Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 69.929
Filtrar
1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(39): e27319, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Morning cortisol levels have been reported to be elevated among patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). We perform a protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis to assess morning central or peripheral cortisol levels in AD patients as compared with cognitively normal individuals. METHODS: Studies were identified through systematic searches in August 2021 with no restrictions on date and time, language, and publication status using the following bibliographic databases: Embase, Medline, PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, and the Cochrane Library. Studies were identified using search terms related to cortisol, Alzheimer disease, and cognitive impairment. The study quality of included papers was evaluated using the "National Institutes of Health (NIH) quality assessment tool for observational cohort and cross-sectional studies." Statistical analyses were performed using Stata (version 14, StataCorp, College Station, TX). RESULTS: The findings of this study will be submitted to peer-reviewed journals for publication. CONCLUSION: Morning cortisol was elevated in AD patients and may have diagnostic and prognostic values for AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 25(5): 431-439, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623970

RESUMO

Hydrocortisone is indicated in the treatment of primary or secondary adrenal insufficiency. The oral dosage regimen of hydrocortisone needs to be individualized in the treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, especially in pediatric patients. A review of the therapeutic uses of hydrocortisone reveals the need for flexibility in dosing. This flexibility is readily achieved using an oral liquid dosage form. However, no commercial liquid dosage form of hydrocortisone currently exists. Hydrocortisone is commercially available as 5-mg, 10-mg, and 20-mg tablets. An extemporaneously compounded suspension from pure drug powder would provide a convenient option to meet unique patient needs. The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical and microbiological stability of extemporaneously compounded hydrocortisone suspensions in PCCA Base, SuspendIt. This base is a sugar-free, paraben-free, dye-free, and gluten-free thixotropic vehicle containing a natural sweetener obtained from the monk fruit. The study design included two hydrocortisone concentrations to provide stability documentation over a bracketed concentration range for eventual use by compounding pharmacists. A robust stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for the determination of the chemical stability of hydrocortisone in SuspendIt was developed and validated. Suspensions of hydrocortisone were prepared in SuspendIt at 1-mg/mL and 20-mg/mL concentrations, selected to represent a range within which the drug is commonly dosed. Samples were stored in plastic amber prescription bottles at two temperature conditions (5°C and 25°C). Samples were assayed initially and on the following days: 7, 15, 28, 45, 60, 91, 120, and 185. Physical data such as pH, viscosity, and appearance were also noted. Microbiological stability was tested. All measurements were obtained in triplicate. A stable extemporaneous product is defined as one that retains at least 90% of the initial drug concentration throughout the sampling period and is protected against microbial growth. The study showed that hydrocortisone concentrations did not go below 94% of the label claim (initial drug concentration) at both temperatures studied. No microbial growth was observed. Viscosity and pH values did not change significantly. This study demonstrates that hydrocortisone is physically, chemically, and microbiologically stable in SuspendIt for 185 days in the refrigerator and at room temperature, thus providing a viable, compounded alternative for hydrocortisone in a liquid dosage form, with an extended beyond-use date to meet patient needs.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Criança , Cromonas , Composição de Medicamentos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Humanos , Suspensões
3.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 81(5): 846-849, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633961

RESUMO

Adrenal crisis is the most extreme presentation form of adrenal insufficiency and represents a life-threatening endocrinological emergency. This situation can be triggered by different causes including the use of CYP3A4-inducing drugs, which accelerate hydrocortisone clearance. We describe the case of an 85-year-old woman with secondary adrenal insufficiency and chronic renal disease, who presented symptoms compatible with adrenal crisis (asthenia, adynamia, severe hyponatremia associated with neurological symptoms and hypotension) nine days after the start of modafinil treatment. The clinical picture improved rapidly with the suspension of modafinil and the administration of intravenous hydrocortisone. After ruling out the possible triggering causes (infectious, ischemic, pulmonary thromboembolism and failure to take hydrocortisone), it was interpreted that modafinil precipitated the symptoms of adrenal insufficiency by increasing the steroid clearance. Modafinil has the ability to induce the activity of CYP3A4 and consequently decrease the bioavailability of hydrocortisone. We emphasize the need to adjust steroid dose replacement in subjects receiving metabolism-inducing drugs.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Adrenal , Doença Aguda , Insuficiência Adrenal/induzido quimicamente , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/efeitos adversos , Modafinila/efeitos adversos
4.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1184: 339010, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625258

