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1.
PLoS Med ; 21(4): e1004369, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38607977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older adults with diabetes are at high risk of severe hypoglycemia (SH). Many machine-learning (ML) models predict short-term hypoglycemia are not specific for older adults and show poor precision-recall. We aimed to develop a multidimensional, electronic health record (EHR)-based ML model to predict one-year risk of SH requiring hospitalization in older adults with diabetes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We adopted a case-control design for a retrospective territory-wide cohort of 1,456,618 records from 364,863 unique older adults (age ≥65 years) with diabetes and at least 1 Hong Kong Hospital Authority attendance from 2013 to 2018. We used 258 predictors including demographics, admissions, diagnoses, medications, and routine laboratory tests in a one-year period to predict SH events requiring hospitalization in the following 12 months. The cohort was randomly split into training, testing, and internal validation sets in a 7:2:1 ratio. Six ML algorithms were evaluated including logistic-regression, random forest, gradient boost machine, deep neural network (DNN), XGBoost, and Rulefit. We tested our model in a temporal validation cohort in the Hong Kong Diabetes Register with predictors defined in 2018 and outcome events defined in 2019. Predictive performance was assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), area under the precision-recall curve (AUPRC) statistics, and positive predictive value (PPV). We identified 11,128 SH events requiring hospitalization during the observation periods. The XGBoost model yielded the best performance (AUROC = 0.978 [95% CI 0.972 to 0.984]; AUPRC = 0.670 [95% CI 0.652 to 0.688]; PPV = 0.721 [95% CI 0.703 to 0.739]). This was superior to an 11-variable conventional logistic-regression model comprised of age, sex, history of SH, hypertension, blood glucose, kidney function measurements, and use of oral glucose-lowering drugs (GLDs) (AUROC = 0.906; AUPRC = 0.085; PPV = 0.468). Top impactful predictors included non-use of lipid-regulating drugs, in-patient admission, urgent emergency triage, insulin use, and history of SH. External validation in the HKDR cohort yielded AUROC of 0.856 [95% CI 0.838 to 0.873]. Main limitations of this study included limited transportability of the model and lack of geographically independent validation. CONCLUSIONS: Our novel-ML model demonstrated good discrimination and high precision in predicting one-year risk of SH requiring hospitalization. This may be integrated into EHR decision support systems for preemptive intervention in older adults at highest risk.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hipoglicemia , Humanos , Idoso , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hipoglicemia/diagnóstico , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Aprendizado de Máquina
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(3): e243683, 2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38530314

RESUMO

Importance: The circumstances under which neonatal hypoglycemia leads to brain damage remain unclear due to a lack of long-term data on the neurodevelopment of affected children. As a result, diagnostic strategies and treatment recommendations are inconsistent. Objective: To evaluate whether the occurrence of severe transitional neonatal hypoglycemia (defined as having at least 1 blood glucose measurement of 30 mg/dL or below) is associated with adverse neurodevelopment in midchildhood. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study using neurodevelopmental testing of a retrospectively recruited cohort was conducted at a single-center tertiary hospital in Germany between March 2022 and February 2023. Children with neonatal blood glucose screening data were randomly selected from all births between 2010 and 2015. Frequency matching for sex, birth weight, gestational age, socioeconomic status, and primary risk factors for neonatal hypoglycemia was performed. Children with persistent hypoglycemia diseases or any risk factor for adverse neurodevelopment except hypoglycemia were excluded. Data were analyzed between February 2023 and March 2023. Exposure: At least 1 neonatal hypoglycemia measurement with blood glucose measuring 30 mg/dL or below vs all measured blood glucose levels above 30 mg/dL during postnatal blood glucose screening starting on the first day of life. Main Outcomes and Measures: Cognitive function measured by full-scale IQ test. Secondary outcomes included standardized scales of motor, visual, and executive functions, and child behavior, each measured at ages 7 to 11 years. Results: A total of 140 children (mean [SD] age 9.1 [1.3] years; 77 male [55.0%]) participated in the study. Children with severe neonatal hypoglycemia had a 4.8 points lower mean full-scale IQ than controls (107.0 [95% CI, 104.0-109.9] vs 111.8 [95% CI, 108.8-114.8]). They showed a 4.9-fold (95% CI, 1.5-15.5) increased odds of abnormal fine motor function and a 5.3-fold (95% CI, 2.1-13.3) increased odds of abnormal visual-motor integration. Significantly higher T scores for attention problems (58.2 [95% CI, 56.1-60.2] vs 54.6 [95% CI, 52.6-56.6]) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms (58.2 [95% CI, 56.2-60.2] vs 54.7 [95% CI, 52.8-56.7]) were reported by parents. Conclusions and Relevance: Neonatal hypoglycemia with blood glucose levels of 30 mg/dL or below was associated with an increased risk for suboptimal neurodevelopmental outcomes in midchildhood. These findings imply that treatment strategies should aim to prevent episodes of hypoglycemia at these severely low levels.


