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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 772, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CRF_BC recombinants, including CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC, were considered the predominant subtypes in China. Since the discovery of HIV-1 circulating recombinant form CRF 85_BC in Southwest China in 2016, this BC recombinant forms had been reported in different regions of China. However, the history and magnitude of CRF85_BC transmission were still to be investigated. METHOD: We conducted the most recent molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 among newly reported HIV-1 infected patients in Sichuan in 2019 by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 1291 pol sequences. Then, we used maximum likelihood approach and the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling of pol sequences to reconstruct the phylogeographic and demographic dynamics of the CRF85_BC. RESULTS: HIV-1 CRF85_BC (68/1291, 5.27%) became the fourth most prevalent strain revealing a significant increase in local population. CRF85_BC were only found in heterosexually infected individuals and the majority of CRF85_BC (95.45%) were circulating among the people living with HIV aged 50 years and over (PLHIV50+), suggesting a unique prevalent pattern. The founder lineages of CRF85_BC were likely to have first emerged in Yunnan, a province of Southwest China bordering Sichuan, in the early 2000s. It then spread exponentially to various places (including Guangxi, Sichuan, et al) and became endemic around 2008.6 (2006.7-2010.2) in Sichuan. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our findings on HIV-1 subtype CRF85_BC infections provided new insights into the spread of this virus and extended the understanding of the HIV epidemic in China.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/classificação , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , China/epidemiologia , Epidemias , Feminino , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemiologia Molecular , Filogenia , Filogeografia
2.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 29(3): 165-174, sept. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-194493

RESUMO

Studies of intimate partner violence (IPV) have generally focused on only one partner. Although this has allowed advances in scientific knowledge on the causes of IPV, currently recent literature is demanding the need to study both members of the couple. Methodologically, the study of dyads requires the use of appropriate statistical techniques to avoid possible systematic biases (for example, type I error due to dependence of observations). We used the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to study aggression and victimization in 361 heterosexual couples of young adults. The results indicated, on the one hand, that self-reported mutual aggression was found in more than 50% of the couples. On the other hand, we found that participants' victimization was largely predicted by their own aggressive behavior towards the other member of the couple. While this result suggests the existence of a victim-offender overlap, it may also hide an upwards victimization scores bias: when participants are aggressive toward their partners, they may bias their victimization scores upwards to justify their levels of aggression ("I was aggressive because I felt victimized")


Los estudios sobre la violencia de pareja (en inglés IPV) generalmente han centrado sus análisis sólo en uno de los miembros. Aunque esto ha permitido avanzar en el conocimiento de las causas de la IPV, la literatura reciente ha señalado la necesidad de estudiar a los dos miembros de la pareja. Metodológicamente el estudio de las parejas requiere el uso de técnicas estadísticas apropiadas para evitar posibles sesgos sistemáticos (por ejemplo, error tipo I debido a la dependencia de las observaciones). En este estudio utilizamos el modelo de interdependencia actor-pareja para el estudio de la agresión y la victimización en 361 parejas jóvenes heterosexuales de jóvenes adultos. Los resultados indicaban, por una parte, que había agresión mutua autoinformada en más de la mitad de las parejas. Por otro lado, encontramos que el principal predictor de la victimización de los participantes fue su propio comportamiento agresivo hacia el otro miembro de la pareja. Este resultado sugiere que la víctima y el agresor son la misma persona. Sin embargo, también puede ocultar un posible sesgo al alza de las puntuaciones de victimización: cuando los participantes son agresivos con sus parejas, pueden sesgar al alza sus puntuaciones de victimización para justificar sus niveles de agresión ("Fui agresivo porque me sentí victimizado")


Assuntos
Humanos , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Desejabilidade Social , Autorrelato , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Análise de Variância
3.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 43(9): 660-666, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889837

