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3.
BMC Cancer ; 24(1): 476, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622547

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Anxiety is a prevalent comorbidity in lung cancer (LC) patients associated with a decline in quality of life. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a neuroactive steroid, levels rise in response to stress. Prior research on the association between DHEA and anxiety has yielded contradictory results and no study has investigated this association in LC patients. METHODS: A total of 213 patients with LC were recruited from a general hospital. Data on demographic and cancer-related variables were collected. Using the Chinese version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the degree of anxiety was determined. Cortisol, DHEA, and Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) levels in saliva were measured. Adjusting for confounding variables, a multivariate regression analysis was conducted. RESULTS: 147 men and 66 women comprised our group with an average age of 63.75 years. After accounting for demographic and treatment-related factors, anxiety levels were significantly correlated with, post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs) (ß = 0.332, p < 0.001) and fatigue (ß = 0.247, p = 0.02). Association between anxiety and three factors, including DHEA, PTSSs, and fatigue, was observed in patients with advanced cancer stages (III and IV) (DHEA ß = 0.319, p = 0.004; PTSS ß = 0.396, p = 0.001; fatigue ß = 0.289, p = 0.027) and those undergoing chemotherapy (DHEA ß = 0.346, p = 0.001; PTSS ß = 0.407, p = 0.001; fatigue ß = 0.326, p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: The association between anxiety and DHEA remained positive in advanced cancer stages and chemotherapy patients. Further study is necessary to determine whether DHEA is a potential biomarker of anxiety in LC patients.


Assuntos
Desidroepiandrosterona , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desidroepiandrosterona/análise , Sulfato de Desidroepiandrosterona/análise , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Qualidade de Vida , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Hidrocortisona , Fadiga , Biomarcadores
4.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1370525, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38596218

RESUMO

Introduction: Endocrine hypertension (EHT) due to pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PPGL), Cushing's syndrome (CS), or primary aldosteronism (PA) is linked to a variety of metabolic alterations and comorbidities. Accordingly, patients with EHT and primary hypertension (PHT) are characterized by distinct metabolic profiles. However, it remains unclear whether the metabolomic differences relate solely to the disease-defining hormonal parameters. Therefore, our objective was to study the association of disease defining hormonal excess and concomitant adrenal steroids with metabolomic alterations in patients with EHT. Methods: Retrospective European multicenter study of 263 patients (mean age 49 years, 50% females; 58 PHT, 69 PPGL, 37 CS, 99 PA) in whom targeted metabolomic and adrenal steroid profiling was available. The association of 13 adrenal steroids with differences in 79 metabolites between PPGL, CS, PA and PHT was examined after correction for age, sex, BMI, and presence of diabetes mellitus. Results: After adjustment for BMI and diabetes mellitus significant association between adrenal steroids and metabolites - 18 in PPGL, 15 in CS, and 23 in PA - were revealed. In PPGL, the majority of metabolite associations were linked to catecholamine excess, whereas in PA, only one metabolite was associated with aldosterone. In contrast, cortisone (16 metabolites), cortisol (6 metabolites), and DHEA (8 metabolites) had the highest number of associated metabolites in PA. In CS, 18-hydroxycortisol significantly influenced 5 metabolites, cortisol affected 4, and cortisone, 11-deoxycortisol, and DHEA each were linked to 3 metabolites. Discussions: Our study indicates cortisol, cortisone, and catecholamine excess are significantly associated with metabolomic variances in EHT versus PHT patients. Notably, catecholamine excess is key to PPGL's metabolomic changes, whereas in PA, other non-defining adrenal steroids mainly account for metabolomic differences. In CS, cortisol, alongside other non-defining adrenal hormones, contributes to these differences, suggesting that metabolic disorders and cardiovascular morbidity in these conditions could also be affected by various adrenal steroids.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais , Cortisona , Síndrome de Cushing , Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensão , Paraganglioma , Feocromocitoma , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síndrome de Cushing/complicações , Esteroides , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/complicações , Hipertensão/complicações , Feocromocitoma/complicações , Paraganglioma/complicações , Catecolaminas , Desidroepiandrosterona
5.
Am J Disaster Med ; 19(1): 33-43, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597645