RESUMO

This work proposed a novel and flexible immunosensor for highly selective and sensitive determination of cortisol in sweat. The flexible electrode was developed by transferring multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) film on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate and subsequent electrochemical deposition of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the MWCNTs surface. The obtained AuNPs/MWCNTs/PDMS electrode was then covalently immobilized with anti-cortisol monoclonal antibody (Anti-Cmab) and blocked with BSA. Scanning electron microscope confirmed that MWCNTs have been firmly combined with PDMS and AuNPs distributed uniformly on the surface of MWCNTs. The PDMS-based sensor possesses a good mechanical stability against stretching, bending and twisting, displaying stable electrochemical performance under deformation. After optimizing the analytical parameters, the developed immunosensor allowed a facile quantification of cortisol in the range of 1 fg/mL-1 µg/mL with a detection limit of 0.3 fg/mL. The cortisol immunosensor was further used to evaluate cortisol levels in human sweat, and the results corresponded closely with commercially available chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) method. Results indicated that the new cortisol immunosensor could provide an effective tool for the noninvasive, point of care measurement of sweat cortisol levels and is promise to be a wearable biosensor for the healthy monitoring.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanotubos de Carbono , Dimetilpolisiloxanos , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Ouro , Humanos , Hidrocortisona , Imunoensaio , Suor
5.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 461, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545453

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different feed restriction regimens on performance, behavioral patterns, blood cortisol, and carcass parameters in Sasso broilers. Sixty healthy 1-day-old unsexed Sasso chicks were randomly assigned to three groups (20 chicks per group) and each group was divided into 4 replicates with 5 chicks each based on feed restriction program during the rearing period (60 days). The first group (G1) is control in which birds were fed ad libitum had free access to feed (no restriction). The second group (G2) was subjected to temporary feed restriction at the first 2 weeks as birds had access to feed for 12 h only after that they had free access to feed until the end of the experimental period. The third one (G3) was subjected to continuous feed restriction as birds had free access to feed for 12 h only throughout the rearing periods. During the study period, growth performance and behavioral patterns were estimated. At the end of the study, blood samples for cortisol testing were taken. Three birds from each group were slaughtered at the end of the study to see how the feed restriction affected carcass parameters. Feed restriction had a substantial impact (P ≤ 0.05) on final body weight and carcass parameters. Feed restriction elevated blood cortisol significantly (P = 0.004). Feed restriction showed a significant impact on some behaviors as feeding, stretching, preening, and aggression. Overall, different feed restriction programs had a wide effect on growth performance, behaviors, cortisol concentration, and carcass parameters of Sasso broilers.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Hidrocortisona , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta
6.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 46(8): 690-4, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472755

