aumentar las estrategias de diagnóstico precoz dirigidas a población vulnerable y con escaso vínculo con el sistema sanitario. El objetivo es evaluar el impacto de un programa de cribado oportunista del VHC en los pacientes atendidos en el servicio de urgencias (SU) de un hospital universitario. METODO: Se realizó un cribado oportunista entre agosto de 2021 y abril de 2023 a los pacientes de 18 a 69 años atendidos en el SU que no se habían realizado la prueba del VHC el año anterior, y que requerían un análisis de sangre dentro de la práctica clínica habitual por cualquier motivo. RESULTADOS: Durante el periodo de estudio se atendieron 110.267 pacientes en el SU, fueron candidatos a realizar el cribado 22.712 (20,6%), y finalmente se realizó una serología frente al VHC a 11.368 pacientes (50,1%). Se identificaron 43 casos (0,4% de los test efectuados) de infección activa por VHC (viremia), de los cuales, 24 (56%) desconocían previamente su estado. La media de edad del total de pacientes virémicos fue de 57 (DE: 6 años), 34 (79,1%) eran hombres y 5 (11,6%) tenían nacionalidades distintas a la española. No se identificaron factores de riesgo relacionados con la infección por VHC en 22 (51,2%) de los pacientes, y 41 (95,3%) habían tenido oportunidades de diagnóstico en visitas previas al sistema de salud. De los 18 pacientes analizados mediante elastografía transitoria, 7 (38,8%) presentaban cirrosis en el momento del diagnóstico. Se logró vincular a la atención médica posterior a 33 (77%) de los pacientes con infección activa. CONCLUSIONES: Las tasas de infección activa por VHC detectadas en el programa de cribado fueron más altas que la prevalencia estimada en la población general. El cribado oportunista de VHC en los SU puede ser de utilidad para aumentar el diagnóstico y debe ser considerado como una herramienta para la eliminación de la hepatitis C.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus , Hepatite C , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Espanha/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324877

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) recipients. In Brazil, its occurrence in HCT recipients remains undetermined. We now report on HCV prevalence in HCT recipients and its clinical consequences. The medical records of all HCT recipients seen at Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo University Medical School, from January 2010 to January 2020 were reviewed to determine HCV serostatus. A retrospective analysis of medical charts was undertaken on all seropositive cases to determine HCV genotype, presence of liver fibrosis, co-infections with other viruses, previous treatments, and clinical evolution of liver pathology after HCT. Of the 1,293 HCT recipients included in the study, seven (0.54%) were HCV antibody-positive and five (0.39%) were also viremic for HCV-RNA. Four of these individuals had moderate to severe liver fibrosis (METAVIR F2/F3) and one was cirrhotic. Two of the viremic patients developed acute liver dysfunction following transplantation. All patients had their acute episode of liver dysfunction resolved with no further complications. Four of the viremic patients were treated for HCV infection with direct acting agents (DAA). Information regarding HCV treatment was lacking for one of the viremic HCV patients due to loss of follow up. Sustained anti-virologic responses were observed in three cases after the use of DAA. The detection of HCV in hematological adults undergoing HCT and its successful treatment with DAA highlight the necessity of testing for HCV both prior to and following transplantation.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Humanos , Adulto , Hepacivirus/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Prevalência , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Brasil/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 15, 2024 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38166687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Viral hepatitis is a significant health concern among indigenous population in the Americas. In Brazil, reports find high endemicity of HBV and HDV infections has been reported in several indigenous groups. However, few studies have documented the prevalence of HBV, HCV and HDV in the Yanomami. In this study, the prevalence of hepatitis B, C, and D serological markers and potential risk factors were investigated to provide guidance for the development of strategies aimed at reducing viral transmission in the Yanomami indigenous villages. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out in March 2015 and included 430 individuals from four Yanomami villages: Alapusi (n = 78), Castanha/Ahima (n = 126), Gasolina (n = 105), and Taibrapa (n = 121). A rapid test was used for detection of HBsAg and anti-HCV and chemiluminescent immunoassay for anti-HBs, anti-HBc, and anti-HDV antibodies. RESULTS: HBsAg, anti-HBc, and anti-HBs were detected in 8.8, 45.5, and 49.4% of the participants, respectively. The estimated HBV status: current infection 9.6% (38/395); resolved infection 43.3% (171/395); vaccine immunity 20.5% (81/395), and susceptible to HBV 26.6% (105/395). Gasolina presented the lowest prevalence of HBV infection (6.5%) and the highest prevalence of vaccine immunity (26.9%). Children < 15 years old were highly susceptible to infection, as 53.1% did not have antibodies to HBV, while more than 80% of individuals over 45 years of age had been exposed to HBV. The markers for HDV were founded among 12.5% (4/32) of the HBsAg carriers. Anti-HCV was identified in all villages, with the highest prevalence in Alapusi (5.1%). Possible risk factors such as the use of piercings, tattoos, and contact with prospectors showed no statistical difference between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Viral hepatitis B and serological markers for HCV and HDV were found to be widely distributed among the Yanomami indigenous community, while the prevalence of vaccine immunity to HBV was low. This finding reinforces the importance of promoting systematized diagnostic and vaccination strategies in indigenous communities. Our data confirm that isolated and difficult-to-reach indigenous communities lack appropriate access to diagnosis, treatment, and vaccination.


