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1.
Vínculo ; 18(2): 1-11, jul.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1341800

RESUMO

Diferentes configurações familiares têm surgido na contemporaneidade em decorrência de avanços sociais. Entre as parentalidades emergentes, a homoparentalidade é a que mais se distancia do ideal social, já que evidencia a orientação sexual dos pais e mobiliza fantasias de que ela interfira no exercício parental e no desenvolvimento de seus filhos. Por esta razão, investigamos a experiência emocional de casais homoafetivos em relação ao preconceito vivenciado no exercício da parentalidade. Para isso, adotamos uma abordagem qualitativa psicanalítica e entrevistamos seis casais homoafetivos, fazendo uso de uma Narrativa Interativa, dado seu potencial de acesso lúdico e protegido à experiência emocional dos participantes. A análise interpretativa do material narrativo resultou em campos de sentidos afetivo-emocionais dos quais o campo "Que família é essa?" emerge como emblemático do preconceito sofrido pela família homoparental em decorrência de uma visão patriarcal e heteronormativa da sociedade. Embora os casais homoafetivos reproduzam em certa medida o padrão familiar heterossexual, seu modo de exercer a parentalidade aponta para alternativas criativas e levanta novos questionamentos.


Different family configurations have emerged in contemporary times due to social advancements. Among the emergent parenting, homoparenting is the one that distances itself from the social ideal the most, as it evidences the parents' sexual orientation and mobilizes fantasies that it interferes with the parenting exercise and their children's development. For this reason, we investigate the emotional experience of homoaffective couples regarding the prejudice experienced in parenting exercise. For this, we adopted a qualitative psychoanalytic approach, and we interviewed six homoaffective couples, making use of an Interactive Narrative, given its potential for ludic and protected access to the emotional experience of the participants. The interpretive analysis of the narrative material has resulted in fields of affective-emotional meaning, from which the "What family is this?" field emerges as emblematic of the prejudice suffered by the homoparental family as a result of a patriarchal and heteronormative view from society. Although homoaffective couples to some extent reproduce the heterosexual family pattern, their way of parenting exercise point out to creative alternatives and raise new questions.


Diferentes configuraciones familiares han surgido en los tiempos contemporáneos como resultado de avances sociales. Entre las paternidades emergentes, la homoparentalidad es la más alejada del ideal social, ya que destaca la orientación sexual de los padres y moviliza fantasías de ella interfiriendo en el ejercicio parental y en el desarrollo de sus hijos. Por esta razón, investigamos la experiencia emocional de parejas homoafetivas en relación al prejuicio experimentado en el ejercicio de la parentalidad. Para esto, adoptamos un enfoque psicoanalítico cualitativo y entrevistamos a seis parejas homoafetivas, haciendo uso de una Narrativa Interactiva, dado su potencial para el acceso lúdico y protegido a la experiencia emocional de los participantes. El análisis interpretativo del material narrativo ha dado como resultado campos de significados afectivo-emocionales de los cuales el campo "¿Que familia es esta?" emerge como un emblema del prejuicio sufrido por la familia homoparental como resultado de una visión patriarcal y heteronormativa de la sociedad. Aunque las parejas homoafetivas reproducen hasta cierto punto el patrón familiar heterosexual, su modo de ejercer la parentalidad apunta a alternativas creativas y plantean nuevas preguntas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preconceito , Comportamento Sexual , Homossexualidade , Características da Família , Poder Familiar , Heterossexualidade , Narrativa Pessoal , Identidade de Gênero
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(47): 1635-1639, 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818317