Assuntos
Hipoglicemia , Doenças do Recém-Nascido , Criança , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Masculino , Glicemia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hipoglicemia/diagnóstico , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/diagnóstico , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda
3.
BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care ; 12(1)2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302432

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Impaired awareness of hypoglycemia (IAH) refers to a diminished capacity to detect hypoglycemia. IAH can result in severe and even life-threatening outcomes for individuals with diabetes, especially those in advanced stages of the disease. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of IAH in people with diabetes on hemodialysis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a single-center audit to assess the prevalence of IAH using the Clarke questionnaire. Simultaneously, we measured fear of hypoglycemia with an adapted version of the Hypoglycemia Survey and recorded the incidence of severe hypoglycemia. Data were presented as mean±SD or counts/percentages. Logistic regression was then employed to analyze the association between IAH and various sociodemographic and clinical factors. RESULTS: We included 56 participants with diabetes on hemodialysis, with a mean age of 67.2 years (±12.9), of whom 51.8% were male. The ethnic distribution was 23.2% white, 23.2% black, 19.6% Asian, and 33.9% unspecified. The mean HbA1c was 52 mmol/mol (±18.6). The majority (91.1%) had a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, and 55.4% of those were treated with insulin. The use of diabetes technology was low, with 2.8% of the participants using a continuous glucose monitor. IAH prevalence was 23.2%, and among the 57 participants, 23.6% had a history of severe hypoglycemia, and 60.6% reported fear of hypoglycemia. There were no significant differences in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics between those with IAH and normal hypoglycemia awareness. CONCLUSIONS: We observed that 23.2% of individuals with diabetes undergoing hemodialysis had IAH. IAH was more prevalent in people who reported a fear of hypoglycemia and had a history of severe hypoglycemia episode. The study highlights the unmet needs and disparities in access to diabetes technology within this population.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipoglicemia , Humanos , Masculino , Idoso , Feminino , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemia/diagnóstico , Glicemia , Insulina/efeitos adversos
4.
Early Hum Dev ; 190: 105970, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354454

RESUMO

High rates of academic underachievement at 9-10 years have been identified in children born at risk of neonatal hypoglycaemia. This study investigated the stability of behaviour from early to mid-childhood and how this relates to academic outcomes in children born with at least one risk factor of neonatal hypoglycaemia in Aotearoa, New Zealand. Behaviour data was collected using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Child Behaviour Checklist 1.5-5, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for 466 children (52 % male; 27 % Maori, 60 % New Zealand European, 2 % Pacific, 11 % Other) at multiple timepoints between ages 2 and 10 years. Academic data was collected at 9-10 years using the e-asTTle online learning and assessment tool. Findings revealed a link between early childhood behaviour and academic outcomes could be detected as early as age 2, suggesting that identifying and addressing early behavioural issues in children at risk of neonatal hypoglycaemia could aid in targeted interventions.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil , Hipoglicemia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Infantil , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Povo Maori , Fatores de Risco , Brancos
5.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 209: 111567, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341039

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate safety and effectiveness of iGlarLixi in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) observing fast during Ramadan from Gulf countries. METHODS: This planned subgroup analysis of the SoliRam - a multinational, prospective, non-interventional, real-world, observational study - focused on participants from Gulf countries. Primary endpoint was proportion of participants experiencing ≥1 episode of severe and/or symptomatic documented (<70 mg/dL [<3.9 mmol/L]) hypoglycemia. RESULTS: A total of 241 individuals with T2DM (mean age: 58.1 years; male: 54.4%; mean duration of diabetes: 13.3 years) were included. All 234 eligible participants followed during Ramadan were able to fast for ≥25 days and no participants broke fast due to hypoglycemia. Primary endpoint was reported in one participant (0.5%) during fasting hours during Ramadan. Improvements (mean ± SD change) in HbA1c (-1.0 ± 1.0% [-11 ± 10 mmol/mol]), FPG (-22.5 ± 29.7 mg/dL), and body weight (-1.5 ± 2.0 kg) were observed from pre-Ramadan to post-Ramadan. Three participants (1.2 %) reported an adverse event (AE) of any cause and one (0.4%) reported a gastrointestinal AE. CONCLUSIONS: iGlarLixi is an effective and well-tolerated treatment in people with T2DM from Gulf countries, including during Ramadan fasting, and is associated with low risk of hypoglycemia.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipoglicemia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Jejum/efeitos adversos , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Islamismo , Glicemia
6.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 209: 111572, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341041

