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1.
JCI Insight ; 9(7)2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587077

RESUMO

To unravel the heterogeneity and molecular signature of effector memory Th2 cells (Tem2), we analyzed 23 individuals' PBMCs of filaria-infected (Filaria+) and 24 healthy volunteers (Filaria-), with or without coincident house dust mite (HDM) allergic sensitization. Flow cytometry revealed 3 CD4+ Tem subsets - CCR4+CCR6+CRTH2- Tem17, CCR4+CCR6-CRTH2+ Tem2, and CCR6+CCR4+CRTH2+ Tem17.2 - markedly enriched in Filaria+ individuals. These subsets were sorted and analyzed by multiomic single-cell RNA immunoprofiling. SingleR-annotated Th2 cells from Tem2 and Tem17.2 cell subsets had features of pathogenic Th2 effector cells based on their transcriptional signatures, with downregulated CD27 and elevated expression levels of ITGA4, IL17RB, HPGDS, KLRB1, PTGDR2, IL9R, IL4, IL5, and IL13 genes. When the Filaria+ individuals were subdivided based on their allergic status, Tem2 cells in HDM+Filaria+ individuals showed an overall reduction in TCR diversity, suggesting the occurrence of antigen-driven clonal expansion. Moreover, HDM+Filaria+ individuals showed not only an expansion in the frequency of both Tem2 and Tem17.2 cell subsets, but also a change in their molecular program by overexpressing GATA3, IL17RB, CLRF2, and KLRB1, as well as increased antigen-induced IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 production, suggesting that aeroallergens reshape the transcriptional and functional programming of Th2 cell subsets in human filarial infection toward a pathogenic immunophenotype.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T , Animais , Humanos , Células Th2 , Alérgenos , Pyroglyphidae
4.
Rev Med Suisse ; 20(868): 705-710, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568064

RESUMO

Biologic drugs are complex molecules synthesized by a living organism. Their use is increasingly prevalent across all medical specialties, exposing a growing number of patients to potential adverse reactions. In this review, we discuss the new classification of hypersensitivity reactions, along with the specific characteristics of monoclonal antibodies. We also address the available diagnostic tools and discuss the management of those reactions, including for patients requiring the continuation of these biologic drugs.


Les médicaments biologiques sont des molécules complexes synthétisées par un organisme vivant. Ils sont de plus en plus utilisés dans toutes les spécialités médicales, exposant ainsi les patients à des réactions indésirables. Dans cet article, nous abordons la nouvelle classification des réactions d'hypersensibilité ainsi que les caractéristiques spécifiques des anticorps monoclonaux. Nous évoquons également les outils diagnostiques disponibles et discutons de la prise en charge, y compris pour les patients nécessitant la poursuite de l'administration des médicaments biologiques.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Hipersensibilidade , Medicina , Humanos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos
5.
J Exp Med ; 221(6)2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563820

RESUMO

Inborn errors of immunity lead to autoimmunity, inflammation, allergy, infection, and/or malignancy. Disease-causing JAK1 gain-of-function (GoF) mutations are considered exceedingly rare and have been identified in only four families. Here, we use forward and reverse genetics to identify 59 individuals harboring one of four heterozygous JAK1 variants. In vitro and ex vivo analysis of these variants revealed hyperactive baseline and cytokine-induced STAT phosphorylation and interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) levels compared with wild-type JAK1. A systematic review of electronic health records from the BioME Biobank revealed increased likelihood of clinical presentation with autoimmunity, atopy, colitis, and/or dermatitis in JAK1 variant-positive individuals. Finally, treatment of one affected patient with severe atopic dermatitis using the JAK1/JAK2-selective inhibitor, baricitinib, resulted in clinically significant improvement. These findings suggest that individually rare JAK1 GoF variants may underlie an emerging syndrome with more common presentations of autoimmune and inflammatory disease (JAACD syndrome). More broadly, individuals who present with such conditions may benefit from genetic testing for the presence of JAK1 GoF variants.