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate possible immune cytokine trends throughout a week-long surgical simulation mass-casualty training session in order to determine the effects of stress inoculation on the immune system. METHODS: Thirty-seven military medical students participated in a hyper-realistic surgical simulation training event conducted at Strategic Operations site in San Diego, California. Salivary samples were collected every morning of the stress training exercise for 4 consecutive days. Cortisol, along with a panel of 42 immune cytokines, was measured using multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays from Eve Technologies. The determined concentrations were averaged and plotted on a scatter plot, and then points were fit to a second-order polynomial trendline of best fit to measure. RESULTS: The cytokines epidermal growth factor, growth-related oncogene-α, interleukin (IL)-1α, and platelet-derived growth factor-AA followed a noted pattern of cortisol decrease throughout the week. In addition, cytokines IL-27, granulocyte colony stimulating factor, IL-10, and IL-13 demonstrated a late peak, followed by a return to baseline at the conclusion of training. Finally, the cytokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 displayed a decline throughout the week followed by an increase on the last day of stress training. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, these results help to identify important biomarkers that may help to improve long-term stress adaptation and prevent post-traumatic stress disorder following exposure to repeated stress.


Assuntos
Citocinas , Hidrocortisona , Humanos
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8251, 2024 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589504

RESUMO

Investigating acute stress responses is crucial to understanding the underlying mechanisms of stress. Current stress assessment methods include self-reports that can be biased and biomarkers that are often based on complex laboratory procedures. A promising additional modality for stress assessment might be the observation of body movements, which are affected by negative emotions and threatening situations. In this paper, we investigated the relationship between acute psychosocial stress induction and body posture and movements. We collected motion data from N = 59 individuals over two studies (Pilot Study: N = 20, Main Study: N = 39) using inertial measurement unit (IMU)-based motion capture suits. In both studies, individuals underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and a stress-free control condition (friendly-TSST; f-TSST) in randomized order. Our results show that acute stress induction leads to a reproducible freezing behavior, characterized by less overall motion as well as more and longer periods of no movement. Based on these data, we trained machine learning pipelines to detect acute stress solely from movement information, achieving an accuracy of 75.0 ± 17.7 % (Pilot Study) and 73.4 ± 7.7 % (Main Study). This, for the first time, suggests that body posture and movements can be used to detect whether individuals are exposed to acute psychosocial stress. While more studies are needed to further validate our approach, we are convinced that motion information can be a valuable extension to the existing biomarkers and can help to obtain a more holistic picture of the human stress response. Our work is the first to systematically explore the use of full-body body posture and movement to gain novel insights into the human stress response and its effects on the body and mind.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Estresse Psicológico , Humanos , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Projetos Piloto , Postura , Biomarcadores , Saliva
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612481

RESUMO

The pathophysiology of functional bowel disorders is complex, involving disruptions in gut motility, visceral hypersensitivity, gut-brain-microbiota interactions, and psychosocial factors. Light pollution, as an environmental stressor, has been associated with disruptions in circadian rhythms and the aggravation of stress-related conditions. In this study, we investigated the effects of environmental stress, particularly continuous light exposure, on intestinal motility and inflammation using zebrafish larvae as a model system. We also evaluated the efficacy of probiotics, specifically Bifidobacterium longum (B. longum), at alleviating stress-induced constipation. Our results showed that continuous light exposure in zebrafish larvae increased the cortisol levels and reduced the intestinal motility, establishing a stress-induced-constipation model. We observed increased inflammatory markers and decreased intestinal neural activity in response to stress. Furthermore, the expressions of aquaporins and vasoactive intestinal peptide, crucial for regulating water transport and intestinal motility, were altered in the light-induced constipation model. Administration of probiotics, specifically B. longum, ameliorated the stress-induced constipation by reducing the cortisol levels, modulating the intestinal inflammation, and restoring the intestinal motility and neural activity. These findings highlight the potential of probiotics to modulate the gut-brain axis and alleviate stress-induced constipation. Therefore, this study provides a valuable understanding of the complex interplay among environmental stressors, gut function, and potential therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium longum , Probióticos , Animais , Peixe-Zebra , Hidrocortisona , Constipação Intestinal/etiologia , Constipação Intestinal/terapia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Inflamação , Larva
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612575