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe changes in glucose-lowering drug (GLD) dispensing by frailty status for people with diabetes following admission for hypoglycaemia or hyperglycaemia. METHODS: This study included all people with probable type 2 diabetes in the state of Victoria, Australia, admitted to hospital for hypoglycaemia (n = 2,506 admissions) or hyperglycaemia (n = 1,693) between 1 July 2013 and 29 June 2017. Frailty was defined via the Hospital Frailty Risk Score (HFRS). We examined differences in dispensing of GLDs in the year before and after admission using linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, comorbidities, and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: Dispensing of GLDs decreased following hypoglycaemia admission. Decreased dispensing was strongly associated with frailty status, with a change in mean annual GLD dispensing count of -4.11 (-5.05, -3.17) for an HFRS of 15 vs. -0.99 (-1.47, -0.50) for an HFRS of 0. Changes were greatest for metformin and sulfonylureas. Following hyperglycaemia admission, the mean number of annual GLD dispensings increased, with a smaller increase with increasing frailty: 2.44 (1.32, 3.56) for an HFRS of 0 vs. 1.16 (0.18, 2.14) for an HFRS of 15. CONCLUSIONS: Frailty was associated with more conservative diabetes medication management following hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia admissions.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Fragilidade , Hiperglicemia , Hipoglicemia , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperglicemia/epidemiologia , Alta do Paciente , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Assistência ao Convalescente , Hipoglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Endocr Pract ; 30(4): 367-371, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307456

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is a relative lack of consensus regarding the optimal management of hyperglycemia in patients receiving continuous enteral nutrition (EN), with or without a diagnosis of diabetes. METHODS: This retrospective study examined 475 patients (303 with known diabetes) hospitalized in critical care setting units in 2019 in a single center who received continuous EN. Rates of hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and glucose levels within the target range (70-180 mg/dL) were compared between patients with and without diabetes, and among patients treated with intermediate-acting (IA) biphasic neutral protamine Hagedorn 70/30, long-acting (LA) insulin, or rapid-acting insulin only. RESULTS: Among those with type 2 diabetes mellitus, IA and LA insulin regimens were associated with a significantly higher proportion of patient-days in the target glucose range and fewer hyperglycemic days. Level 1 (<70 mg/dL) and level 2 (<54 mg/dL) hypoglycemia occurred rarely, and there were no significant differences in level 2 hypoglycemia frequency across the different insulin regimens. CONCLUSION: Administration of IA and LA insulin can be safe and effective for those receiving insulin doses for EN-related hyperglycemia.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hiperglicemia , Hipoglicemia , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Nutrição Enteral , Estado Terminal/terapia , Glicemia , Insulina/efeitos adversos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Insulina de Ação Prolongada/uso terapêutico , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperglicemia/prevenção & controle , Hiperglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Glucose/uso terapêutico , Insulina Isófana/efeitos adversos
8.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) ; 39(1): 109-126, 2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38417828

RESUMO

BACKGRUOUND: No recent meta-analysis has holistically analyzed and summarized the efficacy and safety of omarigliptin in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We conducted a meta-analysis to address this knowledge gap. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that included patients with T2DM who received omarigliptin in the intervention arm. The control arm consisted of either a placebo (passive control group [PCG]) or an active comparator (active control group [ACG]). The primary outcome assessed was changes in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), while secondary outcomes included variations in glucose levels, achievement of glycemic targets, adverse events (AEs), and hypoglycemic events. RESULTS: From 332 initially screened articles, data from 16 RCTs involving 8,804 subjects were analyzed. Omarigliptin demonstrated superiority over placebo in reducing HbA1c levels (mean difference, -0.58%; 95% confidence interval, -0.75 to -0.40; P<0.00001; I2=91%). Additionally, omarigliptin outperformed placebo in lowering fasting plasma glucose, 2-hour postprandial glucose, and in the percentage of participants achieving HbA1c levels below 7.0% and 6.5%. The glycemic efficacy of omarigliptin was similar to that of the ACG across all measures. Although the omarigliptin group experienced a higher incidence of hypoglycemic events compared to the PCG, the overall AEs, serious AEs, hypoglycemia, and severe hypoglycemia were comparable between the omarigliptin and control groups (PCG and ACG). CONCLUSION: Omarigliptin has a favorable glycemic efficacy and safety profile for managing T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 2 Anéis , Hipoglicemia , Piranos , Humanos , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/efeitos adversos , Hemoglobinas Glicadas , Glicemia/análise , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Dipeptidil Peptidases e Tripeptidil Peptidases/uso terapêutico
9.
JAMA Cardiol ; 9(2): 134-143, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38170502

