Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 8.234
Filtrar
1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 655175, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490176

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic, affecting all countries, with millions of cases and deaths, and economic disruptions due to lockdowns, also threatens the health and conservation of endangered mountain gorillas. For example, increased poaching due to absence of tourism income, led to the killing on 1st June 2020 of a gorilla by a hungry community member hunting duiker and bush pigs. Conservation Through Public Health (CTPH), a grassroots NGO and non-profit founded in 2003 promotes biodiversity conservation by enabling people to co-exist with wildlife through integrated programs that improve animal health, community health, and livelihoods in and around Africa's protected areas and wildlife rich habitats. Through these programs, we have helped to mitigate these impacts. CTPH worked with Uganda Wildlife Authority and other NGOs to improve great ape viewing guidelines and prevent transmission of COVID-19 between people and gorillas. Park staff, Gorilla Guardians herding gorillas from community land to the park and Village Health and Conservation Teams were trained to put on protective face masks, enforce hand hygiene and a 10-meter great ape viewing distance. To reduce the communities' need to poach, CTPH found a UK-based distributor, for its Gorilla Conservation Coffee social enterprise enabling coffee farmers to earn revenue in the absence of tourism and provided fast growing seedlings to reduce hunger in vulnerable community members. Lessons learned show the need to support non-tourism dependent community livelihoods, and more responsible tourism to the great apes, which CTPH is advocating to governments, donors and tour companies through an Africa CSO Biodiversity Alliance policy brief.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hominidae , Animais , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Florestas , Gorilla gorilla , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Suínos , Uganda
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502760

RESUMO

A 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APES) fiber-optic sensor based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) was demonstrated. The MZI was constructed with a core-offset fusion single mode fiber (SMF) structure with a length of 3.0 cm. As APES gradually attaches to the MZI, the external environment of the MZI changes, which in turn causes change in the MZI's interference. That is the reason why we can obtain the relationships between the APES amount and resonance dip wavelength by measuring the transmission variations of the resonant dip wavelength of the MZI. The optimized amount of 1% APES for 3.0 cm MZI biosensors was 3 mL, whereas the optimized amount of 2% APES was 1.5 mL.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Hominidae , Animais , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica , Interferometria , Fibras Ópticas
3.
J Hum Evol ; 158: 103029, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384939

RESUMO

The aspects of hominin behavior responsible for Oldowan stone tool variation are the focus of much debate. There is some consensus that this variation arises from a combination of ecological and cultural factors. The diversity of raw material types and technological strategies present at Kanjera South, Kenya, provide an opportunity to examine the interacting influences of ecology and culture on Oldowan stone tool variation. Here, we combine previous analyses of raw material properties, provenance, and technology with quantitative measures of core reduction intensity and tool utilization to examine the influence of both ecological and technocultural factors on stone tool variation at Kanjera South. The results of this analysis reflect a dynamic relationship between raw material properties, provenance, and hominin mobility. Exotic raw materials are generally more resistant to edge attrition compared with those available locally, which may have incentivized their transport over long distances and more extensive reduction. Cores produced on raw materials from distant sources also exhibit more complex core reduction strategies than locally acquired materials. While this pattern is partially due to the differences in the quality of knappable stone, bifacial centripetal and multifacial core reduction strategies also arise due to the continuous transport and use of exotic raw materials. Moreover, the variation in stone tool reduction is not consistent with neutral models of stone tool transport and discard. These results demonstrate that ecological factors such as raw material provenance and physical properties have strong impacts on reduction intensity and the technological strategies used by hominins.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Hominidae , Tecnologia/história , Comportamento de Utilização de Ferramentas , Animais , Arqueologia , História Antiga , Quênia
4.
Biol Lett ; 17(9): 20210319, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464539

RESUMO

Human adult laughter is characterized by vocal bursts produced predominantly during exhalation, yet apes laugh while exhaling and inhaling. The current study investigated our hypothesis that laughter of human infants changes from laughter similar to that of apes to increasingly resemble that of human adults over early development. We further hypothesized that the more laughter is produced on the exhale, the more positively it is perceived. To test these predictions, novice (n = 102) and expert (phonetician, n = 15) listeners judged the extent to which human infant laughter (n = 44) was produced during inhalation or exhalation, and the extent to which they found the laughs pleasant and contagious. Support was found for both hypotheses, which were further confirmed in two pre-registered replication studies. Likely through social learning and the anatomical development of the vocal production system, infants' initial ape-like laughter transforms into laughter similar to that of adult humans over the course of ontogeny.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Riso , Voz , Adulto , Animais , Emoções , Humanos , Lactente
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4889, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429408