Assuntos
Hepatite B , Hepatite C , Hepatite Viral Humana , Vacinas , Criança , Humanos , Adolescente , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Estudos Transversais , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C , Prevalência , Hepatite C/epidemiologia
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 80, 2024 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38229074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, 56.8 million people are living with hepatitis C and over three-quarters of those reside in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Barriers and enablers to hepatitis C care among people who inject drugs in high-income countries are well documented. However, there is scant literature describing the patient experience in LMICs. Understanding the barriers and enablers to care from the patient perspective is important to inform service refinements to improve accessibility and acceptability of hepatitis C care. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative evaluation of the patient experience of accessing the national hepatitis C program at eight hospital sites in Myanmar. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with four to five participants per site. Interview data were analysed thematically, with deductive codes from Levesque et al.'s (2013) Framework on patient-centred access to healthcare. RESULTS: Across the eight sites, 38 participants who had completed treatment were interviewed. Barriers to accessing care were mostly related to attending for care and included travel time and costs, multiple appointments, and wait times. Some participants described how they did not receive adequate information on hepatitis C, particularly its transmission routes, and on the level of cirrhosis of their liver and what they were required to do after treatment (i.e. reduce alcohol consumption, liver cirrhosis monitoring). Many participants commented that they had few or no opportunities to ask questions. Provision of treatment at no cost was essential to accessibility, and gratitude for free treatment led to high acceptability of care, even when accessing care was inconvenient. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the importance of streamlining and decentralising health services, adequate human resourcing and training, and affordable treatment in maximising the accessibility and acceptability of hepatitis C care in LMICs. Findings from this work will inform future service delivery refinements for national program and other decentralised programs to improve accessibility and acceptability of hepatitis C care in Myanmar.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Hepatite C , Humanos , Mianmar , Serviços de Saúde , Pacientes , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa
5.
J Med Virol ; 96(1): e29405, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38235623