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess sexual minority and heterosexual survivors' perceived quality of cancer care and identify demographic, clinical, and psychosocial characteristics associated with patient-centered quality of care. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four cancer registries provided data on 17,849 individuals who were diagnosed with stage I, II, or III colorectal cancer an average of 3 years prior and resided in predetermined diverse geographic areas. A questionnaire, which queried about sexual orientation and other eligibility criteria was mailed to all cancer survivors. Of these, 480 eligible survivors participated in a telephone survey. Quality of cancer care was defined by 3 measures of interpersonal care (physician communication, nursing care, and coordination of care) and by rating cancer care as excellent. We used generalized linear models and logistic regression with forward selection to obtain models that best explained each quality of care measure. RESULTS: Sexual minority survivors rated physician communication, nursing care, and coordination of care similarly to heterosexual survivors, yet a significantly higher percentage of sexual minority survivors rated the overall quality of their cancer care as excellent (59% vs. 49%). Sexual minority survivors' greater likelihood of reporting excellent care remained unchanged after adjusting for demographic, clinical, and psychosocial characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual minority survivors' ratings of quality of colorectal cancer care were comparable or even higher than heterosexual survivors. Sexual minority survivors' reports of excellent care were not explained by their interpersonal care experiences.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Heterossexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/enfermagem , Comunicação , Procedimentos Clínicos/normas , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados de Enfermagem/normas , Relações Médico-Paciente , Sistema de Registros , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237469, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is estimated that approximately half of new HIV diagnoses among heterosexual migrants in Victoria, Australia, were acquired post-migration. We investigated the characteristics of phylogenetic clusters in notified cases of HIV among heterosexual migrants. METHODS: Partial HIV pol sequences obtained from routine clinical genotype tests were linked to Victorian HIV notifications with the following exposures listed on the notification form: heterosexual sexual contact, injecting drug use, bisexual sexual contact, male-to male sexual contact or heterosexual sexual contact in combination with injecting drug use, unknown exposure. Those with heterosexual sexual contact as the only exposure were the focus of this study, with the other exposures included to better understand transmission networks. Additional reference sequences were extracted from the Los Alamos database. Maximum likelihood methods were used to infer the phylogeny and the robustness of the resulting tree was assessed using bootstrap analysis. Phylogenetic clusters were defined on the basis of bootstrap and genetic distance. RESULTS: HIV pol sequences were available for 332 of 445 HIV notifications attributed to only heterosexual sexual contact in Victoria from 2005-2014. Forty-three phylogenetic clusters containing at least one heterosexual migrant were detected, 30 (70%) of which were pairs. The characteristics of these phylogenetic clusters varied considerably by cluster size. Pairs were more likely to be composed of people living with HIV from a single country of birth (p = 0.032). Larger clusters (n≥3) were more likely to contain people born in Australian/New Zealand (p = 0.002), migrants from more than one country of birth (p = 0.013) and viral subtype-B, the most common subtype in Australia (p = 0.006). Pairs were significantly more likely to contain females (p = 0.037) and less likely to include HIV diagnoses with male-to-male sexual contact reported as a possible exposure (p<0.001) compared to larger clusters (n≥3). CONCLUSION: Migrants appear to be at elevated risk of HIV acquisition, in part due to intimate relationships between migrants from the same country of origin, and in part due to risks associated with the broader Australian HIV epidemic. However, there was no evidence of large transmission clusters driven by heterosexual transmission between migrants. A multipronged approach to prevention of HIV among migrants is warranted.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV/genética , Filogenia , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Migrantes , Produtos do Gene pol do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/genética