RESUMO

Whilst an African origin of modern humans is well established, the timings and routes of their expansions into Eurasia are the subject of heated debate, due to the scarcity of fossils and the lack of suitably old ancient DNA. Here, we use high-resolution palaeoclimate reconstructions to estimate how difficult it would have been for humans in terms of rainfall availability to leave the African continent in the past 300k years. We then combine these results with an anthropologically and ecologically motivated estimate of the minimum level of rainfall required by hunter-gatherers to survive, allowing us to reconstruct when, and along which geographic paths, expansions out of Africa would have been climatically feasible. The estimated timings and routes of potential contact with Eurasia are compatible with archaeological and genetic evidence of human expansions out of Africa, highlighting the key role of palaeoclimate variability for modern human dispersals.


Assuntos
DNA Antigo , Hominidae/genética , Migração Humana/história , África , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Emigração e Imigração , Fósseis , Variação Genética , Genoma Humano , História Antiga , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5118, 2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433829

RESUMO

TRP channel-associated factor 1/2 (TCAF1/TCAF2) proteins antagonistically regulate the cold-sensor protein TRPM8 in multiple human tissues. Understanding their significance has been complicated given the locus spans a gap-ridden region with complex segmental duplications in GRCh38. Using long-read sequencing, we sequence-resolve the locus, annotate full-length TCAF models in primate genomes, and show substantial human-specific TCAF copy number variation. We identify two human super haplogroups, H4 and H5, and establish that TCAF duplications originated ~1.7 million years ago but diversified only in Homo sapiens by recurrent structural mutations. Conversely, in all archaic-hominin samples the fixation for a specific H4 haplotype without duplication is likely due to positive selection. Here, our results of TCAF copy number expansion, selection signals in hominins, and differential TCAF2 expression between haplogroups and high TCAF2 and TRPM8 expression in liver and prostate in modern-day humans imply TCAF diversification among hominins potentially in response to cold or dietary adaptations.


Assuntos
Duplicação Gênica , Hominidae/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Seleção Genética , Animais , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Humano , Haplótipos , Humanos , Homem de Neandertal , Filogenia
7.
J Hum Evol ; 158: 103048, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340120

RESUMO

Homo naledi fossils from the Rising Star cave system provide important insights into the diversity of hand morphology within the genus Homo. Notably, the pollical (thumb) metacarpal (Mc1) displays an unusual suite of characteristics including a median longitudinal crest, a narrow proximal base, and broad flaring intrinsic muscle flanges. The present study evaluates the affinities of H. naledi Mc1 morphology via 3D geometric morphometric analysis of shaft shape using a broader comparative sample (n = 337) of fossil hominins, recent humans, apes, and cercopithecoid monkeys than in prior work. Results confirm that the H. naledi Mc1 is distinctive from most other hominins in being narrow at the proximal end but surmounted by flaring muscle flanges distally. Only StW 418 (Australopithecus cf. africanus) is similar in these aspects of shape. The gracile proximal shaft is most similar to cercopithecoids, Pan, Pongo, Australopithecus afarensis, and Australopithecus sediba, suggesting that H. naledi retains the condition primitive for the genus Homo. In contrast, Neandertal Mc1s are characterized by wide proximal bases and shafts, pinched midshafts, and broad distal flanges, while those of recent humans generally have straight shafts, less robust muscle flanges, and wide proximal shafts/bases. Although uncertainties remain regarding character polarity, the morphology of the H. naledi thumb might be interpreted as a retained intermediate state in a transformation series between the overall gracility of the shaft and the robust shafts of later hominins. Such a model suggests that the addition of broad medial and lateral muscle flanges to a primitively slender shaft was the first modification in transforming the Mc1 into the overall more robust structure exhibited by other Homo taxa including Neandertals and recent Homo sapiens in whose shared lineage the bases and proximal shafts became expanded, possibly as an adaptation to the repeated recruitment of powerful intrinsic pollical muscles.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Ossos Metacarpais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Cavernas , Haplorrinos/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Homem de Neandertal/anatomia & histologia
8.
Evol Anthropol ; 30(4): 253-261, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347329

