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1.
Behav Brain Res ; 436: 114080, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36030907

RESUMO

The present post-hoc analysis of two independent studies conducted in different laboratories aimed at comparing reactions of stress activation systems in response to two different psychosocial stress induction paradigms. Both paradigms are based on the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and suited for neuroimaging environments. In an in-depth analysis, data from 67 participants (36 men, 31 women) from a functional magnetic resonance imaging study implementing ScanSTRESS were compared with data from a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) study implementing the so-called 'fNIRS-TSST' including 45 participants (8 men, 37 women). We tested the equivalence of correlation patterns between the stress response measures cortisol, heart rate, affect, and neural responses in the two samples. Moreover, direct comparisons of affective and neural responses were made. Similar correlation structures were identified for all stress activation systems, except for neural contrasts of paradigm conditions (stress vs. control) showing significant differences in association with cortisol, heart rate, and affective variables between the two samples. Furthermore, both stress paradigms elicited comparable affective and cortical stress responses. Apart from methodological differences (e.g., procedure, timing of the paradigms) the present analysis suggests that both paradigms are capable of inducing moderate acute psychosocial stress to a comparable extent with regard to affective and cortical stress responses. Moreover, similar association structures between different stress response systems were found in both studies. Thus, depending on the study objective and the respective advantages of each imaging approach, both paradigms have demonstrated their usefulness for future studies.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Saliva , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Masculino , Testes Psicológicos , Saliva/química , Estresse Psicológico
2.
Addict Behav ; 136: 107489, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36181746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To advance our understanding of the health-related consequences of chronic cannabis use, this study examined hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) reactivity and regulation in response to a well-characterized, acute, social evaluative stress task among cannabis users and non-users. We also explored differences in HPA-SNS coordination across the stress task in cannabis users and non-users. METHOD: Participants were 75 adults (53% female) who reported no use of tobacco/nicotine products. Cannabis use was measured using self-report and salivary/urinary THC levels. Participants were classified as cannabis users (n = 33) if they reported using cannabis at least twice per week in the prior year and had a positive salivary/urinary THC test or as non-users (n = 42) if they reported no use in the prior year and had a negative THC test. During a laboratory visit, participants completed the standard Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and provided saliva samples before, and 5, 20, and 40 min after the task. Samples were assayed for salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA) as indices of HPA axis and SNS activity, respectively. RESULTS: Multilevel piecewise growth models revealed that, relative to non-users, cannabis users showed (a) blunted cortisol reactivity and recovery to the TSST, and (b) greater reductions in sAA concentrations following the TSST. Chronic cannabis users may exhibit blunted HPA axis responses and greater SNS recovery to acute psychosocial stress. Implications of individual differences in stress reactivity and regulation for the biobehavioral health of chronic cannabis users are discussed.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal , Adulto , Dronabinol , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Masculino , Nicotina , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Saliva/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/metabolismo , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
3.
Domest Anim Endocrinol ; 82: 106772, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368185

RESUMO

Herein, we examined the effect of the type of housing (individual vs group housing) of anestrus female goats on plasma cortisol concentrations and socio-sexual behaviors during first contact with photo-stimulated male goats and determined the impact on sexual and reproductive responses after 15 d of contact with photo-stimulated males. Therefore, after weaning, 10 females each were individually and group-housed, respectively. Ten bucks were rendered sexually active by exposure to artificially long days (16 h of light and 8 h of darkness per day) for 2.5 mo. During the naturally increasing photoperiod, 15-mo-old females were exposed and maintained with males. On day 0, during the first contact with males, individually- and group-housed females exhibited similar plasma cortisol concentrations (22.6 vs 27.4 ng/mL, respectively). Likewise, socio-sexual behaviors did not differ between examined groups on day 0. Moreover, the interval from first contact with males to the first estrus, short and normal ovulatory cycles, ovulation, fertility, and prolificacy rates were similar between differently housed females. Furthermore, mounting attempts did not differ between males in contact with either female group. In conclusion, individually- and group-housed anestrus females displayed elevated and similar plasma cortisol concentrations during first contact with photo-stimulated males and similar socio-sexual behaviors and reproductive responses when exposed to photo-stimulated males.


