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1.
Science ; 383(6682): 531-537, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301018

RESUMO

Large mammalian herbivores (megafauna) have experienced extinctions and declines since prehistory. Introduced megafauna have partly counteracted these losses yet are thought to have unusually negative effects on plants compared with native megafauna. Using a meta-analysis of 3995 plot-scale plant abundance and diversity responses from 221 studies, we found no evidence that megafauna impacts were shaped by nativeness, "invasiveness," "feralness," coevolutionary history, or functional and phylogenetic novelty. Nor was there evidence that introduced megafauna facilitate introduced plants more than native megafauna. Instead, we found strong evidence that functional traits shaped megafauna impacts, with larger-bodied and bulk-feeding megafauna promoting plant diversity. Our work suggests that trait-based ecology provides better insight into interactions between megafauna and plants than do concepts of nativeness.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Extinção Biológica , Herbivoria , Espécies Introduzidas , Mamíferos , Plantas , Animais , Ecologia , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Filogenia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 120, 2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38369495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plants have acquired a repertoire of mechanisms to combat biotic stressors, which may vary depending on the feeding strategies of herbivores and the plant species. Hormonal regulation crucially modulates this malleable defense response. Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) stand out as pivotal regulators of defense, while other hormones like abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene (ET), gibberellic acid (GA) or auxin also play a role in modulating plant-pest interactions. The plant defense response has been described to elicit effects in distal tissues, whereby aboveground herbivory can influence belowground response, and vice versa. This impact on distal tissues may be contingent upon the feeding guild, even affecting both the recovery of infested tissues and those that have not suffered active infestation. RESULTS: To study how phytophagous with distinct feeding strategies may differently trigger the plant defense response during and after infestation in both infested and distal tissues, Arabidopsis thaliana L. rosettes were infested separately with the chewing herbivore Pieris brassicae L. and the piercing-sucker Tetranychus urticae Koch. Moderate infestation conditions were selected for both pests, though no quantitative control of damage levels was carried out. Feeding mode did distinctly influence the transcriptomic response of the plant under these conditions. Though overall affected processes were similar under either infestation, their magnitude differed significantly. Plants infested with P. brassicae exhibited a short-term response, involving stress-related genes, JA and ABA regulation and suppressing growth-related genes. In contrast, T. urticae elicited a longer transcriptomic response in plants, albeit with a lower degree of differential expression, in particular influencing SA regulation. These distinct defense responses transcended beyond infestation and through the roots, where hormonal response, flavonoid regulation or cell wall reorganization were differentially affected. CONCLUSION: These outcomes confirm that the existent divergent transcriptomic responses elicited by herbivores employing distinct feeding strategies possess the capacity to extend beyond infestation and even affect tissues that have not been directly infested. This remarks the importance of considering the entire plant's response to localized biotic stresses.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Borboletas , Animais , Transcriptoma , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Mastigação , Borboletas/fisiologia , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo
3.
Nature ; 626(7998): 335-340, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38233526

RESUMO

Predators have a key role in structuring ecosystems1-4. However, predator loss is accelerating globally4-6, and predator mass-mortality events7 (MMEs)-rapid large-scale die-offs-are now emblematic of the Anthropocene epoch6. Owing to their rare and unpredictable nature7, we lack an understanding of how MMEs immediately impact ecosystems. Past predator-removal studies2,3 may be insufficient to understand the ecological consequences of MMEs because, in nature, dead predators decompose in situ and generate a resource pulse8, which could alter ensuing ecosystem dynamics by temporarily enhancing productivity. Here we experimentally induce MMEs in tritrophic, freshwater lake food webs and report ecological dynamics that are distinct from predator losses2,3 or resource pulses9 alone, but that can be predicted from theory8. MMEs led to the proliferation of diverse consumer and producer communities resulting from weakened top-down predator control1-3 and stronger bottom-up effects through predator decomposition8. In contrast to predator removals alone, enhanced primary production after MMEs dampened the consumer community response. As a consequence, MMEs generated biomass dynamics that were most similar to those of undisturbed systems, indicating that they may be cryptic disturbances in nature. These biomass dynamics led to trophic decoupling, whereby the indirect beneficial effects of predators on primary producers are lost and later materialize as direct bottom-up effects that stimulate primary production amid intensified herbivory. These results reveal ecological signatures of MMEs and demonstrate the feasibility of forecasting novel ecological dynamics arising with intensifying global change.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Ecologia , Cadeia Alimentar , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Lagos , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Densidade Demográfica , Previsões , Ecologia/métodos , Mudança Climática
4.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 26(2): 197-203, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38198233

