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1.
PeerJ ; 12: e17039, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590700

RESUMO

Background: Acute pulmonary embolism (APE) is classified as a subset of diseases that are characterized by lung obstruction due to various types of emboli. Current clinical APE treatment using anticoagulants is frequently accompanied by high risk of bleeding complications. Recombinant hirudin (R-hirudin) has been found to have antithrombotic properties. However, the specific impact of R-hirudin on APE remains unknown. Methods: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned to five groups, with thrombi injections to establish APE models. Control and APE group rats were subcutaneously injected with equal amounts of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The APE+R-hirudin low-dose, middle-dose, and high-dose groups received subcutaneous injections of hirudin at doses of 0.25 mg/kg, 0.5 mg/kg, and 1.0 mg/kg, respectively. Each group was subdivided into time points of 2 h, 6 h, 1 d, and 4 d, with five animals per point. Subsequently, all rats were euthanized, and serum and lung tissues were collected. Following the assessment of right ventricular pressure (RVP) and mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP), blood gas analysis, enzyme-linked immunosorbnent assay (ELISA), pulmonary artery vascular testing, hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot experiments were conducted. Results: R-hirudin treatment caused a significant reduction of mPAP, RVP, and Malondialdehyde (MDA) content, as well as H2O2 and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, while increasing pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity. R-hirudin also decreased wall area ratio and wall thickness to diameter ratio in APE rat pulmonary arteries. Serum levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and thromboxaneB2 (TXB2) decreased, while prostaglandin (6-K-PGF1α) and NO levels increased. Moreover, R-hirudin ameliorated histopathological injuries and reduced apoptotic cells and Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), p-Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2/ERK1/2, and p-P65/P65 expression in lung tissues. Conclusion: R-hirudin attenuated pulmonary hypertension and thrombosis in APE rats, suggesting its potential as a novel treatment strategy for APE.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Hipertensão Pulmonar , Embolia Pulmonar , Trombose , Ratos , Animais , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Hirudinas/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/uso terapêutico , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Sci Adv ; 10(14): eadl0335, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569032

RESUMO

The rapid growth of clean energy technologies is driving a rising demand for critical minerals. In 2022 at the 15th Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (COP15), seven major economies formed an alliance to enhance the sustainability of mining these essential decarbonization minerals. However, there is a scarcity of studies assessing the threat of mining to global biodiversity. By integrating a global mining dataset with great ape density distribution, we estimated the number of African great apes that spatially coincided with industrial mining projects. We show that up to one-third of Africa's great ape population faces mining-related risks. In West Africa in particular, numerous mining areas overlap with fragmented ape habitats, often in high-density ape regions. For 97% of mining areas, no ape survey data are available, underscoring the importance of increased accessibility to environmental data within the mining sector to facilitate research into the complex interactions between mining, climate, biodiversity, and sustainability.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Animais , Ecossistema , Biodiversidade , Minerais , África Ocidental
3.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2822, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561329

RESUMO

The systematic status of the small-bodied catarrhine primate Pliobates cataloniae, from the Miocene (11.6 Ma) of Spain, is controversial because it displays a mosaic of primitive and derived features compared with extant hominoids (apes and humans). Cladistic analyses have recovered Pliobates as either a stem hominoid or as a pliopithecoid stem catarrhine (i.e., preceding the cercopithecoid-hominoid divergence). Here, we describe additional dental remains of P. cataloniae from another locality that display unambiguous synapomorphies of crouzeliid pliopithecoids. Our cladistic analyses support a close phylogenetic link with poorly-known small crouzeliids from Europe based on (cranio)dental characters but recover pliopithecoids as stem hominoids when postcranial characters are included. We conclude that Pliobates is a derived stem catarrhine that shows postcranial convergences with modern apes in the elbow and wrist joints-thus clarifying pliopithecoid evolution and illustrating the plausibility of independent acquisition of postcranial similarities between hylobatids and hominids.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Hominidae , Animais , Humanos , Filogenia , Primatas , Cercopithecidae , Evolução Biológica
4.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301482, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593117