Assuntos
Cabras , Habitação , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Hidrocortisona , Reprodução , Anestro
4.
Domest Anim Endocrinol ; 82: 106753, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36027631

RESUMO

High circulating progesterone concentrations decrease the responses to stressful situations in farm ruminants. We hypothesized that administering a single dose of long-acting progesterone formulation reduces the stress response of anestrous ewes to weaning. The aim of this study was to compare the behavioral, cortisol, and blood protein responses to weaning of anestrous ewes treated or not, with a single dose of a long-acting progesterone formulation. A complementary aim was to characterize the bioavailability of progesterone after this treatment. Thirty-six multiparous single-lambing Corriedale ewes and their lambs were used in this study. The lambs were weaned at 6:30 h when they were 65 d old (d0), and were taken to another paddock without chemical, visual or auditory contact with their mothers, while the ewes remained in the same paddock. Immediately before weaning, while 19 ewes received oil based long-acting progesterone formulation, other 17 ewes remained as controls, receiving sunflower oil. Twelve ewes from each group were used for behavioral recordings, the other 5 untreated ewes and 7 treated ewes were used to characterize the cortisol response and the progesterone profile. Behaviors were recorded every 10th min for 3 h in the morning and 3 h in the afternoon on day minus 3, d0 and d2, and expressed as percentage of recordings each animal displayed each behavior on each day. Treated ewes were recorded more times standing up than ewes on the day of weaning (P < 0.05), but the reverse result was found 2 d after (P < 0.01). Treated ewes were recorded more times lying down than control ewes on d2 after weaning (P < 0.0001), when treated ewes were observed fewer times walking than control ewes (P = 0.0004), as also happened the day of weaning (P < 0.0001). On the day of weaning, treated ewes grazed and paced less than control ewes (P = 0.001 and P = 0.009). Treated ewes ruminated more than control ewes on the day of weaning (P = 0.02) and 2 d later (P = 0.0002). Control ewes also secreted more cortisol than progesterone-treated ewes (P = 0.03), with no effect of the treatment on the concentration of total proteins, albumin or globulins. While control ewes never had luteal progesterone concentrations (>0.5 ng/mL), treated ewes achieved luteal progesterone concentrations 2 h after its administration, and remained well above luteal levels until 15 h after administration. The administration of a single dose of long-acting progesterone formulation appears to be a viable choice in reducing the stress to weaning in ewes. Ewes treated with progesterone coped better with weaning, returning to their normal basal behavior earlier than untreated ones, and secreting lower cortisol levels.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Progesterona , Ovinos , Animais , Feminino , Desmame , Corpo Lúteo , Transporte Biológico
5.
Domest Anim Endocrinol ; 82: 106764, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162341

