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1.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 4786227, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34457112

RESUMO

The anti-cancer, anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-diabetic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) produced from aqueous leaf extract of Aquilegia pubiflora were evaluated in this study. Several methods were used to characterize ZnO-NPs, including SEM, FTIR, XRD, DLS, PL, Raman, and HPLC. The nanoparticles that had a size of 34.23 nm as well as a strong aqueous dispersion potential were highly pure, spherical or elliptical in form, and had a mean size of 34.23 nm. According to FTIR and HPLC studies, the flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were successfully capped. Synthesized ZnO-NPs in water have a zeta potential of -18.4 mV, showing that they are stable solutions. The ZnO-NPs proved to be highly toxic for the HepG2 cell line and showed a reduced cell viability of 23.68 ± 2.1% after 24 hours of ZnO-NP treatment. ZnO-NPs also showed excellent inhibitory potential against the enzymes acetylcholinesterase (IC50: 102 µg/mL) and butyrylcholinesterase (IC50: 125 µg/mL) which are involved in Alzheimer's disease. Overall, the enzymes involved in aging, diabetes, and inflammation showed a moderate inhibitory response to ZnO-NPs. Given these findings, these biosynthesized ZnO-NPs could be a good option for the cure of deadly diseases such as cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer's, and other inflammatory diseases due to their strong anticancer potential and efficient antioxidant properties.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Aquilegia/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/farmacologia , Óxido de Zinco/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Técnicas In Vitro , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química
2.
Life Sci ; 283: 119868, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358551

RESUMO

AIMS: In this study, we investigated the vasodilatory effects of trelagliptin (a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor) and its related mechanisms using rabbit aortic rings. MAIN METHODS: Arterial tone measurement was performed in rabbit thoracic aortic rings. KEY FINDINGS: Trelagliptin induced vasodilation in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with the ATP-sensitive K+ channel inhibitor glibenclamide, large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel inhibitor paxilline, and inwardly rectifying K+ channel inhibitor Ba2+ did not affect the vasodilatory effect of trelagliptin. However, pretreatment with the voltage-dependent K+ (Kv) channel inhibitors 4-aminopyridine and tetraethylammonium significantly attenuated the vasodilatory effect of trelagliptin, suggesting that the vasodilatory effect of trelagliptin is associated with Kv channel activation. Although pretreatment with Kv1.5 and Kv2.1 subtype inhibitors did not affect the response to trelagliptin, pretreatment with a Kv7.X subtype inhibitor effectively reduced the vasodilatory effect of trelagliptin. Furthermore, sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) pump inhibitors also significantly attenuated the vasodilatory effect of trelagliptin. These effects, however, were not affected by pretreatment with Ca2+ channel inhibitors, adenylyl cyclase/PKA inhibitors, guanylyl cyclase/PKG inhibitors, or removal of the endothelium. SIGNIFICANCE: From these results, we concluded that the vasodilatory effect of trelagliptin was associated with the activation of Kv channels (primary the Kv7.X subtype) and SERCA pump regardless of other K+ channels, Ca2+ channels, cAMP/PKA-related or cGMP/PKG-related signaling pathways, and the endothelium. Therefore, caution is required when prescribing trelagliptin to the patients with hypotension and diabetes.


Assuntos
Aorta/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Canais de Potássio de Abertura Dependente da Tensão da Membrana/metabolismo , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio do Retículo Sarcoplasmático/metabolismo , Uracila/análogos & derivados , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Masculino , Coelhos , Uracila/farmacologia
3.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371877