RESUMO

Liver cirrhosis remains a major health concern globally, but its epidemiology and etiology evolve with time. However, the changing pattern in etiology and cause of liver-related mortality for patients with cirrhosis are not fully elucidated. Herein, our aim was to characterize the temporal trend of the etiological spectrum and evaluate the impact of etiology on liver-related death among patients with compensated cirrhosis (CC) in Beijing, China. Clinical profiles of patients with CC discharged between January 2008 and December 2015 were retrieved from the Beijing hospital discharge database. The mortalities of different etiologies of cirrhosis were calculated. The risks of readmission and liver-related death associated with etiologies were evaluated by the Cox regression model. A total of 23 978 cirrhotic patients were included. The predominant cause was hepatitis B virus (HBV) (58.93%), followed by alcohol (21.35%), autoimmune (14.85%), miscellaneous etiologies (3.55%), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) (1.32%). From 2008 to 2015, the proportion of HBV-related cirrhosis decreased to 28.11%. Meanwhile, the proportions of autoimmune- and miscellaneous-related cirrhosis increased to 28.54% and 13.11%. The risk of liver-related death ranked the highest in patients with miscellaneous cirrhosis, followed by HBV-related cirrhosis, alcohol-related cirrhosis, autoimmune-related cirrhosis, and HCV-related cirrhosis. The 5-year rates of liver-related death were 22.56%, 18.99%, 18.77%, 16.01%, and 10.76%, respectively. HBV-related cirrhosis caused the highest risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-related death, whereas alcohol- and miscellaneous-related cirrhosis caused higher risks of decompensation (DC)-related death than HBV-related cirrhosis, with hazard ratios of 1.35 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24-1.48) and 1.20 (95% CI: 1.03-1.40), respectively. HBV remained a common cause of liver cirrhosis but gradually decreased. Mortality disparities existed in etiologies, with higher risks of HCC-related death in HBV-related cirrhosis, and DC-related death in alcohol- and miscellaneous-related cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Hepatite B , Hepatite C , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Humanos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Pequim/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepacivirus
6.
Subst Use Addctn J ; 45(1): 81-90, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38258855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Injection drug use (IDU) is a risk factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) acquisition and occurs disproportionately among women who exchange sex (WES). However, little is known about HCV epidemiology in this population. We estimated HCV seroprevalence, identified correlates of HCV seropositivity, and characterized social networks by HCV serostatus and IDU history among WES in the Seattle, Washington, area. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of data from the 2016 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance survey in the Seattle, Washington area, a cross-sectional survey that used respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to enroll WES for money or drugs (N = 291). All participants were offered rapid HCV-antibody testing. We estimated HCV seropositivity and used log regression methods to estimate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) for correlates of HCV seropositivity among WES. Using RDS recruitment chain data, we computed homophily indices to estimate the extent to which participants were likely to recruit another participant with the same HCV serostatus and IDU history. RESULTS: In the study sample of WES in the Seattle, Washington area, 79% reported lifetime IDU and 60% were HCV seropositive. HCV seropositivity was strongly associated with ever injecting drugs (PRadj: 7.7 [3.3, 18.0]). The RDS homophily scores for HCV seropositivity (0.07) and ever injecting drugs (0.02) suggested that participants did not tend to recruit others with the same characteristics beyond what would be expected by chance. CONCLUSION: Among this sample of WES in Seattle, Washington area, HCV seroprevalence was high and strongly associated with a history of IDU. The high burden of HCV among WES suggests this marginalized group would benefit from additional harm reduction services and targeted HCV treatment campaigns to reduce forward transmission. We saw little evidence of preferential recruitment among WES who were HCV seropositive or reported a history of IDU, suggesting the potential futility of peer-based referrals for HCV treatment.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus , Hepatite C , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Washington/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia
7.
Egypt J Immunol ; 31(1): 30-39, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38224033