5.
Int J Behav Med ; 27(6): 726-736, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexual minority adults are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors than heterosexual adults. There is a dearth of research identifying factors that are associated with CVD risk among sexual minorities. This study examined the associations between distal and proximal minority stressors and CVD risk. We also tested a sense of mastery as one mechanism that might explain the link between minority stressors and CVD risk. METHODS: Participants were 670 sexual minority adults (53.6% male; 76% White), ages 18 to 76 years (M = 41.19, SD = 14.73), obtained from a non-probability sample. Using an online survey, participants self-reported family history of CVD risk, physiological conditions (diabetes mellitus, high cholesterol, hypertension), and health behaviors (e.g., tobacco use, diet, exercise) that confer or protect against CVD risk. A weighted CVD risk index was computed. Linear and logistic regressions were conducted to test the effects of minority stressors on the CVD risk index and its specific indicators and to examine mediation. RESULTS: Minority stressors were associated with a sense of mastery, and mastery was associated with lower CVD risk index scores. Proximal and distal minority stressors were not directly associated with the overall CVD risk index but were associated with some specific risk indicators. Mediation analyses revealed that both distal and proximal minority stressors were indirectly associated with the CVD risk index through mastery. CONCLUSIONS: Research and interventions should aim to reduce CVD risk factors and target minority stressors and mastery to improve the cardiovascular health of sexual minorities.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236552, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Paying for sex has often been associated with risky sexual behavior among heterosexual men, and men who pay for sex are considered as a bridging population for sexually transmitted infections. Consistent condom use during paid sex is essential for reducing sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS. In this study, we assessed the prevalence and predictors of consistent condom use among men who pay for sex in sub-Saharan Africa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We pooled data from 29 sub-Saharan African countries' Demographic and Health Surveys. A total of 3,353 men in sub-Saharan Africa who had paid for sex in the last 12 months preceding the surveys and had complete information on all the variables of interest were used in this study. The outcome variable for the study was consistent condom use for every paid sex in the last 12 months. Both bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out. Results were presented as adjusted odds ratios with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Statistical significance was declared at p< 0.05. RESULTS: Overall, the prevalence of consistent condom use during paid sex in sub-Saharan Africa was 83.96% (CI = 80.35-87.56), ranging from 48.70% in Benin to 98% in Burkina Faso. Men aged 35-44 [AOR, 1.39 CI = 1.04-1.49], men in the richest wealth quintile [AOR, 1.96 CI = 1.30-3.00], men with secondary level of education [AOR, 1.69 CI = 1.17-2.44], and men in Burkina Faso [AOR = 67.59, CI = 8.72-523.9] had higher odds of consistent condom use during paid sex, compared to men aged 15-19, those in the poorest wealth quintile, those with no formal education, and men in Benin respectively. Conversely, Muslim men had lower odds [AOR = 0.71, CI = 0.53-0.95] of using condom consistently during paid sex, compared to Christian men. CONCLUSION: Empirical evidence from this study suggests that consistent condom use during paid sex encompasses complex social and demographic characteristics. The study also revealed that demographic characteristics such as age, wealth quintile, education, and religion were independently related to consistent condom use for paid sex among men. With sub-Saharan Africa having the highest sexual and reproductive health burden in the world, continuous application of evidence-based interventions (e.g., educational and entrepreneurial training) that account for behavioural and social vulnerabilities are required.