RESUMO

Pathological mechanisms underlining diabetic bone defects include oxidative damage and insulin/IGF-1 imbalance. Morin is a bioflavonoid with antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects. This study evaluates morin's protective effects against altered bone histomorphometry in diabetic rats through assessing insulin/IGF-1 pathway as a potential mechanism. Diabetic animals were administered two morin doses (15 and 30 mg/kg) for 5 weeks. Different serum hepatic and renal functions tests were assessed. Bone density and histomorphometry in cortical and trabecular tissues were evaluated histologically. The expressions of insulin, c-peptide and IGF-1 were estimated. In addition, the enzymatic activities of the major antioxidant enzymes were determined. Diabetic-associated alterations in serum glucose, aminotransferases, urea and creatinine were attenuated by morin. Diabetic bone cortical and trabecular histomorphometry were impaired with increased fibrosis, osteoclastic functions, osteoid formation and reduced mineralization, which was reversed by morin; particularly the 30 mg/kg dose. Insulin/IGF-1 levels were diminished in diabetic animals, while morin treatment enhanced their levels significantly. Diabetes also triggered systemic oxidative stress noticeably. The higher dose (30 mg/kg) of morin corrected the endogenous antioxidant enzymatic activities in diabetic rats. Findings indicate the potential value of morin supplementation against hyperglycemia-induced skeletal impairments. Activation of insulin/IGF-1 signaling could be the underlining mechanism behind these effects.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Fêmur/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/patologia , Fêmur/metabolismo , Fêmur/patologia , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais , Estreptozocina
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4829, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376643

RESUMO

Plasma hyaluronan (HA) increases systemically in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the HA synthesis inhibitor, 4-Methylumbelliferone, has been proposed to treat the disease. However, HA is also implicated in normal physiology. Therefore, we generated a Hyaluronan Synthase 2 transgenic mouse line, driven by a tet-response element promoter to understand the role of HA in systemic metabolism. To our surprise, adipocyte-specific overproduction of HA leads to smaller adipocytes and protects mice from high-fat-high-sucrose-diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance. Adipocytes also have more free glycerol that can be released upon beta3 adrenergic stimulation. Improvements in glucose tolerance were not linked to increased plasma HA. Instead, an HA-driven systemic substrate redistribution and adipose tissue-liver crosstalk contributes to the systemic glucose improvements. In summary, we demonstrate an unexpected improvement in glucose metabolism as a consequence of HA overproduction in adipose tissue, which argues against the use of systemic HA synthesis inhibitors to treat obesity and T2D.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Dioxóis/farmacologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Ácido Hialurônico/metabolismo , Lipólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/citologia , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/metabolismo , Homeostase , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445697

RESUMO

Polyphenols, such as flavonoids and phenolic acids, are a group of specialized metabolites in plants that largely aid in plant defense by deterring biotic stressors and alleviating abiotic stress. Polyphenols offer a wide range of medical applications, acting as preventative and active treatments for diseases such as cancers and diabetes. Recently, researchers have proposed that polyphenols may contribute to certain applications aimed at tackling challenges related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Understanding the beneficial impacts of phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, could potentially help prepare society for future pandemics. Thus far, most reviews have focused on polyphenols in cancer prevention and treatment. This review aims to provide a comprehensive discussion on the critical roles that polyphenols play in both plant chemical defense and human health based on the most recent studies while highlighting prospective avenues for future research, as well as the implications for phytochemical-based applications in both agricultural and medical fields.


Assuntos
Plantas/metabolismo , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Disponibilidade Biológica , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Plantas/química , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110536, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399513

RESUMO

As lupin has emerged popularity as dietary protein and nutritional source, our present research was aimed to demonstrate the antidiabetic and organ-protective activities of nine cultivars of Australian sweet lupin seed flours by means of in vitro and in vivo assays accompanied by identification of their bioactive phytocompounds and exploration of underlying mechanisms of their hypoglycemic activity using in silico approach. In vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities inhibition and glucose uptake assays identified Jenabillup seed flours for exhibiting the most potential antidiabetic activity amongst the nine cultivars. In vivo antidiabetic and major organ-protective activities were investigated on streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia and organ damages in Wister rat model. Along with attenuating hyperglycemia and retreating major organ damages, the biochemical imbalance in cardiac, hepatic and renal markers were well-balanced by Jenabillup seed flours treatment. These activities of lupin seed flours were insignificantly affected by thermal processing. Moreover, in silico investigation of 106 phytochemicals identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis of the seed flour extracts of nine cultivars revealed that more than 35% of compounds possess moderate to high binding affinity to α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. These bioactive compounds act synergistically to exert potential hypoglycemic activity. Cross-docking and binding energy calculation by molecular mechanics/generalized Born volume integration (MM/GBVI) model suggest actinomycin C2 as a potential inhibitor of both α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. These findings acclaim that Australian sweet lupin seed flours may be considered not only as functional food, but also for further development of effective drugs in pharmaceuticals in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and resultant organ damages.