RESUMO

Sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal foals. Relative adrenal insufficiency (RAI), defined as an inadequate cortisol response to stress, has been associated with sepsis, prematurity, and poor outcome in newborn foals. In addition to cortisol, the adrenal gland synthesizes several biologically important steroids and steroid precursors, including aldosterone, androgens, and progestogens. However, concentration of these hormones during hospitalization and their association with the severity of disease and mortality in critically ill foals have not been completely evaluated. We hypothesized, that in addition to cortisol and aldosterone, concentration of steroid precursors (progestogens and androgens) will be altered in critically ill foals. We also proposed that septic foals will have higher concentrations of steroid precursors than healthy foals, and steroid concentrations will be persistently increased during hospitalization in non-surviving septic and premature foals. Foals <4 days of age were categorized as healthy, septic, sick non-septic, and premature based on physical exam, medical history, and laboratory data. Blood samples were collected on admission (0 h), 24 h, and 72 h after admission. Concentrations of steroids and ACTH were measured by immunoassays. The area under the curve over 72 h (AUC0-72h) of hospitalization was calculated for each hormone. Serum cortisol, aldosterone, progesterone, pregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and 17 α-hydroxyprogesterone concentrations were higher in septic and premature foals compared to healthy foals at 0 h and throughout 72 h of hospitalization (P < 0.05). Plasma ACTH concentrations were higher in septic and premature foals on admission compared to healthy controls (P < 0.05). The progesterone (AUC0-72h) cut-off value above which non-survival could be reliably predicted in hospitalized foals was 1,085 ng/mL/h, with 82% sensitivity and 77% specificity. Critically ill neonatal foals had an appropriate response to stress characterized by increased concentrations of cortisol and steroid precursors on admission. A rapid decline in steroid concentration was observed in healthy foals. However, persistently elevated progestogen and androgen concentrations were associated with a lack of improvement in the course of disease and poor outcome.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos , Sepse , Cavalos , Animais , Hidrocortisona , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico , Estado Terminal , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Progesterona , Aldosterona , Progestinas , Esteroides , Sepse/veterinária , Hospitalização
6.
Domest Anim Endocrinol ; 82: 106768, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36215938

RESUMO

Previous studies showed that coat color significantly affects hair cortisol levels but not serum cortisol and serotonin levels in heifers and dairy cows under heat stress conditions. As a follow-up study, we tested whether both serum and hair cortisol and serotonin levels in winter-housed dairy cows were affected by coat color (black vs white). Twenty multiparous high-yielding dairy cows (DIM = 110 ± 25, milk yield = 35 ± 2.1 kg) were assigned to one of the following groups: 1) black coat color (BCC; over 85% of coat black, n = 14) and 2) white coat color (WCC; over 85% of coat white, n = 6). The experimental period lasted 60 d (from December to February), during which the animals were kept in a building with free stalls that had dry river sand bedding. Blood was harvested for 3 consecutive days at the end of the study. Hair was harvested from the forehead of each individual at the beginning and on the end-day of the study. Cortisol and serotonin hormones were measured in serum and hair. Data were analyzed using t-test. The results revealed that cows with BCC had lower hair cortisol and higher hair serotonin levels than those with WCC (P < 0.05). No differences in serum cortisol levels were observed between cows with WCC and BCC (P > 0.05). The serum serotonin level was lower in cows with WCC compared to the BCC group (P < 0.05). Taken together, coat color significantly affected stress levels indicated by higher hair cortisol and lower hair serotonin levels in WCC cows in addition to lower serum serotonin levels in the corresponding animals. This feature of coat color should be considered as a management tool, particularly in countries with long winters.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Lactação , Bovinos , Animais , Feminino , Serotonina , Seguimentos , Cabelo , Leite
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36273508

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A better understanding of how the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can be externally regulated is of major importance, especially because hyperreactivity to stress has been proposed as a key factor in the onset and maintenance of many psychiatric conditions. Over the past decades, numerous studies have investigated whether non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) can regulate HPA axis reactivity in acute stress situation. As the current results did not allow us to draw clear conclusions, we decided to conduct a systematic review of the literature investigating the effect of a single NIBS session on stress-induced cortisol release. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and Web Of Science for articles indexed through December 2021. Among the 246 articles identified, 15 fulfilled our inclusion criteria with a quality estimated between 52 and 93%. RESULTS: Of the different NIBS used and targeted brain regions, stimulating the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, with either high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation or anodal transcranial direct current stimulation, seems to be the most appropriate for reducing cortisol release in acute stress situations. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the heterogeneity of the stimulation parameters, the characteristics of participants, the modalities of cortisol collection, the timing of the NIBS session in relation to the stressor exposure, and methodological considerations, stimulating the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex can be efficient to modulate stress-induced cortisol release.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Humanos , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283648