RESUMO

Importance: Previous studies have reported an association between hypoglycemia and cardiovascular (CV) events in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D), but it is unclear if this association is causal or identifies a high-risk patient phenotype. Objective: To evaluate the associations between hypoglycemia and CV outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This secondary analysis was a post hoc assessment of the multinational, double-blind CARMELINA (Cardiovascular and Renal Microvascular Outcome Study With Linagliptin; 2013-2016) and CAROLINA (Cardiovascular Outcome Trial of Linagliptin vs Glimepiride in Type 2 Diabetes; 2010-2018) randomized clinical trials of the antihyperglycemic drug, linagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor. Participants were adults with T2D at high CV risk with or without high kidney risk. By design, participants in the CARMELINA trial had longer duration of T2D and had a higher CV risk than participants in the CAROLINA trial. Data analyses were conducted between June 2021 and June 2023. Intervention: Linagliptin or placebo in the CARMELINA trial, and linagliptin or glimepiride in the CAROLINA trial. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome for both trials was CV death, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke (3-point major adverse CV events [3P-MACE]). For the present analyses, hospitalization for heart failure (HF) was added. Hypoglycemia was defined as plasma glucose less than 54 mg/dL or severe hypoglycemia (episodes requiring the assistance of another person). Associations between the first hypoglycemic episode and subsequent CV events and between nonfatal CV events (MI, stroke, hospitalization for HF) and subsequent hypoglycemic episodes were assessed using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models. Sensitivity analyses explored the risk of CV events within 60 days after each hypoglycemic episode. Results: In the CARMELINA trial (6979 patients; 4390 males [62.9%]; mean [SD] age, 65.9 [9.1] years), there was an association between hypoglycemia and subsequent 3P-MACE plus hospitalization for HF (hazard ratio [HR], 1.23; 95% CI, 1.04-1.46) as well as between nonfatal CV events and subsequent hypoglycemia (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.06-1.83). In the CAROLINA trial (6033 patients; 3619 males (60.0%); mean [SD] age, 64.0 [9.5] years), there was no association between hypoglycemia and subsequent 3P-MACE plus hospitalization for HF (HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.76-1.32) and between nonfatal CV events and subsequent hypoglycemia (HR, 1.44; 95% CI, 0.96-2.16). In analyses of CV events occurring within 60 days after hypoglycemia, there was either no association or too few events to analyze. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found bidirectional associations between hypoglycemia and CV outcomes in the CARMELINA trial but no associations in either direction in the CAROLINA trial, challenging the notion that hypoglycemia causes adverse CV events. The findings from the CARMELINA trial suggest that both hypoglycemia and CV events more likely identify patients at high risk for both. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01897532 (CARMELINA) and NCT01243424 (CAROLINA).


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Hipoglicemia , Infarto do Miocárdio , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Compostos de Sulfonilureia , Masculino , Humanos , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linagliptina/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Risco , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemia/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/induzido quimicamente
10.
J Diabetes Complications ; 38(2): 108689, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38244326

RESUMO

AIMS: Automated insulin delivery systems improve blood glucose control in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, optimizing their performance requires patient's proper compliance to meal insulin bolus administration. We explored real-life prevalence of delayed prandial boluses (DBs) in adults with T1D on advanced technologies, and their association with glycemic control and fear of hypoglycemia (FH). METHODS: In the last two-week web-based reports of 152 adults with T1D on Hybrid Closed Loop Systems (HCLS) or Sensor Augmented Pump (SAP), DBs were identified when a steep increase in blood glucose occurred at CGM before the prandial bolus, and CGM metrics were evaluated. All participants completed an online questionnaire on FH. RESULTS: Mean DBs over two weeks were 10.2 ± 4.7 (M ± SD, range 1-23) and more frequent in women than men (11.0 ± 4.6 vs. 9.4 ± 4.7, p = 0.036). Participants with more DBs (>12) showed significantly lower Time-In-Range (62.4 ± 13.8 vs. 76.6 ± 9.0 %) than those with less DBs (<7.7), along with higher Time-Above-Range, GMI, and Coefficient-of-Variation (ANOVA, p < 0.001 for all). Participants with higher FH score showed more DBs (11.6 ± 5.0) than those in lower tertiles (9.57 ± 4.59 and 9.47 ± 4.45, ANOVA p = 0.045). CONCLUSIONS: In patients on advanced technologies, delayed boluses are extremely common, and associate with significantly worse glycemic control. Utmost attention is needed to bolus timing, mainly tackling fear of hypoglycemia.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Hipoglicemia , Masculino , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Insulina/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Controle Glicêmico , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina/efeitos adversos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemia/prevenção & controle , Glicemia , Insulina Regular Humana/uso terapêutico , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Medo
11.
J Perinat Neonatal Nurs ; 38(1): 65-72, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38278645