RESUMO

In 2019, heterosexual sex accounted for 23% of new HIV diagnoses in the United States and six dependent areas (1). Although preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can safely reduce the risk for HIV infection among heterosexual persons, this group is underrepresented in PrEP research (2). CDC analyzed National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) data to describe PrEP awareness among heterosexually active adults in cities with high HIV prevalence. Overall, although 32.3% of heterosexually active adults who were eligible were aware of PrEP, <1% used PrEP. Racial, ethnic, and gender disparities were identified, with the lowest awareness of PrEP among residents of Puerto Rico (5.8%) and Hispanic or Latino (Hispanic) men (19.5%) and women (17.6%). Previous studies have found that heterosexual adults are interested in taking PrEP when they are aware of it (3); tailoring PrEP messaging, including Spanish-language messaging, to heterosexual adults, might increase PrEP awareness and mitigate disparities in use.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Heterossexualidade/etnologia , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , População Urbana , Adulto , Cidades/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Heterossexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Raciais , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(9): 1601-1606, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814590

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics and transmission routes of newly reported HIV/AIDS cases with non-martial and non-commercial (NMNC) heterosexual behaviors in Zhejiang province. Methods: A retrospective survey was conducted among HIV/AIDS cases that had NMNC heterosexual behavior history and diagnosed with HIV infection in Zhejiang between January 1st, 2017 and September 30th, 2019. The multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was used to explore the association of social demographic characteristics with NMNC heterosexual partner types in the cases. Results: A total of 406 participants with NMNC heterosexual behaviors before HIV diagnoses were recruited in this study. Most of them were males (67.2%, 273/406), aged 25-49 years at HIV diagnoses (59.1%, 240/406). Prior to HIV infection confirmation, 36.0% (146/406) participants only had casual sexual partners, 52.0% (211/406) only had regular sexual partners, and 12.0% (49/406) had both. Statistical differences in marital status, occupation and income level were found among participants with different types of NMNC heterosexual partners (all P<0.05). Result of MCA indicted that monthly income ≤3 000 yuan RMB, self-employed, being married were only associated with casual NMNC heterosexual partner; working in service industry, education level of junior high school were only associated with regular heterosexual partner; working in enterprise, high school education level or above, monthly income ≥5 000 yuan RMB were associated with both casual and regular sexual partner. Conclusion: The HIV/AIDS cases with NMNC heterosexual behaviors before HIV diagnoses accounted for a large proportion in Zhejiang province during 2017-2019. Active intervention efforts should be made to improve the health awareness of the public to reduce the risk behaviors for HIV transmission.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Comportamento Sexual
4.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(10): 1835-1839, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814620

RESUMO

Objective: To analysis the characteristics and trends of non-martial and non-commercial heterosexual transmission of HIV/AIDS cases in Henan province between 2015 and 2020. Methods: Information of newly reported HIV/AIDS through non-martial and non-commercial heterosexual transmission was collected from National Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Information system, using SPSS 22.0 to analyze the characteristics and tend of cases. Results: During 2015-2020, a total of 10 877 HIV/AIDS cases infected by non-martial and non-commercial heterosexual transmission were newly reported in Henan province. This mode of infection increased from 32.6% in 2015 to 35.5% in 2020 (trend χ2=81.880,P<0.01). The male to female ratio was 1.9∶1 (7 105∶3 772). The mean age was (45.5±15.8) years, increasing annually (F=5.184,P<0.01). For female cases, the proportion of aged 15-50 years group was decreased annually (trend χ2=69.888, P<0.01). Most HIV/AIDS cases were distributed in the early HIV epidemic areas and Zhengzhou city, the same as the cases of the first CD4+T cells counts (CD4) below 200 cells/µl. The median (P25, P75) first CD4 count was 298 (143, 462) cells/µl. The proportion of the first CD4<200 cells/µl was no significant change annually, while the proportion of the first CD4≥500 cells/µl was decreasing annually (trend χ2=18.961,P<0.01). Conclusions: The reported cases through non-martial and non-commercial heterosexual transmission increased, with most of them were male, married, junior, farmer, migrant laborer, and aged 40-59 years. It is needed to focus on the rural district and the middle-aged population, combined with biological and social factors to control the prevalence of AIDS through comprehensive prevention and control measures.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
AIDS Res Ther ; 18(1): 68, 2021 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629080