RESUMO

In this modern industrialized era of large-scale production of agrochemicals, various emerging contaminants form the main components of waste water and sludge in most of the developing countries of the world. In this concern, phenol- an inevitable and alarming chemical pollutant in aquatic ecosystem, gains a speedy access into the water bodies as an industrial by-product. Though the detrimental effects of phenol have been studied in various aspects of aquatic life, current study is an initiative to unravel the toxic effects of phenol at molecular level in Cirrhinus mrigala. Plasma cortisol level and acetylcholine esterase activity in fish was estimated by Chemiluminescent immunoassay technique and Ellman assay respectively. Scanning electron microscopic studies were carried out to unravel the gill histopathological alterations in exposed fish. It was observed that phenol (22.32 mg/l) inhibits 50 % of acetylcholine esterase activity in brain thereby affecting the locomotion of the targeted carp. Cortisol elevated during the 7th day in exposed fish, but declined progressively on the forthcoming 21st and 28th days. Manifestations in gill encompass curling, fusion, aberrations, sloughing of gill epithelium, wider inter filamentary space and mucus coating in the primary gill filament. It concludes that the discernable deviations produced in both biochemical parameters and key organ gill can be used as a biomarker and bio-indicator respectively for assessing the existence of emerging toxicants in aquatic ecosystem.


Assuntos
Carpas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Brânquias , Hidrocortisona , Acetilcolina/farmacologia , Acetilcolinesterase , Ecossistema , Biomarcadores , Água Doce , Fenóis , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
9.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 330: 114150, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36349607

RESUMO

Among all the regulatory homeostatic networks in vertebrates, the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal axis during the stress response, has gained considerable attention, and the measurement of fecal glucocorticoids (FGC) has become an invaluable tool to assess adrenocortical activity related to stressful events in wild and captive animals. However, the use of FGC requires the validation of measurement techniques and the proper selection of the specific hormone according to the study species. The main objective of this study was to identify the dominant glucocorticoid (GC) hormone in the stress response of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in an arid grassland of Chihuahua, Mexico. A capture stress challenge in the field was developed to determine if the levels of glucocorticoids (cortisol and corticosterone) both in serum and fecal samples could be attributed to stress in Cynomys ludovicianus. The samples were analysed with the technique of liquid phase radioimmunoassay , and this study showed that both cortisol and corticosterone are present at measurable levels in serum and fecal samples of black-tailed prairie dogs. We found that both GCs were present in similar concentrations in serum, however, corticosterone concentration in fecal samples was higher than cortisol. Likewise, biochemical validations performed in this study to test the assay reached acceptable levels of reliability. Therefore, we confirm that fecal analysis can be implemented as a method to measure stress responses in wild prairie dogs.


Assuntos
Corticosterona , Glucocorticoides , Animais , Hidrocortisona , México , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sciuridae
10.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 559: 111798, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36243201

RESUMO

Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) form dominance hierarchies in which subordinates experience chronic social stress and suppression of food intake. Here we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of food intake reflects increased expression of anorexigenic (appetite inhibiting) signals and decreased expression of orexigenic (appetite stimulating) signals. Trout were confined in pairs for 1 or 4 days, or were confined in pairs for 4 days and then allowed to recover from social interactions for 2 or 4 days; sham fish were handled identically but held alone. Subordinates did not feed during social interaction and had lower food intake than dominants or shams during recovery. In parallel, plasma cortisol (∼18-26x) and liver leptin (lep-a1) transcript abundance (∼10-14x) were elevated in subordinates during social interaction but not recovery, suggesting that these factors contributed to the suppression of food intake. Fish deemed likely to become subordinate based on inhibition of food intake in response to a mild stressor also showed elevated liver lep-a1 transcript abundance (∼5x). The moderate response in these fish coupled with a correlation between liver lep-a1 and cortisol suggest that stress-induced elevation of cortisol increased liver lep-a1 transcript abundance in subordinate trout, contributing to stress-induced suppression of food intake.


