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1.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 378(1868): 20210432, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36440569

RESUMO

Humans rely on both kin and non-kin social ties for a wide range of support. In patrilocal societies that practice village exogamy, women can face the challenge of building new supportive networks when they move to their husband's village and leave many genetic kin behind. In this paper, we track how women from 10 diverse communities in rural Bangladesh build supportive networks after migrating to their husband's village, comparing their trajectories with women who remained in their childhood village (Bengali: n = 317, Santal: n = 36, Hajong: n = 39, Mandi: n = 36). Women who migrated for marriage started with almost no adult close kin (mean 0.1) compared to women who remained in their childhood village (mean 2.4). However, immigrants compensated for the lack of genetic kin by a combination of close affinal kin and close friends. By their late 20s, immigrants reported substantially more non-kin friends than did non-immigrants (mean 1.4 versus 1.1) and a comparable number of supportive partners in several domains. These findings raise questions about the functions and quality of these different social ties and how different composition of supportive networks may provide different opportunities for women in these settings. This article is part of the theme issue 'Cooperation among women: evolutionary and cross-cultural perspectives'.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Casamento , Animais , Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Bangladesh , População Rural , Evolução Biológica
2.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 378(1868): 20210431, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36440571

RESUMO

Cooperation in food acquisition is a hallmark of the human species. Given that costs and benefits of cooperation vary among production regimes and work activities, the transition from hunting-and-gathering to agriculture is likely to have reshaped the structure of cooperative subsistence networks. Hunter-gatherers often forage in groups and are generally more interdependent and experience higher short-term food acquisition risk than horticulturalists, suggesting that cooperative labour should be more widespread and frequent for hunter-gatherers. Here we compare female cooperative labour networks of Batek hunter-gatherers of Peninsular Malaysia and Tsimane forager-horticulturalists of Bolivia. We find that Batek foraging results in high daily variation in labour partnerships, facilitating frequent cooperation in diffuse networks comprised of kin and non-kin. By contrast, Tsimane horticulture involves more restricted giving and receiving of labour, confined mostly to spouses and primary or distant kin. Tsimane women also interact with few individuals in the context of hunting/fishing activities and forage mainly with spouses and primary kin. These differences give rise to camp- or village-level networks that are more modular (have more substructure when partitioned) among Tsimane horticulturalists. Our findings suggest that subsistence activities shape the formation and extent of female social networks, particularly with respect to connections with other women and non-kin. We discuss the implications of restricted female labour networks in the context of gender relations, power dynamics and the adoption of farming in humans. This article is part of the theme issue 'Cooperation among women: evolutionary and cross-cultural perspectives'.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Animais , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Relações Interpessoais , Evolução Biológica , Agricultura , Cônjuges
3.
J Nutr Biochem ; 111: 109190, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36272692

RESUMO

Auricularia polytricha and Flammulina velutipes are two dietary mushrooms mostly consumed in China and known for their traditional use on gastric ulceration and to boost bowel movement. Considering the gut-liver axis, which has been recognized for its role in the autoimmune modulation, and the implications of the intestinal barrier in the pathogenesis of liver diseases that remain unclear, the therapeutic effects of A. polytricha (APE) and F. velutipes (FVE) on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-induced liver injury in mice was investigated as well as their potential mechanism via the signaling pathways they could involve. 3% DSS was administered to the mice in drinking water, to induce ulcerative colitis, followed by oral administration of APE and FVE. The biochemical, oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters, mRNA and protein expressions were assessed. The results revealed that DSS-induced liver histopathological changes were ameliorated by APE and FVE treatment. APE and FVE administration also improved the ALT and AST activity as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative factors. Data also showed that, in addition to their regulation of tight junctions' disruption, APE and FVE attenuated genes and proteins expression involved in apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and bile acid homeostasis via inhibiting TLR4/NF-κB and caspase signaling pathways and stimulating Keap1/Nrf2 signaling pathways. In conclusion, APE and FVE regulated liver injury on DSS-induced ulcerative colitis by alleviating inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis, suggesting that they could be used as therapeutic alternatives against liver diseases in addition to their functions as dietary supplements.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Flammulina , Hominidae , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Camundongos , Animais , Flammulina/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Colite Ulcerativa/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Oxidativo , Apoptose , Fígado/metabolismo , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Hominidae/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(47): e2206486119, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375066