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical efficacy of Tiaoshen needling (dredging Governor Vessel and regulating mind)in the treatment of chronic insomnia (CI) and its effect on plasma melatonin (MT) and cortisol (CORT) levels, so as to explore its underlying mechanism. METHODS: Sixty patients with CI were randomly divided into the treatment group and the control group, with 30 cases in each group. Both groups were given sleep hygiene education before treatment. Patients in the treatment group received acupuncture or electroacupuncture at Baihui (GV20), Shenting (GV24), Yintang (GV29), bilateral Shenmen (HT7) and Sanyinjiao (SP6). Patients in the control group received acupuncture or electroacupuncture at bilateral Shousanli (LI10), Futu (ST32) and Feiyang(BL58). Both groups were treated every other day, 3 times a week, for a total of 4 weeks. Before and after treatment, Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) and fatigue severity scale (FSS) were used to evaluate sleep qua-lity and daytime fatigue, the plasma MT and CORT levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Compared with before treatment, the PSQI scores and total FSS score of the treatment group decreased significantly (P<0.01,P<0.05), and the plasma MT content increased and CORT decreased significantly in the treatment group (P<0.01),while the sleep-onset time score, sleep disturbance score and the PSQI total score of the control group decreased significantly (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the PSQI sleep disorder score and total score, and the total FSS score as well as plasma CORT level were significantly down-regulated (P<0.01,P<0.05), while the plasma MT content was up-regulated (P<0.05) in the treatment group. CONCLUSION: Tiaoshen acupuncture can significantly improve the sleep quality of patients with CI and relieve daytime fatigue, which may be related to the increase of plasma MT content in patients with CI, thereby inhibiting the excessive activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Melatonina , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Pontos de Acupuntura , Humanos , Hidrocortisona , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Theriogenology ; 175: 89-94, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517287

RESUMO

Cortisol (C) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) are recognized as the main fetal steroids, and they are likely to influence fetal development and have long-term effects on newborn hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) function. DHEA is often measured as its sulfates and expressed as DHEA-S. Hair analysis represents a promising methodological approach for the non-invasive measurement of steroids, allowing for a retrospective analysis of the total exposure to steroids over time, and avoiding the influence of acute events or circadian fluctuations. Hair cortisol and DHEA concentrations have been investigated in cows, but no studies have been performed on calves. The object of this study was to evaluate hair cortisol (HC) and hair DHEA-S (HDHEA-S) concentrations in beef calves from birth to six months of age. Hair samples of 12 beef calves (seven males, five females) were firstly collected at birth (T1) and then every three weeks up to six months of age (T2-T10), collecting only the re-grown hair. HC and HDHEA-S were analyzed by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Calves sex, weight and APGAR score were registered immediately after birth. Statistical analysis revealed that both HC and HDHEA-S were influenced by sampling time (P < 0.001). HC concentrations were higher at T1 compared to all subsequent samplings (T2-T10, P < 0.01); HC concentrations were higher at T2 compared to T4-T10 (P < 0.01), while no further changes were detected from T3 onward. Higher HDHEA-S concentrations were registered at T1, T2 and T3 compared to all the other samplings (P < 0.01). No correlation was found between hair concentrations of both steroids and calf sex or birthweight. APGAR score was negatively correlated only with HC at birth (P < 0.05). These data demonstrate that C and DHEA-S are quantifiable in the hair of calves and are influenced by their age. The higher HC detected at birth (T1) probably reflects the high serum C concentrations present late in pregnancy and increased by the fetal HPA axis, by which parturition is initiated in cows. The highest HDHEA-S at birth (T1) in calves indicates that the largest amounts of DHEA and its sulfates are produced during fetal development. Moreover, the findings of higher HC at three weeks after birth and of higher HDHEA-S until six weeks after birth, suggest that C and DHEA secretion continues also beyond birth, and that these steroids could be involved in the events occurring during the challenging first weeks of age in the calf.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Animais , Bovinos , Desidroepiandrosterona , Sulfato de Desidroepiandrosterona , Feminino , Masculino , Parto , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Neuroimage Clin ; 31: 102781, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384996