Assuntos
Oncorhynchus mykiss , Animais , Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Apetite , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36252885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is increasingly being recognized as key regulatory system coupled with the glucocorticoid system implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, prior studies examining the ECS in MDD have been inconclusive, of small sample size or of cross-sectional nature limiting interpretation of causal inferences or time-dependent effects. METHODS: In a prospective community-based cohort study including 128 individuals (women: 108), depressive symptoms (PHQ-9) as well as hair cortisol and endocannabinoids were measured annually over four years (T1-T4). Cortisol, N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA), and 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol/1-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG/1-AG) were extracted from 3 cm hair segments reflecting cumulative concentrations of the last three months prior sampling. RESULTS: Cross-sectional group comparisons at baseline revealed reduced AEA and cortisol levels in the group with a positive MDD screening compared to individuals with low depressive symptomatology (both p < .05). Cross-lagged panel models showed that AEA levels at T2 were negatively associated with depressive symptoms at T3 (p < .05). Also, depressive symptoms at T3 were negatively associated with AEA levels at T4 (p < .01). The direction of association was reversed for 2-AG/1-AG, as 2-AG/1-AG levels at T1 were positively associated with depressive symptoms at T2 (p < .01). CONCLUSIONS: While cross-sectional analyses suggest higher depressive symptomatology to be associated with reduced AEA and cortisol release, longitudinal analyses reveal that primarily AEA levels are negatively associated with depressive symptoms. These longitudinal associations elucidate time-dependent relationships between depressive symptomatology and the ECS and further highlight AEA as potential treatment target in MDD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Endocanabinoides , Humanos , Feminino , Hidrocortisona , Depressão/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Prospectivos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Glicerol , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas , Cabelo
12.
West J Nurs Res ; 45(1): 46-54, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35610951

RESUMO

This article describes a pilot test of a community engaged, culturally relevant, arts-based intervention. The purpose was to increase children's personal protective buffering resources. Protective buffering resources help children cope with stressful stimuli, reduce activation of their systemic stress response, mitigate allostatic load, and promote optimal health. The "Learning a Healthy Rhythm" intervention included a stress management component and an ongoing Afro-Latino percussion program for 18 children ages 9-11. The stress management component included educational content about stress, self-assessment of stress symptoms, and stress management techniques. A mixed-method intervention evaluation design was used. Qualitative data, quantitative data, and biometrics including hair cortisol were collected. Six intervention parameters were evaluated: effectiveness, fidelity, feasibility, acceptability, necessity, and safety. Positive results were obtained for all parameters. Reduction in physiological and subjective measures of stress was evident. This stress management intervention was well-received and supported by participants.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Criança , Hispânico ou Latino , Hidrocortisona , Aprendizagem
13.
Gene ; 851: 147022, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36347335

RESUMO

The response to psychological stress can differ depending on the type and duration of the stressor. Acute stress can facilitate a "fight or flight response" and aid survival, whereas chronic long-term stress with the persistent release of stress hormones such as cortisol has been shown to be detrimental to health. We are now beginning to understand how this stress hormone response impacts important processes such as DNA repair and cell proliferation processes in breast cancer. However, it is not known what epigenetic changes stress hormones induce in breast cancer. Epigenetic mechanisms include modification of DNA and histones within chromatin that may be involved in governing the transcriptional processes in cancer cells in response to changes by endogenous stress hormones. The contribution of endogenous acute or long-term exposure of glucocorticoid stress hormones, and exogenous glucocorticoids to methylation patterns in breast cancer tissues with different aetiologies remains to be evaluated. In vitro and in vivo models were developed to investigate the epigenetic modifications and their contribution to breast cancer progression and aetiology. A panel of triple negative breast cancer cell lines were treated with the glucocorticoid, cortisol which resulted in epigenetic alteration characterised by loss of methylation on promoter regions of tumour suppressor genes including ESR1, and loss of methylation on LINE-1 repetitive element used as a surrogate marker for global methylation. This was verified in vivo in MDA-MB-231 xenografts; the model verified the loss of methylation on ESR1 promoter, and subsequent increase in ESR1 expression in primary tumours in mice subjected to restraint stress. Our study highlights that DNA methylation landscape in breast cancer can be altered in response to stress and glucocorticoid treatment.