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Neonatal hypoglycemia (NH) is the most frequent complication in neonates born to pregnant people with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and an important cause of brain damage and death of neonates. We explored the risk factors for NH in neonates of pregnant people with GDM. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted involving 322 pregnant people with GDM at the Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Centre. Maternal sociodemographic, clinical, and biochemical data, as well as general characteristics of neonates, were collected to analyze their associations with NH in neonates of pregnant people with GDM. RESULTS: The incidence of NH among neonates of pregnant people with GDM was 19.57% (63/322). After adjustment for confounders, the factors significantly associated with an increased risk of NH were cesarean delivery (relative risk [RR] = 3.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.83-6.45), red blood cell (RBC) count (RR = 2.19; 95% CI, 1.22-3.96), and 1-hour postprandial glucose (RR = 2.35; 95% CI, 1.23-4.46) during pregnancy, whereas later gestational age (RR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.42-0.80) and multiparity (RR = 0.32; 95% CI, 0.16-0.66) were associated with a reduced risk of NH. CONCLUSION: Cesarean delivery, maternal 1-hour glucose of the oral glucose tolerance test, and increased RBC count of pregnant people with GDM are independent risk factors for NH, while later gestational age and multiparity are protective factors.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Hipoglicemia , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemia/etiologia , Glucose , Fatores de Risco
12.
J Comp Eff Res ; 13(2): e230132, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38294337

RESUMO

Aim: Many Muslims with Type II diabetes (T2DM) fast during Ramadan, which can put them at increased risk of hypoglycemia. This sub-analysis of the global DIA-RAMADAN study assessed the effectiveness and safety of gliclazide modified release (MR) 60 mg in the Bangladeshi cohort. Materials & methods: DIA-RAMADAN was an international, prospective, observational study conducted in adult T2DM patients intending to fast and receiving gliclazide MR 60 mg once daily for ≥90 days before Ramadan. Dosing was switched from morning to evening at the start of Ramadan. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with ≥1 symptomatic hypoglycemic event. Secondary outcomes included changes between inclusion (V0) and end of study visit (V1) in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), body weight and fasting plasma glucose (FPG). Results: Among the 98 Bangladeshi patients, 80 (81.6%) were at moderate/low-risk (category 3) for fasting and 18 (18.4%) were high-risk (category 2), as per International Diabetes Federation and Diabetes and Ramadan International Alliance (IDF-DAR) guidelines. Gliclazide MR was being prescribed as monotherapy to 59 (60.2%) patients and in combination with metformin to 39 (39.8%). There was no incidence of severe hypoglycemic events. Mean (±SD) HbA1c change from V0 was -0.1 ± 0.8% (p = 0.159). Mean (±SD) changes in FPG and body weight were -0.8 ± 39.7 mg/dl (p = 0.876) and -0.0 ± 1.5 kg (p = 0.810), respectively. Conclusion: In a real-world setting, this sub-analysis in Bangladeshi patients shows that patients with T2DM treated with gliclazide MR 60 mg can fast safely during Ramadan with a very low risk of hypoglycemia, while maintaining glycemic control and body weight.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Gliclazida , Hipoglicemia , Adulto , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Gliclazida/uso terapêutico , Gliclazida/efeitos adversos , Hemoglobinas Glicadas , Estudos Prospectivos , Glicemia , Jejum , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Peso Corporal
13.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 103(5): 992-1007, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38288656