RESUMO

The role of the amygdala in the experience of emotional states and stress is well established. Connections from the amygdala to the hypothalamus activate the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal (HPA) axis and the cortisol response. Previous studies have failed to find consistent whole amygdala volume changes in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), but differences may exist at the smaller substructural level of the amygdala nuclei. High-resolution T1 and T2-weighted-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MRIs were compared between 80 patients with MDD and 83 healthy controls (HC) using the automated amygdala substructure module in FreeSurfer 6.0. Volumetric assessments were performed for individual nuclei and three anatomico-functional composite groups of nuclei. Salivary cortisol awakening response (CAR), as a measure of HPA responsivity, was measured in a subset of patients. The right medial nucleus volume was larger in MDD compared to HC (p = 0.002). Increased right-left volume ratios were found in MDD for the whole amygdala (p = 0.004), the laterobasal composite (p = 0.009) and in the central (p = 0.003) and medial (p = 0.014) nuclei. The CAR was not significantly different between MDD and HC. Within the MDD group the left corticoamygdaloid transition area was inversely correlated with the CAR, as measured by area under the curve (AUCg) (p ≤ 0.0001). In conclusion, our study found larger right medial nuclei volumes in MDD compared to HC and relatively increased right compared to left whole and substructure volume ratios in MDD. The results suggest that amygdala substructure volumes may be involved in the pathophysiology of depression.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Hidrocortisona , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445485

RESUMO

Environmental stress is ubiquitous in modern societies and can exert a profound and cumulative impact on cell function and health phenotypes. This impact is thought to be in large part mediated by the action of glucocorticoid stress hormones, primarily cortisol in humans. While the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear, epigenetics-the chemical changes that regulate genomic function without altering the genetic code-has emerged as a key link between environmental exposures and phenotypic outcomes. The present study assessed genome-wide DNA (CpG) methylation, one of the key epigenetic mechanisms, at three timepoints during prolonged (51-day) exposure of cultured human fibroblasts to naturalistic cortisol levels, which can be reached in human tissues during in vivo stress. The findings support a spatiotemporal model of profound and widespread stress hormone-driven methylomic changes that emerge at selected CpG sites, are more likely to spread to nearby located CpGs, and quantitatively accrue at open sea, glucocorticoid receptor binding, and chromatin-accessible sites. Taken together, these findings provide novel insights into how prolonged stress may impact the epigenome, with potentially important implications for stress-related phenotypes.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigenômica/métodos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocortisona/farmacologia , Longevidade , Estresse Fisiológico , Ilhas de CpG , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos
10.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 365, 2021 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cortisol is a steroid hormone acting as a stress hormone, which is crucial in regulating homeostasis. Previous studies have linked cortisol concentration to body mass and body composition. METHODS: The investigations were carried out in 2016-2017. A total of 176 children aged 6-13 years in primary schools in central Poland were investigated. Three types of measurements were performed: anthropometric (body weight and height, waist and hip circumferences), body composition (fat mass FM (%), muscle mass - MM (%), body cellular mass - BCM (%), total body water - TBW (%)), and cortisol concentration using saliva of the investigated individuals. Information about standard of living, type of feeding after birth, parental education and maternal trauma during pregnancy was obtained with questionnaires. RESULTS: The results of regression models after removing the environmental factors (parental education, standard of living, type of feeding after birth, and maternal trauma during pregnancy) indicate a statistically significant association between the cortisol concentration and fat mass and muscle mass. The cortisol concentration was negatively associated with FM (%) (Beta=-0.171; p = 0.026), explaining 2.32 % of the fat mass variability and positively associated with MM (%) (Beta = 0.192; p = 0.012) explaining 3.09 % of the muscle mass variability. CONCLUSIONS: Cortisol concentration affects fat and muscle mass among Polish children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Ethical Commission at the University of Lodz (nr 19/KBBN-UL/II/2016).