Assuntos
Farinha , Hipoglicemiantes , Animais , Austrália , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
7.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 36(1): 1509-1520, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238110

RESUMO

In the present study, a series of azo derivatives (TR-1 to TR-9) have been synthesised via the diazo-coupling approach between substituted aromatic amines with phenol or naphthol derivatives. The compounds were evaluated for their therapeutic applications against alpha-glucosidase (anti-diabetic) and pathogenic bacterial strains E. coli (gram-negative), S. aureus (gram-positive), S. aureus (gram-positive) drug-resistant strain, P. aeruginosa (gram-negative), P. aeruginosa (gram-negative) drug-resistant strain and P. vulgaris (gram-negative). The IC50 (µg/mL) of TR-1 was found to be most effective (15.70 ± 1.3 µg/mL) compared to the reference drug acarbose (21.59 ± 1.5 µg/mL), hence, it was further selected for the kinetic studies in order to illustrate the mechanism of inhibition. The enzyme inhibitory kinetics and mode of binding for the most active inhibitor (TR-1) was performed which showed that the compound is a non-competitive inhibitor and effectively inhibits the target enzyme by binding to its binuclear active site reversibly.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Compostos Azo/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/química , Compostos Azo/síntese química , Compostos Azo/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/síntese química , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Cinética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzimologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Curr Microbiol ; 78(8): 3181-3191, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213618

RESUMO

Diabetes, a chronic metabolic disorder, is characterized by persistent hyperglycemia. This study aimed to evaluate the hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities of lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from humans and food products and investigate the probiotic properties of the selected four strains. The hypoglycemic activity of the isolated strains was examined by evaluating the α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities. The antioxidant activity was measured using the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. Four strains (Lactiplantibacillus plantarum MG4229, MG4296, MG5025, and Lacticaseibacillus paracasei MG5012) exhibited potent α-glucosidase inhibitory (>75%) and α-amylase inhibitory (>85%) activities, which were comparable to those of acarbose (>50%; 1000 µg/mL). Similarly, the radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of the four strains were comparable to those of ascorbic acid (50 µg/mL). Additionally, the probiotic properties of the four selected strains were examined based on acid and bile salt tolerance, auto-aggregation ability, and antibiotic resistance. The four strains were resistant to pH 2 (>50% of survivability) and 0.5% bile salt (>80% of survivability). Therefore, we suggest that the selected strains with hypoglycemic, antioxidant, probiotic properties can potentially prevent diabetes.


Assuntos
Lactobacillales , Probióticos , Antioxidantes , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , alfa-Amilases
9.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs ; 30(8): 813-825, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214406