RESUMO

Bipedal walking was one of the first key behavioral traits that defined the evolution of early hominins. While it is not possible to identify specific selection pressures underlying bipedal evolution, we can better understand how the adoption of bipedalism may have benefited our hominin ancestors. Here, we focus on how bipedalism relaxes constraints on nonhuman primate quadrupedal limb mechanics, providing key advantages during hominin evolution. Nonhuman primate quadrupedal kinematics, especially in our closest living relatives, the great apes, are dominated by highly flexed limb joints, often associated with high energy costs, and are constrained by the need to reduce loads on mobile, but less stable forelimb joints. Bipedal walking would have allowed greater hind limb joint extension, which is associated with reduced energy costs and increased endurance. We suggest that relaxing these constraints provided bipedal hominins important benefits associated with long distance foraging and mobility.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Hominidae/fisiologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Animais , Antropologia Física , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Fadiga , Humanos , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Postura/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia
9.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1954): 20210020, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229485

RESUMO

The domestic dog has inhabited the anthropogenic niche for at least 15 000 years, but despite their impact on human strategies, the lives of dogs and their interactions with humans have only recently become a subject of interest to archaeologists. In the Arctic, dogs rely exclusively on humans for food during the winter, and while stable isotope analyses have revealed dietary similarities at some sites, deciphering the details of provisioning strategies have been challenging. In this study, we apply zooarchaeology by mass spectrometry (ZooMS) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to dog palaeofaeces to investigate protein preservation in this highly degradable material and obtain information about the diet of domestic dogs at the Nunalleq site, Alaska. We identify a suite of digestive and metabolic proteins from the host species, demonstrating the utility of this material as a novel and viable substrate for the recovery of gastrointestinal proteomes. The recovered proteins revealed that the Nunalleq dogs consumed a range of Pacific salmon species (coho, chum, chinook and sockeye) and that the consumed tissues derived from muscle and bone tissues as well as roe and guts. Overall, the study demonstrated the viability of permafrost-preserved palaeofaeces as a unique source of host and dietary proteomes.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Proteoma , Alaska , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Dieta/veterinária , Cães
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4116, 2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238930

RESUMO

Increasing body and brain size constitutes a key macro-evolutionary pattern in the hominin lineage, yet the mechanisms behind these changes remain debated. Hypothesized drivers include environmental, demographic, social, dietary, and technological factors. Here we test the influence of environmental factors on the evolution of body and brain size in the genus Homo over the last one million years using a large fossil dataset combined with global paleoclimatic reconstructions and formalized hypotheses tested in a quantitative statistical framework. We identify temperature as a major predictor of body size variation within Homo, in accordance with Bergmann's rule. In contrast, net primary productivity of environments and long-term variability in precipitation correlate with brain size but explain low amounts of the observed variation. These associations are likely due to an indirect environmental influence on cognitive abilities and extinction probabilities. Most environmental factors that we test do not correspond with body and brain size evolution, pointing towards complex scenarios which underlie the evolution of key biological characteristics in later Homo.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Clima , Hominidae , Modelos Biológicos , Tamanho do Órgão , Filogenia , Temperatura
11.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1954): 20210711, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256002

