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1.
Acta Med Indones ; 56(1): 13-19, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beta thalassemia is a lifelong disease involving malformed red blood cells (RBC). One of the disease's complications is hypogonadism, in which adults tend to exhibit regression in sexual characteristics, experience sexual dysfunction, and therefore have a lower quality of life. Around 3-10% of the Indonesian population carries the beta-thalassemia gene. This study aimed to see the proportions of hypogonadism in transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients and its contributing factors. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study involving 60 male patients admitted to three Indonesian general hospitals from July 2022 to July 2023. All patients were diagnosed with beta-thalassemia via chromatography hemoglobin analysis. We performed a single-time physical examination and laboratory examinations to determine FSH, LH, and free testosterone levels. The correlation between Hb and sexual hormone levels was analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. ROC curve analysis was conducted afterward. All statistical analysis was done in SPSS version 29. RESULTS: 31 out of 60 thalassemia patients had hypogonadism. Pre-transfusion Hb count was found to be linearly correlated with FSH (r = 0.388, p = 0.049), LH (r = 0.338, p = 0.008), and free testosterone (r = 0.255, p = 0.049). ROC analysis indicated that pre-transfusion Hb was viable as a predictor for hypogonadism (AUC = 0.655, 65.5% sensitivity, 67.7% specificity). CONCLUSION: We confirmed the role of pre-transfusion Hb count as a potential predictor for hypogonadism due to the tissue hypoxia mechanism and transfusion-related iron overload in TDT patients. Decreased Hb is linearly correlated with FSH, LH, and testosterone levels. Decreased Hb also downregulates these factors.


Assuntos
Hipogonadismo , Talassemia , Talassemia beta , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Talassemia beta/complicações , Talassemia beta/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Qualidade de Vida , Talassemia/complicações , Talassemia/terapia , Hipogonadismo/complicações , Testosterona , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante
2.
Acta Med Indones ; 56(1): 1-2, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561883

RESUMO

Hypogonadism is a condition characterized by diminished or absent production of sex hormones by the testicles in men and the ovaries in women. Hypogonadism is classified into primary and secondary hypogonadism. Each type of hypogonadism can be caused by congenital and acquired factors. There are many factors that contribute to the occurrence of hypogonadism, including genetic and developmental disorders, infection, kidney disease, liver disease, autoimmune disorders, chemotherapy, radiation, surgery, and trauma. This represents the considerable challenge in diagnosing hypogonadism.The goals of treatment include restore sexual functionality and well-being, initiating and sustaining virilization, osteoporosis prevention, normalize growth hormone levels in elderly men if possible, and restoring fertility in instances of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. The main approach to treating hypogonadism is hormone replacement therapy. Male with prostate cancer, breast cancer, and untreated prolactinoma are contraindicated for hormone replacement therapy. When selecting a type of testosterone therapy for male with hypogonadism, several factors need to be considered, such as the diversity of treatment response and the  type of testosterone formulation. The duration of therapy depends on individual response, therapeutic goals, signs and symptoms, and hormonal levels. The response to testosterone therapy is evaluated based on symptoms and signs as well as improvements in hormone profiles in the blood. Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline recommend therapeutic goals based on the alleviation of symptoms and signs, as well as reaching testosterone levels between 400 - 700 ng/dL (one week after administering testosterone enanthate or cypionate) and maintaining baseline hematocrit.Hormone therapy is the primary modality in the management of hypogonadism. The variety of signs and symptoms makes early diagnosis of this condition challenging. Moreover, administering hypogonadism therapy involves numerous considerations influenced by various patient factors and the potential for adverse effects. This poses a challenge for physicians to provide targeted hypogonadism therapy with minimal complications.