Assuntos
Receptor alfa de Estrogênio , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Fulvestranto , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Hidrocortisona/farmacologia , Metilação de DNA
14.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 1): 114499, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36208780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Benefits of green spaces on stress reduction have been shown in previous studies. Most existing studies to date have focused on the general population. However, there is a lack of understanding of physiological mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of green space among special populations, such as pregnant women. OBJECTIVES: To examine physiological and affective responses to green space on stress recovery among pregnant women, using simulated green space exposure through virtual reality (VR). METHODS: We recruited 63 pregnant women between 8 and 14 weeks' gestational age for a laboratory experiment. Participants were randomly assigned to view one of three, 5-min, VR videos of an urban scene with different green space levels (i.e., non-green, moderate, and high) after a laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test. Physiological stress responses were measured via changes in blood pressure, heart rate, skin conductance level, salivary alpha-amylase, and salivary cortisol. Affective response was measured using the Positive and Negative Affect Scale. RESULTS: We found that visual exposure to a green space environment in VR was associated with both physiological and affective stress reduction among pregnant women, including lower systolic blood pressure [-4.6 mmHg, 95% confidence interval (CI): -8.8, -0.4], reduced salivary alpha-amylase concentration (-1.2 ng/ml, 95% CI: -2.2, -0.2), improved overall positive affect (score: 6.6, 95% CI: 0.3, 13.0) and decreased negative affect of anxiety (score: -2.6, 95% CI: -5.19, -0.04) compared to non-green space environment. Exposure to high green space environment in park-like setting had the strongest impacts on stress recovery. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that virtual green space exposure could effectively ease stress and improve mental health and well-being during pregnancy. Even a short immersion in VR-based green space environment may bring health benefits, which has significant implications for pregnant women when access to an actual nature may not be possible.


Assuntos
alfa-Amilases Salivares , Realidade Virtual , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Gestantes , Estresse Psicológico , Hidrocortisona
15.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(1-2): NP905-NP930, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35471844

RESUMO

This study was conducted to determine the effect of domestic violence during pregnancy on the cortisol hormone release, preterm birth, low birth weight, and breastfeeding status. The cross-sectional study was conducted with 255 pregnant women in a Family Health Centre in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey between October 2017 and August 2018. The questionnaire, DVWDS (Domestic Violence to Women Determination Scale) and Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale were used to collect the data. In the present study, the pregnant women were followed up three times. The first follow-up was applied to the pregnant women in the second trimester, the second follow-up was applied to those in the third trimester, and the third follow-up was applied to the postpartum women. At each follow-up from newborn, cortisol hormone level was taken with saliva and evaluated. It was determined that 9.8% of the pregnant women participating in the study were exposed to violence by their partners. An important result was found that those who were exposed to domestic violence during their pregnancy gave birth in the 37th week (p < 0.05). It was seen that the babies of those exposed to domestic violence during pregnancy had a higher mean cortisol hormone level (p < 0.05). It was found that the mean score of the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale in the third follow-up was lower for those who were exposed to domestic violence during pregnancy than those who were not (p < 0.05). It was observed during the pregnancy that domestic violence affected cortisol hormone secretion, breastfeeding after birth and newborn health.