RESUMO

Men who have sex with men (MSM) are potentially at high risk for HIV infection, their HIV prevalence far exceeds the national prevalence rate. There are also a number of MSM who have sex with women, mostly unprotected, which can transmit HIV to their female sexual partners and even to the next generation. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the prevalence of heterosexual behaviors in Chinese men who have sex with men and the status of condom utilization as well as HIV infection among MSM with heterosexual behaviors, so as to further improve the investigation and prevention and control of AIDS in MSM population. We systematically searched China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data, VIP Database for Chinese Technical Calligraphy (VIP), Pubmed, and Embase following certain retrieval strategies to find relevant articles published from January 1, 2015 to November 18, 2019, The useful information extracted from qualified articles, Stata 15.1 and Review Manager 5.3 were employed for further meta analysis. The estimated prevalence of heterosexual behaviors among MSM in the past year was 19.0% (95% CI 17.0%, 22.0%). The estimated condom utilization rate of the last heterosexual behavior among MSM and condom adherence rate of heterosexual behaviors among MSM were 51.0% (95% CI 44.0%, 58.0%) and 31.0% (95% CI 25.0%, 38.0%), respectively. And the pooled HIV prevalence in MSM with heterosexual behaviors was 9% (95% CI 6%, 13%). The sensitivity analysis showed that the results were stable. No publication bias was found by Egger's test. There is a high proportion of MSM with heterosexual behaviors and low condom utilization in China. HIV prevalence in MSM with heterosexual behaviors is also high. Therefore, adequate attention should be given to this particular group and measures should be taken in order to reduce the risk of transmission of HIV from subpopulations to the general population.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Heterossexualidade , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639691

RESUMO

Background: Sexual attitudes are related to the expression of sexuality and have been associated with indicators for sexual health. The main aim of this study was to determine the explanatory capacity of general (i.e., erotophilia) and specific (i.e., toward sexual fantasies and masturbation) sexual attitudes on different sexual functioning dimensions (sexual desire, sexual arousal, lubrication/erection, ability to have an orgasm and orgasm satisfaction). Methods: The sample consisted of 2000 heterosexual adults (1044 women, 956 men) aged 18-83 years. Results: The explanatory models for women mainly showed that positive attitudes toward sexual fantasies (ß range = -0.35, -0.249) and age (ß range = -0.111, 0.086) explained sexual function. The models proposed for men revealed a more diverse pattern, although the variable essential for explaining sexual function was a positive attitude toward sexual fantasies (ß range = -0.266, -0.097). Conclusions: These results indicate that specific sexual attitudes, particularly in relation to sexual fantasies, are more sensitive variables than erotophilia in examining sexual health.


Assuntos
Orgasmo , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto , Atitude , Feminino , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Libido , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Arch Sex Behav ; 50(7): 3125-3136, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625884

RESUMO

China's long historical and cultural traditions that overemphasize the continuity of the family bloodline have a profound impact on the desire to become parents. Indeed, many Chinese lesbian and gay (LG) individuals want to become parents, despite same-sex parenting being illegal in mainland China. Faced with a conflict between their sexual orientation and desire for parenthood, childless LG individuals in China experience additional stress. However, no empirical study has examined such stress, which has been termed perceived difficulties of future parenthood. The present study aimed to explore the influence of perceived difficulties of future parenthood on mental health and the moderating effect of parenting desire on the relationship between them among 737 childless Chinese LG individuals (216 lesbian women and 521 gay men). A new measure was developed consisting of four dimensions: restricted pathways, social discrimination, uncertain affective ties, and parental opposition. As predicted, perceived difficulties of future parenthood were associated with poorer mental health in the sample. However, the interaction effects between parenting desire and perceived difficulties of future parenthood on mental health were not significant. These findings highlight common existing perceived difficulties about future parenthood in childless LG individuals in China and their negative effects on mental health.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade Feminina , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , China , Feminino , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual
8.
Arch Sex Behav ; 50(7): 3137-3154, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642837