Assuntos
Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexo Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho Sexual , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assunção de Riscos , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237433, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790778

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Heterosexual infections have contributed to a high proportion of the HIV burden in Asia and Eastern Europe. Human mobility and non-local infections are important features in some cities/countries. An understanding of the determinants of the sustained growth of the heterosexual HIV epidemics would enable the potential impacts of treatment-based interventions to be assessed. METHODS: We developed a compartmental model for heterosexual HIV transmissions, parameterized by clinical and surveillance data (1984-2014) in Hong Kong. HIV sequence data were included for examining genetic linkages and clustering pattern. We performed sensitivity analyses to evaluate effects of high-risk sexual partnership and proportions of non-locally acquired infections. Four hypothetical interventions (a) immediate treatment, (b) enhancement of retention in care, (c) HIV testing campaigns, and (d) test-and-treat strategy, were examined. RESULTS: Data of 2174 patients (723 female and 1451 male) diagnosed with HIV between 1984 and 2012 in Hong Kong were collected for model parameterization. Among 1229 sequences of non-MSM (men who have sex with men) patients, 70% were isolates and 17% were either dyads or triads. In base-case scenario, the total estimated number of new infections in 2012-2023 would be 672 for male and 452 for female. Following 100% retention in care intervention, the total proportion of averted new infections in 2012-2023 would be 7% for male and 10% for female. HIV testing campaign in 2012 and 2017 followed by 100% immediate treatment strategy would avert 5% and 9% of male and female new infections, respectively. In the epidemic model, an increase of high-risk sexual partnership from 6% to 9% would increase the epidemic growth (annual number of newly diagnosed and newly infected cases) by about 10%. If no non-locally acquired infection occurred as from 2012, the epidemic growth would slump. To control the heterosexual epidemic, periodic HIV testing at 5-year intervals with immediate treatment would avert 5-13% of annual new infections in 2013-2023. CONCLUSIONS: Enhanced HIV testing with immediate treatment is most effective in controlling the heterosexual epidemic, the impacts of which might however be attenuated by any increase of non-locally acquired infection, assuming little variations of high risk partnership over time.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Heterossexualidade , Adulto , Idoso , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Epidemias , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709046

RESUMO

It has been proposed that women's physical attractiveness is a cue to temporal changes in fertility. If this is the case, we should observe shifts in attractiveness during pregnancy-a unique physiological state of temporal infertility. The aim of this study was to examine how women's facial attractiveness changes during the subsequent trimesters of pregnancy and how it compares to that of nonpregnant women. Sixty-six pictures of pregnant women (22 pictures per trimester) and 22 of nonpregnant women (a control group) were used to generate four composite portraits, which were subsequently assessed for facial attractiveness by 117 heterosexual men. The results show considerable differences between facial attractiveness ratings depending on the status and progress of pregnancy. Nonpregnant women were perceived as the most attractive, and the attractiveness scores of pregnant women decreased throughout the course of pregnancy. Our findings show that facial attractiveness can be influenced by pregnancy and that gestation, even at its early stages, affects facial attractiveness. Considerable changes in women's physiology that occur during pregnancy may be responsible for the observed effects.


Assuntos
Beleza , Face , Gravidez , Feminino , Fertilidade , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 486, 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic screening for gonorrhoea in heterosexual men is currently not recommended in many countries including Australia, given the prevalence is relatively low in the heterosexual population. We aimed to determine the proportion of urethral gonorrhoea cases among heterosexual men attending a sexual health clinic that was asymptomatic and symptomatic, the time since last sexual contact to the onset of symptoms and the time to clinic presentation following the onset of symptoms. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study that included heterosexual men aged 16 years or above attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC) in Australia between August 2017 and August 2018. Gonorrhoea cases were diagnosed by nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) and/or culture. Descriptive analyses were conducted for all gonorrhoea cases including demographic characteristics, recent sexual practices, reported urethral symptoms and duration, sexual contact with a person diagnosed with gonorrhoea, investigations performed and laboratory results. RESULTS: There were 116 confirmed cases of urethral gonorrhoea in heterosexual men over the study period of which 6.0% (95% CI: 2.7-12.1%) were asymptomatic. Typical urethral discharge was present in 80.2% (95% CI: 71.9-86.5%) of men. The mean time between last sexual contact and the onset of symptoms was 7.0 days, and between the onset of symptoms to presentation to the clinic was 5.6 days. CONCLUSIONS: A small proportion of heterosexual men with urethral gonorrhoea do not have any symptoms. Heterosexual men with urethral symptoms usually seek for healthcare within a week, prompting rapid healthcare-seeking behaviour.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Heterossexualidade , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , Saúde Sexual , Doenças Uretrais/diagnóstico , Doenças Uretrais/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Gonorreia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Prevalência , Doenças Uretrais/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1182, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some male heterosexual clients prefer to visit a cross-border Female Sex Worker (FSW) because of cheaper sex and unsafe sex practices, and may therefore be at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI). The objective of this study was to assess whether having commercial cross-border sex is an independent risk factor for being diagnosed with a STI. METHODS: An observational retrospective study was performed using data of 8 Dutch STI clinics bordering Germany, between 2011 and 2013. All male heterosexual clients of FSWs were selected and data on country of FSW visit and occurrence of STI were used for multivariable regression analysis. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 2664 clients of FSW. Most clients visited the Netherlands (82.4%), followed by visits to another country (beyond cross-border) (9.9%) and cross-border visits (7.8%). Clients of FSW were less likely to be STI positive when they were younger than 25 years(OR = 0.6, 95%CI 0.4 to 0.8 25-44 years and OR = 0.5, 95%CI 0.4 to 0.7 older than 45 years), and more likely when they had 20 or more sex partners in the last 6 months (OR = 2.9, 95%CI 1.9 to 4.4), did not use a condom during last sexual contact (OR = 2.2, 95%CI 1.6 to 2.9) and made cross-border visits (OR = 1.7, 95%CI 1.1 to 2.6). CONCLUSIONS: As cross-border visits appears to be a novel independent risk factor for STI in clients of FSW, this group should therefore be advised on STI prevention.