RESUMO

Plants are constantly exposed to different kinds of biotic stress, such as herbivore attack and wounding. To deal with these stresses, plants have evolved sophisticated defence mechanisms to protect themselves. Previously, we found that EIJ1 (EDS1-interacting J protein 1) plays a negative regulatory role in plant disease resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Follow-up studies revealed that EIJ1 specifically responds to wounding and herbivore stresses. The expression of EIJ1 was specifically induced by wounding or herbivore stress, as demonstrated by similar results in EIJ1 protein assay. Interestingly, GUS staining found that the promoter of EIJ1 is not involved in the induction of expression under wounding stress. Instead, we identified the first intron of EIJ1 as a key factor in response to wounding stress. Deleting the first intron of EIJ1 resulted in a loss of response to wounding stress in plants. Our results broaden the role of EIJ1 in plant resistance to biotic stress and provide new insights into plant responses to biotic stress.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Herbivoria , Íntrons/genética , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Plantas , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
5.
Plant Cell Environ ; 47(1): 5-23, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37853819

RESUMO

Despite plants realistically being affected by vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores simultaneously, fundamental differences in the ecology and evolution of these two herbivore guilds often means their impacts on plants are studied separately. A synthesis of the literature is needed to understand the types of plant traits examined and their response to, and effect on (in terms of forage selection) vertebrate and invertebrate herbivory, and to identify associated knowledge gaps. Focusing on grassland systems and species, we found 138 articles that met our criteria: 39 invertebrate, 97 vertebrate and 2 focussed on both vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores. Our study identified invertebrate focussed research, research conducted in the Southern Hemisphere and research on nondomesticated herbivores was significantly underrepresented based on our search and should be a focus of future research. Differences in study focus (trait response or trait effect), along with differences in the types of traits examined, led to limited opportunity for comparison between the two herbivore guilds. This review therefore predominantly discusses the response and effect of plant traits to each herbivore guild separately. In future studies, we suggest this review be used as a guide for trait selection, to improve comparability and the broader significance of results.


Assuntos
Herbivoria , Invertebrados , Animais , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Invertebrados/fisiologia , Vertebrados , Plantas , Ecologia
6.
Curr Opin Insect Sci ; 60: 101130, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37839579

RESUMO

Increase in soil salinization due to climate change is a global phenomenon that can induce significant changes in plant growth, physiology, and chemistry, exacerbating growing threats to insect biodiversity. Insects that rely on plants are likely to be indirectly impacted by changes in soil salt content through changes in plant chemistry, yet few studies link changes in plant metabolism to impacts on higher trophic levels. Some salinity-mediated changes in specialized metabolites may be predictable due to highly conserved metabolic pathways shared between herbivore defense and stress resistance, but recent studies also suggest substantial variation across plant species and habitats. To date, most of the research on salinity and chemically mediated plant-insect interactions has focused on herbivores, particularly in agricultural systems. Published effects of salinity on pollinators and parasitoids are scarce. Future research will need to focus more on the role of plant chemistry to bridge the divide between studies of plant and insect responses to salinization.