RESUMO

Morphological variation in modern human dentition is still an open field of study. The understanding of dental shape and metrics is relevant for the advancement of human biology and evolution and is thus of interest in the fields of dental anthropology, as well as human anatomy and medicine. Of concern is also the variation of the inner aspects of the crown which can be investigated using the tools and methods of virtual anthropology. In this study, we explored inter- and intra-population morphometric variation of modern humans' upper third and fourth premolars (P3s and P4s, respectively) considering both the inner and outer aspects of the crown, and discrete traits. We worked by means of geometric morphometrics on 3D image data from a geographically balanced sample of human populations from five continents, to analyse the shape of the dentinal crown, and the crown outline in 78 P3s and 76 P4s from 85 individuals. For the study of dental traits, we referred to the Arizona State University Dental Anthropology System integrated with more recent classification systems. The 3D shape variation of upper premolar crowns varied between short and mesio-distally broad, and tall and mesio-distally narrow. The observed shape variation was independent from the geographical origin of the populations, and resulted in extensive overlap. We noted a high pairwise correlation (r1 = 0.83) between upper P3s and P4s. We did not find any significant geographic differences in the analysed non-metric traits. Our outcomes thus suggest that geographical provenance does not play a determinant role in the shaping of the dental crown, whose genesis is under strict genetic control.


Assuntos
Antropologia Física , Hominidae , Animais , Humanos , Dente Pré-Molar/diagnóstico por imagem , Dente Pré-Molar/anatomia & histologia , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Antropologia , Coroa do Dente/diagnóstico por imagem , Coroa do Dente/anatomia & histologia
5.
J Physiol Pharmacol ; 75(1)2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583436

RESUMO

The treatment of patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE) is extremely challenging due to the complex clinical presentation and prognosis of APE related to the patient's hemodynamic status and insufficient arterial blood flow and right ventricular overload. Protective efficacy against cardiovascular diseases of curcumin, a common natural polyphenolic compound, which has antithrombotic properties and reduces platelet accumulation in the circulation by inhibiting thromboxane synthesis has been demonstrated. However, the direct effect of curcumin on APE has rarely been studied. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of curcumin in APE and associated myocardial injury to provide new insights into curcumin as a promising competitive new target for the treatment of APE. A suspension of 12 mg/kg microspheres was injected intravenously into rats. An APE rat model was built. Before modeling, intragastric 100 mg/kg curcumin was given, and/or lentiviral plasmid vector targeting microRNA-145-5p or insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) was injected. Pulmonary artery pressure was measured to assess right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP). Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was performed on liver tissues and myocardial tissues of APE rats. TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling) staining and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining were conducted to measure apoptosis and CyPA-CD147 expression in the myocardium, respectively. Inflammatory indices interleukin-1beta (IL-1ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were measured by ELISA in cardiac tissues. RT-qPCR and Western blot were performed to determine the expression levels of related genes. In addition, by dual luciferase reporter assay and RIP assay, the relationship between microRNA-145-5p and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) was confirmed. In results: curcumin improved APE-induced myocardial injury, reduced myocardial tissue edema, and thrombus volume. It attenuated APE-induced myocardial inflammation and apoptosis, as well as reduced lung injury and pulmonary artery pressure. Curcumin promoted microRNA-145-5p expression in APE rat myocardium. MicroRNA-145-5p overexpression protected against APE-induced myocardial injury, and microRNA-145-5p silencing abolished the beneficial effects of curcumin in APE-induced myocardial injury. IRS1 was targeted by microRNA-145-5p. IRS1 silencing attenuated APE-induced myocardial injury, and enhanced therapeutic effect of curcumin on myocardial injury in APE rats. In conclusion, curcumin alleviates myocardial inflammation, apoptosis, and oxidative stress induced by APE by regulating microRNA-145-5p/IRS1 axis.