Assuntos
Violência Doméstica , Nascimento Prematuro , Feminino , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Hidrocortisona , Aleitamento Materno , Estudos Transversais
16.
Food Chem ; 401: 134145, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088713

RESUMO

Endogenous hydrocortisone causes detrimental effects on public health and domestic animal products, but the potential mechanisms remain elusive. Hydrocortisone was detected from seventy-two Guanzhong-Black pigs in three replicates (216 samples) (0.00 ± 46.38 µg kg-1), indicating the existence of endogenous hydrocortisone. Herein, we investigated the effects of hydrocortisone on the metabolic signatures in pork via integrative metabolomics and proteomics by UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS. Animal-derived foods under hydrocortisone-bioaccumulation cause metabolic perturbation by regulating glutamine synthetase expression at the transcriptional level contributed to hydrocortisone-induced toxicity and accelerating the down-regulation of essential amino acids (l-Histidine 10.74-6.48 mg kg-1, l-Phenylalanine 3.70-1.57 mg kg-1), purine nucleotides (GMP 40.29-5.00 µg kg-1, etc) that provide nutritional value in a positive feedback loop. Protein-metabolite interactions suggesting that hydrocortisone enhanced nitric oxide synthase and GMP reductase expression (LOQ 3.24-63.39 µg kg-1), and affected meat flavor perception, eventually lead to the decline of nutritional value and flesh quality of pork.


Assuntos
Histidina , Hidrocortisona , Suínos , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , GMP Redutase , Glutamato-Amônia Ligase , Nucleotídeos de Purina , Fenilalanina
17.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 330: 114141, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36272446

RESUMO

Living in variable and unpredictable environments, organisms face recurrent stressful situations. The endocrine stress response, which includes the secretion of glucocorticoids, helps organisms to cope with these perturbations. Although short-term elevations of glucocorticoid levels are often associated with immediate beneficial consequences for individuals, long-term glucocorticoid elevation can compromise key physiological functions such as immunity. While laboratory works highlighted the immunosuppressive effect of long-term elevated glucocorticoids, it remains largely unknown, especially in wild animals, whether this relationship is modulated by individual and environmental characteristics. In this study, we explored the co-variation between integrated cortisol levels, assessed non-invasively using faecal cortisol metabolites (FCMs), and 12 constitutive indices of innate, inflammatory, and adaptive immune functions, in wild roe deer living in three populations with previously known contrasting environmental conditions. Using longitudinal data on 564 individuals, we further investigated whether age and spatio-temporal variations in the quantity and quality of food resources modulate the relationship between FCMs and immunity. Negative covariation with glucocorticoids was evident only for innate and inflammatory markers of immunity, while adaptive immunity appeared to be positively or not linked to glucocorticoids. In addition, the negative covariations were generally stronger in individuals facing harsh environmental constraints and in old individuals. Therefore, our results highlight the importance of measuring multiple immune markers of immunity in individuals from contrasted environments to unravel the complex relationships between glucocorticoids and immunity in wild animals. Our results also help explain conflicting results found in the literature and could improve our understanding of the link between elevated glucocorticoid levels and disease spread, and its consequences on population dynamics.


Assuntos
Cervos , Animais , Cervos/metabolismo , Animais Selvagens/metabolismo , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Imunidade Adaptativa
18.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 147: 105970, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368123