RESUMO

Humans are argued to be unique in their ability and motivation to share attention with others about external entities-sharing attention for sharing's sake. Indeed, in humans, using referential gestures declaratively to direct the attention of others toward external objects and events emerges in the first year of life. In contrast, wild great apes seldom use referential gestures, and when they do, it seems to be exclusively for imperative purposes. This apparent species difference has fueled the argument that the motivation and ability to share attention with others is a human-specific trait with important downstream consequences for the evolution of our complex cognition [M. Tomasello, Becoming Human (2019)]. Here, we report evidence of a wild ape showing a conspecific an item of interest. We provide video evidence of an adult female chimpanzee, Fiona, showing a leaf to her mother, Sutherland, in the context of leaf grooming in Kibale Forest, Uganda. We use a dataset of 84 similar leaf-grooming events to explore alternative explanations for the behavior, including food sharing and initiating dyadic grooming or playing. Our observations suggest that in highly specific social conditions, wild chimpanzees, like humans, may use referential showing gestures to direct others' attention to objects simply for the sake of sharing. The difference between humans and our closest living relatives in this regard may be quantitative rather than qualitative, with ramifications for our understanding of the evolution of human social cognition.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Pan troglodytes , Feminino , Humanos , Animais , Gestos , Comunicação Animal , Mães
5.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 6(12): 2003-2015, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36316412

RESUMO

The role of natural selection in shaping biological diversity is an area of intense interest in modern biology. To date, studies of positive selection have primarily relied on genomic datasets from contemporary populations, which are susceptible to confounding factors associated with complex and often unknown aspects of population history. In particular, admixture between diverged populations can distort or hide prior selection events in modern genomes, though this process is not explicitly accounted for in most selection studies despite its apparent ubiquity in humans and other species. Through analyses of ancient and modern human genomes, we show that previously reported Holocene-era admixture has masked more than 50 historic hard sweeps in modern European genomes. Our results imply that this canonical mode of selection has probably been underappreciated in the evolutionary history of humans and suggest that our current understanding of the tempo and mode of selection in natural populations may be inaccurate.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Seleção Genética , Animais , Humanos , Evolução Biológica , Genoma Humano , Genômica
6.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(11): 1499-1500, 2022 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36356562

RESUMO

A recent paper in Cell reports the discovery of a receptor for simian hemorrhagic fever virus and suggests that it may be poised to spill over into humans. This study highlights the importance of devoting resources to currently obscure animal viruses that may pose a threat to human health.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Vírus , Animais , Humanos , Vírus/genética
7.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 22(1): 132, 2022 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36357830

RESUMO

The arms race between humans and pathogens drives the evolution of the human genome. It is thus expected that genes from the interferon-regulatory factors family (IRFs), a critical family for anti-viral immune response, should be undergoing episodes of positive selection. Herein, we tested this hypothesis and found multiple lines of evidence for positive selection on the amino acid site Val129 (NP_006075.3:p.Ser129Val) of human IRF9. Interestingly, the ancestral reconstruction and population distribution analyses revealed that the ancestral state (Ser129) is conserved among mammals, while the derived positively selected state (Val129) was fixed before the "out-of-Africa" event ~ 500,000 years ago. The motif analysis revealed that this young amino acid (Val129) may serve as a dephosphorylation site of IRF9. Structural parallelism between homologous genes further suggested the functional effects underlying the dephosphorylation that may affect the immune activity of IRF9. This study provides a model in which a strong positive Darwinian selection drives a recent fixation of a hominin-specific amino acid leading to molecular adaptation involving dephosphorylation in an immune-responsive gene.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Animais , Humanos , Hominidae/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/genética , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/química , Seleção Genética , Mutação , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Fator Gênico 3 Estimulado por Interferon, Subunidade gama/genética
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20261, 2022 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36424405

RESUMO

Homogeneously depigmented sclerae have long been proposed to be uniquely human-an adaptation to enable cooperative behaviour by facilitating interpersonal coordination through gaze following. However, recent evidence has shown that deeply pigmented sclerae also afford gaze following if surrounding a bright iris. Furthermore, while current scleral depigmentation is clearly adaptive in modern humans, it is less clear how the evolutionarily intermediate stages of scleral pigmentation may have been adaptive. In sum, it is unclear why scleral depigmentation became the norm in humans, while not so in sister species like chimpanzees, or why some extant species display intermediate degrees of pigmentation (as our ancestors presumably did at some point). We created realistic facial images of 20 individually distinct hominins with diverse facial morphologies, each face in the (i) humanlike bright sclera and (ii) generalised apelike dark sclera version. Participants in two online studies rated the bright-sclera hominins as younger, healthier, more attractive and trustworthy, but less aggressive than the dark-sclera hominins. Our results support the idea that the appearance of more depigmented sclerae promoted perceived traits that fostered trust, increasing fitness for those individuals and resulting in depigmentation as a fixed trait in extant humans.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Esclera , Animais , Humanos , Iris/anatomia & histologia , Pan troglodytes , Pigmentação
9.
J Hum Evol ; 173: 103255, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375243