RESUMO

The earliest widely accepted presence of humans in America dates to approximately 17.5 cal kyr BP, at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Among other evidence, this presence is attested by stone tools and associated cut-marks and other bone surface modifications (BSM), interpreted as the result of the consumption of animals by humans. Claims of an older human presence in the continent have been made based on the proposed anthropogenic modification of faunal remains; however, these have been controversial due to the highly subjective nature of the interpretations. Here, we employ advanced deep learning algorithms to objectively increase the accuracy of BSM identification on bones. With several models that exhibit BSM classification accuracies greater than 94%, we use ensemble learning techniques to robustly classify a selected sample of BSM from the approximately 30 kyr BP site of Arroyo del Vizcaíno, Uruguay. Our results confidently show the presence of cut-marks imparted by stone tools on bones at the site. This result supports an earlier presence of humans in the American continent, expanding additional genetic and archaeological evidence of a human LGM and pre-LGM presence in the continent.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Hominidae , Animais , Arqueologia , Osso e Ossos , Humanos , Uruguai
12.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 21(1): 139, 2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The most severe form of human malaria is caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum. This unicellular organism is a member of a subgenus of Plasmodium called the Laverania that infects apes, with P. falciparum being the only member that infects humans. The exceptional virulence of this species to humans can be largely attributed to a family of variant surface antigens placed by the parasites onto the surface of infected red blood cells that mediate adherence to the vascular endothelium. These proteins are encoded by a large, multicopy gene family called var, with each var gene encoding a different form of the protein. By changing which var gene is expressed, parasites avoid immune recognition, a process called antigenic variation that underlies the chronic nature of malaria infections. RESULTS: Here we show that the common ancestor of the branch of the Laverania lineage that includes the human parasite underwent a remarkable change in the organization and structure of elements linked to the complex transcriptional regulation displayed by the var gene family. Unlike the other members of the Laverania, the clade that gave rise to P. falciparum evolved distinct subsets of var genes distinguishable by different upstream transcriptional regulatory regions that have been associated with different expression profiles and virulence properties. In addition, two uniquely conserved var genes that have been proposed to play a role in coordinating transcriptional switching similarly arose uniquely within this clade. We hypothesize that these changes originated at a time of dramatic climatic change on the African continent that is predicted to have led to significant changes in transmission dynamics, thus selecting for patterns of antigenic variation that enabled lengthier, more chronic infections. CONCLUSIONS: These observations suggest that changes in transmission dynamics selected for significant alterations in the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that mediate antigenic variation in the parasite lineage that includes P. falciparum. These changes likely underlie the chronic nature of these infections as well as their exceptional virulence.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Malária , Parasitos , Animais , Variação Antigênica/genética , Humanos , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Virulência/genética
13.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 5(9): 1266-1272, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211141

RESUMO

Proboscideans were keystone Cenozoic megaherbivores and present a highly relevant case study to frame the timing and magnitude of recent megafauna extinctions against long-term macroevolutionary patterns. By surveying the entire proboscidean fossil history using model-based approaches, we show that the dramatic Miocene explosion of proboscidean functional diversity was triggered by their biogeographical expansion beyond Africa. Ecomorphological innovations drove niche differentiation; communities that accommodated several disparate proboscidean species in sympatry became commonplace. The first burst of extinctions took place in the late Miocene, approximately 7 million years ago (Ma). Importantly, this and subsequent extinction trends showed high ecomorphological selectivity and went hand in hand with palaeoclimate dynamics. The global extirpation of proboscideans began escalating from 3 Ma with further extinctions in Eurasia and then a dramatic increase in African extinctions at 2.4 Ma. Overhunting by humans may have served as a final double jeopardy in the late Pleistocene after climate-triggered extinction trends that began long before hominins evolved suitable hunting capabilities.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Hominidae , África , Animais , Humanos
14.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 176(2): 283-294, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227681

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: One of the most contentious issues in paleoanthropology is the nature of the last common ancestor of humans and our closest living relatives, chimpanzees and bonobos (panins). The numerical composition of the vertebral column has featured prominently, with multiple models predicting distinct patterns of evolution and contexts from which bipedalism evolved. Here, we study total numbers of vertebrae from a large sample of hominoids to quantify variation in and patterns of regional and total numbers of vertebrae in hominoids. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We compile and study a large sample (N = 893) of hominoid vertebral formulae (numbers of cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, caudal segments in each specimen) and analyze full vertebral formulae, total numbers of vertebrae, and super-regional numbers of vertebrae: presacral (cervical, thoracic, lumbar) vertebrae and sacrococcygeal vertebrae. We quantify within- and between-taxon variation using heterogeneity and similarity measures derived from population genetics. RESULTS: We find that humans are most similar to African apes in total and super-regional numbers of vertebrae. Additionally, our analyses demonstrate that selection for bipedalism reduced variation in numbers of vertebrae relative to other hominoids. DISCUSSION: The only proposed ancestral vertebral configuration for the last common ancestor of hominins and panins that is consistent with our results is the modal formula demonstrated by chimpanzees and bonobos (7 cervical-13 thoracic-4 lumbar-6 sacral-3 coccygeal). Hox gene expression boundaries suggest that a rostral shift in Hox10/Hox11-mediated complexes could produce the human modal formula from the proposal ancestral and panin modal formula.