RESUMO

Minority stigma against sexual minority women and its contributions to these women's health disparities have been widely investigated in Western countries. By contrast, little has been known about minority stigma against women with same-sex attraction (WSSA) in mainland China. This study aimed at exploring the nature, genesis, and pathways of minority stigma among this rarely studied minority group in terms of China's unique social and cultural organization of gender and sexuality. A grounded theory approach was applied to 28 participants of Chinese WSSA through in-depth telephone interviews to elicit their views and perspectives anchored in their daily experiences with gender hierarchy and normative heterosexuality. Findings of this study identified marital pressure and cultural unintelligibility as two principal components of minority stigma against Chinese WSSA. A conceptual framework was developed to illustrate how minority stigma relies on the mutually reinforcing loop of martial pressure and culturally unintelligible status of female same-sex attraction to oppress Chinese WSSA within and across intrapersonal, interpersonal, and structural levels. The parent-daughter relationship, laden with the Confucian value of filial piety, was highlighted as the major pathway of minority stigma to force Chinese women with same-sex attraction into heterosexual marriage and make female same-sex attraction culturally unintelligible. These findings lay a foundation for conceptualizing and measuring minority stigma of Chinese WSSA caused by the stigmatization of their same-sex attraction. Moreover, these findings would contribute greatly to understanding how cultural particularities critically affect the local process of stigmatization through which power relations and social control are practiced.


Assuntos
Casamento , Grupos Minoritários , China , Feminino , Teoria Fundamentada , Heterossexualidade , Humanos
9.
Math Biosci Eng ; 18(5): 6961-6977, 2021 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517566

RESUMO

This paper elucidates that the AIDS/HIV incidence rate differences exist among different population and regions, especially among the old and college students. Due to the effect of age, the AIDS incidence peak in males aged 20-35 years and 50 years old both in Chongqing and Shenzhen, and the incidence rate and increasing spread in males was higher than that of females under period effect. In the local population in Chongqing and Shenzhen, the incidence rate of males in over 40, below and in the whole age groups are predicted to increase sharply in the future six years, while in females, the incidence rates among over 40-year-old and the whole age groups were predicted to increase as well. The incidence rate among homosexually transmitted patients reaches the peak in the 20-35, the incidence rate of patients transmitted through heterosexual reaches the peak around 50-year-old. Under the effect of period, AIDS/HIV incidence rate of patients transmitted through sexual routes showed an upward trend both in Chongqing and Shenzhen. The incidence rate of patients aged between 41 and 70 years old presents with an upward trend in the future six years. The results show great differences exist in the AIDS/HIV incidence between males and females, therefore it is necessary to take specific measures respectively.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Autism Res ; 14(11): 2342-2354, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536071

RESUMO

Small studies suggest significant differences between autistic and nonautistic individuals regarding sexual orientation and behavior. We administered an anonymized, online survey to n = 2386 adults (n = 1183 autistic) aged 16-90 years to describe sexual activity, risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and sexual orientation. Autistic individuals are less likely to report sexually activity or heterosexuality compared to nonautistic individuals, but more likely to self-report asexuality or an 'other' sexuality. Overall, autistic, and nonautistic groups did not differ in age of sexual activity onset or contraction of STIs. When evaluating sex differences, autistic males are uniquely more likely to be bisexual (compared to nonautistic males); conversely, autistic females are uniquely more likely to be homosexual (compared to nonautistic females). Thus, both autistic males and females may express a wider range of sexual orientations in different sex-specific patterns than general population peers. When comparing autistic males and females directly, females are more likely to have diverse sexual orientations (except for homosexuality) and engage in sexual activity, are less likely to identify as heterosexual, and have a lower mean age at which they first begin engaging in sexual activity. This is the largest study of sexual orientation of autistic adults. Sexual education and sexual health screenings of all children, adolescents, and adults (including autistic individuals) must remain priorities; healthcare professionals should use language that affirms a diversity of sexual orientations and supports autistic individuals who may have increased risks (affecting mental health, physical health, and healthcare quality) due to stress and discrimination from this intersectionality. LAY SUMMARY: This is the largest study on the sexual activity, orientation, and health of autistic adults. This study reaffirms that the majority of autistic adults are interested in sexual relationships and engage in sexual activity. Sexual education and sexual health screenings must remain a priority for all individuals, including those with autism; healthcare professionals should be aware that autistic patients may be more likely to identify as Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, Queer, Asexual, and other identities not listed here (LGBTQA+) which may put them at greater risk of mental and physical health difficulties due to discrimination.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Saúde Sexual , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno Autístico/epidemiologia , Bissexualidade , Criança , Feminino , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual
11.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2021: 8862534, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34566521