Assuntos
Curcumina , Hominidae , MicroRNAs , Miocardite , Embolia Pulmonar , Humanos , Ratos , Animais , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Curcumina/farmacologia , Curcumina/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Apoptose , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Embolia Pulmonar/genética , Hominidae/genética , Hominidae/metabolismo
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6024, 2024 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38472259

RESUMO

The peopling of Europe during the Middle Pleistocene is a debated topic among paleoanthropologists. Some authors suggest the coexistence of multiple human lineages in this period, while others propose a single evolving lineage from Homo heidelbergensis to Homo neanderthalensis. The recent reassessment of the stratigraphy at the Sedia del Diavolo (SdD) site (Latium, Italy), now dated to the beginning of marine isotope stage (MIS) 8, calls for a revision of the human fossils from the site. In this paper, we present the morphometric, biomechanical and palaeopathological study of the second right metatarsal SdD2, to both re-evaluate its taxonomical affinities and possibly determine the levels of physical activity experienced by the individual during lifetime. Results demonstrate the persistence of archaic features in SdD2 suggesting new insights into the technology and hunting strategies adopted by Homo between MIS 9 and MIS 8.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Ossos do Metatarso , Homem de Neandertal , Animais , Humanos , Cidade de Roma , Itália , Fósseis , Evolução Biológica
7.
PLoS Biol ; 22(3): e3002507, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38451924

RESUMO

While the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum has low average genome-wide diversity levels, likely due to its recent introduction from a gorilla-infecting ancestor (approximately 10,000 to 50,000 years ago), some genes display extremely high diversity levels. In particular, certain proteins expressed on the surface of human red blood cell-infecting merozoites (merozoite surface proteins (MSPs)) possess exactly 2 deeply diverged lineages that have seemingly not recombined. While of considerable interest, the evolutionary origin of this phenomenon remains unknown. In this study, we analysed the genetic diversity of 2 of the most variable MSPs, DBLMSP and DBLMSP2, which are paralogs (descended from an ancestral duplication). Despite thousands of available Illumina WGS datasets from malaria-endemic countries, diversity in these genes has been hard to characterise as reads containing highly diverged alleles completely fail to align to the reference genome. To solve this, we developed a pipeline leveraging genome graphs, enabling us to genotype them at high accuracy and completeness. Using our newly- resolved sequences, we found that both genes exhibit 2 deeply diverged lineages in a specific protein domain (DBL) and that one of the 2 lineages is shared across the genes. We identified clear evidence of nonallelic gene conversion between the 2 genes as the likely mechanism behind sharing, leading us to propose that gene conversion between diverged paralogs, and not recombination suppression, can generate this surprising genealogy; a model that is furthermore consistent with high diversity levels in these 2 genes despite the strong historical P. falciparum transmission bottleneck.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Malária Falciparum , Malária , Parasitos , Animais , Humanos , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolismo , Parasitos/metabolismo , Conversão Gênica , Antígenos de Superfície , Malária/parasitologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Variação Genética
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6881, 2024 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38519515

RESUMO

Taphonomic works aim at discovering how paleontological and archaeofaunal assemblages were formed. They also aim at determining how hominin fossils were preserved or destroyed. Hominins and other mammal carnivores have been co-evolving, at least during the past two million years, and their potential interactions determined the evolution of human behavior. In order to understand all this, taxon-specific carnivore agency must be effectively identified in the fossil record. Until now, taphonomists have been able to determine, to some degree, hominin and carnivore inputs in site formation, and their interactions in the modification of part of those assemblages. However, the inability to determine agency more specifically has hampered the development of taphonomic research, whose methods are virtually identical to those used several decades ago (lagged by a high degree of subjectivity). A call for more objective and agent-specific methods would be a major contribution to the advancement of taphonomic research. Here, we present one of these advances. The use of computer vision (CV) on a large data set of images of tooth marks has enabled the objective discrimination of taxon-specific carnivore agency up to 88% of the testing sample. We highlight the significance of this method in an interdisciplinary interplay between traditional taphonomic-paleontological analysis and artificial intelligence-based computer science. The new questions that can be addressed with this will certainly bring important changes to several ideas on important aspects of the human evolutionary process.