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Hidrocortisona , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Músculos , Polônia , Gravidez
11.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(8)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446523

RESUMO

A 68-year-old woman presented with right arm cellulitis, not responsive to oral antibiotics. Intravenous antibiotics were commenced, and an ultrasound scan confirmed a collection that was surgically drained. She developed refractory hypokalaemia with normal magnesium, no gastrointestinal losses and no iatrogenic cause. She was hypertensive, hyperglycaemic, alkalotic, clinically obese with proximal myopathy and skin bruising. These clinical findings and refractory hypokalaemic hypertension with metabolic alkalosis raised a suspicion of Cushing's syndrome (CS). 24-hour urinary free cortisol (24 hours) was grossly raised on two occasions. The adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) was significantly raised at 154 ng/L, confirming ACTH-dependant CS. A CT scan of the thorax, abdomen and pelvis excluded an ectopic source of hypercortisolaemia. MRI pituitary revealed an invasive macroadenoma. Treatment with endoscopic debulking resulted in the resolution of hypokalaemia and metabolic alkalosis with significant improvement in hyperglycaemia and hypertension.


Assuntos
Alcalose , Síndrome de Cushing , Hipertensão , Hipopotassemia , Hipersecreção Hipofisária de ACTH , Idoso , Alcalose/diagnóstico , Alcalose/etiologia , Síndrome de Cushing/complicações , Síndrome de Cushing/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipopotassemia/diagnóstico , Hipopotassemia/etiologia
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5068, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417460

RESUMO

p53 regulates several signaling pathways to maintain the metabolic homeostasis of cells and modulates the cellular response to stress. Deficiency or excess of nutrients causes cellular metabolic stress, and we hypothesized that p53 could be linked to glucose maintenance. We show here that upon starvation hepatic p53 is stabilized by O-GlcNAcylation and plays an essential role in the physiological regulation of glucose homeostasis. More specifically, p53 binds to PCK1 promoter and regulates its transcriptional activation, thereby controlling hepatic glucose production. Mice lacking p53 in the liver show a reduced gluconeogenic response during calorie restriction. Glucagon, adrenaline and glucocorticoids augment protein levels of p53, and administration of these hormones to p53 deficient human hepatocytes and to liver-specific p53 deficient mice fails to increase glucose levels. Moreover, insulin decreases p53 levels, and over-expression of p53 impairs insulin sensitivity. Finally, protein levels of p53, as well as genes responsible of O-GlcNAcylation are elevated in the liver of type 2 diabetic patients and positively correlate with glucose and HOMA-IR. Overall these results indicate that the O-GlcNAcylation of p53 plays an unsuspected key role regulating in vivo glucose homeostasis.


Assuntos
Acetilglucosamina/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Restrição Calórica , Linhagem Celular , Colforsina/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Epinefrina/metabolismo , Glucagon/metabolismo , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Gluconeogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosilação , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxiquinase (GTP)/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Estabilidade Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Pirúvico/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
13.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444685

RESUMO

Time-Restricted Eating is an eating pattern based on the circadian rhythm which limits daily food intake (usually to ≤12 h/day), unique in that no overt restriction is imposed on the quality, nor quantity, of food intake. This paper aimed to examine the effects of two patterns of TRE, traditional TRE, and Ramadan fasting, on two markers of circadian rhythm, cortisol and melatonin. PubMed and Web of Science were searched up to December 2020 for studies examining the effects of time restricted eating on cortisol and melatonin. Fourteen studies met our inclusion criteria. All Ramadan papers found statistically significant decrease in melatonin (p < 0.05) during Ramadan. Two out of the three Ramadan papers noted an abolishing of the circadian rhythm of cortisol (p < 0.05). The non-Ramadan TRE papers did not examine melatonin, and cortisol changes were mixed. In studies comparing TRE to control diets, Stratton et al. found increased cortisol levels in the non-TRE fasting group (p = 0.0018) and McAllister et al. noted no difference. Dinner-skipping resulted in significantly reduced evening cortisol and non-significantly raised morning cortisol. Conversely, breakfast skipping resulted in significantly reduced morning cortisol. This blunting indicates a dysfunctional HPA axis, and may be associated with poor cardio-metabolic outcomes. There is a paucity of research examining the effects of TRE on cortisol and melatonin. The contrasting effect of dinner and breakfast-skipping should be further examined to ascertain whether timing the feeding window indeed has an impact on circadian rhythmicity.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Jejum/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Melatonina/sangue , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição/fisiologia , Adulto , Desjejum/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Religião , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Dev Psychol ; 57(7): 1149-1162, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435829