RESUMO

African, Caribbean, and Black (ACB) men living in Canada share a heightened risk of HIV infection and the associated risk factors such as suboptimal use of family planning services such as condom use. In this study, we assessed the factors associated with knowledge, attitude, and condom use among ACB men in Ontario. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study that surveyed heterosexual ACB men regardless of their residency status living in Ontario (n = 430). This is a part of a larger mixed methods study informed by critical race theory, intersectionality, and community-based participatory research (CBPR). Outcome variables were knowledge of condom use, attitude towards condom use, and actual use of condom during the last 12 months. Results. Of 430 participants, 77.70% has good knowledge of condom use as a protection against HIV transmission, 31.77% had positive attitude towards condom use, and 62.43% reported using condom regularly with casual partners during the last 12 months. Men who were currently married had more positive attitude towards condom use compared with their unmarried counterparts (odds ratio = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.20, 1.78). Canadian residents were found to have higher odds of having correct knowledge of condom (odds ratio = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.55), and positive attitude towards condom use (odds ratio = 1.44, 95%CI = 1.09, 1.92). Men who visited sexual health clinics showed a positive association with having correct knowledge of condom (odds ratio = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.30, 2.44) and reported experiences of difficulty in accessing sexual health. This showed a negative association towards condom use (odds ratio = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.21, 0.97]. Conclusion. A considerable percentage of heterosexual ACB men did not have correct knowledge regarding the protective effect of condom use against HIV and positive attitude towards the use of condom. Several sociodemographic and healthcare-related factors were significantly associated with knowledge, attitude, and use of condom.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Preservativos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Heterossexualidade , Sexo Seguro , Adolescente , Adulto , África/etnologia , Idoso , Região do Caribe/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Casamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário , Parceiros Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501701