Assuntos
Carnívoros , Hominidae , Dente , Animais , Humanos , Inteligência Artificial , Osso e Ossos , Fósseis , Computadores
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(11): e2313123121, 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38437546

RESUMO

Organized flaking techniques to obtain predetermined stone tools have been traced back to the early Acheulean (also known as mode 2) in Africa and are seen as indicative of the emergence of advanced technical abilities and in-depth planning skills among early humans. Here, we report one of the earliest known examples of prepared core technology in the archaeological record, at the Cenjiawan (CJW) site in the Nihewan basin of China, dated 1.1 Mya. The operational schemes reconstructed from the CJW refit sets, together with shaping patterns observed in the retouched tools, suggest that Nihewan basin toolmakers had the technical abilities of mode 2 hominins, and developed different survival strategies to adapt to local raw materials and environments. This finding predates the previously earliest known prepared core technology from Eurasia by 0.3 My, and the earliest known mode 2 sites in East Asia by a similar amount of time, thus suggesting that hominins with advanced technologies may have migrated into high latitude East Asia as early as 1.1 Mya.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Tecnologia , Humanos , Animais , Ásia Oriental , China , África
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(11): 6064-6076, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38465450

RESUMO

The process of producing cell-cultured meat involves utilizing a significant amount of culture medium, including fetal bovine serum (FBS), which represents a considerable portion of production expense while also raising environmental and safety concerns. This study demonstrated that supplementation with Auxenochlorella pyrenoidosa protein extract (APE) under low-serum conditions substantially increased Carassius auratus muscle (CAM) cell proliferation and heightened the expression of Myf5 compared to the absence of APE. An integrated intracellular metabolomics and proteomics analysis revealed a total of 13 and 67 differentially expressed metabolites and proteins, respectively, after supplementation with APE in the medium containing 5%FBS, modulating specific metabolism and signaling pathways, which explained the application of APE for passage cell culture under low-serum conditions. Further analysis revealed that the bioactive factors in the APE were protein components. Moreover, CAM cells cultured in reconstructed serum-free media containing APE, l-ascorbic acid, insulin, transferrin, selenium, and ethanolamine exhibited significantly accelerated growth in a scale-up culture. These findings suggest a promising alternative to FBS for fish muscle cell culture that can help reduce production costs and environmental impact in the production of cultured meat.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Soroalbumina Bovina , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Meios de Cultura , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Músculos
11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6619, 2024 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38503829