RESUMO

Viral hepatitis is considered a public health issue facing the entire world. The World Health Organization encouraged all countries to work together to eliminate this fatal infection and achieve the 2030 agenda. The present study aimed to investigate the silent infection of viral hepatitis (A, B, C, and E) among hospitalized children in Cairo, Egypt, to control and avoid chronic infection early on. This cross-sectional study included 184 randomly selected hospitalized children from three different hospitals in Cairo, Egypt. They were children aged between a few months to 15 years to determine viral hepatitis infection and co-infection. Antibodies to hepatitis A virus (HAV IgM), hepatitis E virus (HEV IgM), hepatitis C virus (HCV Ab), and hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBs Ag) were performed by ELISA. If the ELISA results were positive, the viral load was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Other laboratory investigations included alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, albumin, and complete blood count. Only five children (2.71%) had HCV Ab positive with no other viral (A, B, and E) co-infections as determined by ELISA. Also, the RT-PCR detected HCV RNA in these ELISA positive children. The remaining children (179/184) were all negative for all hepatitis viruses' markers (HAV IgM, HEV IgM, HBs Ag, and HCV Ab). In conclusion, this study documented that, Cairo hospitals serving Egyptian children had a low prevalence of viral hepatitis (A, B, C, and E). More research with larger sample sizes from hospitals across Egypt is needed.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Vírus da Hepatite A , Hepatite B , Hepatite C , Hepatite Viral Humana , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Egito/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Criança Hospitalizada , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Vírus de Hepatite , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Hepacivirus/genética , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Imunoglobulina M , Hepatite B/epidemiologia
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 105, 2024 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38238686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As many as 2.4 million Americans are affected by chronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) in the United States.In 2018, the estimated number of adults with a history of HCV infection in San Diego County was 55,354 (95% CI: 25,411-93,329). This corresponded to a seroprevalence of 2.1% (95% CI: 2.1-3.4%). One-third of infections were among PWID. Published research has demonstrated that direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have high efficacy and can now be used by primary care providers to treat HCV. In addition, limited evidence exists to support the effectiveness of simplified algorithms in clinical trial and real-world settings. Even with expanded access to HCV treatment in primary care settings, there are still groups, especially people who inject drugs (PWID) and people experiencing homelessness, who experience treatment disparities due to access and treatment barriers. The current study extends the simplified algorithm with a streetside 'one-stop-shop' approach with integrated care (including the offer of buprenorphine prescriptions and abscess care) using a mobile clinic situated adjacent to a syringe service program serving many homeless populations. Rates of HCV treatment initiation and retention will be compared between patients offered HCV care in a mobile clinic adjacent to a syringe services program (SSP) and homeless encampment versus those who are linked to a community clinic's current practice of usual care, which includes comprehensive patient navigation. METHODS: A quasi-experimental, prospective, interventional, comparative effectiveness trial with allocation of approximately 200 patients who inject drugs and have chronic HCV to the "simplified care" pathway (intervention group) or the "usual care" pathway (control group). Block randomization will be performed with a 1:1 randomization. DISCUSSION: Previous research has demonstrated acceptable outcomes for patients treated using simplified algorithms for DAAs and point-of-care testing in mobile medical clinics; however, there are opportunities to explore how these new, innovative systems of care impact treatment initiation rates or other HCV care cascade outcomes among PWID. TRIAL REGISTRATION: We have registered our study with ClinicalTrials.gov, a resource of the United States National Library of Medicine. This database contains research studies from United States and other countries around the world. Our study has not been previously published. The ClinicalTrials.gov registration identifier is NCT04741750.


Assuntos
Usuários de Drogas , Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Adulto , Humanos , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/tratamento farmacológico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Algoritmos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
9.
Bull World Health Organ ; 102(1): 7-8, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38164338

RESUMO

Gamal Shiha talks to Gary Humphreys about how Egypt went from being one of the highest hepatitis C-prevalence countries in the world to being on the brink of eliminating the disease.


Assuntos
Hepatite C , Humanos , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Hepacivirus , Egito/epidemiologia , Prevalência
10.
Obstet Gynecol ; 143(3): 449-455, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38176013

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize breastfeeding behaviors and identify factors associated with breastfeeding initiation among people with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of a multicenter observational cohort of pregnant people with singleton gestations and HCV seropositivity. This analysis includes individuals with data on breastfeeding initiation and excludes those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection. The primary outcome was self-reported initiation of breastfeeding or provision of expressed breast milk. Secondary outcomes included duration of breastfeeding. Demographic and obstetric characteristics were compared between those who initiated breastfeeding and those who did not to identify associated factors. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed. RESULTS: Overall, 579 individuals (75.0% of participants in the parent study) were included. Of those, 362 (62.5%) initiated breastfeeding or provided breast milk to their infants, with a median duration of breastfeeding of 1.4 months (interquartile range 0.5-6.0). People with HCV viremia , defined as a detectable viral load at any point during pregnancy, were less likely to initiate breastfeeding than those who had an undetectable viral load (59.4 vs 71.9%, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.61, 95% CI, 0.41-0.92). People with private insurance were more likely to initiate breastfeeding compared with those with public insurance or no insurance (80.0 vs 60.1%; aOR 2.43, 95% CI, 1.31-4.50). CONCLUSION: Although HCV seropositivity is not a contraindication to breastfeeding regardless of viral load, rates of breastfeeding initiation were lower among people with HCV viremia than among those with an undetectable viral load. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT01959321 .