RESUMO

Postcranial bones may provide valuable information about fossil taxa relating to their locomotor habits, manipulative abilities and body sizes. Distinctive features of the postcranial skeleton are sometimes noted in species diagnoses. Although numerous isolated postcranial fossils have become accepted by many workers as belonging to a particular species, it is worthwhile revisiting the evidence for each attribution before including them in comparative samples in relation to the descriptions of new fossils, functional analyses in relation to particular taxa, or in evolutionary contexts. Although some workers eschew the taxonomic attribution of postcranial fossils as being less important (or interesting) than interpreting their functional morphology, it is impossible to consider the evolution of functional anatomy in a taxonomic and phylogenetic vacuum. There are 21 widely recognized hominin taxa that have been described from sites in Africa dated from the Late Miocene to the Middle Pleistocene; postcranial elements have been attributed to 17 of these. The bones that have been thus assigned range from many parts of a skeleton to isolated elements. However, the extent to which postcranial material can be reliably attributed to a specific taxon varies considerably from site to site and species to species, and is often the subject of considerable debate. Here, we review the postcranial remains attributed to African hominin taxa from the Late Miocene to the Middle and Late Pleistocene and place these assignations into categories of reliability. The catalog of attributions presented here may serve as a guide for making taxonomic decisions in the future.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Humanos , Animais , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Filogenia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fósseis , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia
10.
J Hum Evol ; 173: 103279, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375244

RESUMO

The Middle and Late Pleistocene is arguably the most interesting period in human evolution. This broad period witnessed the evolution of our own lineage, as well as that of our sister taxon, the Neanderthals, and related Denisovans. It is exceptionally rich in both fossil and archaeological remains, and uniquely benefits from insights gained through molecular approaches, such as paleogenetics and paleoproteomics, that are currently not widely applicable in earlier contexts. This wealth of information paints a highly complex picture, often described as 'the Muddle in the Middle,' defying the common adage that 'more evidence is needed' to resolve it. Here we review competing phylogenetic scenarios and the historical and theoretical developments that shaped our approaches to the fossil record, as well as some of the many remaining open questions associated with this period. We propose that advancing our understanding of this critical time requires more than the addition of data and will necessitate a major shift in our conceptual and theoretical framework.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Homem de Neandertal , Animais , Humanos , Filogenia , Evolução Biológica , Fósseis
11.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 6(12): 2016-2028, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36376603

RESUMO

Although cooking is regarded as a key element in the evolutionary success of the genus Homo, impacting various biological and social aspects, when intentional cooking first began remains unknown. The early Middle Pleistocene site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, Israel (marine isotope stages 18-20; ~0.78 million years ago), has preserved evidence of hearth-related hominin activities and large numbers of freshwater fish remains (>40,000). A taphonomic study and isotopic analyses revealed significant differences between the characteristics of the fish bone assemblages recovered in eight sequential archaeological horizons of Area B (Layer II-6 levels 1-7) and natural fish bone assemblages (identified in Area A). Gesher Benot Ya'aqov archaeological horizons II-6 L1-7 exhibited low fish species richness, with a clear preference for two species of large Cyprinidae (Luciobarbus longiceps and Carasobarbus canis) and the almost total absence of fish bones in contrast to the richness of pharyngeal teeth (>95%). Most of the pharyngeal teeth recovered in archaeological horizons II-6 L1-7 were spatially associated with 'phantom' hearths (clusters of burnt flint microartifacts). Size-strain analysis using X-ray powder diffraction provided evidence that these teeth had been exposed to low temperature (<500 °C), suggesting, together with the archaeological and taphonomic data, that the fish from the archaeological horizons of Area B had been cooked and consumed on site. This is the earliest evidence of cooking by hominins.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Animais , Israel , Arqueologia , Peixes , Culinária
12.
EMBO Rep ; 23(11): e54728, 2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36381990