RESUMO

Multifunctional delivery systems capable of modulating drug release and exerting adjunctive pharmacological activity have attracted particular attention. Chitosan (CS) and pomegranate seed oil (PO) appear to be attractive bioactive components framing the strategy of complex therapy and multifunctional drug carriers. This research is aimed at evaluating the potential of CS in combination with PO in studies on topical emulgels containing hydrocortisone as a model anti-inflammatory agent. Its particular goal was to distinguish alterations in anti-inflammatory action followed with drug dissolution or penetrative behavior between the designed formulations that differ in CS/PO weight ratio. All formulations favored hydrocortisone release with up to a two-fold increase in the drug dissolution rate within first 5 h as compared to conventional topical preparations. The clear effect of CS/PO on the emulgel biological performance was observed, and CS was found to be prerequisite for the modulation of hydrocortisone absorption and accumulation. In turn, a greater amount of PO played the predominant role in the inhibition of hyaluronidase activity and enhanced the anti-inflammatory effect of preparation E-3. Emulgels showed a negligible reduction in mouse fibroblasts' L929 cell viability, confirming their non-irritancy with skin cells. Overall, the designed formulation with a CS/PO ratio of 6:4 appeared to be the most promising topical carrier for the effective treatment of inflammatory skin diseases among the tested subjects.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Punica granatum , Animais , Camundongos , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Óleos de Plantas/farmacologia
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612585

RESUMO

Hypercortisolism is known to affect platelet function. However, few studies have approached the effect of exogenous cortisol on human platelets, and the results obtained are conflicting and unconvincing. In this study, the effect of exogenous cortisol on several parameters indicative of oxidative status in human platelets has been analysed. We have found that cortisol stimulates ROS production, superoxide anion formation, and lipid peroxidation, with these parameters being in strict correlation. In addition, cortisol decreases GSH and membrane SH-group content, evidencing that the hormone potentiates oxidative stress, depleting platelet antioxidant defence. The involvement of src, syk, PI3K, and AKT enzymes in oxidative mechanisms induced by cortisol is shown. The main sources of ROS in cells can include uncontrolled increase of NADPH oxidase activity and uncoupled aerobic respiration during oxidative phosphorylation. Both mechanisms seem to be involved in ROS formation induced by cortisol, as the NADPH oxidase 1 inhibitor 2(trifluoromethyl)phenothiazine, and rotenone and antimycin A, complex I and III inhibitor, respectively, significantly reduce oxidative stress. On the contrary, the NADPH oxidase inhibitor gp91ds-tat, malate and NaCN, complex II and IV inhibitor, respectively, have a minor effect. It is likely that, in human platelets, oxidative stress induced by cortisol can be associated with venous and arterial thrombosis, greatly contributing to cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Estresse Oxidativo , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Plaquetas , NADPH Oxidases
10.
J Cell Mol Med ; 28(8): e18303, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613362