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Hepatite C , Lactente , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Aleitamento Materno , Hepacivirus , Viremia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia
11.
J Viral Hepat ; 31(3): 131-136, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38178637

RESUMO

New case-finding opportunities are needed to achieve hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination in England by the year 2030. HCV antenatal testing is not offered universally in England but is recommended for women with risk factors for HCV (e.g. injecting drug use, being born in a high-prevalence country). The aim of this analysis was to investigate the missed opportunities for HCV antenatal testing among women who had given birth and were subsequently diagnosed with HCV at some time after childbirth. By linking data on live births (2010-2020) to laboratory reports of HCV diagnoses (1995-2021), we identified all women who were diagnosed with HCV after the date of their first childbirth. This group was considered to potentially have experienced a missed opportunity for HCV antenatal testing; HCV-RNA testing and treatment outcomes were also obtained for these women. Of the 32,295 women who gave birth between 2010 and 2020 with a linked diagnosis of HCV (median age: 34 years, 72.1% UK-born), over half (n = 17,123) were diagnosed after childbirth. In multivariable analyses, the odds of being diagnosed with HCV after childbirth were higher in those of Asian Bangladeshi, Black African or Chinese ethnicity and among those born in Africa. Over four-fifths (3510/4260) of those eligible for treatment were linked to treatment, 30.7% (747/2435) of whom had a liver scarring level of at least moderate and 9.4% (228/2435) had cirrhosis. Given the potential opportunity to identify cases of HCV with targeted case-finding through antenatal services, universal opt-out testing should be considered in these settings.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus , Hepatite C , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Risco , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática , Prevalência
12.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 110(2): 404-411, 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38190747

RESUMO

Hepatitis C (HC) presents a substantial burden, and a goal has been established for ending HC epidemics by 2030. This study aimed to monitor HC epidemics by designing a paradigmatic autoregressive fractionally integrated moving average (ARFIMA) for projections until 2030, and evaluating its efficacy compared with the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA). Monthly HC incidence data in Henan from January 2004 to June 2023 were obtained. Two periods (January 2004 to June 2022 and January 2004 to December 2015) were treated as training sets to build both models, whereas the remaining periods served as test sets to perform performance evaluation. There were 465,196 HC cases, with an escalation in incidence (average annual percentage change = 8.64, 95% CI: 3.71-13.80) and a peak in March and a trough in February. For both the 12 and 90 holdout data forecasts, ARFIMA generated lower errors than ARIMA across various metrics: mean absolute deviation (252.93 versus 262.28 and 235.37 versus 1,689.65), mean absolute percentage error (0.17 versus 0.18 and 0.14 versus 0.87), root mean square error (350.31 versus 362.31 and 311.96 versus 1,905.71), mean error rate (0.14 versus 0.15 and 0.11 versus 0.82), and root mean square percentage error (0.26 versus 0.26 and 0.24 versus 1.01). Autoregressive fractionally integrated moving average predicted 181,650 (95% CI: 46,518-316,783) HC cases, averaging 22,706 (95% CI: 5,815-39,598) cases annually during 2023-2030. Henan faces challenges in eliminating HC epidemics, emphasizing the need for strengthened strategies. Autoregressive fractionally integrated moving average can offer evidence-based insights for public health measures.


Assuntos
Hepatite C , Saúde Pública , Humanos , Hepacivirus , China/epidemiologia , Incidência , Previsões , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos
13.
Clin Exp Med ; 24(1): 20, 2024 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38279980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) viruses are diseases of global public health concern and are associated with liver cancer. Recent studies have revealed associations between hepatic viral infections and extrahepatic cancers. This study aimed to explore the associations between hepatitis B and C viruses and cancer at baseline in the Taiwan Biobank database while controlling for a wide range of confounding variables. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of adults aged > 20 years, we compared the distribution of demographic factors, lifestyle, and comorbidities between viral and nonviral hepatic groups using the chi-square test. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to observe the associations between hepatitis B and C viral infections and cancers by estimating the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Multivariate regression analysis was adjusted for sociodemographic factors, lifestyle, and comorbidities. RESULTS: From the database, 2955 participants were identified as having HCV infection, 15,305 as having HBV infection, and 140,108 as the nonviral group. HBV infection was associated with an increased likelihood of liver cancer (adjusted OR (aOR) = 6.60, 95% CI = 3.21-13.57, P < 0.001) and ovarian cancer (aOR = 4.63, 95% CI = 1.98-10.83, P = 0.001). HCV infection was observed to increase the likelihood of liver cancer (aOR = 4.90, 95% CI = 1.37-17.53, P = 0.015), ovarian cancer (aOR = 8.50, 95% CI = 1.78-40.69, P = 0.007), and kidney cancer (aOR = 12.89, 95% CI = 2.41-69.01, P = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that hepatic viral infections are associated with intra- and extrahepatic cancers. However, being cross-sectional, causal inferences cannot be made. A recall-by-genotype study is recommended to further investigate the causality of these associations.