RESUMO

The human-specific gene ARHGAP11B has been implicated in human neocortex expansion. However, the extent of ARHGAP11B's contribution to this expansion during hominid evolution is unknown. Here we address this issue by genetic manipulation of ARHGAP11B levels and function in chimpanzee and human cerebral organoids. ARHGAP11B expression in chimpanzee cerebral organoids doubles basal progenitor levels, the class of cortical progenitors with a key role in neocortex expansion. Conversely, interference with ARHGAP11B's function in human cerebral organoids decreases basal progenitors down to the chimpanzee level. Moreover, ARHGAP11A or ARHGAP11B rescue experiments in ARHGAP11A plus ARHGAP11B double-knockout human forebrain organoids indicate that lack of ARHGAP11B, but not of ARHGAP11A, decreases the abundance of basal radial glia - the basal progenitor type thought to be of particular relevance for neocortex expansion. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that ARHGAP11B is necessary and sufficient to ensure the elevated basal progenitor levels that characterize the fetal human neocortex, suggesting that this human-specific gene was a major contributor to neocortex expansion during human evolution.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Neocórtex , Células-Tronco Neurais , Animais , Humanos , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Organoides/metabolismo , Hominidae/metabolismo , Pan troglodytes/genética , Pan troglodytes/metabolismo , Neocórtex/metabolismo , Neurogênese/genética , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/genética , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/metabolismo
13.
Cell ; 185(24): 4587-4603.e23, 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36423581

RESUMO

Searches for the genetic underpinnings of uniquely human traits have focused on human-specific divergence in conserved genomic regions, which reflects adaptive modifications of existing functional elements. However, the study of conserved regions excludes functional elements that descended from previously neutral regions. Here, we demonstrate that the fastest-evolved regions of the human genome, which we term "human ancestor quickly evolved regions" (HAQERs), rapidly diverged in an episodic burst of directional positive selection prior to the human-Neanderthal split, before transitioning to constraint within hominins. HAQERs are enriched for bivalent chromatin states, particularly in gastrointestinal and neurodevelopmental tissues, and genetic variants linked to neurodevelopmental disease. We developed a multiplex, single-cell in vivo enhancer assay to discover that rapid sequence divergence in HAQERs generated hominin-unique enhancers in the developing cerebral cortex. We propose that a lack of pleiotropic constraints and elevated mutation rates poised HAQERs for rapid adaptation and subsequent susceptibility to disease.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Homem de Neandertal , Animais , Humanos , Hominidae/genética , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Homem de Neandertal/genética , Genoma Humano , Genômica
14.
Elife ; 112022 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366962

RESUMO

There is active debate on the role of dopamine in processing aversive stimuli, where inferred roles range from no involvement at all, to signaling an aversive prediction error (APE). Here, we systematically investigate dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens core (NAC), which is closely linked to reward prediction errors, in rats exposed to white noise (WN, a versatile, underutilized, aversive stimulus) and its predictive cues. Both induced a negative dopamine ramp, followed by slow signal recovery upon stimulus cessation. In contrast to reward conditioning, this dopamine signal was unaffected by WN value, context valence, or probabilistic contingencies, and the WN dopamine response shifted only partially toward its predictive cue. However, unpredicted WN provoked slower post-stimulus signal recovery than predicted WN. Despite differing signal qualities, dopamine responses to simultaneous presentation of rewarding and aversive stimuli were additive. Together, our findings demonstrate that instead of an APE, NAC dopamine primarily tracks prediction and duration of aversive events.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Núcleo Accumbens , Ratos , Animais , Núcleo Accumbens/fisiologia , Dopamina , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Recompensa , Sinais (Psicologia)
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19012, 2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36347897