Assuntos
Hipogonadismo , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Hipogonadismo/diagnóstico , Hipogonadismo/tratamento farmacológico , Testosterona/uso terapêutico , Testículo , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/efeitos adversos
4.
EMBO Rep ; 25(3): 1256-1281, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429579

RESUMO

The plant homeodomain zinc-finger protein, PHF6, is a transcriptional regulator, and PHF6 germline mutations cause the X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) Börjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome (BFLS). The mechanisms by which PHF6 regulates transcription and how its mutations cause BFLS remain poorly characterized. Here, we show genome-wide binding of PHF6 in the developing cortex in the vicinity of genes involved in central nervous system development and neurogenesis. Characterization of BFLS mice harbouring PHF6 patient mutations reveals an increase in embryonic neural stem cell (eNSC) self-renewal and a reduction of neural progenitors. We identify a panel of Ephrin receptors (EphRs) as direct transcriptional targets of PHF6. Mechanistically, we show that PHF6 regulation of EphR is impaired in BFLS mice and in conditional Phf6 knock-out mice. Knockdown of EphR-A phenocopies the PHF6 loss-of-function defects in altering eNSCs, and its forced expression rescues defects of BFLS mice-derived eNSCs. Our data indicate that PHF6 directly promotes Ephrin receptor expression to control eNSC behaviour in the developing brain, and that this pathway is impaired in BFLS.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Face/anormalidades , Dedos/anormalidades , Transtornos do Crescimento , Hipogonadismo , Deficiência Intelectual , Retardo Mental Ligado ao Cromossomo X , Obesidade , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas Repressoras , Retardo Mental Ligado ao Cromossomo X/genética , Retardo Mental Ligado ao Cromossomo X/metabolismo , Epilepsia/genética , Epilepsia/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição
6.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 190(3): 220-233, 2024 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38468563

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Childhood cancer survivors are at risk for hypogonadism. The impact of hypogonadism on neurocognitive impairment and emotional distress in the non-cancer population has been shown; however, the relationship among the childhood cancer survivor population is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the contribution of hypogonadism to neurocognitive impairment and emotional distress among survivors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using retrospective cohort. METHODS: In total, 3628 survivors who completed standard neurocognitive tests (six domains: processing speed, memory, executive function, attention, academics, and global cognition) and self-reported emotional distress were included in our study. Participants were stratified by sex and gonadal status. Outcomes were compared between hypogonadal and eugonadal groups by multivariable analysis, adjusting for established predictors, and mediation analyses to determine the direct/indirect effects of hypogonadism on outcomes. RESULTS: The hypogonadal group exhibited a higher prevalence of neurocognitive impairment across domains, but no difference in emotional distress. Hypogonadal females exhibited higher relative risk (1.7, 95% CI, 1.2-2.5) for impaired visual processing speed, compared to eugonadal females after adjusting for cancer-related variables. In mediation models, hypogonadism had a significant direct (P < .01) and indirect (from P < .01) impact on impairment in visual processing speed among females. Males demonstrated direct (P = .03) and indirect (P = .04) impact of hypogonadism on motor processing speed. CONCLUSION: Processing speed may be the most vulnerable neurocognitive domain associated with hypogonadism in survivors, while other domains were mainly impacted by cancer-related variables. Our findings support the need for further evaluation of the impact of sex hormone replacement therapy on neurocognitive function.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Hipogonadismo , Neoplasias , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Hipogonadismo/etiologia , Hipogonadismo/complicações
7.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 186(11)2024 03 11.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38533865

RESUMO

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) arises from genetic enzyme defects, often in CYP21A2, causing primary adrenal insufficiency. In this case report, a man in his late 20s with lifelong CAH faced challenges in adhering to medication. Suboptimal treatment led to the development of testicular adrenal rest tumours, diagnosed by ultrasound, and hypogonadism. Enhanced adherence restored hormone levels, promoting eugonadism. Adherence plays a crucial role in diminishing tumour size and preventing complications, potentially necessitating orchiectomy in severe cases.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita , Tumor de Resto Suprarrenal , Hipogonadismo , Neoplasias Testiculares , Masculino , Humanos , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/complicações , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/diagnóstico , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/genética , Tumor de Resto Suprarrenal/complicações , Tumor de Resto Suprarrenal/diagnóstico , Tumor de Resto Suprarrenal/patologia , Esteroide 21-Hidroxilase
8.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2120, 2024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38459012

RESUMO

As testicular mesenchymal stromal cells, stem Leydig cells (SLCs) show great promise in the treatment of male hypogonadism. The therapeutic functions of mesenchymal stromal cells are largely determined by their reciprocal regulation by immune responses. However, the immunoregulatory properties of SLCs remain unclear. Here, we observe that SLCs transplantation restore male fertility and testosterone production in an ischemia‒reperfusion injury mouse model. SLCs prevent inflammatory cascades through mitochondrial transfer to macrophages. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) released from activated macrophages inducing mitochondrial transfer from SLCs to macrophages in a transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily member 7 (TRPM7)-mediated manner. Notably, knockdown of TRPM7 in transplanted SLCs compromised therapeutic outcomes in both testicular ischemia‒reperfusion and testicular aging mouse models. These findings reveal a new mechanism of SLCs transplantation that may contribute to preserve testis function in male patients with hypogonadism related to immune disorders.