RESUMO

Curcuma longa, best known for its culinary application as the main constituent of curry powder, has shown potential impact on the reproductive system. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of Curcuma longa extract (CLE) on Kidney-Yang deficiency mice induced by hydrocortisone and the possible roles in testosterone secretion in Leydig cells. We evaluated male sexual behaviour, reproductive organ weight, testosterone levels, and histological tissue changes in hydrocortisone-induced mice. CLE effectively reversed hydrocortisone-induced Kidney-Yang deficiency syndrome by improving sexual behaviour, testis and epididymis weight, testosterone levels and reducing pathological damage. Our in vitro study further indicated that CLE stimulated testosterone production via upregulating the mRNA and protein expression of steroidogenic enzymes in Leydig cells. It significantly improved H89-inhibited protein expression of StAR and cAMP-response element-binding (CREB), as well as melatonin-suppressed StAR protein expression. The data obtained from this study suggest that CLE could alleviate Kidney-Yang deficiency symptoms and stimulate testosterone production by upregulating the steroidogenic pathway. This research identifies CLE as a potential nutraceutical option for addressing testosterone deficiency diseases.


Assuntos
Glomerulonefrite , Extratos Vegetais , Testosterona , Masculino , Animais , Camundongos , Células Intersticiais do Testículo , Curcuma , Hidrocortisona , Deficiência da Energia Yang
11.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 407, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38610013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Simulation-based training courses in laparoscopy have become a fundamental part of surgical training programs. Surgical skills in laparoscopy are challenging to master, and training in these skills induces stress responses in trainees. There is limited data on trainees' stress levels, the stress responses related to training on different laparoscopic simulators, and how previous experiences influence trainees' stress response during a course. This study investigates physiologic, endocrine and self-reported stress responses during simulation-based surgical skills training in a course setting. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study of trainees attending basic laparoscopic skills training courses at a national training centre. During the three-day course, participants trained on different laparoscopic simulators: Two box-trainers (the D-box and P.O.P. trainer) and a virtual reality simulator (LAPMentor™). Participants' stress responses were examined through heart rate variability (HRV), saliva cortisol, and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory-6 (STAI-6). The correlation between previous laparoscopic experiences and stress response measurements was explored. RESULTS: Twenty-four surgical trainees were included in the study. Compared to resting conditions, stress measures were significantly higher during simulation-training activity (the D-box (SDNN = 58.5 ± 23.4; LF/HF-ratio = 4.58 ± 2.71; STAI-6 = 12.3 ± 3.9, P < 0.05), the P.O.P trainer (SDNN = 55.7 ± 7.4; RMSSD = 32.4 ± 17.1; STAI-6 = 12.1 ± 3.9, P < 0.05), and the LAPMentor™ (SDNN = 59.1 ± 18.5; RMSSD = 34.3 ± 19.7; LF/HF-ratio = 4.71 ± 2.64; STAI-6 = 9.9 ± 3.0, P < 0.05)). A significant difference in endocrine stress response was seen for the simulation-training activity on the D-box (saliva cortisol: 3.48 ± 1.92, P < 0.05), however, no significant differences were observed between the three simulators. A moderate correlation between surgical experience, and physiologic and endocrine stress response was observed (RMSSD: r=-0.31; SDNN: r=-0.42; SD2/SD1 ratio: r = 0.29; Saliva cortisol: r = 0.46; P < 0.05), and a negative moderate correlation to self-reported stress (r=-0.42, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Trainees have a significant higher stress response during simulation-training compared to resting conditions, with no difference in stress response between the simulators. Significantly higher cortisol levels were observed on the D-box, indicating that simulation tasks with time pressure stress participants the most. Trainees with more surgical experience are associated with higher physiologic stress measures, but lower self-reported stress scores, demonstrating that surgical experience influences trainees' stress response during simulation-based skills training courses.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia , Treinamento por Simulação , Humanos , Simulação por Computador , Frequência Cardíaca , Hidrocortisona , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Transl Psychiatry ; 14(1): 188, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605013