Assuntos
Hepatite B , Hepatite C , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepacivirus , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Vírus da Hepatite B , Fatores de Risco
14.
Harm Reduct J ; 21(1): 23, 2024 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38282000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) disproportionately affects rural communities, where health services are geographically dispersed. It remains unknown whether proximity to a syringe services program (SSP) is associated with HCV infection among rural people who inject drugs (PWID). METHODS: Data are from a cross-sectional sample of adults who reported injecting drugs in the past 30 days recruited from rural counties in New Hampshire, Vermont, and Massachusetts (2018-2019). We calculated the road network distance between each participant's address and the nearest fixed-site SSP, categorized as ≤ 1 mile, 1-3 miles, 3-10 miles, and > 10 miles. Staff performed HCV antibody tests and a survey assessed past 30-day injection equipment sharing practices: borrowing used syringes, borrowing other used injection equipment, and backloading. Mixed effects modified Poisson regression estimated prevalence ratios (aPR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Analyses were also stratified by means of transportation. RESULTS: Among 330 PWID, 25% lived ≤ 1 mile of the nearest SSP, 17% lived 1-3 miles of an SSP, 12% lived 3-10 miles of an SSP, and 46% lived > 10 miles from an SSP. In multivariable models, compared to PWID who lived within 1 mile of an SSP, those who lived 3 to 10 miles away had a higher prevalence of HCV seropositivity (aPR: 1.25, 95% CI 1.06-1.46), borrowing other used injection equipment (aPR: 1.23, 95% CI 1.04-1.46), and backloading (aPR: 1.48, 95% CI 1.17-1.88). Similar results were observed for PWID living > 10 miles from an SSP: aPR [HCV]: 1.19, 95% CI 1.01-1.40; aPR [borrowing other used equipment]:1.45, 95% CI 1.29-1.63; and aPR [backloading]: 1.59, 95% CI 1.13-2.24. Associations between living 1 to 3 miles of an SSP and each outcome did not reach statistical significance. When stratified by means of transportation, associations between distance to SSP and each outcome (except borrowing other used injection equipment) were only observed among PWID who traveled by other means (versus traveled by automobile). CONCLUSIONS: Among PWID in rural New England, living farther from a fixed-site SSP was associated with a higher prevalence of HCV seropositivity, borrowing other used injection equipment, and backloading, reinforcing the need to increase SSP accessibility in rural areas. Means of transportation may modify this relationship.


Assuntos
Usuários de Drogas , Infecções por HIV , Hepatite C , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Adulto , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Hepacivirus , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , População Rural , Estudos Transversais , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , New England , Programas de Troca de Agulhas
15.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0297580, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38271329