Assuntos
Heterossexualidade , Profissionais do Sexo , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Viagem , Adulto , Preservativos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(31): 18369-18377, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690672

RESUMO

The question whether some men have a bisexual orientation-that is, whether they are substantially sexually aroused and attracted to both sexes-has remained controversial among both scientists and laypersons. Skeptics believe that male sexual orientation can only be homosexual or heterosexual, and that bisexual identification reflects nonsexual concerns, such as a desire to deemphasize homosexuality. Although most bisexual-identified men report that they are attracted to both men and women, self-report data cannot refute these claims. Patterns of physiological (genital) arousal to male and female erotic stimuli can provide compelling evidence for male sexual orientation. (In contrast, most women provide similar physiological responses to male and female stimuli.) We investigated whether men who self-report bisexual feelings tend to produce bisexual arousal patterns. Prior studies of this issue have been small, used potentially invalid statistical tests, and produced inconsistent findings. We combined nearly all previously published data (from eight previous studies in the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada), yielding a sample of 474 to 588 men (depending on analysis). All participants were cisgender males. Highly robust results showed that bisexual-identified men's genital and subjective arousal patterns were more bisexual than were those who identified as exclusively heterosexual or homosexual. These findings support the view that male sexual orientation contains a range, from heterosexuality, to bisexuality, to homosexuality.


Assuntos
Bissexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Canadá , Heterossexualidade , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-598708

RESUMO

This online survey study aimed to compare the cognitive, affective, and behavioral constructs of health beliefs related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) between sexual minority and heterosexual individuals in Taiwan. In total, 533 sexual minority and 1421 heterosexual participants were recruited through a Facebook advertisement. The constructs pertaining to cognition (perceived relative susceptibility to COVID-19, perceived COVID-19 severity, having sufficient knowledge and information on COVID-19, and confidence in coping with COVID-19), affect (worry toward COVID-19), and behavior (adoption of health-protective behaviors) in relation to health beliefs about COVID-19 were compared between sexual minority and heterosexual participants. The results indicated that sexual minority participants had lower perceived susceptibility to COVID-19, greater self-confidence in coping with COVID-19, and lower worry about COVID-19 and were less likely to maintain good indoor ventilation and disinfect their household than heterosexual individuals. Sexual orientation is the modifying factor for the Health Belief Model in the COVID-19 pandemic and should be taken into consideration when medical professionals establish prevention programs for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Afeto , Cognição , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234188, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexual identity is a significant risk factor for triggering symptoms of depression, as well as for suicide attempts in lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) population compared to the heterosexual population. To the best of our knowledge, data on the mental health of LGB persons in Serbia are lacking, and this is the first study to address this problem. The aim of the study was to examine the association between selected determinants and depression, and selected determinants and suicide attempts in LGB and heterosexual populations in the Republic of Serbia, as well as, their differences. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 2015 of 264 heterosexual and LGB respondents using the "snowball sampling" method. We used linear regression analyses to investigate the relationship between socio-demographic variables and different sexual identity categories with PHQ-9 scores. We assessed associations between suicide attempts, and socio-demographic characteristics, sexual identity, depression, and suicidal thoughts using logistic regression. RESULTS: Depression symptoms were higher in female relative to male participants, in participants who were single, divorced or widowed in comparison to currently married, among people with a middle level of education compared to highly educated, and in respondents identified as bisexual or homosexual in comparison to heterosexual. Homosexual and bisexual participants reported suicidal attempts 27 [Odds Ratio (OR) = 27.31] and six times (OR = 6.40) more often than did heterosexual respondents, respectively. Suicide attempts were less frequently reported by single, divorced or widowed participants in comparison to married (OR = 0.25) and those with middle education (OR = 0.38) compared to highly educated. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that LGB persons in Serbia have significantly more symptoms of depression and suicide attempts compared to heterosexuals. Public health interventions should focus on the early detection of depression and on overcoming prejudicial and discriminatory attitudes. Also, intervention should emphasize that homosexuality and bisexuality are normal, equal and morally acceptable expressions of human sexuality.