RESUMO

The migration of Homo erectus in Southeast Asia during Early Pleistocene is cardinal to our comprehension of the evolution of the genus Homo. However, the limited consideration of the rapidly changing physical environment, together with controversial datings of hominin bearing sites, make it challenging to secure the robust timeline needed to unveil the behavior of early humans. Here, we reappraise the first appearance datum of Javanese H. erectus by adding the most reliable age constraints based on cosmogenic nuclides [Formula: see text]Be and [Formula: see text]Al produced in situ to a compilation of earlier estimates. We find that H. erectus reached Java and dwelled at Sangiran, Java, ca. 1.8 Ma. Using this age as a baseline, we develop a probabilistic approach to reconstruct their dispersal routes, coupling ecological movement simulations to landscape evolution models forced by reconstructed geodynamic and climatic histories. We demonstrate that the hospitable terra firma conditions of Sundaland facilitated the prior dispersal of hominins to the edge of Java, where they conversely could not settle until the Javanese archipelago emerged from the sea and connected to Sundaland. The dispersal of H. erectus across Sundaland occurred over at least tens to hundreds kyr, a time scale over which changes in their physical environment, whether climatic or physiographic, may have become primary forcings on their behavior. Our comprehensive reconstruction method to unravel the peopling timeline of SE Asia provides a novel framework to evaluate the evolution of early humans.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Hominidae , Humanos , Animais , Indonésia , Ásia , Fósseis
16.
Eur J Med Res ; 27(1): 238, 2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36348473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To observe the effect and mechanism of alpha-adrenergic receptor inhibitor phentolamine (PTL) in a rabbit model of acute pulmonary embolism (APE) combined with shock. METHODS: Twenty-four New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into sham operation group (S group, n = 8), model group (M group, n = 8) and PTL group (n = 8), the model of APE combined with shock was established. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP), peripheral mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulmonary circulation time were evaluated. The expression levels of α1 receptor, α2 receptor and their downstream molecules in pulmonary embolism (PE) and non-pulmonary embolism (non-PE) regions lung tissues were detected and compared, respectively. RESULTS: In M group, α receptor-related signaling pathways were significantly activated in both PE and non-PE areas as expressed by up-regulated α1, α2 receptor and phospholipase C (PLC); the expression level of phosphorylated protein kinase A (p-PKA) was significantly down-regulated; myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) levels were up-regulated. PTL treatment significantly improved pulmonary as well as systemic circulation failure: decreased MPAP, restored blood flow in non-PE area, shortened pulmonary circulation time, increased MAP, and restored the circulation failure. PTL induced significantly down-regulated expression of α1 receptor and its downstream molecule PLC in both PE and non-PE area, the expression level of α2 receptor was also down-regulated, the expression level of p-PKA was significantly up-regulated. PTL treatment can inhibit both α1 and α2 receptor-related signaling pathways in whole lung tissues, and inhibit Ca2+ signaling pathways. The expression level of MLCK and α-SMA were significantly down-regulated. Compared with PE area, the changes of expression levels of α receptor and its downstream molecules were more significant in the non-PE region. CONCLUSION: In this model of APE combined with shock, the sympathetic nerve activity was enhanced in the whole lung, α1 and α2 receptor and their downstream signaling activation might mediate blood flow failure in the whole lung. PTL treatment can effectively restore pulmonary blood flow in non-PE area and improve pulmonary as well as systemic circulation failure possibly through down-regulating α1 and α2 receptor and their downstream signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Embolia Pulmonar , Choque , Animais , Coelhos , Fentolamina/farmacologia , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa
17.
Front Immunol ; 13: 972012, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36389827

RESUMO

Objective: Non-criteria antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) increase the diagnostic value for antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and contribute to better recognition of seronegative APS (SNAPS). However, the clinical utility and the diagnostic value of non-criteria aPLs are inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and clinical significance of 7 non-criteria aPLs in a large APS cohort. Methods: Seven non-criteria aPLs, including anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin (aPS/PT) antibodies IgG/IgA/IgM, anti-phosphatidylethanolamine antibodies (aPE) IgG/IgA/IgM, anti-Annexin V antibodies (aAnnexinV) IgG/IgA/IgM, anti-phosphatidylserine antibodies (aPS) IgM, aPS IgG, antibodies directed against a mixture of phospholipids (APhL) IgG, and APhL IgM were tested among 175 patients with APS, 122 patients with other autoimmune diseases (as disease controls), and 50 healthy controls. Results: In the present study, the highest prevalence of non-criteria aPLs was seen in aAnnexinV (58.86%). APhL IgG and aPS IgM showed the highest specificity (95.35%) and aPS/PT showed the highest Youden index (0.3991) for the diagnostic value of APS. The aAnnexinV also showed the highest prevalence in SNAPS (43.3%), followed by APhL IgM (21.7%), aPE (16.7%) and aPS/PT (16.7%). APhL IgG, aPS/PT, and aPS IgG showed positive association with thrombotic events in APS patients [APhL IgG: odds ratio (OR) = 2.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18-4.34, p = 0.013; aPS/PT: OR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.32-4.69, p = 0.004; aPS IgG: OR = 1.90, 95% CI 1.01-3.60, p = 0.046; respectively). The inclusion of the non-criteria aPLs increased the accuracy of APS diagnosis from 65.7% to 87.4%. Conclusion: Our data provide evidence that adding the non-criteria aPLs can improve the diagnostic accuracy in APS. APhL IgG, aPS/PT, and aPS IgG may be potential biomarkers to predict the risk of thrombosis in APS.