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly affected blood donors worldwide. It is important for the blood service to return to its pre-pandemic level as soon as possible and to perform its functions fully. This study compared the donation and demographic profiles of blood and its component donors one year before and during three pandemic years in Lithuania. All blood and blood component donations (n = 413,358) and demographic characteristics of all donors from April 1, 2019, to March 31, 2023, were analyzed. All data were obtained from annual publications, and statistics were obtained from the Blood Donor Register. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Following a 9.41 percent decrease in the first year of the pandemic, the quantity of blood and blood component donations increased by 3.49 percent in the third year compared to the pre-pandemic year. Throughout the three years of the pandemic, a statistically significant decrease in the proportion of first-time blood and blood component donations was observed. Both the number and proportion of donations by donors under 25 years old decreased during the pandemic. The proportion of pre-donation deferrals for all attempts to donate significantly decreased during the pandemic. There was a statistically significant lower prevalence of all positive transfusion-transmitted infectious (TTI) markers among all donations compared to the pre-pandemic year for all three pandemic years. The odds for hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and all TTI markers during the second and third pandemic years were significantly lower than those in the pre-pandemic year. In conclusion, most dimensions of blood and its component donations and donor characteristics have returned to pre-pandemic levels or show positive trends. However, the major concern is the remaining decrease in donations from first-time and donors under 25 years old.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hepatite C , Reação Transfusional , Humanos , Adulto , Doação de Sangue , Lituânia/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Doadores de Sangue , Reação Transfusional/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças
16.
Harm Reduct J ; 21(1): 25, 2024 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38281942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to shared modes of transmission, coinfection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) is common, and HBV vaccination is recommended for all persons with HCV who remain susceptible to HBV. To identify potential gaps in HBV vaccination among this high-risk population, we aimed to determine the patterns of HBV susceptibility in persons undergoing community-based HCV treatment. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study within two community-based HCV treatment programs in an urban US setting. Participants were identified for HCV screening and confirmatory testing via street-outreach recruitment directed at persons experiencing homelessness and currently using drugs. Participants were excluded if HBsAg was reactive. Cohort characteristics were obtained via intake surveys and descriptive analysis was performed by exposure status. RESULTS: Among 150 participants without chronic HBV receiving community-based HCV treatment, 43% had evidence of prior HBV infection, 26% were immune from vaccination, and 31% were non-immune. Among the subset of the cohort reporting current injection drug use (IDU) (N = 100), 31% (n = 10) of those aged 24-40 and 47% (n = 23) of those aged 41-57 remained susceptible to HBV infection. By contrast only two participants aged 58-74 were HBV non-immune (11%), with 84% immune due to prior exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Our data reflect a high prevalence of HBV susceptibility among persons undergoing community-based HCV treatment. Although younger patients were more likely to be immune due to vaccination, a high proportion remained non-immune to HBV, particularly among those reporting current IDU. Our data reflect a gap in HBV vaccination among younger persons with HCV and suggest a potential role for co-localizing HBV vaccination with community-based HCV screening and treatment.