Assuntos
Bissexualidade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Homossexualidade Feminina/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Suicídio/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sérvia/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549345

RESUMO

This online survey study aimed to compare the cognitive, affective, and behavioral constructs of health beliefs related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) between sexual minority and heterosexual individuals in Taiwan. In total, 533 sexual minority and 1421 heterosexual participants were recruited through a Facebook advertisement. The constructs pertaining to cognition (perceived relative susceptibility to COVID-19, perceived COVID-19 severity, having sufficient knowledge and information on COVID-19, and confidence in coping with COVID-19), affect (worry toward COVID-19), and behavior (adoption of health-protective behaviors) in relation to health beliefs about COVID-19 were compared between sexual minority and heterosexual participants. The results indicated that sexual minority participants had lower perceived susceptibility to COVID-19, greater self-confidence in coping with COVID-19, and lower worry about COVID-19 and were less likely to maintain good indoor ventilation and disinfect their household than heterosexual individuals. Sexual orientation is the modifying factor for the Health Belief Model in the COVID-19 pandemic and should be taken into consideration when medical professionals establish prevention programs for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Afeto , Cognição , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 451, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In line with the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) 90-90-90 target, Norway aims for at least 90% of people living with HIV (PLHIV) to know their HIV-status. We produced current estimates of the number of PLHIV and undiagnosed population in Norway, overall and for six key subpopulations: Norwegian-born men who have sex with men (MSM), migrant MSM, Norwegian-born heterosexuals, migrant Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)-born heterosexuals, migrant non-SSA-born heterosexuals and people who inject drugs. METHODS: We used the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) HIV Modelling Tool on Norwegian HIV surveillance data through 2018 to estimate incidence, time from infection to diagnosis, PLHIV, and the number and proportion undiagnosed. As surveillance data on CD4 count at diagnosis were not collected in Norway, we ran two models; using default model CD4 assumptions, or a proxy for CD4 distribution based on Danish national surveillance data. We also generated alternative overall PLHIV estimates using the Spectrum AIDS Impact Model, to compare with those obtained from the ECDC tool. RESULTS: Estimates of the overall number of PLHIV in 2018 using different modelling approaches aligned at approximately 5000. In both ECDC models, the overall number undiagnosed decreased continuously from 2008. The proportion undiagnosed in 2018 was lower using default model CD4 assumptions (7.1% [95%CI: 5.3-8.9%]), than the Danish CD4 proxy (10.2% [8.3-12.1%]). This difference was driven by results for heterosexual migrants. Estimates for Norwegian-born MSM, migrant MSM and Norwegian-born heterosexuals were similar in both models. In these three subpopulations, incidence in 2018 was < 30 new infections, and the number undiagnosed had decreased in recent years. Norwegian-born MSM had the lowest estimated number of undiagnosed infections (45 [30-75], using default CD4 assumptions) and undiagnosed fraction (3.6% [2.4-5.7%], using default CD4 assumptions) in 2018. CONCLUSIONS: Results allow cautious confidence in concluding that Norway has achieved the first UNAIDS 90-90-90 target, and clearly highlight the success of prevention strategies among MSM. Estimates for subpopulations strongly influenced by migration remain less clear, and future modelling should appropriately account for all-cause mortality and out-migration, and adjust for time of in-migration.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/etnologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , HIV , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/diagnóstico , África ao Sul do Saara/etnologia , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Usuários de Drogas , Feminino , Previsões , Heterossexualidade , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Noruega/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Migrantes
16.
AIDS Educ Prev ; 32(2): 102-S6, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539481