RESUMO

Groups marginalized and/or isolated by minority status-including transgender individuals-are at significant risk for loneliness and diminished quality of life (QoL), effects that can be mitigated to some extent by coping styles. In this study, we examined the relationships among coping styles, loneliness, and QoL outcomes in a marginalized but understudied gender minority group, namely, 200 transgender individuals living in communities in an emerging/developing non-Western geo-cultural region of South-Central Asia (Pakistan), comparing them against a reference group of 100 heterosexual cisgender individuals. Results indicated strong relationships among coping styles, loneliness, and QoL in both transgender and cisgender groups. Moderating variable analysis revealed that coping skills-whether adaptive or maladaptive-help explain differences in loneliness and QoL not only between trans- and cis-gender individuals, but also within just the transgender group. The implications of these findings for intervention strategies to improve QoL among transgender populations are discussed, with reference to both the specific context within Pakistan and the larger context of transgender marginalization within many developing/emerging countries.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Pessoas Transgênero , Adaptação Psicológica , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Solidão , Paquistão
13.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257583, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite declining HIV infection rates, persistent racial and ethnic disparities remain. Appropriate calculations of diagnosis rates by HIV transmission category, race and ethnicity, and geography are needed to monitor progress towards reducing systematic disparities in health outcomes. We estimated the number of heterosexually active adults (HAAs) by sex and state to calculate appropriate HIV diagnosis rates and disparity measures within subnational regions. METHODS: The analysis included all HIV diagnoses attributed to heterosexual transmission in 2018 in the United States, in 50 states and the District of Columbia. Logistic regression models estimated the probability of past-year heterosexual activity among adults in three national health surveys, by sex, age group, race and ethnicity, education category, and marital status. Model-based probabilities were applied to estimated counts of HAAs by state, which were synthesized through meta-analysis. HIV diagnoses were overlaid to calculate racial- and ethnic-specific rates, rate differences (RDs), and rate ratios (RRs) among HAAs by sex and state. RESULTS: Nationally, HAA women have a two-fold higher HIV diagnosis rate than HAA men (rate per 100,000 HAAs, women: 6.57; men: 3.09). Compared to White non-Hispanic HAAs, Black HAAs have a 20-fold higher HIV diagnosis rate (RR, men: 21.28, women: 19.55; RD, men: 15.40, women: 31.78) and Hispanic HAAs have a 4-fold higher HIV diagnosis rate (RR, men: 4.68, RD, women: 4.15; RD, men: 2.79, RD, women: 5.39). Disparities were ubiquitous across regions, with >75% of states in each region having Black-to-White RR ≥10. CONCLUSION: The racial and ethnic disparities across regions suggests a system-wide failure particularly with respect to preventing HIV among Black and Hispanic women. Pervasive disparities emphasize the role for coordinated federal responses such as the current Ending the HIV Epidemic (EHE) initiative.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Heterossexualidade , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Am J Addict ; 30(6): 593-600, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Research investigating e-cigarettes/e-products and dual use with cigarettes among pregnant sexual minority individuals in the United States is lacking. This study addresses this gap using a national sample. METHODS: Two waves of national panel data (2015-2018) from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health study were used. The sample included 1842 women, 237 identified as sexual minorities (n = 17 lesbian, n = 177 bisexual, n = 43 something else), who indicated pregnancy during the past 12 months at Waves 3 or 4. Covariates included race, ethnicity, past-year income, and education. Cigarette, e-cigarette, or dual use was examined during the last trimester. RESULTS: Sexual minorities had higher adjusted odds of cigarette use during their last trimester of pregnancy relative to heterosexual women (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 2.23). Bisexual women had higher odds of smoking cigarettes during their third trimester compared with heterosexual women (AOR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.21, 2.72). Lesbian women were more likely to use e-cigarettes/e-products (AOR = 9.15, 95% CI = 2.29, 36.5) and indicate dual use (AOR = 6.00, 95% CI = 1.43, 25.1) during their third trimester of pregnancy compared with heterosexual women. CONCLUSION AND SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: Maternal health among US sexual minority women would benefit from clinicians equipped to provide accurate information and support for Food and Drug Administration-approved smoking cessation, information about e-cigarettes/e-products, and dual use. This study is the first to examine cigarette, e-cigarette, and dual use during the third trimester of pregnancy using a national sample, with specific attention to differences in sexual orientation.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Produtos do Tabaco , Feminino , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Comportamento Sexual , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Sex Transm Infect ; 97(8): 584-589, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544887