Assuntos
Insetos , Solo , Animais , Insetos/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Plantas/química , Mudança Climática
7.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 195: 115549, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37729690

RESUMO

Anthropogenically induced global climate change has caused profound impacts in the world ocean. Climate change related stressors, like ocean acidification (OA) and warming (OW) can affect physiological performance of marine species. However, studies evaluating the impacts of these stressors on algae-herbivore interactions have been much more scarce. We approached this issue by assessing the combined impacts of OA and OW on the physiological energetics of the herbivorous snail Tegula atra, and whether this snail is affected indirectly by changes in biochemical composition of the kelp Lessonia spicata, in response to OA and OW. Our results show that OA and OW induce changes in kelp biochemical composition and palatability (organic matter, phenolic content), which in turn affect snails' feeding behaviour and energy balance. Nutritional quality of food plays a key role on grazers' physiological energetics and can define the stability of trophic interactions in rapidly changing environments such as intertidal communities.


Assuntos
Kelp , Água do Mar , Animais , Água do Mar/química , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Acidificação dos Oceanos , Ecossistema , Mudança Climática , Caramujos , Oceanos e Mares , Aquecimento Global
8.
Ecol Appl ; 33(8): e2909, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37602895

RESUMO

Herbivore exclusion is implemented globally to recover ecosystems from grazing by introduced and native herbivores, but evidence for large-scale biodiversity benefits is inconsistent in arid ecosystems. We examined the effects of livestock exclusion on dryland plant richness and reproductive capacity. We collected data on plant species richness and seeding (reproductive capacity), rainfall, vegetation productivity and cover, soil strength and herbivore grazing intensity from 68 sites across 6500 km2 of arid Georgina gidgee (Acacia georginae) woodlands in central Australia between 2018 and 2020. Sites were on an actively grazed cattle station and two destocked conservation reserves. We used structural equation modeling to examine indirect (via soil or vegetation modification) versus direct (herbivory) effects of grazing intensity by two introduced herbivores (cattle, camels) and a native herbivore (red kangaroo), on seasonal plant species richness and seeding of all plants, and the richness and seeding of four plant groups (native grasses, forbs, annual chenopod shrubs, and palatable perennial shrubs). Non-native herbivores had a strong indirect effect on plant richness and seeding by reducing vegetative ground cover, resulting in decreased richness and seeding of native grasses and forbs. Herbivores also had small but negative direct impacts on plant richness and seeding. This direct effect was explained by reductions in annual chenopod and palatable perennial shrub richness under grazing activity. Responses to grazing were herbivore-dependent; introduced herbivore grazing reduced native plant richness and seeding, while native herbivore grazing had no significant effect on richness or seeding of different plant functional groups. Soil strength decreased under grazing by cattle but not camels or kangaroos. Cattle had direct effects on palatable perennial shrub richness and seeding, whereas camels had indirect effects, reducing richness and seeding by reducing the abundance of shrubs. We show that considering indirect pathways improves evaluations of the effects of disturbances on biodiversity, as focusing only on direct effects can mask critical mechanisms of change. Our results indicate substantial biodiversity benefits from excluding livestock and controlling camels in drylands. Reducing introduced herbivore impacts will improve soil and vegetation condition, ensure reproduction and seasonal persistence of species, and protect native plant diversity.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Gado , Animais , Bovinos , Camelus , Plantas , Florestas , Biodiversidade , Poaceae , Solo , Herbivoria/fisiologia
9.
Phys Rev E ; 107(6-1): 064403, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37464659

RESUMO

Self-organized vegetation patterns are an amazing aspect of dryland ecosystems; in addition to being visually appealing, patterns control how these water-deprived systems react to escalating environmental stress. Although there is a wide variety of vegetation patterns, little is known about the mechanisms behind spiral patterns. The well-known models that explain other vegetation patterns such stripes, rings, and fairy circles cannot account for these spirals. Here we have adopted a modeling approach in which the interplay between herbivore grazing and vegetation is found to be the reason why spirals form. To comprehend the nonlinear dependence of grazing on the availability vegetation, we have introduced a grazing term that gets saturated when forage is abundant. To account for the impact of the spatial nonhomogeneity in vegetation layout, it is thought that grazing is dependent on mean vegetation density rather than density at a single site. Results show how the system dynamics is changed fundamentally depending on the different types of grazing response. Incorporation of nonlocality into the herbivore grazing leads to spiral-shaped vegetation patterns only in natural grazing scenarios; however, no patterning is seen in human controlled herbivory. Overall, our research points to the nonlocal, nonlinear grazing behavior of herbivores as one of the major driving forces for the development of spiral patterns.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Herbivoria , Humanos , Herbivoria/fisiologia
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(12)2023 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37373546