RESUMO

Are social stress reactions dependent on the group identities of interaction partners? This study explored the role of ethnic context in modulating endocrine stress responses using a virtual reality (VR)-based adaptation of a standardized stress induction protocol, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST-VR). Previous research found no clear link between endocrine stress response and ethnic context in the TSST, but conclusions remain limited due to the quasi-experimental nature of manipulating ethnic context in real-life face-to-face interactions. The VR adaptation of the TSST circumvents quasi-experimental limitations and thus provides a first, randomized-controlled investigation of the effects of ethnic context on endocrine stress responses. Forty-three men participated in the study, facing either an ingroup ("White") or an outgroup ("Arab") panel of interviewers. As expected, the TSST-VR produced physiological and subjective stress reactions. However, endocrine stress reactions occurred independent of interviewer ethnicity and could not be predicted based on implicit bias, explicit prejudice, or prejudice-related appearance concerns. Other physiological and subjective stress reactivity parameters also remained comparable across intergroup conditions. Implications for stress research are discussed.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Realidade Virtual , Masculino , Humanos , Estresse Psicológico , Testes Psicológicos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiologia , Saliva
19.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 147: 105952, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36370678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal symptoms of depression constitute an early adversity for infants that is considered to exert its effects via the maternal-placental-fetal neuroendocrine axis. Previous research implicates associations between maternal prenatal symptoms of depression and infants' glucocorticoid (GC) levels shortly after birth. To date, associations have not been investigated in the early postnatal period. The current study aimed to investigate the influence of maternal perinatal symptoms of depression on infants' neonatal and postnatal hair GCs providing a retrospective reflection of integrated cortisol secretion in the intrauterine and early postnatal period, respectively. METHODS: As part of a prospective cohort study, hair samples of infants were taken up to two weeks after delivery (N = 152) and again eight weeks after delivery (N = 165). Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to determine hair cortisol and cortisone in scalp-near 2-cm hair segments. Maternal symptoms of depression were assessed during pregnancy and eight weeks postnatally based on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. RESULTS: Higher maternal prenatal symptoms of depression showed a significant association with higher infants' neonatal hair cortisol, when controlling for confounding variables (i.e., gestational age, mode of delivery, parity, storage time, pregnancy complications). A non-significant trend for this effect was found for the hair cortisol-to-cortisone ratio while no effect occurred for hair cortisone. No association of maternal postnatal symptoms of depression with infants' postnatal hair GCs was observed. Further exploratory analyses revealed no relationship between a change of maternal prenatal to postnatal symptoms of depression with the change from infants' neonatal to postnatal hair GC levels or postnatal hair GCs. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that maternal prenatal symptoms of depression are associated with dysregulated infants' hair cortisol levels mainly incorporated in the intrauterine period which, in turn, might contribute to increased susceptibility for later diseases. However, no relationship was observed in infants' hair samples additionally reflecting hair GCs of the early postnatal period. Future studies should consider research on associations between maternal symptoms of depression and infants' hair GCs also later in life and take into account additional risk factors with potential impacts on GC secretion during early infancy.


Assuntos
Cortisona , Hidrocortisona , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Hidrocortisona/análise , Glucocorticoides/análise , Cortisona/análise , Depressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estresse Psicológico , Placenta/química , Cabelo/química
20.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 147: 105957, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36371954

RESUMO

Higher maternal cortisol in pregnancy has been linked to childhood obesity. Much of the previous research has been limited in that cortisol in pregnancy is only measured at one time-point, precluding the ability to examine critical timing effects of prenatal maternal cortisol. To fill this gap, this longitudinal study measured maternal plasma cortisol at 15, 19, 25, and 31 weeks of pregnancy, and assessed infant body mass index percentile (BMIP)1 at birth, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months in 189 mother-infant pairs. Three distinct patterns of maternal cortisol in pregnancy (typical, steep, and flat trajectories) were identified using general growth mixture modeling (GGMM)2 and then used to predict child growth patterns using multilevel modeling. Infants of mothers who had flat cortisol trajectories, characterized by relatively high cortisol in early gestation that plateaus by mid-gestation, experienced more rapid increases in BMIP from birth to 6 months, and had higher BMIPs at 3 and 6 months, than infants whose mothers had the typical slow cortisol rise over gestation, or steep (rapidly accelerating) trajectories. These results suggest that it is not just the total amount of maternal cortisol in pregnancy that shapes early infant growth, but instead the timing and trajectory of prenatal cortisol exposure. To better understand the early origins of obesity risk, future research is needed to investigate the factors that shape mothers' prenatal cortisol trajectories.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Lactente , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Criança , Humanos , Hidrocortisona , Estudos Longitudinais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Mães
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