RESUMO

Introduction: Accumulating evidence supports a bidirectional association between nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). There is a clinical challenge to consider pharmaceutical strategies targeting the metabolic dysfunction common to NASH and T2D pathogenesis.Areas covered: By using PubMed, we performed a literature search to review the potential beneficial effect of anti-diabetic and metabolic investigational drugs on NASH.Expert opinion: Since insulin resistance is central in the pathophysiology of both T2D and NASH, there is an urgent need for new insulin sensitizers. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists, especially PPARγ and pan-PPARs agonists, have shown some beneficial effects on both NASH and liver fibrosis, but their routine use should be limited by their safety profile. Incretin-based therapies, including glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) and the polyagonists (GLP-1, GIP, glucagon) under development are the most promising anti-diabetic drugs for NASH treatment, mainly due to their action on body weight loss. Preliminary, preclinical and early phase studies suggest that SGLT2 inhibitors and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)19 and FGF21-based therapies are promising targets for NASH and T2D treatment. The common weakness for all of these drugs is their limited effect on liver fibrosis, potentially due to short-term trial design.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Drogas em Investigação/farmacologia , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/fisiopatologia , Projetos de Pesquisa
10.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol ; 17(9): 1139-1148, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral semaglutide comprises the glucagon-like peptide-1 analog, semaglutide, and sodium N-(8-[2-hydroxybenzoyl] amino) caprylate (SNAC). Levothyroxine has similar dosing conditions to oral semaglutide. This trial investigated if oral semaglutide co-administered with levothyroxine affects thyroxine (T4) exposure and if multiple placebo tablets co-administered with oral semaglutide affect semaglutide exposure. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this one-sequence crossover trial, 45 healthy subjects received levothyroxine (600 µg single-dose) alone, or with concomitant SNAC 300 mg or concomitant oral semaglutide 14 mg at steady-state. Subjects also received oral semaglutide 14 mg at steady-state alone or with five placebo tablets once-daily for 5 weeks. RESULTS: A 33% increase in total T4 exposure was observed with levothyroxine/oral semaglutide vs levothyroxine alone, but baseline-corrected maximum concentration (Cmax) was unaffected. SNAC alone did not affect total T4 exposure, whereas Cmax was slightly decreased. A 34% decrease in semaglutide exposure was observed when oral semaglutide was co-administered with placebo tablets, and Cmax also decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Levothyroxine pharmacokinetics were influenced by co-administration with oral semaglutide. Monitoring of thyroid parameters should be considered when treating patients with both oral semaglutide and levothyroxine. Oral semaglutide exposure was influenced by co-administration with multiple tablets, which is addressed in the dosing guidance.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Tiroxina/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/farmacocinética , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/farmacologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacocinética , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Masculino , Comprimidos , Tiroxina/farmacocinética , Tiroxina/farmacologia
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299301

RESUMO

Metformin can reduce cardiovascular risk independent of glycemic control. The mechanisms behind its non-glycemic benefits, which include decreased energy intake, lower blood pressure and improved lipid and fatty acid metabolism, are not fully understood. In our study, metformin treatment reduced myocardial accumulation of neutral lipids-triglycerides, cholesteryl esters and the lipotoxic intermediates-diacylglycerols and lysophosphatidylcholines in a prediabetic rat model (p < 0.001). We observed an association between decreased gene expression and SCD-1 activity (p < 0.05). In addition, metformin markedly improved phospholipid fatty acid composition in the myocardium, represented by decreased SFA profiles and increased n3-PUFA profiles. Known for its cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory properties, metformin also had positive effects on arachidonic acid metabolism and CYP-derived arachidonic acid metabolites. We also found an association between increased gene expression of the cardiac isoform CYP2c with increased 14,15-EET (p < 0.05) and markedly reduced 20-HETE (p < 0.001) in the myocardium. Based on these results, we conclude that metformin treatment reduces the lipogenic enzyme SCD-1 and the accumulation of the lipotoxic intermediates diacylglycerols and lysophosphatidylcholine. Increased CYP2c gene expression and beneficial effects on CYP-derived arachidonic acid metabolites in the myocardium can also be involved in cardioprotective effect of metformin.