Assuntos
Colite , Dermatite , Hipersensibilidade , Humanos , Autoimunidade , Colite/genética , Inflamação , Janus Quinase 1/genética
6.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 35(4): e14116, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatricians are often the first point of contact for children in Primary Care (PC), but still perceive gaps in their allergy knowledge. We investigated self-perceived knowledge gaps and educational needs in pediatricians across healthcare systems in Europe so that future educational initiatives may better support the delivery of allergy services in PC. METHOD: A multinational survey was circulated to pediatricians who care for children and adolescents with allergy problems in PC by the EAACI Allergy Educational Needs in Primary Care Pediatricians Task Force from February to March 2023. A 5-point Likert scale was used to assess the level of agreement with questionnaire statements. Thirty surveys per country were the cut-off for inclusion and statistical analysis. RESULTS: In this study, 1991 respondents were obtained from 56 countries across Europe and 210 responses were from countries with a cut-off below 30 participants per country. Primary care pediatricians (PCPs) comprised 74.4% of the respondents. The majority (65.3%) were contracted to state or district health services. 61.7% had awareness of guidelines for onward allergy referral in their countries but only 22.3% were aware of the EAACI competencies document for allied health professionals for allergy. Total sample respondents versus PCPs showed 52% and 47% of them have access to allergy investigations in their PC facility (mainly specific IgE and skin prick tests); 67.6% and 58.9% have access to immunotherapy, respectively. The main barrier to referral to a specialist was a consideration that the patient's condition could be diagnosed and treated in this PC facility, (57.8% and 63.6% respectively). The main reasons for referral were the need for hospital assessment, and partial response to first-line treatment (55.4% and 59.2%, 47% and 50.7%, respectively). Learning and assessment methods preference was fairly equally divided between Traditional methods (45.7% and 50.1% respectively) and e-learning 45.5% and 44.9%, respectively. Generalist physicians (GPs) have the poorest access to allergy investigations (32.7%, p = .000). The majority of the total sample (91.9%) assess patients with allergic pathology. 868 (43.6%) and 1117 (46.1%), received allergy training as undergraduates and postgraduates respectively [these proportions in PCPs were higher (45% and 59%), respectively]. PCPs with a special interest in allergology experienced greater exposure to allergy teaching as postgraduates. GPs received the largest amount of allergy teaching as undergraduates. Identifying allergic disease based on clinical presentation, respondents felt most confident in the management of eczema/atopic dermatitis (87.4%) and rhinitis/asthma (86.2%), and least confident in allergen immunotherapy (36.9%) and latex allergy (30.8%). CONCLUSION: This study exploring the confidence of PCPs to diagnose, manage, and refer patients with allergies, demonstrated knowledge gaps and educational needs for allergy clinical practice. It detects areas in need of urgent improvement especially in latex and allergen immunotherapy. It is important to ensure the dissemination of allergy guidelines and supporting EAACI documents since the majority of PCPs lack awareness of them. This survey has enabled us to identify what the educational priorities of PCPs are and how they would like to have them met.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Atenção à Saúde , Pediatras , Atenção Primária à Saúde
9.
West J Emerg Med ; 25(2): 226-229, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38596923

RESUMO

Introduction: A solution for emergency department (ED) congestion remains elusive. As reliance on imaging grows, computed tomography (CT) turnaround time has been identified as a major bottleneck. In this study we sought to identify factors associated with significantly delayed CT in the ED. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of all CT imaging completed at an urban, tertiary care ED from May 1-July 31, 2021. During that period, 5,685 CTs were performed on 4,344 patients, with a median time from CT order to completion of 108 minutes (Quartile 1 [Q1]: 57 minutes, Quartile 3 [Q3]: 182 minutes, interquartile range [IQR]: 125 minutes). Outliers were defined as studies that took longer than 369 minutes to complete (Q3 + 1.5 × IQR). We systematically reviewed outlier charts to determine factors associated with delay and identified five factors: behaviorally non-compliant or medically unstable patients; intravenous (IV) line issues; contrast allergies; glomerular filtration rate (GFR) concerns; and delays related to imaging protocol (eg, need for IV contrast, request for oral and/or rectal contrast). We calculated confidence intervals (CI) using the modified Wald method. Inter-rater reliability was assessed with a kappa analysis. Results: We identified a total of 182 outliers (4.2% of total patients). Fifteen (8.2%) cases were excluded for CT time-stamp inconsistencies. Of the 167 outliers analyzed, 38 delays (22.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 17.0-29.7) were due to behaviorally non-compliant or medically unstable patients; 30 (18.0%, 95% CI 12.8-24.5) were due to IV issues; 24 (14.4%, 95% CI 9.8-20.6) were due to contrast allergies; 21 (12.6%, 95% CI 8.3-18.5) were due to GFR concerns; and 20 (12.0%, 95% CI 7.8-17.9) were related to imaging study protocols. The cause of the delay was unknown in 55 cases (32.9%, 95% CI 26.3-40.4). Conclusion: Our review identified both modifiable and non-modifiable factors associated with significantly delayed CT in the ED. Patient factors such as behavior, allergies, and medical acuity cannot be controlled. However, institutional policies regarding difficult IV access, contrast administration in low GFR settings, and study protocols may be modified, capturing up to 42.6% of outliers.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade , Análise de Causa Fundamental , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/efeitos adversos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência
10.
J Exp Med ; 221(6)2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597953