RESUMO

Psychotherapy is an effective treatment for anxiety disorders (AD), yet a vast majority of patients do not respond to therapy, necessitating the identification of predictors to enhance outcomes. Several studies have explored the relationship between stress response and treatment outcome, as a potential treatment mechanism. However, the latter remains under-researched in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). We studied N = 29 patients undergoing psychodynamic psychotherapy (PDT) within the SOPHONET-Study. Stress reactivity (i.e., area under the curve with respect to the increase; AUCi) was induced by a standardized psychosocial stressor (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) and assessed by means of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), blood and salivary cortisol samples before (t1) treatment. Samples of these biomarkers were taken -1 min prior stress exposure and six more blood samples were collected post-TSST ( + 1, + 10, + 20, + 30, + 45, + 60 min.). The participants were diagnosed with SAD based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) and completed the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale as well as the Beck Depression Inventory before (t1) and after psychotherapy (t2). Pre-treatment stress reactivity significantly predicted changes in depression (salivary p < 0.001 and blood cortisol p = 0.001), as well as in avoidance behavior (blood cortisol p = 0.001). None of the biomarkers revealed significant results in fear or in the total LSAS-scores, except for ACTH with a trend finding (p = 0.06). Regarding therapy success, symptoms of social anxiety (p = 0.005) and depression (p < 0.001) were significantly reduced from pre (t1) to post-treatment (t2). Our study showed that stress reactivity pre-treatment may serve as a predictor of psychotherapy outcome. In this regard, alterations in stress response relate to changes in symptoms of social anxiety and depression after PDT. This implies that patients with chronic stress might benefit from a targeted interventions during psychotherapy, especially to manage fear in social contexts.


Assuntos
Fobia Social , Psicoterapia Psicodinâmica , Humanos , Fobia Social/terapia , Psicoterapia Psicodinâmica/métodos , Hidrocortisona , Biomarcadores , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Saliva , Ansiedade/terapia
13.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1303: 342462, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609277

RESUMO

Cortisol, a corticosteroid hormone as a primary stress hormone response to internal and external stress, has been regarded as a gold standard reliable biomarker to evaluate human mental stress. The double enzymes strategy, using nanozyme and enzyme amplifying the electrochemical signal, has been widely used to improve the performance of electrochemical biosensors. An ultra-sensitive electrochemical cortisol sensor based on Au single-atom nanozymes had been fabricated through HRP labeled anti-cortisol antibody binding with Au by Au-S bond. Based on the high catalytic activity of Au single-atom nanozymes and the high selectivity of HRP-labeled anti-cortisol antibodies, the cortisol electrochemical sensor-based Au single-atom nanozymes had an excellent response to cortisol, such as high electrochemical activity, high sensitivity, high selectivity, and wide linear range (0.15-300 ng mL-1) and low detection (0.48 pg mL-1) through the four-parameter logistic model with 95% confidence. The electrochemical cortisol sensor was used to determine the cortisol concentration of human saliva at different times.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Hidrocortisona , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Catálise , Saliva
14.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 190(4): 284-295, 2024 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584335

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Glucocorticoid resistance is a rare endocrine disease caused by variants of the NR3C1 gene encoding the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). We identified a novel heterozygous variant (GRR569Q) in a patient with uncommon reversible glucocorticoid resistance syndrome. METHODS: We performed ex vivo functional characterization of the variant in patient fibroblasts and in vitro through transient transfection in undifferentiated HEK 293T cells to assess transcriptional activity, affinity, and nuclear translocation. We studied the impact of the variant on the tertiary structure of the ligand-binding domain through 3D modeling. RESULTS: The patient presented initially with an adrenal adenoma with mild autonomous cortisol secretion and undetectable adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) levels. Six months after surgery, biological investigations showed elevated cortisol and ACTH (urinary free cortisol 114 µg/24 h, ACTH 10.9 pmol/L) without clinical symptoms, evoking glucocorticoid resistance syndrome. Functional characterization of the GRR569Q showed decreased expression of target genes (in response to 100 nM cortisol: SGK1 control +97% vs patient +20%, P < .0001) and impaired nuclear translocation in patient fibroblasts compared to control. Similar observations were made in transiently transfected cells, but higher cortisol concentrations overcame glucocorticoid resistance. GRR569Q showed lower ligand affinity (Kd GRWT: 1.73 nM vs GRR569Q: 4.61 nM). Tertiary structure modeling suggested a loss of hydrogen bonds between H3 and the H1-H3 loop. CONCLUSION: This is the first description of a reversible glucocorticoid resistance syndrome with effective negative feedback on corticotroph cells regarding increased plasma cortisol concentrations due to the development of mild autonomous cortisol secretion.