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neonatal hypoglycemia is a common complication associated with gestational diabetes and therefore relevant to consider in evaluations of maternal treatment. We aimed to investigate the risk of neonatal hypoglycemia in offspring exposed to metformin treatment alone (MT) or combined with insulin (MIT) in comparison with nutrition therapy alone (NT), and insulin treatment alone (IT). In addition, we investigated MT in comparison with MIT. Secondary outcomes included neonatal anthropometrics, respiratory morbidity, hyperbilirubinemia, 5-min Apgar score, and preterm birth. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This Swedish population-based cohort included 16 181 women diagnosed with gestational diabetes, and their singleton offspring born in 2019-2021. We estimated risk as adjusted odds ratio (aOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI), using individual-level, linkage register-data in multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: In the main analysis, MT was associated with a lower risk of neonatal hypoglycemia vs NT (aOR 0.85, 95% CI: 0.74-0.96), vs MIT (0.74 [0.64-0.87]), and vs IT (0.47 [0.40-0.55]), whereas MIT was associated with a similar risk of neonatal hypoglycemia vs NT (1.14 [0.99-1.30]) and with lower risk vs IT (0.63 [0.53-0.75]). However, supplemental feeding rates were lower for NT vs pharmacological treatments (p < 0.001). In post hoc subgroup analyses including only exclusively breastfed offspring, the risk of neonatal hypoglycemia was modified and similar among MT and NT, and higher in MIT vs NT. Insulin exposure, alone or combined with metformin, was associated with increased risk of being large for gestational age. Compared with NT, exposure to any pharmacological treatment was associated with significantly lower risk of 5-min Apgar score < 4. All other secondary outcomes were comparable among the treatment categories. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of neonatal hypoglycemia appears to be comparable among offspring exposed to single metformin treatment and nutrition therapy alone, and the lower risk that we observed in favor of metformin is probably explained by a difference in supplemental feeding practices rather than metformin per se. By contrast, the lower risk favoring metformin exposure over insulin exposure was not explained by supplemental feeding. However, further investigations are required to determine whether the difference is an effect of metformin per se or mediated by other external factors.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Hipoglicemia , Doenças do Recém-Nascido , Metformina , Nascimento Prematuro , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Metformina/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez
14.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 209: 111093, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38224875

RESUMO

AIMS: To determine the prevalence and associations of impaired awareness of hypoglycemia (IAH) in pediatric type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Nationwide, population-based cross-sectional study with 51 % participation. Participants (n = 1329; 53 % males) aged 2-19 years (median 13.3) with type 1 diabetes ≥ 6 months (median 4.6 years) self-assessed hypoglycemia awareness with a validated questionnaire ('Clarke'). Parents responded for children aged < 9 years (n = 235). We estimated associations between IAH and clinical data in the Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of IAH was 22 %, but gradually decreased from 53 % in preschoolers to 12 % in adolescents aged ≥ 16 years. IAH was associated (adjusted OR; 95 %CI) with episodes of severe hypoglycemia (6.0; 3.04, 11.8) and diabetic ketoacidosis (3.45; 1.37, 8.68) the preceding year, increased fear of hypoglycemia (highest quartile vs. lowest: 2.27; 1.51, 3.40), female sex (1.41; 1.05, 1.90), and HbA1c ≥ 8.5 % (69 mmol/mol) vs. 7.5-8.4 % (58-68 mmol/mol) (1.48; 1.01, 2.18), but not with disease duration, use of insulin pump or continuous glucose monitoring, or HbA1c < 7.5 % (58 mmol/mol). CONCLUSIONS: IAH is prevalent in pediatric diabetes and more likely reported in young children. IAH is associated with severe hypoglycemia and fear of hypoglycemia, but good metabolic control seems achievable without increased risk of IAH.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Hipoglicemia , Masculino , Adolescente , Humanos , Criança , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Hemoglobinas Glicadas , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Conscientização , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Insulina/efeitos adversos
15.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 26(4): 1333-1339, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38164758

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the clinical features and impact of flash glucose monitoring in older adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) across age groups defined as young-old, middle-old, and old-old. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinicians were invited to submit anonymized intermittently scanned continuous glucose monitoring (isCGM) user data to a secure web-based tool within the National Health Service secure network. We collected baseline data before isCGM initiation, such as demographics, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) values from the previous 12 months, Gold scores and Diabetes Distress Scale (DDS2) scores. For analysis, people with diabetes were classified as young-old (65-75 years), middle-old (>75-85 years) and old-old (>85 years). We compared baseline clinical characteristics across the age categories using a t test. All the analyses were performed in R 4.1.2. RESULTS: The study involved 1171 people with diabetes in the young-old group, 374 in the middle-old group, and 47 in the old-old group. There were no significant differences in baseline HbA1c and DDS2 scores among the young-old, middle-old, and old-old age groups. However, Gold score increased with age (3.20 [±1.91] in the young-old vs. 3.46 [±1.94] in the middle-old vs. 4.05 [±2.28] in the old-old group; p < 0.0001). This study showed reduced uptake of insulin pumps (p = 0.005) and structured education (Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating [DAFNE] course; p = 0.007) in the middle-old and old-old populations compared to the young-old population with T1D. With median isCGM use of 7 months, there was a significant improvement in HbA1c in the young-old (p < 0.001) and old-old groups, but not in the middle-old group. Diabetes-related distress score (measured by the DDS2) improved in all three age groups (p < 0.001) and Gold score improved (p < 0.001) in the young-old and old-old populations but not in the middle-old population. There was also a significant improvement in resource utilization across the three age categories following the use of is CGM. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated significant differences in hypoglycaemia awareness and insulin pump use across the older age groups of adults with T1D. The implementation of isCGM demonstrated significant improvements in HbA1c, diabetes-related distress, hypoglycaemia unawareness, and resource utilization in older adults with T1D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Hipoglicemia , Insulinas , Humanos , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Glicemia , Hemoglobinas Glicadas , Automonitorização da Glicemia , 60431 , Medicina Estatal , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemia/prevenção & controle , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico
16.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 40(3): 385-393, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38293765