RESUMO

Accidents caused by human errors illustrate the fragility of cognitive processing and its coordination by executive functions against stress. To better understand how core executive functions change over time, influence each other, and are affected by chronic stress exposure, a prospective cohort study was conducted from 2016 to 2019. Five hundred sixteen German adults aged 25-55 years (mean age/education age: 38.0/11.3 years, 67% females, 94% occupied, 20% smokers) completed at least one internet-based biannual assessment of response inhibition, updating, and set shifting using a Go/NoGo, spatial 2-Back, and Number-Letter task, respectively. Chronic stress exposure was indicated by self-reports on the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and hair cortisol concentrations (HCC). Statistical analyses were performed by multivariate stochastic differential equation modeling. All indicators of executive functions (task-specific RTs in target trials or their contrast to nontarget trials) and chronic stress showed intraindividual stability over time (12% to 63% of their variance was attributable to trait influences). With respect to lagged mutual associations, faster Go/NoGo target RTs predicted faster Number-Letter target RTs later in time, while faster Number-Letter target RTs predicted higher HCC later in time (both with maximum effect sizes of d ≈ 0.1 standard deviations). However, PSS was not predictive of later HCC and vice versa. None of the chronic stress indicators significantly predicted indicators of executive functions at subsequent time points. These findings suggest that set shifting is capable of modulating the body's physiological response to chronic stress exposure, whereas executive functions appear comparably robust against chronic stress exposure. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Função Executiva , Hidrocortisona , Adulto , Feminino , Cabelo , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Estresse Psicológico
15.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(8)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440959

RESUMO

Athletes are exposed to a tremendous amount of stress, both physically and mentally, when performing high intensity sports with frequent practices, pushing numerous athletes into choose to use ergogenic aids such as caffeine or ß-alanine to significantly improve their performance and ease the stress and pressure that is put onto the body. The beneficial or even detrimental effects of these so-called ergogenic aids can be appreciated through the use of numerous diagnostic tools that can analyze various body fluids. In the recent years, saliva samples are gaining more ground in the field of diagnostic as it is a non-invasive procedure, contains a tremendous amount of analytes that are subject to pathophysiological changes caused by diseases, exercises, fatigue as well as nutrition and hydration. Thus, we describe here the current progress regarding potential novel biomarkers for stress and physical activity, salivary α-amylase and salivary cortisol, as well as their use and measurement in combination with different already-known or new ergogenic aids.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Esportes , Amilases , Atletas , Humanos , Saliva
16.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(8)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440968

RESUMO

Background: The covert or indirect type of aggression has a risk of converting in violent acts and, considering that, it is very important to identify it in order to apply effective preventive measures. In cases of psychotic patients, the risk of becoming violent is harder to predict, as even neuter stimuli may be perceived as threat and trigger aggression. Treating all the psychiatric patients as potential aggressive subjects is not the best preventive measure as only a few of them are aggressive and this measure may further enhance the stigma on mentally ill patients. There is a current need for better understanding of covert aggression and to find objective measures, such as biological markers, that could be indicative of potential violent behavior. In this work, we try to investigate the role of cortisol and oxytocin as potential biomarkers of aggression in patients with psychosis. Material and Methods: We analyzed the level of peripheral oxytocin (pg/mL) and cortisol level (ng/mL) in 28 psychotic patients (they were not on psychotropic treatment at the moment of admission and those with substance abuse or personality disorder were excluded from the study) and correlated it with the intensity of aggression reported by the patient (overt and covert type) using the Overt Covert Aggression Inventory and the level of observed aggression of the patient in the past 7 days (rated by the health care provider) using the Modified Overt Aggression Scale. Results: We found that psychotic patients with a higher level of covert aggression had a lower level of cortisol (61.05 ± 8.04 ng/mL vs. 216.33 ± 12.6.9 ng/mL, p ˂ 0.01) and a higher level of oxytocin (102.87 ± 39.26 vs. 70.01 ± 25.07, p = 0.01) when compared with patients with a lower level of covert aggression. Furthermore, we observed significant negative correlation between cortisol and covert aggression (r = -0.676, p < 0.001) and between oxytocin and covert type of aggression (r = 0.382, p = 0.04). Moreover, we found that a lower level of cortisol together with a higher level of oxytocin are significant predictors of a style of internalized manifestation of aggression, with the predictive model explaining 55% of the variant of the internalized manifestation of aggression (F (2.25) = 17.6, p < 0.001, ß = 0.35, R2 = 55.2). We did not find significant correlations between cortisol and overt aggression, and neither between oxytocin and overt aggression. Positive correlations were also found between the overt type of self-reported aggression and overt aggression reported by the rater (r = 0.459, p = 0.01). Conclusions: The importance of a predictive model in understanding covert aggression is imperative and the results of our study show that oxytocin and cortisol warrant to be further investigated in establishing a definitive predictive model for covert aggression.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Agressão , Humanos , Ocitocina
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26757, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397819