Assuntos
Síndrome Antifosfolipídica , Hominidae , Trombose , Humanos , Animais , Anticorpos Antifosfolipídeos , Protrombina , Fosfatidilserinas , Imunoglobulina G , Imunoglobulina A , Imunoglobulina M
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17544, 2022 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323729

RESUMO

The use of fire is considered to be one of the most important cultural innovations in human evolution. Understanding the taphonomy of fire remains is an important prerequisite for valid interpretations of hominin fire-related behaviour. Presented here are the results of a series of laboratory-based experiments testing the effect of different pH conditions (acidic, neutral, alkaline) on the physical and chemical properties of heated bone (charred and combusted). By taking a fundamental-research approach the study gives insight into the specific effect of pH exposure and its underlying chemical processes, and provides data that can be applied to heated bone from any context and time period. Results show that diagenesis has a significant impact on the preservation potential of heated bones, as well as on the reliability of the analytical techniques used to reconstruct past heating conditions. The study provides reference data and a toolkit for the analysis of heated bone, that explicitly takes diagenesis into account, and in doing so offers a significant improvement to the accuracy with which we can reconstruct heating conditions and fire-related human behaviour in the past.


Assuntos
Incêndios , Hominidae , Animais , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Osso e Ossos , Preservação Biológica
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18471, 2022 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323766

RESUMO

New data on the foraminifers and the regional geological setting of the Trachilos sediments (NW Crete, Greece) from which Gierlinski et al. (Proc Geol Assoc 128: 697-710, 2017) described hominin-like footprints show that the published 6.05 Ma-shallow marine interpretation is incorrect. In our new interpretation, the Trachilos succession is Late Pliocene and part of a shallowing marine series that became subaerially exposed some 3 millions of years ago. Placed in a larger geological context, Crete was an island during the Late Pliocene and separated by ~ 100 km of open sea from the nearest European mainland, and therefore out of reach of Late Pliocene hominins.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Animais , Grécia , Oceanos e Mares
20.
Seizure ; 103: 11-17, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36244182

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In adult patients with epilepsy, predictive models have been developed and validated for anticipating a favorable response to immunotherapy. However, no such model has been evaluated in children. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study intended to assess the performance of a pediatric adaptation of the Response to Immunotherapy in Epilepsy (RITE2) score: P-RITE2 score and Antibody Prevalence in Epilepsy (APE2) score: P-APE2 score in patients aged 1-18 years. We included data of those patients who had epilepsy duration of not more than 12 months, no other known etiology (e.g., genetic, metabolic, neoplastic, or structural causes), and tested for neural-specific antibody in cerebrospinal fluid or serum for P-APE2 score and only those who received immunotherapy for P-RITE2 score. We added cognitive dysfunction, speech dysfunction, sleep disturbance, and movement disorder to the original scores to increase specificity for pediatric autoimmune epilepsy. We assumed at least a 50% reduction in seizure frequency at 6 months as a favorable response to immunotherapy. Cut-offs were chosen for both scores to maximize true positives and minimize false negatives using ROC curves. RESULTS: We included data from a total of 237 patients with epilepsy (10.4 ± 2.5 years, 129 boys, 54%), out of which, 25 (10.5%, 13 girls, 52%) tested positive for autoantibodies. The median P-APE2 score in the subgroup with and without antibody positivity were 7 (IQR: 5-11) and 2 (IQR: 1-5), respectively (p<0.0001). ROC analysis of the P-APE2 score determined an AUC of 0.96. The sensitivity and specificity values of the P-APE2 score ≥6 were 94% and 92%, respectively. A total of 162 patients (10.3 ± 2.5 years, 88 boys, 54%) received immunotherapy, out of which, 101 had a favorable response at 6 months. The median P-RITE2 score in the subgroup with and without favorable response following a trial of immunotherapy were 10 (IQR: 6-17) and 3 (IQR: 1-6), respectively (p<0.0001). ROC analysis of the P-RITE2 score determined an AUC of 0.96. The sensitivity and specificity values of P-RITE2 score ≥8 were 95% and 93%, respectively. The AUC of both these ROCs was significantly higher than the AUC of ROCs for original scores in our cohort. CONCLUSION: The P-RITE2 and P-APE2 scores can be used to predict the response to immunotherapy and predict autoantibody positivity in children with epilepsy with/without encephalopathy or cognitive dysfunction.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias , Epilepsia , Hominidae , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Humanos , Animais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Epilepsia/etiologia , Autoanticorpos , Encefalopatias/complicações , Fatores Imunológicos
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