RESUMO

Environmental airborne antigens are central to the development of allergic asthma, but the cellular processes that trigger disease remain incompletely understood. In this report, Schmitt et al. (https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20231236) identify TNF-like protein 1A (TL1A) as an epithelial alarmin constitutively expressed by a subset of lung epithelial cells, which is released in response to airborne microbial challenge and synergizes with IL-33 to drive allergic disease.


Assuntos
Asma , Hipersensibilidade , Humanos , Alarminas , Células Epiteliais , Pulmão
11.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 10: e49433, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improved life expectancy has increased the prevalence of older adults living with multimorbidities, which likely deteriorates their health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Understanding which chronic conditions frequently co-occur can facilitate person-centered care tailored to the needs of individuals with specific multimorbidity profiles. OBJECTIVE: The study objectives were to (1) examine the prevalence of multimorbidity among Korean older adults (ie, those aged 65 years and older), (2) investigate chronic disease patterns using latent class analysis, and (3) assess which chronic disease patterns are more strongly associated with HRQoL. METHODS: A sample of 1806 individuals aged 65 years and older from the 2021 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was analyzed. Latent class analysis was conducted to identify the clustering pattern of chronic diseases. HRQoL was assessed by an 8-item health-related quality of life scale (HINT-8). Multiple linear regression was used to analyze the association with the total score of the HINT-8. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the odds ratio of having problems according to the HINT-8 items. RESULTS: The prevalence of multimorbidity in the sample was 54.8%. Three chronic disease patterns were identified: relatively healthy, cardiometabolic condition, arthritis, allergy, or asthma. The total scores of the HINT-8 were the highest in participants characterized as arthritis, allergy, or asthma group, indicating the lowest quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Current health care models are disease-oriented, meaning that the management of chronic conditions applies to a single condition and may not be relevant to those with multimorbidities. Identifying chronic disease patterns and their impact on overall health and well-being is critical for guiding integrated care.


Assuntos
Artrite , Asma , Hipersensibilidade , Humanos , Idoso , Análise de Classes Latentes , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Qualidade de Vida , Doença Crônica , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
12.
Actas dermo-sifiliogr. (Ed. impr.) ; 115(4): 331-340, Abr. 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-231985

RESUMO

Antecedentes: El Registro Español de Investigación en Dermatitis de Contacto y Alergia Cutánea tiene entre sus objetivos la vigilancia epidemiológica de la dermatitis de contacto. Para ello es importante conocer si se producen alteraciones en el tiempo de las prevalencias de las positividades a los distintos alérgenos. Objetivos: Describir las variaciones en las tendencias temporales en positividades a alérgenos en la serie estándar del GEIDAC en el periodo comprendido entre 2018 y el 31 de diciembre de 2022. Métodos: Estudio observacional multicéntrico de pacientes estudiados consecutivamente mediante pruebas epicutáneas dentro del estudio de un posible eczema alérgico de contacto recogidos de forma prospectiva en el seno del Registro Español de Investigación en Dermatitis de Contacto y Alergia Cutánea. Se analizaron los datos mediante 2 pruebas estadísticas: una de homogeneidad (para ver si hay cambios en los diferentes años) y otra de tendencia (para ver si los cambios siguen una tendencia lineal). Resultados: Se incluyeron un total de 11.327 pacientes en el periodo de estudio. Los alérgenos en los que de forma global se detectó una sensibilización mayor fueron sulfato de níquel, metilisotiazolinona, cloruro de cobalto, metilcloroisotiazolinona/metilisotiazolinona y mezcla de fragancias i. Se detectó una disminución estadísticamente significativa en el porcentaje de positividades de metilisotiazolinona a lo largo de años de estudio con una tendencia ordenada. Conclusiones: Si bien se pueden apreciar diferentes cambios en las tendencias a sensibilizaciones a varios de los alérgenos de la batería estándar, se observa que persiste una alta sensibilización al níquel, a la metilcloroisotiazolinona/metilisotiazolinona y a la mezcla de fragancias i. Solo se aprecia una tendencia a disminuir de forma significativa en el caso de la metilisotiazolinona.(AU)