RESUMO

Pleistocene environments are among the most studied issues in paleoecology and human evolution research in eastern Africa. Many data have been recorded from archaeological sites located at low and medium elevations (≤ 1500 m), whereas few contexts are known at 2000 m and above. Here, we present a substantial isotopic study from Melka Kunture, a complex of prehistoric sites located at 2000-2200 m above sea level in the central Ethiopian highlands. We analyzed the stable carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of 308 faunal tooth enamel samples from sites dated between 2.02 and 0.6 Ma to investigate the animal diets and habitats. The carbon isotopic results indicate that the analyzed taxa had C4-dominated and mixed C3-C4 diets with no significant diachronic changes in feeding behavior with time. This is consistent with faunal and phytolith analyses, which suggested environments characterized by open grasslands (with both C3 and C4 grasses), patches of bushes and thickets, and aquatic vegetation. However, palynological data previously documented mountain forests, woodlands, and high-elevation grasslands. Additionally, the carbon isotopic comparison with other eastern African localities shows that differences in elevation did not influence animal feeding strategies and habitat partitioning, even though plant species vary according to altitudinal gradients. In contrast, the oxygen isotopic comparison suggests significant differences consistent with the altitude effect. Our approach allows us to detect diverse aspects of animal behavior, habitat, and vegetation that should be considered when reconstructing past environments.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Hominidae , Animais , Humanos , Etiópia , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise , Florestas
12.
Ann Hum Biol ; 51(1): 2321128, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38509686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Six Homo naledi early juveniles were recovered from U.W. 101 (Dinaledi Chamber), U.W. 102 (Lesedi Chamber), and U.W. 110 in the Rising Star cave system. AIM: This paper develops the information for the H. naledi early juvenile life stage, as defined by a combination of deciduous and permanent dentition, and the eruption of the first permanent molar. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The growing number of young individuals recovered from the Rising Star cave system allows us to gain a better understanding of their variation, or lack thereof, and provides a basis to estimate broad ranges for age at death of the individuals. The individuals are identified and described through craniodental remains and spatial associations. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Our results show that the teeth are remarkably consistent across the localities in their metric and non-metric traits, and our analyses refine previous estimations on dental eruptions with the first permanent molar erupting first in the sequence among permanent teeth.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Dente , Animais , Humanos , África do Sul , Fósseis , Fenótipo
13.
J Hum Evol ; 189: 103509, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38518437

RESUMO

Biased skeletal part representation is a key element for making inferences about transport decisions, carcass procurement, and use patterns in anthropogenic accumulations. In the absence of destructive taphonomic processes, it is often assumed that the abundance of different anatomical portions represents selective transport and discard patterns of human groups. Because body parts may be transported for specific products such as meat, marrow or grease, a pattern that usually attracts attention in many archaeological sites is the low proportions of appendicular epiphyses. Here we present the case of faunal assemblages from the lower stratigraphic sequence of Qesem Cave, Israel, dated to ca. 430 to 300 ka. All bone accumulations are characterized by a biased skeletal profile including mainly long-limb bones and a virtual absence of epiphyses. The assemblages also show density-mediated attrition not linked to fossil-diagenetic processes, a targeted specific destruction to the most greasy articular ends and an almost total absence of carnivore intervention. Our goal here is to explore the processes that entail the destruction of appendicular epiphyses at Qesem Cave, as well as propose viable hypotheses to explain their underrepresentation on-site. Our results shed light on the domestic activities linked to the processing of bones at the site and support the importance of animal grease in the caloric intake of Middle Pleistocene humans.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Animais , Humanos , Israel , Osso e Ossos , Fósseis , Cavernas , Arqueologia
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(13): e2318903121, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38466876

RESUMO

Two recently published analyses make cases for severe bottlenecking of human populations occurring in the late Early Pleistocene, one case at about 0.9 Mya based on a genomic analysis of modern human populations and the low number of hominin sites of this age in Africa and the other at about 1.1 Mya based on an age inventory of sites of hominin presence in Eurasia. Both models point to climate change as the bottleneck trigger, albeit manifested at very different times, and have implications for human migrations as a mechanism to elude extinction at bottlenecking. Here, we assess the climatic and chronologic components of these models and suggest that the several hundred-thousand-year difference is largely an artifact of biases in the chronostratigraphic record of Eurasian hominin sites. We suggest that the best available data are consistent with the Galerian hypothesis expanded from Europe to Eurasia as a major migration pulse of fauna including hominins in the late Early Pleistocene as a consequence of the opening of land routes from Africa facilitated by a large sea level drop associated with the first major ice age of the Pleistocene and concurrent with widespread aridity across Africa that occurred during marine isotope stage 22 at ~0.9 Mya. This timing agrees with the independently dated bottleneck from genomic analysis of modern human populations and allows speculations about the relative roles of climate forcing on the survival of hominins.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Animais , Humanos , Hominidae/genética , Fósseis , África , Europa (Continente) , Migração Humana
15.
Mol Biol Evol ; 41(4)2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38513084