Assuntos
Glucocorticoides , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo , Receptores de Glucocorticoides , Humanos , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/genética , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona , Ligantes , Mutação , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/deficiência , Síndrome
15.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD013271, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains an important complication of prematurity. Pulmonary inflammation plays a central role in the pathogenesis of BPD, explaining the rationale for investigating postnatal corticosteroids. Multiple systematic reviews (SRs) have summarised the evidence from numerous randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating different aspects of administrating postnatal corticosteroids. Besides beneficial effects on the outcome of death or BPD, potential short- and long-term harms have been reported. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this overview was to summarise and appraise the evidence from SRs regarding the efficacy and safety of postnatal corticosteroids in preterm infants at risk of developing BPD. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and Epistemonikos for SRs in April 2023. We included all SRs assessing any form of postnatal corticosteroid administration in preterm populations with the objective of ameliorating pulmonary disease. All regimens and comparisons were included. Two review authors independently checked the eligibility of the SRs comparing corticosteroids with placebo, and corticosteroids with different routes of administration and regimens. The included outcomes, considered key drivers in the decision to administer postnatal corticosteroids, were the composite outcome of death or BPD at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA), its individual components, long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae, sepsis, and gastrointestinal tract perforation. We independently assessed the methodological quality of the included SRs by using AMSTAR 2 (A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews) and ROBIS (Risk Of Bias In Systematic reviews) tools. We assessed the certainty of the evidence using GRADE. We provided a narrative description of the characteristics, methodological quality, and results of the included SRs. MAIN RESULTS: We included nine SRs (seven Cochrane, two non-Cochrane) containing 87 RCTs, 1 follow-up study, and 9419 preterm infants, investigating the effects of postnatal corticosteroids to prevent or treat BPD. The quality of the included SRs according to AMSTAR 2 varied from high to critically low. Risk of bias according to ROBIS was low. The certainty of the evidence according to GRADE ranged from very low to moderate. Early initiated systemic dexamethasone (< seven days after birth) likely has a beneficial effect on death or BPD at 36 weeks' PMA (risk ratio (RR) 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81 to 0.95; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 16, 95% CI 10 to 41; I2 = 39%; 17 studies; 2791 infants; moderate-certainty evidence) and on BPD at 36 weeks' PMA (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.82; NNTB 13, 95% CI 9 to 21; I2 = 39%; 17 studies; 2791 infants; moderate-certainty evidence). Early initiated systemic hydrocortisone may also have a beneficial effect on death or BPD at 36 weeks' PMA (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.99; NNTB 18, 95% CI 9 to 594; I2 = 43%; 9 studies; 1376 infants; low-certainty evidence). However, these benefits are likely accompanied by harmful effects like cerebral palsy or neurosensory disability (dexamethasone) or gastrointestinal perforation (both dexamethasone and hydrocortisone). Late initiated systemic dexamethasone (≥ seven days after