Assuntos
Ácido Araquidônico/metabolismo , Metformina/farmacologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Estado Pré-Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Pré-Diabético/metabolismo , Animais , Metabolismo Basal/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/metabolismo , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo IV/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo IV/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fatores de Risco
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205752

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D), one of the most prevalent noncommunicable diseases, is often preceded by insulin resistance (IR), which underlies the inability of tissues to respond to insulin and leads to disturbed metabolic homeostasis. Mitochondria, as a central player in the cellular energy metabolism, are involved in the mechanisms of IR and T2D. Mitochondrial function is affected by insulin resistance in different tissues, among which skeletal muscle and liver have the highest impact on whole-body glucose homeostasis. This review focuses on human studies that assess mitochondrial function in liver, muscle and blood cells in the context of T2D. Furthermore, different interventions targeting mitochondria in IR and T2D are listed, with a selection of studies using respirometry as a measure of mitochondrial function, for better data comparison. Altogether, mitochondrial respiratory capacity appears to be a metabolic indicator since it decreases as the disease progresses but increases after lifestyle (exercise) and pharmacological interventions, together with the improvement in metabolic health. Finally, novel therapeutics developed to target mitochondria have potential for a more integrative therapeutic approach, treating both causative and secondary defects of diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Exercício Físico , Humanos
13.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1291: 151-164, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331689

RESUMO

Plant extracts have been used to treat a wide range of human diseases. Curcumin, a bioactive polyphenol derived from Curcuma longa L., exhibits therapeutic effects against diabetes while only negligible adverse effects have been observed. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin are the main and well-recognized pharmacological effects that might explain its antidiabetic effects. Additionally, curcumin may regulate novel signaling molecules and enzymes involved in the pathophysiology of diabetes, including glucagon-like peptide-1, dipeptidyl peptidase-4, glucose transporters, alpha-glycosidase, alpha-amylase, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Recent findings from in vitro and in vivo studies on novel signaling pathways involved in the potential beneficial effects of curcumin for the treatment of diabetes are discussed in this review.


Assuntos
Curcumina , Hipoglicemiantes , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Curcumina/farmacologia , Curcumina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , PPAR gama , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199668

RESUMO

Obesity is characterized by elevated infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissue, leading to the development of insulin resistance. The black soybean seed coat is a rich source of anthocyanins with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. This study investigated the effects of black soybean anthocyanin extract (BSAn) on obesity-induced oxidative stress, the inflammatory response, and insulin resistance in a coculture system of hypertrophied 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW264 macrophages. Coculture of adipocytes with macrophages increased the production of reactive oxygen species and inflammatory mediators and cytokines (NO, MCP-1, PGE2, TNFα, and IL-6) and the release of free fatty acids but reduced anti-inflammatory adiponectin secretion. BSAn treatment (12.5, 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL) alleviated the coculture-induced changes (p < 0.001) and inhibited coculture-induced activation of JNK and ERK signaling (p < 0.01). BSAn also blocked the migration of RAW264.7 macrophages toward 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In addition, treatment with BSAn increased PPARγ expression and glucose uptake in response to insulin in hypertrophied 3T3-L1 adipocyte and RAW264.7 macrophage coculture (p < 0.01). These results demonstrate that BSAn attenuates inflammatory responses and improves adipocyte metabolic function in the coculture of hypertrophied 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW264.7 macrophages, suggesting the effectiveness of BSAn for obesity-induced insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Soja/química , Células 3T3-L1 , Animais , Comunicação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Cocultura , Citocinas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência à Insulina , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206308

RESUMO

Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.)-derived drugs have shown their potential in biomedical applications. The seed of A. hippocastanum contains various kinds of chemical compounds including phenolics, flavonoids, coumarins, and triterpene saponins. Here, we investigated the chemical components in A. hippocastanum L. grown in Uzbekistan, which has not yet been studied in detail. We identified 30 kinds of triterpene saponins in an extract of A. hippocastanum L. Classifying extracted saponins into eight fractions, we next studied the hypoglycemic and the anti-inflammatory activities of escin and its derivatives through in vivo experiments. We came by data indicating the highest (SF-1 and SF-2) and the lowest (SF-5 and SF-8) antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory effects of those eight fractions. These results imply the prospective use of A. hippocastanum L. grown in Uzbekistan in the production of pharmaceutical drugs to treat diabetes and inflammation.