RESUMO

Crops experience herbivory by arthropods and microbial infections. In the interaction between plants and chewing herbivores, lepidopteran larval oral secretions (OS) and plant-derived damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) trigger plant defense responses. However, the mechanisms underlying anti-herbivore defense, especially in monocots, have not been elucidated. The receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase Broad-Spectrum Resistance 1 (BSR1) of Oryza sativa L. (rice) mediates cytoplasmic defense signaling in response to microbial pathogens and enhances disease resistance when overexpressed. Here, we investigated whether BSR1 contributes to anti-herbivore defense responses. BSR1 knockout suppressed rice responses triggered by OS from the chewing herbivore Mythimna loreyi Duponchel (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and peptidic DAMPs OsPeps, including the activation of genes required for biosynthesis of diterpenoid phytoalexins (DPs). BSR1-overexpressing rice plants exhibited hyperactivation of DP accumulation and ethylene signaling after treatment with simulated herbivory and acquired enhanced resistance to larval feeding. As the biological significance of herbivory-induced accumulation of rice DPs remains unexplained, their physiological activities in M. loreyi were analyzed. The addition of momilactone B, a rice DP, to the artificial diet suppressed the growth of M. loreyi larvae. Altogether, this study revealed that BSR1 and herbivory-induced rice DPs are involved in the defense against chewing insects, in addition to pathogens.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Oryza , Animais , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Mariposas/fisiologia , Plantas/metabolismo , Larva/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
11.
Curr Biol ; 33(11): R584-R610, 2023 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37279691

RESUMO

Large herbivores play unique ecological roles and are disproportionately imperiled by human activity. As many wild populations dwindle towards extinction, and as interest grows in restoring lost biodiversity, research on large herbivores and their ecological impacts has intensified. Yet, results are often conflicting or contingent on local conditions, and new findings have challenged conventional wisdom, making it hard to discern general principles. Here, we review what is known about the ecosystem impacts of large herbivores globally, identify key uncertainties, and suggest priorities to guide research. Many findings are generalizable across ecosystems: large herbivores consistently exert top-down control of plant demography, species composition, and biomass, thereby suppressing fires and the abundance of smaller animals. Other general patterns do not have clearly defined impacts: large herbivores respond to predation risk but the strength of trophic cascades is variable; large herbivores move vast quantities of seeds and nutrients but with poorly understood effects on vegetation and biogeochemistry. Questions of the greatest relevance for conservation and management are among the least certain, including effects on carbon storage and other ecosystem functions and the ability to predict outcomes of extinctions and reintroductions. A unifying theme is the role of body size in regulating ecological impact. Small herbivores cannot fully substitute for large ones, and large-herbivore species are not functionally redundant - losing any, especially the largest, will alter net impact, helping to explain why livestock are poor surrogates for wild species. We advocate leveraging a broad spectrum of techniques to mechanistically explain how large-herbivore traits and environmental context interactively govern the ecological impacts of these animals.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Herbivoria , Animais , Humanos , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Biomassa , Biodiversidade , Plantas
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 889: 164191, 2023 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37201816