birth) may have a beneficial effect on death or BPD at 36 weeks' PMA (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.84; NNTB 5, 95% CI 4 to 9; I2 = 61%; 12 studies; 553 infants; low-certainty evidence), mostly contributed to by a beneficial effect on BPD at 36 weeks' PMA (RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.87; NNTB 6, 95% CI 4 to 13; I2 = 14%; 12 studies; 553 infants; low-certainty evidence). No harmful side effects were shown in the outcomes chosen as key drivers to the decision to start or withhold late systemic dexamethasone. No effects, either beneficial or harmful, were found in the subgroup meta-analyses of late hydrocortisone studies. Early initiated inhaled corticosteroids probably have a beneficial effect on death and BPD at 36 weeks' PMA (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.99; NNTB 19, 95% CI not applicable; I2 = 0%; 6 studies; 1285 infants; moderate-certainty evidence), with no apparent adverse effects shown in the SRs. In contrast, late initiated inhaled corticosteroids do not appear to have any benefits or harms. Endotracheal instillation of corticosteroids (budesonide) with surfactant as a carrier likely has a beneficial effect on death or BPD at 36 weeks' PMA (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.74; NNTB 4, 95% CI 3 to 6; I2 = 0%; 2 studies; 381 infants; moderate-certainty evidence) and on BPD at 36 weeks' PMA. No evidence of harmful effects was found. There was little evidence for effects of different starting doses or timing of systemic corticosteroids on death or BPD at 36 weeks' PMA, but potential adverse effects were observed for some comparisons. Lowering the dose might result in a more unfavourable balance of benefits and harms. Moderately early initiated systemic corticosteroids, compared with early systemic corticosteroids, may result in a higher incidence of BPD at 36 weeks' PMA. Pulse dosing instead of continuous dosing may have a negative effect on death and BPD at 36 weeks' PMA. We found no differences for the comparisons of inhaled versus systemic corticosteroids. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This overview summarises the evidence of nine SRs investigating the effect of postnatal corticosteroids in preterm infants at risk for BPD. Late initiated (≥ seven days after birth) systemic administration of dexamethasone is considered an effective intervention to reduce the risk of BPD in infants with a high risk profile for BPD, based on a favourable balance between benefits and harms. Endotracheal instillation of corticosteroids (budesonide) with surfactant as a carrier is a promising intervention, based on the beneficial effect on desirable outcomes without (so far) negative side effects. Pending results of ongoing large, multicentre RCTs investigating both short- and long-term effects, endotracheal instillation of corticosteroids (budesonide) with surfactant as a carrier is not appropriate for clinical practice at present. Early initiated (< seven days after birth) systemic dexamethasone and hydrocortisone and late initiated (≥ seven days after birth) hydrocortisone are considered ineffective interventions, because of an unfavourable balance between benefits and harms. No conclusions are possible regarding early and late inhaled corticosteroids, as more research is needed.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar , Glucocorticoides , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Humanos , Displasia Broncopulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Displasia Broncopulmonar/prevenção & controle , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Hidrocortisona/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Budesonida , Tensoativos
16.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 269, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38600448