Background: The epidemiological surveillance of contact dermatitis is one of the objectives of the Spanish Registry of Research in Contact Dermatitis and Cutaneous Allergy. Knowing whether the prevalence of positive tests to the different allergens changes over time is important for this monitoring process. Objectives: To describe the various temporary trends in allergen positivity in the GEIDAC standard series from 2018 through December 31, 2022. Methods: This was a multicenter, observational trial of consecutive patients analyzed via patch tests as part of the study of possible allergic contact dermatitises collected prospectively within the Spanish Registry of Research in Contact Dermatitis and Cutaneous Allergy. The data was analyzed using 2 statistical tests: one homogeneity test (to describe the changes seen over time) and one trend test (to see whether the changes described followed a linear trend). Results: A total of 11327 patients were included in the study. Overall, the allergens associated with a highest sensitization were nickel sulfate, methylisothiazolinone, cobalt chloride, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone, and fragrance mix i. A statistically significant decrease was found in the percentage of methylisothiazolinone positive tests across the study years with an orderly trend. Conclusions: Although various changes were seen in the sensitizations trends to several allergens of the standard testing, it became obvious that a high sensitization to nickel, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone and fragrances mix i remained. Only a significant downward trend was seen for methylisothiazolinone.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Hipersensibilidade , Alérgenos , Testes do Emplastro , Espanha , Dermatite , Dermatologia
13.
Actas dermo-sifiliogr. (Ed. impr.) ; 115(4): T331-T340, Abr. 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-231986

RESUMO

Antecedentes: El Registro Español de Investigación en Dermatitis de Contacto y Alergia Cutánea tiene entre sus objetivos la vigilancia epidemiológica de la dermatitis de contacto. Para ello es importante conocer si se producen alteraciones en el tiempo de las prevalencias de las positividades a los distintos alérgenos. Objetivos: Describir las variaciones en las tendencias temporales en positividades a alérgenos en la serie estándar del GEIDAC en el periodo comprendido entre 2018 y el 31 de diciembre de 2022. Métodos: Estudio observacional multicéntrico de pacientes estudiados consecutivamente mediante pruebas epicutáneas dentro del estudio de un posible eczema alérgico de contacto recogidos de forma prospectiva en el seno del Registro Español de Investigación en Dermatitis de Contacto y Alergia Cutánea. Se analizaron los datos mediante 2 pruebas estadísticas: una de homogeneidad (para ver si hay cambios en los diferentes años) y otra de tendencia (para ver si los cambios siguen una tendencia lineal). Resultados: Se incluyeron un total de 11.327 pacientes en el periodo de estudio. Los alérgenos en los que de forma global se detectó una sensibilización mayor fueron sulfato de níquel, metilisotiazolinona, cloruro de cobalto, metilcloroisotiazolinona/metilisotiazolinona y mezcla de fragancias i. Se detectó una disminución estadísticamente significativa en el porcentaje de positividades de metilisotiazolinona a lo largo de años de estudio con una tendencia ordenada. Conclusiones: Si bien se pueden apreciar diferentes cambios en las tendencias a sensibilizaciones a varios de los alérgenos de la batería estándar, se observa que persiste una alta sensibilización al níquel, a la metilcloroisotiazolinona/metilisotiazolinona y a la mezcla de fragancias i. Solo se aprecia una tendencia a disminuir de forma significativa en el caso de la metilisotiazolinona.(AU)