RESUMO

Livestock-grassland interactions are among the most important relationships in grazed grassland ecosystems, where herbivores play a crucial role in plant community and ecosystem functions. However, previous studies primarily have focused on the responses of grasslands to grazing, with few focussing on the effects of livestock behaviour that in turn would influence livestock intake and primary and secondary productivity. Through a 2-year grazing intensity experiment with cattle in Eurasian steppe ecosystem, global positioning system (GPS) collars were used to monitor animal movements, where animal locations were recorded at 10-min intervals during the growing season. We used a random forest model and the K-means method to classify animal behaviour and quantified the spatiotemporal movements of the animals. Grazing intensity appeared to be the predominant driver for cattle behaviour. Foraging time, distance travelled, and utilization area ratio (UAR) all increased with grazing intensity. The distance travelled was positively correlated with foraging time, yielding a decreased daily liveweight gain (LWG) except at light grazing. Cattle UAR showed a seasonal pattern and reached the maximum value in August. In addition, the canopy height, above-ground biomass, carbon content, crude protein, and energy content of plants all affected cattle behaviour. Grazing intensity and the resulting change in above-ground biomass and forage quality jointly determined the spatiotemporal characteristics of livestock behaviour. Increased grazing intensity limited forage resources and promoted intraspecific competition of livestock, which induced longer travelling distance and foraging time, and more even spatial distribution when seeking habitat, which ultimately led to a reduction in LWG. In contrast, under light grazing where there were sufficient forage resources, livestock exhibited higher LWG with less foraging time, shorter travelling distance, and more specialized habitat occupation. These findings support the Optimal Foraging Theory and the Ideal Free Distribution model, which may have important implications for grassland ecosystem management and sustainability.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Pradaria , Animais , Bovinos , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Biomassa , Plantas , Gado
13.
Ecology ; 104(7): e4071, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37128704

RESUMO

Long-distance movements are hypothesized to positively influence population size and stability of mobile species. We tested this hypothesis with a novel modeling approach in which moving herbivores interact with the environment created by a dynamic global vegetation model using highly mobile Mongolian gazelles in the eastern Mongolian grasslands as a case study. Gazelle population dynamics were modeled from 1901 to 2018 under two scenarios, one allowing free movement and one restricting movement. Gazelles were 2.2 times more abundant when they could move freely and were extirpated in 71% of the study area when mobility was restricted. Mobility resulted in greater population increases during times of abundant forage and smaller population decreases during drought. Reduced thermoregulatory costs associated with climate change, combined with an increase in vegetation biomass, increased gazelle abundance. Since high abundances often resulted in overgrazing and, thus, extirpation when movement was restricted, mobility had an important role in maintaining higher densities. The novel modeling approach shows how accounting for not just herbivore but also plant ecophysiology can improve our understanding of the population dynamics of highly mobile herbivores, in particular when examining the effects of habitat and climate change. Since the model simulates herbivores based on general physiological mechanisms that apply across large herbivores and the vegetation model can be applied globally, it is possible to adapt the model to other large-herbivore systems.


Assuntos
Antílopes , Animais , Antílopes/fisiologia , Mamíferos , Ecossistema , Biomassa , Dinâmica Populacional , Herbivoria/fisiologia
14.
J Chem Ecol ; 49(5-6): 218-229, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37138167

RESUMO

In response to herbivory, most plant species adjust their chemical and morphological phenotype to acquire induced resistance to the attacking herbivore. Induced resistance may be an optimal defence strategy that allows plants to reduce metabolic costs of resistance in the absence of herbivores, allocate resistance to the most valuable plant tissues and tailor its response to the pattern of attack by multiple herbivore species. Moreover, plasticity in resistance decreases the potential that herbivores adapt to specific plant resistance traits and need to deal with a moving target of variable plant quality. Induced resistance additionally allows plants to provide information to other community members to attract natural enemies of its herbivore attacker or inform related neighbouring plants of pending herbivore attack. Despite the clear evolutionary benefits of induced resistance in plants, crop protection strategies to herbivore pests have not exploited the full potential of induced resistance for agriculture. Here, we present evidence that induced resistance offers strong potential to enhance resistance and resilience of crops to (multi-) herbivore attack. Specifically, induced resistance promotes plant plasticity to cope with multiple herbivore species by plasticity in growth and resistance, maximizes biological control by attracting natural enemies and, enhances associational resistance of the plant stand in favour of yield. Induced resistance may be further harnessed by soil quality, microbial communities and associational resistance offered by crop mixtures. In the transition to more sustainable ecology-based cropping systems that have strongly reduced pesticide and fertilizer input, induced resistance may prove to be an invaluable trait in breeding for crop resilience.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Herbivoria , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Agricultura , Solo , Evolução Biológica
15.
Ecol Lett ; 26(6): 942-954, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37078102