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional survey was performed to assess the prevalence, factors, and economic burden of non-severe hypoglycemia among insulin-treated type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients in northern Thailand. METHODS: Between April 2021 and August 2022, 600 participants were evaluated via structured questionnaires containing sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, medications, and economic burden. Patients were divided into two groups (having and not having non-severe hypoglycemia). Variables with a p value <.05 in the univariate model were included in the multivariate model. RESULTS: The percentage of non-severe hypoglycemia was 50.3% (302/600). Of all participants, the average age was 61.4 ± 26.0 years, 55.7% were female, 53.5% used premix insulin, and the average duration of diabetes was 16.1 ± 10.0 years. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that age (OR = .96; p <.001), duration of diabetes (OR = 1.04; p <.001), BMI (OR = .95; p = .002), thiazolidinedione (OR = 1.56; p = .012) and insulin regimens were associated with having non-severe hypoglycemia. Compared to basal insulin, basal bolus (OR = 6.93; p = .001), basal plus (OR = 3.58; p <.001), and premix insulin (OR = 1.83; p =.003) were associated with hypoglycemia. Greater numbers of sick leave were found in the hypoglycemia group (14 vs 4 patients, p = .029). CONCLUSIONS: These findings help to individuate those patients who are at higher risk of non-severe hypoglycemia in insulin-treated T2D patients. Compared to the non-hypoglycemia group, patients with hypoglycemia were younger, had longer diabetes duration, lower BMI, received thiazolidinedione and insulin regimens such as premix, basal plus, or basal bolus insulins, and more productivity loss.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipoglicemia , Tiazolidinedionas , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Masculino , Insulina/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Estresse Financeiro , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Glicemia
17.
J Diabetes Investig ; 15(4): 468-482, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38243656

RESUMO

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: To develop and validate a simple prediction model for hypoglycemia risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively analyzed the data of 1,303 subjects in a third-class hospital in Tianjin and followed up their hypoglycemia events at 3 and 6 months. The hypoglycemia risk prediction models for 3 and 6 months were developed and the model performance was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 340 (28.4%) patients experienced hypoglycemia within 3 months and 462 (37.2%) within 6 months during the follow-up period. Age, central obesity, intensive insulin therapy, frequency of hypoglycemia in the past year, and hypoglycemia prevention education entered both model3month and model6month. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of model3month and model6month were 0.711 and 0.723, respectively. The Youden index was 0.315 and 0.361, while the sensitivities were 0.615 and 0.714, and the specificities were 0.717 and 0.631. The calibration curves showed that the models were similar to reality. The decision curves implied that the clinical net benefit of the model was clear. CONCLUSIONS: The study developed 3 and 6 month hypoglycemia risk prediction models for patients with type 2 diabetes. The discrimination and calibration of the two prediction models were good, and might help to improve clinical decision-making and guide patients to more reasonable self-care and hypoglycemia prevention at home.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipoglicemia , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Longitudinais , Autorrelato , Estudos de Coortes , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemia/etiologia
18.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 26(4): 1197-1206, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38172083