Assuntos
Hipogonadismo , Canais de Cátion TRPM , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Animais , Células Intersticiais do Testículo , Testículo/fisiologia , Testosterona , Hipogonadismo/terapia , Macrófagos , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases
9.
Drug Ther Bull ; 62(4): 54, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38527767

RESUMO

Overview of: Bhasin S, Lincoff AM, Nissen SE, et al. Effect of testosterone on progression from prediabetes to diabetes in men with hypogonadism: a substudy of the TRAVERSE randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2024. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2023.7862. [Epub ahead of print 5 February 2024].


Assuntos
Hipogonadismo , Estado Pré-Diabético , Humanos , Masculino , Hipogonadismo/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Pré-Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Testosterona/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
10.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 12(4): 257-266, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38437850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although some male patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) undergo spontaneous reversal following treatment, predictors of reversal remain elusive. We aimed to assemble the largest cohort of male patients with CHH reversal to date and identify distinct classes of reversal. METHODS: This multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted in six international CHH referral centres in Brazil, Finland, France, Italy, the UK, and the USA. Adult men with CHH (ie, absent or incomplete spontaneous puberty by age 18 years, low serum testosterone concentrations, and no identifiable cause of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal [HPG] axis dysfunction) were eligible for inclusion. CHH reversal was defined as spontaneous recovery of HPG axis function off treatment. Centres provided common data elements on patient phenotype, clinical assessment, and genetics using a structured, harmonised data collection form developed by COST Action BM1105. Latent class mixture modelling (LCMM) was applied to establish whether at least two distinct classes of reversal could be identified and differentially predicted, and results were compared with a cohort of patients without CHH reversal to identify potential predictors of reversal. The primary outcome was the presence of at least two distinct classes of reversal. FINDINGS: A total of 87 male patients with CHH reversal and 108 without CHH reversal were included in the analyses. LCMM identified two distinct reversal classes (75 [86%] in class 1 and 12 [14%] in class 2) on the basis of mean testicular volume, micropenis, and serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentration. Classification probabilities were robust (0·998 for class 1 and 0·838 for class 2) and modelling uncertainty was low (entropy 0·90). Compared with class 1, patients in class 2 had significantly larger testicular volume (p<0·0001), no micropenis, and higher serum FSH concentrations (p=0·041), consistent with the Pasqualini syndrome (fertile eunuch) subtype of CHH. Patients without CHH reversal were more likely to have anosmia (p=0·016), cryptorchidism (p=0·0012), complete absence of puberty (testicular volume <4 cm³; p=0·0016), and two or more rare genetic variants (ie, oligogenicity; p=0·0001). Among patients who underwent genetic testing, no patients (of 75) with CHH reversal had a rare pathogenic ANOS1 variant compared with ten (11%) of 95 patients without CHH reversal. Individuals with CHH reversal had a significantly higher rate of rare variants in GNRHR than did those without reversal (nine [12%] of 75 vs three [3%] of 95; p=0·025). INTERPRETATION: Applying LCMM to a large cohort of male patients with CHH reversal uncovered two distinct classes of reversal. Genetic investigation combined with careful clinical phenotyping could help surveillance of reversal after withdrawing treatment, representing the first tailored management approach for male patients with this rare endocrine disorder. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences; Ministry of Health, Rome, Italy; Ministry of University, Rome, Italy; National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; and the Josiah Macy Jr Foundation. TRANSLATION: For the Italian translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos , Hipogonadismo , Pênis/anormalidades , Estados Unidos , Criança , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Hipogonadismo/genética , Hipogonadismo/tratamento farmacológico , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/uso terapêutico
13.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 60(2)2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38399562