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Patient and public involvement (PPI) in research priority-setting remains limited, especially for non-HIV STI. We identify and compare the top 10 patient and public STI research priorities with those of clinicians and STI stakeholders. METHODS: This two-stage study was conducted in May-August 2019. First, STI research priorities were canvassed through qualitative questionnaires issued to all patients attending a large sexual health clinic, all clinicians in region-wide mailing lists, all stakeholders identified through existing networks and the Charity Commission database, and to the Liverpool public. Raw responses were organised by theme into a shortlist of 25. In stage 2, these were ranked through priority-setting activities by telephone with patients and the public (n=8) and some clinicians (n=3), and in two workshops with clinicians (n=26) and stakeholders (n=5), respectively. The top 10 priorities were compared. RESULTS: Of 373 surveys submitted, 106 were analysed (83 patient and public; 23 clinician and stakeholder). Exclusions included lack of completion and responses out of scope. Among patient and public respondents, 55% (n=46) were aged 18-24 years, 51% (n=42) identified as heterosexual women and 23% (n=19) as men who have sex with men. Clinicians included all cadres; stakeholders were academics, commissioners and third sector representatives. In stage 2, 4 of 10 themes (STI education, targeted services for high-risk groups, antibiotic resistance and counselling for those with STI) were prioritised by all. Remote STI services and rapid diagnostics also ranked highly but the rationale differed between groups. CONCLUSION: This is the first non-HIV STI research priority-setting exercise to be reported in the UK. It identifies overlaps and differences between public and provider concerns, highlights gaps in the public understanding of STI research, and shows how PPI can promote research responsive to the concerns of both those who use and deliver services.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Pesquisa , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/psicologia , Adolescente , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Heterossexualidade , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Pública , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Arch Sex Behav ; 50(6): 2435-2446, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370127

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine how meanings ascribed to sex and commitment vary based on educational background, gender, and other correlates using a large sample of college-attending and non-college emerging adults (ages 18-25; N = 669). Findings from our content analysis replicated previous research by identifying meanings focused on commitment (47.8%), flexibility (22.7%), and recreation (17.8%). We also found two additional meanings focused on finding a sexual connection (termed Connectors; 9.1%) and using sex to test relationship compatibility (termed Testers; 2.5%), which were not found in previous studies on sex and commitment. A greater proportion of women than men were in the Committers group, whereas a greater proportion of men than women were in the Recreationers group. A greater proportion of heterosexual than sexual minority participants were in the Committers group, whereas a greater proportion of sexual minority than heterosexual participants were in the Flexibles and Testers groups. A greater proportion of those in committed relationships than those in casual or no relationships were in the Committers group, whereas a greater proportion of those in casual relationships than those in committed or no relationships were in the Recreationers group. Those in the Recreationers group reported the greatest average number of hookup partners in the last 12 months (compared to all others), and those in the Recreationers and Testers groups reported the greatest average number of lifetime sexual partners (compared to all others). Implications for future research and sexual health education for emerging adults are discussed.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sexual , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Masculino , Parceiros Sexuais , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
17.
Psychiatr Serv ; 72(11): 1261-1267, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346732

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Sexual and gender minority youths are more likely to consider, attempt, and die by suicide than are heterosexual and cisgender youths, yet little is known about how to predict future attempts or transitions from suicidal thoughts to behaviors. Additionally, adaptive measurement of psychopathology is a promising approach that may help characterize risk in this population. This study examined the validity of the Computerized Adaptive Test for Suicide Scale (CAT-SS) in predicting suicide attempts and the transition from suicidal ideation to attempt. METHODS: The CAT-SS was administered to participants of two ongoing cohort studies of sexual and gender minority adolescents and young adults (N=1,006). Survival analyses examined longitudinal associations between CAT-SS scores and time to suicide attempt. Analyses were conducted for the full sample and stratified by those with and without a history of suicidal ideation, with comparisons between adaptive and static measures of depressive symptoms. RESULTS: The CAT-SS predicted future suicide attempts in the overall sample (hazard ratio [HR]=1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.03-1.74). Among youths without a history of suicidal ideation, social support reduced the risk for attempts (HR=0.66, 95% CI=0.45-0.96). Among youths with a history of ideation, predictors of the transition from suicidal thoughts to attempts included baseline CAT-SS score (HR=1.51, 95% CI=1.06-2.15) and victimization (HR=2.48, 95% CI=1.10-5.59). CONCLUSIONS: Risk and protective factors for suicide attempts differed between youths with and without a history of suicidal thoughts. The CAT-SS had validity in predicting future risk of the sample overall and of youths with suicidal ideation.