Assuntos
Aesculus/química , Anti-Inflamatórios , Glicosídeos , Hipoglicemiantes , Triterpenos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Feminino , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Uzbequistão
16.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206320

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic metabolic disease, which could affect the daily life of patients and increase their risk of developing other diseases. Synthetic anti-diabetic drugs usually show severe side effects. In the last few decades, plant-derived drugs have been intensively studied, particularly because of a rapid development of the instruments used in analytical chemistry. We tested the efficacy of Gundelia tournefortii L. (GT) in increasing the translocation of glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) to the myocyte plasma membrane (PM), as a main strategy to manage T2D. In this study, GT methanol extract was sub-fractionated into 10 samples using flash chromatography. The toxicity of the fractions on L6 muscle cells, stably expressing GLUTmyc, was evaluated using the MTT assay. The efficacy with which GLUT4 was attached to the L6 PM was evaluated at non-toxic concentrations. Fraction 6 was the most effective, as it stimulated GLUT4 translocation in the absence and presence of insulin, 3.5 and 5.2 times (at 250 µg/mL), respectively. Fraction 1 and 3 showed no significant effects on GLUT4 translocation, while other fractions increased GLUT4 translocation up to 2.0 times. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of silylated fractions revealed 98 distinct compounds. Among those compounds, 25 were considered anti-diabetic and glucose disposal agents. These findings suggest that GT methanol sub-fractions exert an anti-diabetic effect by modulating GLUT4 translocation in L6 muscle cells, and indicate the potential of GT extracts as novel therapeutic agents for T2D.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/química , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes , Células Musculares/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/genética , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Transporte Proteico/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos
17.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206641

RESUMO

Previous studies have reported the therapeutic effects of oleuropein (OP) consumption on the early stage of type 2 diabetes. However, the efficacy of OP on the advanced stage of type 2 diabetes has not been investigated, and the relationship between OP and intestinal flora has not been studied. Therefore, in this study, to explore the relieving effects of OP intake on the advanced stage of type 2 diabetes and the regulatory effects of OP on intestinal microbes, diabetic db/db mice (17-week-old) were treated with OP at the dose of 200 mg/kg for 15 weeks. We found that OP has a significant effect in decreasing fasting blood glucose levels, improving glucose tolerance, lowering the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index, restoring histopathological features of tissues, and promoting hepatic protein kinase B activation in db/db mice. Notably, OP modulates gut microbiota at phylum level, increases the relative abundance of Verrucomicrobia and Deferribacteres, and decreases the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes. OP treatment increases the relative abundance of Akkermansia, as well as decreases the relative abundance of Prevotella, Odoribacter, Ruminococcus, and Parabacteroides at genus level. In conclusion, OP may ameliorate the advanced stage of type 2 diabetes through modulating the composition and function of gut microbiota. Our findings provide a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of advanced stage type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Glucosídeos Iridoides/farmacologia , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Jejum/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos
18.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199316