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The role of cognitive, social and biological factors in the etiology of chronic periodontitis has been reported.The aim of this study was to evaluate the salivary cortisol level and interleukin-1 B level in patients of Chronic periodontitis in smokers and stress and nonsmokers without stress.The design of study randomized, prospective, double-blinded, and prospective study.The total sample size was comprised of 600 subjects between the ages of 20 and 50 years. The sample size was divided into 300 males and 300 females. Out of 600 subjects, 200 subjects comprised of subjects with chronic periodontitis with positive depression level with a history of smoking (Group I), 200 subjects comprised of subjects with chronic periodontitis without depression and without smoking (Group II), and 200 subjects who were taken as the control group comprised of healthy subjects without chronic periodontitis, without depression level, and no smoking history (Group III). Salivary cortisol levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).The result showed that there was a positive correlation between morning and evening salivary cortisol level in all the groups with correlation coefficient. There was significant higher value of salivary cortisol in Group I patients when compared with Group II and Group III. However, when the comparison of salivary cortisol levels was done between the Group II and Control group, the result showed nonsignificant P value.It is suggested that stress is positively correlated with the salivary cortisol levels in smokers and nonsmokers.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica/sangue , Hidrocortisona/análise , Interleucina-1beta/análise , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Periodontite Crônica/diagnóstico , Periodontite Crônica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Saliva/enzimologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445315

RESUMO

A common mechanism in which glucocorticoids participate is suggested in the pathogenesis of such metabolic diseases as obesity, metabolic syndrome, or Cushing's syndrome. The enzyme involved in the control of the availability of cortisol, the active form of the glucocorticoid for the glucocorticoid receptor, is 11ß-HSD1. Inhibition of 11ß-HSD1 activity may bring beneficial results for the alleviation of the course of metabolic diseases such as metabolic syndrome, Cushing's syndrome or type 2 diabetes. In this work, we obtained 10 novel 2-(adamantan-1-ylamino)thiazol-4(5H)-one derivatives containing different substituents at C-5 of thiazole ring and tested their activity towards inhibition of two 11ß-HSD isoforms. For most of them, over 50% inhibition of 11ß-HSD1 and less than 45% inhibition of 11ß-HSD2 activity at the concentration of 10 µM was observed. The binding energies found during docking simulations for 11ß-HSD1 correctly reproduced the experimental IC50 values for analyzed compounds. The most active compound 2-(adamantan-1-ylamino)-1-thia-3-azaspiro[4.5]dec-2-en-4-one (3i) inhibits the activity of isoform 1 by 82.82%. This value is comparable to the known inhibitor-carbenoxolone. The IC50 value is twice the value determined by us for carbenoxolone, however inhibition of the enzyme isoform 2 to a lesser extent makes it an excellent material for further tests.