Assuntos
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Tentativa de Suicídio , Adolescente , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual , Ideação Suicida
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16546, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400657

RESUMO

We examined whether heterosexual individuals' self-reported sexual orientation could be influenced experimentally by manipulating their knowledge of the nature of sexual orientation. In Study 1 (180 university students, 66% female) participants read summaries describing evidence for sexual orientation existing on a continuum versus discrete categories or a control manipulation, and in Study 2 (460 participants in a nationally representative Qualtrics panel, 50% female) additionally read summaries describing sexual orientation as fluid versus stable across the life-course. After reading summaries, participants answered various questions about their sexual orientation. In Study 1, political moderates and progressives (but not conservatives) who read the continuous manipulation subsequently reported being less exclusively heterosexual, and regardless of political alignment, participants reported less certainty about their sexual orientation, relative to controls. In Study 2, after exposure to fluid or continuous manipulations heterosexual participants were up to five times more likely than controls to rate themselves as non-exclusively heterosexual. Additionally, those in the continuous condition reported less certainty about their sexual orientation and were more willing to engage in future same-sex sexual experiences, than those in the control condition. These results suggest that non-traditional theories of sexual orientation can lead heterosexuals to embrace less exclusive heterosexual orientations.


Assuntos
Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Comunicação Persuasiva , Educação Sexual , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , New South Wales , Política , Autoimagem , Sexismo , Desenvolvimento Sexual , Incerteza , Adulto Jovem
19.
Arch Sex Behav ; 50(7): 3155-3162, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462841

RESUMO

Research and clinical work on sexual functioning in men has traditionally focused on the presence or absence of erectile dysfunction (ED) or the inability to maintain an erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance. However, for men who have sex with men (MSM), receptive anal intercourse is a common form of sexual expression. Existing work on men's sexual dysfunction does not effectively address receptive anal sex functioning, and there is a need to understand how stressors can impact this common sexual behavior. The goal of the present study was to understand how stressors can impact erective and receptive anal sex functioning among MSM. In the present study, we hypothesized that minority stress (as operationalized by integrating identity management and heterosexual self-presentation) would have an impact on MSM's sexual functioning overall and adapted a previous measure of sexual dysfunction (International Index of Erectile Functioning) to better assess this relationship. Data were collected from 228 men (Mage = 31.74, SD = 9.41); exploratory factor analysis was used to create a new measure of sexual functioning, and regression analyses were used to examine the relationships between heterosexual self-presentation and identity management and sexual functioning. Results demonstrated that higher heterosexual self-presentation was associated with more functional impairment in erectile function and receptive anal sex functioning as well as use of functional enhancement medications or substances. The results of the present study extend extant work on minority stress to sexual functioning of MSM and are relevant to the sexual health concerns of MSM.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade Masculina , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adulto , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Masculino , Homens , Comportamento Sexual
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299711

RESUMO

The present study compared the levels of explicit and intrinsic intention to receive COVID-19 vaccination among sexual minority and heterosexual individuals and examined the association of explicit and intrinsic intentions with sexual orientation. We enrolled 171 sexual minority and 876 heterosexual individuals through a Facebook advertisement. The participants' explicit and intrinsic intentions to receive COVID-19 vaccination and their risk perception of COVID-19 were measured. We discovered that sexual minority individuals had higher levels of explicit and intrinsic intention to receive vaccination relative to heterosexual individuals. Intrinsic intention was positively associated with explicit intention after the effects of demographic characteristics and risk perception of COVID-19 were controlled for. Sexual orientation did not moderate the association between explicit and intrinsic intentions. The present study determined the relationship between sexual orientation and intention to receive COVID-19 vaccination.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Feminino , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Comportamento Sexual , Taiwan , Vacinação
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