RESUMO

Men and women of color have had low pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) uptake. How one's preferred source of health information shapes attitudes toward PrEP is unclear. We conducted cross-sectional surveys to assess changes in PrEP awareness, knowledge, and attitudes, trusted sources for PrEP information, and associations between trusted source of information and PrEP knowledge and attitudes. Participants were recruited from six areas served by community health centers in Chicago, IL (two health centers); Jackson, MS; Newark, NJ; Philadelphia, PA; and Washington, D.C. during June-September 2015 (n = 160) and June-September 2016 (n = 200). Participants were Black (74%), heterosexual (81%), and largely unaware of PrEP (72%). Participants who trusted health experts and community organizations for PrEP information had lower percentages of agreeing with statements indicative of negative PrEP attitudes. Interventions that increase PrEP awareness as well as knowledge and favorable attitudes might help increase PrEP use in communities with high HIV prevalence.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Confiança , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Masculino , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
17.
Lancet ; 395(10240): 1865-1877, 2020 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534649

RESUMO

Neisseria meningitidis is an obligate human commensal bacterium that frequently colonises the upper respiratory tract. Person-to-person transmission occurs via direct contact or through dispersion of respiratory droplets from a carrier of the bacteria, and can lead to invasive meningococcal disease. Rare sporadic cases of meningococcal urogenital and anorectal infections, including urethritis, proctitis, and cervicitis, have been reported, typically following orogenital contact with an oropharyngeal meningococcal carrier. The resulting infections were clinically indistinguishable from infections caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Over the past two decades, there have also been multiple outbreaks across North America and Europe of invasive meningococcal disease among men who have sex with men (MSM). The responsible meningococci belong to a highly virulent and predominantly serogroup C lineage, including strains that are able to express nitrite reductase and grow in anaerobic environments, such as the urogenital and anorectal tracts. More recently, a distinct clade within this lineage has expanded to cause urethritis predominantly among men who have sex with women. Evolutionary events giving rise to this clade included the loss of the ability to express a capsule, and acquisition of several gonococcal alleles, including one allele encoding a highly efficient gonococcal nitrite reductase. Members of the clade continue to acquire gonococcal alleles, including one allele associated with decreased antibiotic susceptibility. This evolution has implications for the clinical and public health management of those who are infected and their close contacts, in terms of both antibiotic treatment, and prevention through vaccination.


Assuntos
Doenças Urogenitais Femininas/epidemiologia , Doenças Urogenitais Masculinas/epidemiologia , Infecções Meningocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Meningocócicas/transmissão , Neisseria meningitidis , Doenças Retais/epidemiologia , Doenças Bacterianas Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Feminino , Doenças Urogenitais Femininas/microbiologia , Doenças Urogenitais Femininas/prevenção & controle , Heterossexualidade , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Masculino , Doenças Urogenitais Masculinas/microbiologia , Doenças Urogenitais Masculinas/prevenção & controle , Infecções Meningocócicas/prevenção & controle , Doenças Retais/microbiologia , Doenças Retais/prevenção & controle , Doenças Bacterianas Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle
18.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(6): 919-923, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564560