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of escitalopram on the peripheral expression of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis-related genes (FKBP51, HSP90, NR3C1 and POMC) and HPA-axis hormones in patients with panic disorder (PD). METHODS: Seventy-seven patients with PD were treated with escitalopram for 12 weeks. All participants were assessed for the severity of panic symptoms using the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS). The expression of HPA-axis genes was measured using real-time quantitative fluorescent PCR, and ACTH and cortisol levels were measured using chemiluminescence at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: At baseline, patients with PD had elevated levels of ACTH and cortisol, and FKBP51 expression in comparison to healthy controls (all p < 0.01). Correlation analysis revealed that FKBP51 expression levels were significantly positively related to cortisol levels and the severity of PD (all p < 0.01). Furthermore, baseline ACTH and cortisol levels, and FKBP51 expression levels were significantly reduced after 12 weeks of treatment, and the change in the PDSS score from baseline to post-treatment was significantly and positively related to the change in cortisol (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that PD may be associated with elevated levels of ACTH and cortisol, and FKBP51 expression, and that all three biomarkers are substantially decreased in patients who have received escitalopram treatment.


Assuntos
Transtorno de Pânico , Humanos , Transtorno de Pânico/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno de Pânico/genética , Transtorno de Pânico/diagnóstico , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/metabolismo , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/farmacologia , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Escitalopram , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , RNA Mensageiro
17.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 26(3): 321-324, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557387

RESUMO

The male patient, one day old, was admitted to the hospital due to hypoglycemia accompanied by apnea appearing six hours after birth. The patient had transient hypoglycemia early after birth, and acute heart failure suddenly occurred on the eighth day after birth. Laboratory tests showed significantly reduced levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol, and pituitary magnetic resonance imaging was normal. Genetic testing results showed that the patient had probably pathogenic compound heterozygous mutations of the TBX19 gene (c.917-2A>G+c.608C>T), inherited respectively from the parents. The patient was conclusively diagnosed with congenital isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency caused by mutation of the TBX19 gene. Upon initiating hydrocortisone replacement therapy, cardiac function rapidly returned to normal. After being discharged, the patient continued with the hydrocortisone replacement therapy. By the 18-month follow-up, the patient was growing and developing well. In neonates, unexplained acute heart failure requires caution for possible endocrine hereditary metabolic diseases, and timely cortisol testing and genetic testing should be conducted.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Adrenal , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Hipoglicemia , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Masculino , Hidrocortisona/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemia/etiologia , Insuficiência Adrenal/congênito , Insuficiência Adrenal/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Adrenal/genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8147, 2024 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584170

RESUMO

The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs107856856, located in the tryptophan hydroxylase-2 gene, is associated with the behavioural phenotype for sheep temperament measured at weaning. Here, we tested the association between that SNP and physiological and behavioural responses to stressors in adult sheep. Two groups of adult sheep, one with genotype A/A (calm genotype) and the other with G/G (nervous genotype) in rs107856856, were selected from 160 sheep and were exposed, twice, to an open-field arena and an isolation box test (IBT). During each repeat, the behaviour and physiological responses (cortisol, prolactin, dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA], brain derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], characteristics of the response of body temperature, and oxidative stress) were measured. The behavioural and physiological responses of the sheep were compared between genotypes and also between groups classified on their phenotype as assessed by their initial isolation box score ("low responders" and "high responders"). The SNP rs107856856 had some effects on the behavioural phenotype (IBT score) but no effects on the physiological response to stress (cortisol, prolactin, DHEA, BDNF, oxidative stress or changes in body temperature) in the adult sheep, probably because the sheep were exposed, and therefore had adapted, to human contact during their life.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Temperamento , Adulto , Humanos , Animais , Ovinos , Temperamento/fisiologia , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Prolactina , Hidrocortisona , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Desidroepiandrosterona , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
19.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0298553, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568926

RESUMO

The pervasive use of social media has raised concerns about its potential detrimental effects on physical and mental health. Others have demonstrated a relationship between social media use and anxiety, depression, and psychosocial stress. In light of these studies, we examined physiological indicators of stress (heart rate to measure autonomic nervous system activation and cortisol to assess activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis) associated with social media use and investigated possible moderating influences of sex, age, and psychological parameters. We collected physiological data from 59 subjects ranging in age from 13 to 55 across two cell phone treatments: social media use and a pre-selected YouTube playlist. Heart rate was measured using arm-band heart rate monitors before and during cell phone treatments, and saliva was collected for later cortisol analysis (by enzyme immunoassay) before and after each of the two cell phone treatments. To disentangle the effects of cell phone treatment from order of treatment, we used a crossover design in which participants were randomized to treatment order. Our study uncovered a significant period effect suggesting that both heart rate and cortisol decreased over the duration of our experiment, irrespective of the type of cell phone activity or the order of treatments. There was no indication that age, sex, habits of social media use, or psychometric parameters moderated the physiological response to cell phone activities. Our data suggest that 20-minute bouts of social media use or YouTube viewing do not elicit a physiological stress response.


Assuntos
Uso do Telefone Celular , Mídias Sociais , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Saliva/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
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