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the effect of age and disease duration on the efficacy and safety of iGlarLixi versus insulin glargine 100 units/ml (iGlar) or lixisenatide (Lixi) alone in Asian people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) uncontrolled on oral antidiabetic drugs (LixiLan-O-AP) or basal insulin ± oral antidiabetic drugs (LixiLan-L-CN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this post hoc analysis, the glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) changes were assessed from baseline to week 24 (LixiLan-O-AP) or 30 (LixiLan-L-CN) in subgroups defined by baseline age (<65, ≥65 years) and duration of T2D. The proportion who achieved the composite of HbA1c <7% (<53.0 mmol/mol) without weight gain and without symptomatic hypoglycaemia (plasma glucose ≤3.9 mmol/L) and the incidences of hypoglycaemia and gastrointestinal disorders were also analysed. RESULTS: HbA1c reductions were consistently greater with iGlarLixi versus iGlar or Lixi across all subgroups, including participants aged ≥65 years and those with T2D for ≥15 or ≥20 years. Greater proportions of participants achieved HbA1c <7% (<53.0 mmol/mol) without weight gain or hypoglycaemia with iGlarLixi versus iGlar or Lixi, regardless of age or T2D duration. Hypoglycaemia incidence was similar with iGlarLixi versus iGlar across most subgroups; the incidence of gastrointestinal disorders was lower with iGlarLixi versus Lixi in all subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: iGlarLixi showed consistent efficacy and safety across all age and disease duration subgroups in Asian people with uncontrolled T2D, including older individuals and those with longstanding disease.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Gastroenteropatias , Hipoglicemia , Humanos , Povo Asiático , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Hemoglobinas Glicadas , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemia/prevenção & controle , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Insulina Glargina , Aumento de Peso , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso
19.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 309(4): 1287-1294, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36869939

RESUMO

AIMS: Foetal male sex is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. However, studies evaluating the impact of foetal sex on perinatal outcomes in women with gestational diabetes (GDM) are scarce. We studied whether male new-born sex is associated with neonatal outcomes, in women with GDM. METHODS: This is a retrospective study based on the national Portuguese register of GDM. All women with live-born singleton pregnancies between 2012 and 2017 were eligible for study inclusion. Primary endpoints under analysis were neonatal hypoglycaemia, neonatal macrosomia, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission. We excluded women with missing data on the primary endpoint. Pregnancy data and neonatal outcomes between female and male new-borns were compared. Multivariate logistic regression models were built. RESULTS: We studied 10,768 new-borns in mothers with GDM, 5635 (52.3%) male, 438 (4.1%) had neonatal hypoglycaemia, 406 (3.8%) were macrosomic, 671 (6.2%) had RDS, and 671 (6.2%) needed NICU admission. Male new-borns were more frequently small or large for gestational age. No differences were observed on maternal age, body mass index, glycated haemoglobin, anti-hyperglycaemic treatment, pregnancy complications or gestational age at delivery. In the multivariate regression analysis, male sex was independently associated with neonatal hypoglycaemia [OR 1.26 (IC 95%: 1.04-1.54), p = 0.02], neonatal macrosomia [1.94 (1.56-2.41), p < 0.001], NICU admission [1.29 (1.07-1.56), p = 0.009], and RDS [1.35 (1.05-1.73, p = 0.02]. CONCLUSIONS: Male new-borns have an independent 26% higher risk of neonatal hypoglycaemia, 29% higher risk of NICU admission, 35% higher risk of RDS, and almost twofold higher risk of macrosomia, compared to female new-borns.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Hipoglicemia , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Masculino , Humanos , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/terapia , Macrossomia Fetal/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Aumento de Peso , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia
20.
Diabetes Care ; 47(2): 233-238, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38060348

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To measure the association between ambient heat and hypoglycemia-related emergency department visit or hospitalization in insulin users. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We identified cases of serious hypoglycemia among adults using insulin aged ≥65 in the U.S. (via Medicare Part A/B/D-eligible beneficiaries) and Taiwan (via National Health Insurance Database) from June to September, 2016-2019. We then estimated odds of hypoglycemia by heat index (HI) percentile categories using conditional logistic regression with a time-stratified case-crossover design. RESULTS: Among ∼2 million insulin users in the U.S. (32,461 hypoglycemia case subjects), odds ratios of hypoglycemia for HI >99th, 95-98th, 85-94th, and 75-84th percentiles compared with the 25-74th percentile were 1.38 (95% CI, 1.28-1.48), 1.14 (1.08-1.20), 1.12 (1.08-1.17), and 1.09 (1.04-1.13) respectively. Overall patterns of associations were similar for insulin users in the Taiwan sample (∼283,000 insulin users, 10,162 hypoglycemia case subjects). CONCLUSIONS: In two national samples of older insulin users, higher ambient temperature was associated with increased hypoglycemia risk.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hipoglicemia , Idoso , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Insulina/efeitos adversos , Estudos Cross-Over , Hipoglicemiantes , Temperatura Alta , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medicare , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Insulina Regular Humana
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