RESUMO

Testosterone is crucial in regulating several body functions in men, including metabolic, sexual, and cardiovascular functions, bone and muscle mass, and mental health. Therefore, optimizing testosterone levels in men is an important step to maintaining a healthy body and mind, especially as we age. However, traditional testosterone replacement therapy has been shown to lead to male infertility, caused by negative feedback in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Recent advances in research have led to the discovery of many new methods of administration, which can have more or less suppressive effects on the HPG axis. Also, the usage of ancillary medications instead of or after testosterone administration might help maintain fertility in hypogonadal patients. The goal of this narrative review is to summarize the newest methods for optimizing fertility parameters in patients undergoing treatment for hypogonadism and to provide the necessary information for healthcare providers to make the right treatment choices.


Assuntos
Hipogonadismo , Infertilidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Testosterona/efeitos adversos , Hipogonadismo/complicações , Hipogonadismo/tratamento farmacológico , Hipogonadismo/induzido quimicamente , Infertilidade Masculina/tratamento farmacológico , Fertilidade , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal
14.
Cell Tissue Res ; 395(3): 285-297, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38353742

RESUMO

Leydig cell (LCs) apoptosis is responsible for decreased serum testosterone levels during late-onset hypogonadism (LOH). Our study was designed to illustrate the regulatory effect of lncRNA XIST on LCs and to clarify its molecular mechanism of action in LOH. The Leydig cells (TM3) was treated by 300 µM H2O2 for 8 h to establish Leydig cell oxidative stress model in vitro. The expression levels of lncRNA XIST in the testicular tissues of patients with LOH were measured using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The interaction between lncRNA XIST/SIRT1 and miR-145a-5p was assessed using starBase and dual-luciferase reporter gene assays. Apoptotic cells and Caspase3 activity were determined by flow cytometry (FCM) assay. Testosterone concentration was determined by ELISA. Moreover, histological assessment of testicles in mice was performed by using HE staining and the TUNEL assay was used to determine apoptosis. We found that the lncRNA XIST was downregulated in the testicular tissues of LOH patients and mice and in H2O2-induced TM3 cells. XIST siRNA significantly promoted apoptosis, enhanced Caspase3 activity and reduced testosterone levels in H2O2-stimulated TM3 cells. Further studies showed that the miR-145a-5p inhibitor reversed the effect of XIST-siRNA on H2O2-induced Leydig cell apoptosis. MiR-145a-5p negatively regulated SIRT1 expression, and SIRT1-siRNA reversed the effects of the miR-145a-5p inhibitor on H2O2 stimulated TM3 cells. The in vivo experiments indicated that silencing of the lncRNA XIST aggravated LOH symptoms in mice. Inhibition of lncRNA XIST induces Leydig cell apoptosis through the miR-145a-5p/SIRT1 axis in the progression of LOH.


Assuntos
Hipogonadismo , MicroRNAs , RNA Longo não Codificante , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células/genética , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Hipogonadismo/genética , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/genética , Testosterona/farmacologia
15.
Hum Reprod ; 39(4): 689-697, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38373213