RESUMO

Release from enemies can lead to rapid evolution in invasive plants, including reduced metabolic investment in defence. Conversely, reassociation with enemies leads to renewed evolution of defence, but the potential costs of this evolution are poorly documented. We report increased resistance of the invader Ambrosia artemisiifolia after reassociation with a coevolved specialist herbivore, and that this increase corresponds with reduced abiotic stress tolerance. Herbivore resistance was higher, but drought tolerance was lower in plants from populations with a longer reassociation history, and this corresponded with changes in phenylpropanoids involved in insect resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. These changes were corroborated by shifts in the expression of underlying biosynthetic genes and plant anti-oxidants. Together, our findings suggest rapid evolution of plant traits after reassociation with coevolved enemies, resulting in genetically based shifts in investment between abiotic and biotic stress responses, providing insights into co-evolution, plant invasion and biological control.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Herbivoria , Animais , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Plantas , Insetos , Estresse Fisiológico
16.
Ecol Lett ; 26(6): 908-918, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37042097

RESUMO

Seed limitation can narrow down the number of coexisting plant species, limit plant community productivity, and also constrain community responses to changing environmental and biotic conditions. In a 10-year full-factorial experiment of seed addition, fertilisation, warming and herbivore exclusion, we tested how seed addition alters community richness and biomass, and how its effects depend on seed origin and biotic and abiotic context. We found that seed addition increased species richness in all treatments, and increased plant community biomass depending on nutrient addition and warming. Novel species, originally absent from the communities, increased biomass the most, especially in fertilised plots and in the absence of herbivores, while adding seeds of local species did not affect biomass. Our results show that seed limitation constrains both community richness and biomass, and highlight the importance of considering trophic interactions and soil nutrients when assessing novel species immigrations and their effects on community biomass.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Sementes , Biomassa , Plantas , Herbivoria/fisiologia
17.
Tree Physiol ; 43(7): 1218-1232, 2023 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37010106

RESUMO

The studies of the long-term effects of insect infestations on plant anti-herbivore defences tend to focus on feeding-induced damage. Infestations by an entire insect generation, including egg depositions as well as the feeding insects, are often neglected. Whilst there is increasing evidence that the presence of insect eggs can intensify plants' anti-herbivore defences against hatching larvae in the short term, little is known about how insect infestations, including insect egg depositions, affect plant defences in the long term. We addressed this knowledge gap by investigating long-term effects of insect infestation on elm's (Ulmus minor Mill. cv. 'Dahlem') defences against subsequent infestation. In greenhouse experiments, elms were exposed to elm leaf beetle (ELB, Xanthogaleruca luteola) infestation (adults, eggs and larvae). Thereafter, the trees cast their leaves under simulated winter conditions and were re-infested with ELB after the regrowth of their leaves under simulated summer conditions. Elm leaf beetles performed moderately worse on previously infested elms with respect to several developmental parameters. The concentrations of the phenylpropanoids kaempferol and quercetin, which are involved in egg-mediated, short-term effects on elm defences, were slightly higher in the ELB-challenged leaves of previously infested trees than in the challenged leaves of naïve trees. The expression of several genes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway, jasmonic acid signalling, and DNA and histone modifications appeared to be affected by ELB infestation; however, prior infestation did not alter the expression intensities of these genes. The concentrations of several phytohormones were similarly affected in the currently challenged leaves of previously infested trees and naïve trees. Our study shows that prior infestation of elms by a specialised insect leads to moderately improved defences against subsequent infestation in the following growing season. Prior infestation adds a long-term effect to the short-term enhancer effect that plants show in response to egg depositions when defending against hatching larvae.