Assuntos
11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Tiazóis/síntese química , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/química , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/metabolismo , Adamantano/química , Sítios de Ligação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Hidrocortisona/química , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Tiazóis/farmacologia
19.
Theriogenology ; 173: 221-229, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399386

RESUMO

Glucocorticoids (GCs) are known to play an important role in maintaining basal and stress-related homeostasis by interacting with endocrine mediators and prostaglandins (PGs). Although a growing body of evidence shows that GCs exert their regulatory action at a multitude of sites in the reproductive axis through corticosteroid receptors, little is known about the direct role of cortisol, an active form of GCs, in the equine endometrium. Thus, the study aimed to determine the effect of cortisol on PGF2α synthesis in the endometrial tissue and cells in vitro. In Exp.1, the immunolocalization and the expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GCR) in the endometrium throughout the estrous cycle were established. In Exp. 2 and 3, the effects of cortisol on PGF2α secretion and transcripts associated with the arachidonic acid (AA) cascade in endometrial tissues, and cells were defined. Endometrial tissues obtained from the early, mid, and late luteal phases and the follicular phase of the estrous cycle were exposed to cortisol (100, 200, and 400 nM) for 24 h. Endometrial epithelial and stromal cells (early phase of estrous cycle) were exposed to cortisol (100 nM) for 24 h. Then, PGF2α secretion and transcripts associated with the AA cascade (PLA2G2A, PLA2G4A, PTGS2, and PGFS) were assessed. GCR was expressed in the cytoplasm and the nucleus in the luminal and glandular epithelium as well as in the stroma. Endometrial GCR protein abundance was up-regulated at the late luteal phase compared to the mid-luteal phase of the estrous cycle. Cortisol dose-dependently decreased PGF2α secretion, PLA2G2A and PLA2G4A transcripts in endometrial tissues. Additionally, cortisol treatment decreased PGF2α secretion from endometrial epithelial and stromal cells. Moreover, it affected PLA2G2A, PLA2G4A, and PTGS2 transcripts in endometrial stromal cells. These findings suggest that cortisol suppresses the synthesis of PGF2α by affecting the AA cascade in the equine endometrium during the estrous cycle.


Assuntos
Dinoprosta , Hidrocortisona , Animais , Ácido Araquidônico/metabolismo , Ácido Araquidônico/farmacologia , Dinoprosta/metabolismo , Dinoprosta/farmacologia , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Endométrio/metabolismo , Feminino , Cavalos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas
20.
Ceska Slov Farm ; 70(2): 59-65, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425679

RESUMO

This article presents the results of the study of the anabolic effect of dry extracts of Iris hungarica leaves and rhizomes on the model of hydrocortisoneinduced protein catabolism. Previous studies have established the presence of anabolic activity of dry extracts of Iris hungarica leaves and rhizomes in intact animals. Therefore, it was reasonable to study the effect of the experimental extracts on the state of protein metabolism, which is regulated by glucocorticoids. The model of hydrocortisoneinduced protein catabolism was used to determine anabolic activity for dry extracts of Iris hungarica leaves and rhizomes at a  dose of 150  mg/kg by monitoring the recovery of body weight and the increase in the total protein in the cardiac muscle of rats and in muscle tissue homogenate, which is aimed to promote myofibrillar hypertrophy. Dry extract of Iris hungarica rhizomes reduced urea excretion, normalized metabolism, restored nitrogen balance, and inhibited protein catabolism. The results indicate that dry extract of Iris hungarica has the ability to correct protein metabolism, which is regulated in part by glucocorticoids, due to the high content of isoflavonoids and amino acids, and suggest that there is a  potential use for this herbal product in the development of a new drug aimed at correcting protein metabolism and muscular atrophy.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Iris (Planta) , Rizoma , Animais , Extratos Vegetais , Folhas de Planta , Ratos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...