RESUMO

Insects have repeatedly forged symbioses with heritable microbes, gaining novel traits. For the microbe, the transition to symbioses can lead to the degeneration of the symbiont's genome through transmission bottlenecks, isolation, and the loss of DNA repair enzymes. However, some insect-microbial symbioses have persisted for millions of years, suggesting that natural selection slows genetic drift and maintains functional consistency between symbiont populations. By sampling in multiple countries, we examine genomic diversity within a symbiont species, a heritable symbiotic bacterium found only in human head lice. We find that human head louse symbionts contain genetic diversity that appears to have arisen contemporaneously with the appearance of anatomically modern humans within Africa and/or during the colonization of Eurasia by humans. We predict that the observed genetic diversity underlies functional differences in extant symbiont lineages, through the inactivation of genes involved in symbiont membrane construction. Furthermore, we find evidence of additional gene losses prior to the appearance of modern humans, also impacting the symbiont membrane. From this, we conclude that symbiont genome degeneration is proceeding, via gene inactivation and subsequent loss, in human head louse symbionts, while genomic diversity is maintained. Collectively, our results provide a look into the genomic diversity within a single symbiont species and highlight the shared evolutionary history of humans, lice, and bacteria.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Pediculus , Animais , Humanos , Pediculus/genética , Filogenia , Genoma Bacteriano , Evolução Molecular , Bactérias/genética , Genômica , Hominidae/genética , Insetos/genética , Simbiose/genética
16.
Oecologia ; 204(3): 467-489, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38517529

RESUMO

Paleoenvironmental reconstructions of fossil sites based on isotopic analyses of enamel typically rely on data from multiple herbivore taxa, with the assumption that this dietary spectrum represents the community's isotopic range and provides insights into local or regional vegetation patterns. However, it remains unclear how representative the sampled taxa are of the broader herbivore community and how well these data correspond to specific ecosystems. Verifying these underlying assumptions is essential to refining the utility of enamel isotopic values for paleoenvironmental reconstructions. This study explores potential links between modern herbivore community carbon isotopic enamel spectra, biome types, and climate in sub-Saharan Africa. This region is one of the most comprehensively isotopically sampled areas globally and is of particular relevance to hominin evolution. Our extensive data compilation reveals that published enamel isotopic data from sub-Saharan Africa typically sample only a small percentage of the taxa documented at most localities and that some biome types (e.g., subtropical savannas) are dramatically overrepresented relative to others (e.g., forests) in these modern data sets. Multiple statistical analyses, including linear models and cluster analyses, revealed weak relationships of associated mammalian herbivore enamel isotopic values, biome type, and climate parameters. These results confound any simple assumptions about how community isotopic profiles map onto specific environments, highlighting the need for more precise strategic approaches in extending isotopic frameworks into the past for paleoecological reconstructions. Developing more refined modern analogs will ultimately allow us to more accurately characterize the isotopic spectra of paleo-communities and link isotopic dietary signatures to specific ecosystems.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Hominidae , Animais , Herbivoria , Fósseis , Mamíferos , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise
17.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0294346, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547134