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Do different boys with different types of cryptorchidism exhibit different anogenital distances (AGDs)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Length of AGD seemed to differ in different groups of patients with cryptorchidism. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: AGD, which is used as an indicator of prenatal androgen action, tends to be shorter in boys with cryptorchidism compared to unaffected boys. Shorter AGDs have also been reported in boys with hypospadias, in men with poor semen quality, and in men with testicular cancer. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A prospective descriptive cohort study was performed using data from consecutively selected boys with cryptorchidism (n = 169) operated in a single center over a period of 3 years (September 2019 to October 2022). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: AGD was measured in 169 infant boys, at 3 to 26 months of age, during anesthesia with a vernier caliper measuring the distance from the anus to the base of the scrotum (AGDAS) and from the anus to the anterior base of the penis (AGDAP) in two body positions according to the methods by 'The Infant Development and the Environment Study' (TIDES) and 'Cambridge Baby Growth Study', resulting in four mean values per patient (TIDES AGDAS/AP and Cambridge AGDAS/AP). Normal values for AGD by age were set by our hospital Department of Growth and Reproduction based on a large cohort of healthy infant boys (n = 1940). Testicular biopsies were performed at orchidopexy as a clinical routine. The germ cell number (G/T) and type Ad spermatogonia number (AdS/T) per cross-sectional tubule of at least 100 and 250 tubules, respectively were measured and related to normal samples. Blood samples were obtained by venipuncture for measuring serum LH, FSH, and inhibin B. They were analyzed in our hospital Department of Growth and Reproduction where the normal reference was also established. Correlations between the four mean AGD measurements for each boy were evaluated by Spearman rank correlation analyses. The AGD measurement of every boy was transferred to the multiple of the median (MoM) of the normal AGD for age and named MoM AGD. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: There were 104 boysoperated for unilateral, and 47 boys operated for bilateral, undescended testes, whereas 18 boys had vanished testis including one boy with bilateral vanished testes. Only 6% of cases with vanished testes had a MoM AGD higher than the normal median compared to 32% with undescended testes (P < 0.05). MoM AGD increased with the age at surgery for boys with vanished testis (Spearman r = 0.44), but not for boys with undescended testes (Spearman r = 0.14). Boys with bilateral cryptorchidism had longer AGDs and more often had hypogonadotropic hypogonadism than boys with unilateral cryptorchidism (P < 0.005) and (P < 0.000001). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Although being the largest published material of AGD measurements of infant boys with cryptorchidism, one limitation of this study covers the quite small number of patients in the different groups, which may decrease the statistical power. Another limitation involves the sparse normal reference material on G/T and AdS/T. Finally, there are currently no longitudinal studies evaluating AGD from birth to adulthood and evaluating childhood AGD in relation to fertility outcome. Our study is hypothesis generating and therefore the interpretation of the results should be regarded as exploratory rather than reaching definite conclusions. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The study findings are in agreement with literature as the total included group of boys with cryptorchidism exhibited shorter than normal AGDs. However, new insights were demonstrated. Boys with vanished testis had shorter AGDs compared to unaffected boys and to boys with undescended testes. This finding challenges the current concept of AGD being determined in 'the masculinization programming window' in Week 8 to 14 of gestation. Furthermore, boys with bilateral cryptorchidism had longer AGDs and more often had hypogonadotropic hypogonadism than boys with unilateral cryptorchidism, suggesting that the lack of fetal androgen in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is not that significant. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): No external funding was used and no competing interests are declared. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: The trial was not registered in an ICMJE-recognized trial registry.


Assuntos
Criptorquidismo , Disgenesia Gonadal 46 XY , Hipogonadismo , Neoplasias Testiculares , Testículo/anormalidades , Masculino , Gravidez , Lactente , Feminino , Criança , Humanos , Criptorquidismo/cirurgia , Androgênios , Análise do Sêmen , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Stem Cell Res ; 76: 103347, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38377650

RESUMO

Gordon Holmes Syndrome (GDHS) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disease mainly associated with mutations of RNF216. We established a human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) line, FDHSi003-A, derived from PBMC of a patient baring a mutation of RNF216 c.1948G > T, who shows typical symptoms of GDHS. The generated FDHSi003-A expresses pluripotency markers, displays a normal karyotype, and has the potency to differentiate into all three germ layers. Thus, FDHSi003-A is an ideal model to investigate the mechanism of RNF216 in GDHS.


Assuntos
Ataxia Cerebelar , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/deficiência , Hipogonadismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Mutação/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
17.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1291389, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38298378

RESUMO

The increasing life expectancy observed in recent years has resulted in a higher prevalence of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) in older men. LOH is characterized by the decline in testosterone levels and can have significant impacts on physical and mental health. While the underlying causes of LOH are not fully understood, there is a growing interest in exploring the role of inflammaging in its development. Inflammaging is a concept that describes the chronic, low-grade, systemic inflammation that occurs as a result of aging. This inflammatory state has been implicated in the development of various age-related diseases. Several cellular and molecular mechanisms have been identified as contributors to inflammaging, including immune senescence, cellular senescence, autophagy defects, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Despite the extensive research on inflammaging, its relationship with LOH has not yet been thoroughly reviewed in the literature. To address this gap, we aim to review the latest findings related to inflammaging and its impact on the development of LOH. Additionally, we will explore interventions that target inflammaging as potential treatments for LOH.