Assuntos
Hepatite B , Hepatite C , Humanos , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepacivirus , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle
18.
Lancet HIV ; 11(2): e106-e116, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38224708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reinfection after successful treatment with direct-acting antivirals is hypothesised to undermine efforts to eliminate hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among people with HIV. We aimed to assess changes in incidence of HCV reinfection among people with HIV following the introduction of direct-acting antivirals, and the proportion of all incident cases attributable to reinfection. METHODS: We pooled individual-level data on HCV reinfection in people with HIV after spontaneous or treatment-induced clearance of HCV from six cohorts contributing data to the International Collaboration on Hepatitis C Elimination in HIV Cohorts (InCHEHC) in Australia, Canada, France, the Netherlands, Spain, and Switzerland between Jan 1, 2010, and Dec 31, 2019. Participants were eligible if they had evidence of an HCV infection (HCV antibody or RNA positive test) followed by spontaneous clearance or treatment-induced clearance, with at least one HCV RNA test after clearance enabling measurement of reinfection. We assessed differences in first reinfection incidence between direct-acting antiviral access periods (pre-direct-acting antiviral, limited access [access restricted to people with moderate or severe liver disease and other priority groups], and broad access [access for all patients with chronic HCV]) using Poisson regression. We estimated changes in combined HCV incidence (primary and reinfection) and the relative contribution of infection type by calendar year. FINDINGS: Overall, 6144 people with HIV who were at risk of HCV reinfection (median age 49 years [IQR 42-54]; 4989 [81%] male; 2836 [46%] men who have sex with men; 2360 [38%] people who inject drugs) were followed up for 17 303 person-years and were included in this analysis. The incidence of first HCV reinfection was stable during the period before the introduction of direct-acting antivirals (pre-introduction period; 4·1 cases per 100 person-years, 95% CI 2·8-6·0). Compared with the pre-introduction period, the average incidence of reinfection was 4% lower during the period of limited access (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0·96, 95% CI 0·78-1·19), and 28% lower during the period of broad access (0·72, 0·60-0·86). Between 2015 and 2019, the proportion of incident HCV infections due to reinfection increased, but combined incidence declined by 34%, from 1·02 cases per 100 person-years (95% CI 0·96-1·07) in 2015 to 0·67 cases per 100 person-years (95% CI 0·59-0·75) in 2019. INTERPRETATION: HCV reinfection incidence and combined incidence declined in people with HIV following direct-acting antiviral introduction, suggesting reinfection has not affected elimination efforts among people with HIV in InCHEHC countries. The proportion of incident HCV cases due to reinfection was highest during periods of broad access to direct-acting antivirals, highlighting the importance of reducing ongoing risks and continuing testing in people at risk. FUNDING: Australian National Health and Medical Research Council.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Hepacivirus , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Incidência , Reinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Homossexualidade Masculina , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , RNA Viral/genética , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 38(2): 152-160, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38273801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend HCV screening by 18 months of age for those exposed to HCV in utero; yet, screening occurs in the minority of children. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between maternal neighbourhood-level social determinants of health (SDOH) and paediatric HCV screening in the general population in a publicly funded healthcare system in Canada. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study using administrative healthcare data held at ICES. Children born to individuals positive for HCV RNA in pregnancy from 2000 to 2016 were identified and followed for 2 years. Major SDOH were identified, and the primary outcome was HCV screening in exposed children (HCV antibody and/or RNA). Associations between SDOH and HCV screening were determined using multivariate Poisson regression models adjusting for confounding. RESULTS: A total of 1780 children born to persons with +HCV RNA were identified, and 29% (n = 516) were screened for HCV by age two. Most mothers resided in the lowest income quintile (42%), and most vulnerable quintiles for material deprivation (41%), housing instability (38%) and ethnic diversity (26%) with 11% living in rural locations. After adjustment for confounding, maternal rural residence (risk ratio [RR] 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.62, 1.07) and living in the highest dependency quintile (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.65, 1.07) were the SDOH most associated with paediatric HCV screening. Younger maternal age (RR 0.98 per 1-year increase, 95% CI 0.97, 0.99), HIV co-infection (RR 1.69, 95% CI 1.16, 2.48) and GI specialist involvement (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.00, 1.39) were associated with higher probabilities of screening. CONCLUSIONS: Among children exposed to HCV during pregnancy, rural residences and living in highly dependent neighbourhoods showed a potential association with a lower probability of HCV screening by the age of 2. Future work evaluating barriers to paediatric HCV screening among rural residing and dependent residents is needed to enhance the screening.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Hepatite C , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , RNA
20.
Saudi J Gastroenterol ; 30(Supp 1): S1-S42, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38167232

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been a major global health concern, with a significant impact on public health. In recent years, there have been remarkable advancements in our understanding of HCV and the development of novel therapeutic agents. The Saudi Society for the Study of Liver Disease and Transplantation formed a working group to develop HCV practice guidelines in Saudi Arabia. The methodology used to create these guidelines involved a comprehensive review of available evidence, local data, and major international practice guidelines regarding HCV management. This updated guideline encompasses critical aspects of HCV care, including screening and diagnosis, assessing the severity of liver disease, and treatment strategies. The aim of this updated guideline is to assist healthcare providers in the management of HCV in Saudi Arabia. It summarizes the latest local studies on HCV epidemiology, significant changes in virus prevalence, and the importance of universal screening, particularly among high-risk populations. Moreover, it discusses the promising potential for HCV elimination as a public health threat by 2030, driven by effective treatment and comprehensive prevention strategies. This guideline also highlights evolving recommendations for advancing disease management, including the treatment of HCV patients with decompensated cirrhosis, treatment of those who have previously failed treatment with the newer medications, management in the context of liver transplantation and hepatocellular carcinoma, and treatment for special populations.


Assuntos
Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Transplante de Fígado , Humanos , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite C Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia
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