RESUMO

The understanding of cultural dynamics at work at the end of the Final Pleistocene in West Africa suffers from a significant lack of excavated and dated sites, particularly in the Sahelian and Sudanian ecozones. While the Later Stone Age shows varied behavioral developments in different parts of the continent, the chrono-cultural framework of this period remains largely unknown in West Africa. We report on archaeological, geomorphological, and chronological research on two Final Pleistocene Later Stone Age sites in the Falémé Valley, eastern Senegal. Optically stimulated luminescence ages place the site of Toumboura I-2017 between 17 ± 1 and 16 ± 1 ka and the Ravin de Sansandé site between 13 ± 1 ka and 12 ± 1.1 ka. The excavated lithics show typical Later Stone Age industries, characterized by chaînes opératoires of core reduction mainly producing flakes and bladelets as well as blades and laminar flakes. Segments dominate the toolkits but a few backed bladelets and end-scrapers on flake blanks were recognized. Local raw materials were used, with a preference for chert and quartz, as well as greywacke. These Later Stone Age lithic assemblages are the oldest known in Senegal so far and add to the small number of sites known in West Africa for this period, which are mainly located farther south, in sub-tropical ecozones. The Later Stone Age sites of the Falémé Valley are contemporaneous with typical Middle Stone Age technologies in Senegal dated to at least the Pleistocene/Holocene transition. Our results thus provide new archaeological evidence highlighting the complex cultural processes at work during the Final Pleistocene in West Africa.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Hominidae , Animais , Senegal , Meio Ambiente , África Ocidental , Arqueologia/métodos
18.
Cell ; 187(5): 1042-1046, 2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428387

RESUMO

Growing evidence from archaic and early modern human genomes brings new insights to the emergence of modern humans. We recount recent information collected from ancient DNA studies that inform us about the evolutionary pathway to modern humanity. These findings point to both individual- and population-level advantages underlying modern human expansion.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , DNA Antigo , Hominidae , Animais , Humanos , Genoma Humano , Hominidae/genética
19.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299220, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38427618

RESUMO

Employees at wild great ape sites are at high risk of transmitting infectious diseases to endangered great apes. Because of the significant amount of time employees spend near great apes, they are a priority population for the prevention and treatment of zoonotic and zooanthroponotic spillover and need adequate preventive and curative healthcare. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews with 46 staff (rangers and porters) at Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda (BINP) and key informants from five other wild great ape sites around the world were performed. The objectives of the study were to 1) evaluate health-seeking behavior and health resources used by staff in contact with great apes at Bwindi Impenetrable National Park; 2) evaluate existing occupational health programs for employees working with great apes in other parts of the world; and 3) make recommendations for improvement of occupational health at BINP. Results show that BINP employees do not frequently access preventive healthcare measures, nor do they have easy access to diagnostic testing for infectious diseases of spillover concern. Recommendations include assigning a dedicated healthcare provider for great ape site staff, providing free annual physical exams, and stocking rapid malaria tests and deworming medication in first aid kits at each site.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Símios Antropoides , Doenças Transmissíveis , Hominidae , Animais , Humanos , Parques Recreativos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Uganda , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Gorilla gorilla
20.
Curr Biol ; 34(6): 1364-1369.e2, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38490201

RESUMO

Though common among humans, social play by adults is an uncommon occurrence in most animals, even between parents and offspring.1,2,3 The most common explanation for why adult play is so rare is that its function and benefits are largely limited to development, so that social play has little value later in life.3,4,5,6 Here, we draw from 10 years of behavioral data collected by the Kibale Chimpanzee Project to consider an alternative hypothesis: that despite its benefits, adult play in non-humans is ecologically constrained by energy shortage or time limitations. We further hypothesized that, since they may be the only available partners for their young offspring, mother chimpanzees pay greater costs of play than other adults. Our analysis of nearly 4,000 adult play bouts revealed that adult chimpanzees played both among themselves and with immature partners. Social play was infrequent when diet quality was low but increased with the proportion of high-quality fruits in the diet. This suggests that adults engage in play facultatively when they have more energy and/or time to do so. However, when diet quality was low and most adult play fell to near zero, play persisted between mothers and offspring. Increased use of play by adult chimpanzees during periods of resource abundance suggests that play retains value as a social currency beyond development but that its costs constrain its use. At the same time, when ecological conditions constrain opportunities for young to play, play by mothers fills a critical role to promote healthy offspring development.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Pan troglodytes , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Dieta , Comportamento Animal , Mães , Comportamento Social
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