Background: The epidemiological surveillance of contact dermatitis is one of the objectives of the Spanish Registry of Research in Contact Dermatitis and Cutaneous Allergy. Knowing whether the prevalence of positive tests to the different allergens changes over time is important for this monitoring process. Objectives: To describe the various temporary trends in allergen positivity in the GEIDAC standard series from 2018 through December 31, 2022. Methods: This was a multicenter, observational trial of consecutive patients analyzed via patch tests as part of the study of possible allergic contact dermatitises collected prospectively within the Spanish Registry of Research in Contact Dermatitis and Cutaneous Allergy. The data was analyzed using 2 statistical tests: one homogeneity test (to describe the changes seen over time) and one trend test (to see whether the changes described followed a linear trend). Results: A total of 11327 patients were included in the study. Overall, the allergens associated with a highest sensitization were nickel sulfate, methylisothiazolinone, cobalt chloride, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone, and fragrance mix i. A statistically significant decrease was found in the percentage of methylisothiazolinone positive tests across the study years with an orderly trend. Conclusions: Although various changes were seen in the sensitizations trends to several allergens of the standard testing, it became obvious that a high sensitization to nickel, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone and fragrances mix i remained. Only a significant downward trend was seen for methylisothiazolinone.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Hipersensibilidade , Alérgenos , Testes do Emplastro , Espanha , Dermatite , Dermatologia
16.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 45(2): 137-140, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38449016

RESUMO

Food allergy to seeds is increasingly more common, with sesame being the most prevalent. Allergy to other seeds, including sunflower, pumpkin, poppy, mustard, and flaxseed, have been reported. Diagnosing a seed allergy is challenging, with many seeds being hidden additives in processed foods and cross-reactive testing. Food labels in the United States are now required to indicate the presence of sesame but other seeds are not required. Oral immunotherapy (OIT) protocols for peanut, milk, and egg are clinically being extrapolated to other foods, including sesame and sunflower seed. This article highlights a case of a patient in whom sunflower seed OIT was administered in a clinical setting.


Assuntos
Helianthus , Hipersensibilidade , Humanos , Sementes , Arachis , Imunoterapia
17.
Biomed Khim ; 70(1): 5-14, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38450676

RESUMO

The cellular response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress accompanies plasma cell maturation and is one of triggers and cofactors of the local inflammatory response. Chemical chaperones, low-molecular substances that eliminate pathological ER stress, are proposed as means of treating pathologies associated with ER stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect and mechanisms of influence of chemical chaperones on the humoral response in a low-dose model of allergy. The allergic immune response was induced in BALB/c mice by repeated administration of ovalbumin at a dose of 100 ng for 6 weeks. Some animals were injected with both the antigen and the chemical chaperones, TUDCA (tauroursodeoxycholic acid) or 4-PBA (4-phenylbutyrate). Administration of TUDCA, but not 4-PBA, suppressed production of allergen-specific IgE (a 2.5-fold decrease in titer). None of the chemical chaperones affected the production of specific IgG1. The effect of TUDCA was associated with suppression of the switch to IgE synthesis in regional lymph nodes. This phenomenon was associated with suppressed expression of genes encoding cytokines involved in type 2 immune response, especially Il4 and Il9, which in turn could be caused by suppression of IL-33 release. In addition, TUDCA significantly suppressed expression of the cytokine APRIL, and to a lesser extent, BAFF. Thus, TUDCA inhibition of the allergy-specific IgE production is due to suppression of the release of IL-33 and a decrease in the production of type 2 immune response cytokines, as well as suppression of the expression of the cytokines APRIL and BAFF.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade , Interleucina-33 , Ácido Tauroquenodesoxicólico , Animais , Camundongos , Hipersensibilidade/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoglobulina E , Citocinas , Alérgenos
18.
Ital J Pediatr ; 50(1): 47, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38475842

RESUMO

Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is characterized by the narrowing of airways during or after physical activity, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath. Distinguishing between EIB and exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is essential, given their divergent therapeutic and prognostic considerations. EIB has been increasingly recognized as a significant concern in pediatric athletes. Moreover, studies indicate a noteworthy prevalence of EIB in children with atopic predispositions, unveiling a potential link between allergic sensitivities and exercise-induced respiratory symptoms, underpinned by an inflammatory reaction caused by mechanical, environmental, and genetic factors. Holistic management of EIB in children necessitates a correct diagnosis and a combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. This review delves into the latest evidence concerning EIB in the pediatric population, exploring its associations with atopy and sports, and emphasizing the appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic approaches by highlighting various clinical scenarios.


Assuntos
Asma Induzida por Exercício , Hipersensibilidade Imediata , Hipersensibilidade , Esportes , Humanos , Criança , Broncoconstrição , Asma Induzida por Exercício/diagnóstico , Asma Induzida por Exercício/tratamento farmacológico , Asma Induzida por Exercício/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico
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