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the routes of newly reported HIV/AIDS cases with heterosexual mode of transmission in six districts of Chongqing city, and to provide evidence for HIV/AIDS prevention and control programs regarding heterosexual mode of transmission on HIV. Methods: HIV/AIDS cases that were newly reported as with heterosexual mode of transmission in six districts of Chongqing from July 1st to October 1st in 2019, were recruited in the study. Information related to their sociodemographic characteristics and heterosexual behaviors was collected. A self-designed questionnaire was used in this face-to-face survey. Results: A total of 312 HIV/AIDS cases with heterosexual mode of transmission were recruited. Most of them were males (207, 66.3%), aged 50 years or over (210, 67.3%), having junior high school or lower education (252, 80.8%), married or cohabitating (200, 64.1%). 48.7% (152/312) of them were infected through commercial sexual contact while 40.4% (126/312) of them were infected by spouses or stabled partners. 10.9% (34/312) of them were infected by non-marital and non-commercial sexual contacts. Significant differences were noticed on the infection mode of heterosexual transmission in gender, age and occupation (P<0.05). Results from the multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that: male (OR=822.34, 95%CI: 103.99-6 503.10), junior high school and lower education level (OR=3.02, 95%CI: 1.05-8.66), household chores and underemployed (OR=0.23, 95%CI: 0.07-0.76) were influencing factors on HIV infection that were through commercial sexual contacts. Male (OR=29.20, 95%CI: 9.40-90.75), junior high school and lower education level (OR=4.28, 95%CI: 1.24-14.81) were influencing factors on HIV infection, through non-marital and non-commercial sexual contacts. In addition to meeting sexual partners in offline places, some HIV/AIDS patients with heterosexual mode of transmission had developed sexual partnerships through online dating and with low-grade venue as the main place for sex engagement. Conclusions: Newly reported HIV/AIDS cases under heterosexual mode of transmission in Chongqing were mainly infected from offline low-grade venues, and caused by commercial sexual engagement. The routes of HIV infections that caused by heterosexual contact should be deeply understood in order to develop targeted intervention programs.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Heterossexualidade , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Trabalho Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232577, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384125

RESUMO

Intimate partners can have a profound influence on individuals' health behaviors. In this exploratory research, we investigated the concordance of cancer-related lifestyle factors including smoking, body mass index, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, red meat intake, and alcohol use within African American heterosexual couples. We also examined whether females' stress is associated with their own (actor effect) and males' cancer-related lifestyle factors (partner effect), and vice versa. We analyzed a total of 216 heterosexual couples (i.e., N = 432 individuals) recruited from black churches. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated and multilevel modeling in which individuals are nested within couples was conducted. Results showed that there was high concordance of body mass index (ICC = 1.68, p < .001), fruit and vegetable intake (ICC = 1.62, p < .001), red meat intake (ICC = 1.50, p = .001), and alcohol use (ICC = 1.74, p < .001) between spouses. A multilevel analysis showed that there were actor and partner effects of stress on females' BMI; females' stress was positively associated with their own BMI (actor effect; ß = .42, p = .006) and males' stress was positively associated with females' BMI (partner effect; ß = .39, p = .026). Also, females' stress was positively associated with their own red meat intake (actor effect; ß = .20, p = .019). In conclusion, high concordance of cancer-related lifestyle factors (BMI, fruit and vegetable intake, red meat intake and alcohol use) exists between African American spouses. Given the identified actor and partner effects of stress on females' BMI, a couple-based lifestyle or weight management intervention that targets both male and female spouses' stress and coping will be promising, particularly to enhance African American women's health behaviors. Future studies need to investigate mechanisms underlying concordance and discordance of cancer-related lifestyle factors in African American couples. Also, factors that explain African American male spouses' health behaviors need to be uncovered.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Cônjuges , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Parceiros Sexuais
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