Assuntos
Hipogonadismo , Masculino , Humanos , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Senescência Celular , Inflamação , Expectativa de Vida
18.
J Am Acad Orthop Surg ; 32(8): 331-338, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38412226

RESUMO

Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is an indicated treatment of several medical conditions including late-onset hypogonadism, congenital syndromes, and gender affirmation hormonal therapy. Increasing population age, medical benefits, and public awareness of TRT have resulted in increased prevalence of its utilization. However, TRT is not without concern for adverse risks including venous thromboembolic complications, cardiovascular events, and prostate issues. In the field of orthopaedic surgery, research is beginning to delineate the complex relationship between TRT and the development of orthopaedic conditions and potential effects on surgical interventions and outcomes. In this review, we discuss current literature surrounding TRT and subsequent development of osteoarthritis, incidence of total joint arthroplasty, musculotendinous pathology, postoperative infection risk, improvements in postoperative rehabilitation metrics, enhancement of osseous healing, and increased bone-implant integration. The authors suggest future areas of investigation that may provide guidance on how surgeons can mitigate adverse risks while optimizing benefits of TRT in the orthopaedic patient.


Assuntos
Hipogonadismo , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Ortopedia , Masculino , Humanos , Testosterona/uso terapêutico , Hipogonadismo/complicações , Hipogonadismo/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/métodos
20.
JAMA Intern Med ; 184(4): 353-362, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315466

RESUMO

Importance: The effect of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in men with hypogonadism on the risk of progression from prediabetes to diabetes or of inducing glycemic remission in those with diabetes is unknown. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of TRT in preventing progression from prediabetes to diabetes in men with hypogonadism who had prediabetes and in inducing glycemic remission in those with diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nested substudy, an intention-to-treat analysis, within a placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial (Testosterone Replacement Therapy for Assessment of Long-Term Vascular Events and Efficacy Response in Hypogonadal Men [TRAVERSE]) was conducted at 316 trial sites in the US. Participants included men aged 45 to 80 years with hypogonadism and prediabetes or diabetes who were enrolled in TRAVERSE between May 23, 2018, and February 1, 2022. Intervention: Participants were randomized 1:1 to receive 1.62% testosterone gel or placebo gel until study completion. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was the risk of progression from prediabetes to diabetes, analyzed using repeated-measures log-binomial regression. The secondary end point was the risk of glycemic remission (hemoglobin A1c level <6.5% [to convert to proportion of total hemoglobin, multiply by 0.01] or 2 fasting glucose measurements <126 mg/dL [to convert to mmol/L, multiply by 0.0555] without diabetes medication) in men who had diabetes. Results: Of 5204 randomized participants, 1175 with prediabetes (mean [SD] age, 63.8 [8.1] years) and 3880 with diabetes (mean [SD] age, 63.2 [7.8] years) were included in this study. Mean (SD) hemoglobin A1c level in men with prediabetes was 5.8% (0.4%). Risk of progression to diabetes did not differ significantly between testosterone and placebo groups: 4 of 598 (0.7%) vs 8 of 562 (1.4%) at 6 months, 45 of 575 (7.8%) vs 57 of 533 (10.7%) at 12 months, 50 of 494 (10.1%) vs 67 of 460 (14.6%) at 24 months, 46 of 359 (12.8%) vs 52 of 330 (15.8%) at 36 months, and 22 of 164 (13.4%) vs 19 of 121 (15.7%) at 48 months (omnibus test P = .49). The proportions of participants with diabetes who experienced glycemic remission and the changes in glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels were similar in testosterone- and placebo-treated men with prediabetes or diabetes. Conclusions and Relevance: In men with hypogonadism and prediabetes, the incidence of progression from prediabetes to diabetes did not differ significantly between testosterone- and placebo-treated men. Testosterone replacement therapy did not improve glycemic control in men with hypogonadism and prediabetes or diabetes. These findings suggest that TRT alone should not be used as a therapeutic intervention to prevent or treat diabetes in men with hypogonadism. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03518034.


Assuntos
Hipogonadismo , Estado Pré-Diabético , Masculino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testosterona/uso terapêutico , Estado Pré-Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoglobinas Glicadas , Hipogonadismo/complicações , Hipogonadismo/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Glucose
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