Assuntos
Besouros , Ulmus , Animais , Estações do Ano , Larva/fisiologia , Insetos , Árvores , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta
18.
J Exp Bot ; 74(15): 4613-4627, 2023 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37115640

RESUMO

Few studies have explored the phenotypic plasticity of nectar production on plant attractiveness to ants. Here, we investigate the role of extrafloral nectary (EFN) size on the productivity of extrafloral nectar in three sympatric legume species. We hypothesized that plant species with larger EFNs (i) have higher induced nectar secretion after herbivory events, and (ii) are more likely to interact with more protective (i.e. dominant) ant partners. We target 90 plants of three Chamaecrista species in the field. We estimated EFN size and conducted field experiments to evaluate any differences in nectar traits before and after leaf damage to investigate the phenotypic plasticity of nectar production across species. We conducted multiple censuses of ant species feeding on EFNs over time. Plant species increased nectar descriptors after leaf damage, but in different ways. Supporting our hypothesis, C. duckeana, with the largest EFN size, increased all nectar descriptors, with most intense post-herbivory-induced response, taking its place as the most attractive to ants, including dominant species. EFN size variation was an excellent indicator of nectar productivity across species. The higher control over reward production in plants with larger sized EFNs reflects an induction mechanism under damage that reduces costs and increases the potential benefits of indirect biotic defences.


Assuntos
Formigas , Animais , Formigas/fisiologia , Néctar de Plantas , Simbiose , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Plantas
19.
Oecologia ; 201(4): 1053-1066, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36964400

RESUMO

Invertebrate herbivory can shape plant communities when impacting growth and fitness of some plant species more than other species. Previous studies showed that herbivory varies among plant species and that species-specific herbivory is affected by the diversity of the surrounding plant community. However, mechanisms underlying this variation are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigate how plant traits and plant apparency explain differences in herbivory among plant species and we explore the effect of plant community diversity on these species-specific relationships. We found that species differed in the herbivory they experienced. Forbs were three times more damaged by herbivores than grasses. Variability within grasses was caused by differences in leaf dry matter content (LDMC). Furthermore, higher plant diversity increased herbivory on 15 plant species and decreased herbivory on nine species. Variation within forb and grass species in their response to changing plant diversity was best explained by species' physical resistance (LDMC, forbs) and biomass (grasses). Overall, our results show that herbivory and diversity effects on herbivory differ among species, and that, depending on the plant functional group, either species-specific traits or apparency are driving those differences. Thus, herbivores might selectively consume palatable forbs or abundant grasses with contrasting consequences for plant community composition in grasslands dominated by either forbs or grasses.


Assuntos
Herbivoria , Invertebrados , Animais , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Invertebrados/fisiologia , Plantas , Poaceae , Biomassa , Ecossistema , Biodiversidade
20.
Plant J ; 114(5): 1164-1177, 2023 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36891808

RESUMO

Non-volatile metabolites constitute the bulk of plant biomass. From the perspective of plant-insect interactions, these structurally diverse compounds include nutritious core metabolites and defensive specialized metabolites. In this review, we synthesize the current literature on multiple scales of plant-insect interactions mediated by non-volatile metabolites. At the molecular level, functional genetics studies have revealed a large collection of receptors targeting plant non-volatile metabolites in model insect species and agricultural pests. By contrast, examples of plant receptors of insect-derived molecules remain sparse. For insect herbivores, plant non-volatile metabolites function beyond the dichotomy of core metabolites, classed as nutrients, and specialized metabolites, classed as defensive compounds. Insect feeding tends to elicit evolutionarily conserved changes in plant specialized metabolism, whereas its effect on plant core metabolism varies widely based the interacting species. Finally, several recent studies have demonstrated that non-volatile metabolites can mediate tripartite communication on the community scale, facilitated by physical connections established through direct root-to-root communication, parasitic plants, arbuscular mycorrhizae and the rhizosphere microbiome. Recent advances in both plant and insect molecular biology will facilitate further research on the role of non-volatile metabolites in mediating plant-insect interactions.


Assuntos
Herbivoria , Micorrizas , Animais , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Insetos/fisiologia , Plantas/metabolismo , Rizosfera
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