RESUMO

Herbs and spices have been used since antiquity for their nutritional and health properties, as well as in traditional remedies for the prevention and treatment of many diseases. Therefore, this study aims to perform a chemical analysis of both essential oils (EOs) from the seeds of Carum carvi (C. carvi) and Coriandrum sativum (C. sativum) and evaluate their antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-acetylcholinesterase, and antidiabetic activities alone and in combination. Results showed that the EOs mainly constitute monoterpenes with γ-terpinene (31.03%), ß-pinene (18.77%), p-cymene (17.16%), and carvone (12.20%) being the major components present in C. carvi EO and linalool (76.41%), γ-terpinene (5.35%), and α-pinene (4.44%) in C. sativum EO. In comparison to standards, statistical analysis revealed that C. carvi EO showed high and significantly different (p < 0.05) antioxidant activity than C. sativum EO, but lower than the mixture. Moreover, the mixture exhibited two-times greater ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) (IC50 = 11.33 ± 1.53 mg/mL) and equipotent chelating power (IC50 = 31.33 ± 0.47 mg/mL) than the corresponding references, and also potent activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC50 = 19.00 ± 1.00 mg/mL), ß-carotene (IC50 = 11.16 ± 0.84 mg/mL), and superoxide anion (IC50 = 10.33 ± 0.58 mg/mL) assays. Antimicrobial data revealed that single and mixture EOs were active against a panel of pathogenic microorganisms, and the mixture had the ability to kill more bacterial strains than each EO alone. Additionally, the anti-acetylcholinesterase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effect have been studied for the first time, highlighting the high inhibition effect of AChE by C. carvi (IC50 = 0.82 ± 0.05 mg/mL), and especially by C. sativum (IC50 = 0.68 ± 0.03 mg/mL), as well as the mixture (IC50 = 0.63 ± 0.02 mg/mL) compared to the reference drug, which are insignificantly different (p > 0.05). A high and equipotent antidiabetic activity was observed for the mixture (IC50 = 0.75 ± 0.15 mg/mL) when compared to the standard drug, acarbose, which is about nine times higher than each EO alone. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic analysis provides some useful insights into designing new drugs with favorable drug likeness and safety profiles based on a C. carvi and C. sativum EO mixture. In summary, the results of this study revealed that the combination of these EOs may be recommended for further food, therapeutic, and pharmaceutical applications, and can be utilized as medicine to inhibit several diseases.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carum/química , Coriandrum/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacocinética , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacocinética , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacocinética , Sementes/química
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201755

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is a debilitating disease, plaguing a significant number of people around the globe. Attempts to develop new drugs on well-defined atoxic metalloforms, which are capable of influencing fundamental cellular processes overcoming insulin resistance, has triggered an upsurge in molecular research linked to zinc metallodrugs. To that end, meticulous efforts were launched toward the design and synthesis of materials with insulin mimetic potential. Henceforth, trigonelline and N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-iminodiacetic acid (HEIDAH2) were selected as organic substrates seeking binding to zinc (Zn(II)), with new crystalline compounds characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, X-rays, thermogravimetry (TGA), luminescence, NMR, and ESI-MS spectrometry. Physicochemical characterization was followed by in vitro biochemical experiments, in which three out of the five zinc compounds emerged as atoxic, exhibiting bio-activity profiles reflecting enhanced adipogenic potential. Concurrently, well-defined qualitative-quantitative experiments provided links to genetic loci responsible for the observed effects, thereby unraveling their key involvement in signaling pathways in adipocyte tissue and insulin mimetic behavior. The collective results (a) signify the quintessential role of molecular studies in unearthing unknown facets of pathophysiological events in diabetes mellitus II, (b) reflect the close associations of properly configured molecular zincoforms to well-defined biological profiles, and (c) set the stage for further physicochemical-based development of efficient zinc antidiabetic metallodrugs.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipogenia , Insulina/farmacologia , Compostos Organometálicos/farmacocinética , Zinco/química , Células 3T3-L1 , Animais , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Camundongos , Transdução de Sinais
20.
Anticancer Res ; 41(7): 3481-3487, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Metformin is an antidiabetic drug that has been reported to have antitumor activity in many cancer types. This study investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the antitumor effect of metformin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the molecular mechanism of the antitumor effect of metformin alone and in combination with AKT serine/threonine kinase (AKT) inhibition via cell viability and western blot analyses. RESULTS: Notably, metformin increased the phosphorylation of AKT at serine 473 using protein array screening. Metformin-induced AKT activation was markedly suppressed by siRNA targeting activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) but not AMP-activated protein kinase α. These results indicate that AKT activation by metformin was induced in an ATF4-dependent and AMPKα-independent manner. Treatment using metformin combined with MK-2206, an AKT inhibitor, or a siRNA for AKT markedly reduced the viability of cells compared with those cells treated with these agents alone. In addition, MK-2206 increased cell sensitivity to the combination of metformin with ionizing radiation or cisplatin. CONCLUSION: Inhibition of AKT can enhance the antitumor effect of metformin and would be a promising strategy to sensitize non-small-cell lung cancer to a combination of metformin with radiation or cisplatin.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Metformina/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/farmacologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo
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