Assuntos
Pan troglodytes , Coluna Vertebral , Animais , Antropologia Física , Antropometria , Evolução Biológica , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Hominidae/fisiologia , Humanos , Pan troglodytes/anatomia & histologia , Pan troglodytes/fisiologia , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia , Coluna Vertebral/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia
16.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 176(2): 262-282, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190335

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Size-corrected tooth crown measurements were used to estimate phenetic affinities among Homo naledi (~335-236 ka) and 11 other Plio-Pleistocene and recent species. To assess further their efficacy, and identify dental evolutionary trends, the data were then quantitatively coded for phylogenetic analyses. Results from both methods contribute additional characterization of H. naledi relative to other hominins. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After division by their geometric mean, scaled mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions were used in tooth size apportionment analysis to compare H. naledi with Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Paranthropus robustus, P. boisei, H. habilis, H. ergaster, H. erectus, H. heidelbergensis, H. neanderthalensis, H. sapiens, and Pan troglodytes. These data produce equivalently scaled samples unaffected by interspecific size differences. The data were then gap-weighted for Bayesian inference. RESULTS: Congruence in interspecific relationships is evident between methods, and with many inferred from earlier systematic studies. However, the present results place H. naledi as a sister taxon to H. habilis, based on a symplesiomorphic pattern of relative tooth size. In the preferred Bayesian phylogram, H. naledi is nested within a clade comprising all Homo species, but it shares some characteristics with australopiths and, particularly, early Homo. DISCUSSION: Phylogenetic analyses of relative tooth size yield information about evolutionary dental trends not previously reported in H. naledi and the other hominins. Moreover, with an appropriate model these data recovered plausible evolutionary relationships. Together, the findings support recent study suggesting H. naledi originated long before the geological date of the Dinaledi Chamber, from which the specimens under study were recovered.


Assuntos
Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Hominidae/classificação , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Antropologia Física , Teorema de Bayes , Evolução Biológica , Fósseis , Humanos , Filogenia , Coroa do Dente/anatomia & histologia
17.
Trends Ecol Evol ; 36(9): 797-807, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059368

RESUMO

A central goal of paleoanthropology is understanding the role of ecological change in hominin evolution. Over the past several decades researchers have expanded the hominin fossil record and assembled detailed late Cenozoic paleoclimatic, paleoenvironmental, and paleoecological archives. However, effective use of these data is precluded by the limitations of pattern-matching strategies for inferring causal relationships between ecological and evolutionary change. We examine several obstacles that have hindered progress, and highlight recent research that is addressing them by (i) confronting an incomplete fossil record, (ii) contending with datasets spanning varied spatiotemporal scales, and (iii) using theoretical frameworks to build stronger inferences. Expanding on this work promises to transform challenges into opportunities and set the stage for a new phase of paleoanthropological research.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Fósseis , Hominidae/genética
18.
J Anat ; 239(2): 351-373, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942895

RESUMO

Morphological variation in the hominoid capitate has been linked to differences in habitual locomotor activity due to its importance in movement and load transfer at the midcarpal joint proximally and carpometacarpal joints distally. Although the shape of bones and their articulations are linked to joint mobility, the internal structure of bones has been shown experimentally to reflect, at least in part, the loading direction and magnitude experienced by the bone. To date, it is uncertain whether locomotor differences among hominoids are reflected in the bone microarchitecture of the capitate. Here, we apply a whole-bone methodology to quantify the cortical and trabecular architecture (separately and combined) of the capitate across bipedal (modern Homo sapiens), knuckle-walking (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Gorilla sp.), and suspensory (Pongo sp.) hominoids (n = 69). It is hypothesized that variation in bone microarchitecture will differentiate these locomotor groups, reflecting differences in habitual postures and presumed loading force and direction. Additionally, it is hypothesized that trabecular and cortical architecture in the proximal and distal regions, as a result of being part of mechanically divergent joints proximally and distally, will differ across these portions of the capitate. Results indicate that the capitate of knuckle-walking and suspensory hominoids is differentiated from bipedal Homo primarily by significantly thicker distal cortical bone. Knuckle-walking taxa are further differentiated from suspensory and bipedal taxa by more isotropic trabeculae in the proximal capitate. An allometric analysis indicates that size is not a significant determinate of bone variation across hominoids, although sexual dimorphism may influence some parameters within Gorilla. Results suggest that internal trabecular and cortical bone is subjected to different forces and functional adaptation responses across the capitate (and possibly other short bones). Additionally, while separating trabecular and cortical bone is normal protocol of current whole-bone methodologies, this study shows that when applied to carpals, removing or studying the cortical bone separately potentially obfuscates functionally relevant signals in bone structure.


Assuntos
Osso Esponjoso/anatomia & histologia , Capitato/anatomia & histologia , Osso Cortical/anatomia & histologia , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Anisotropia , Biometria , Osso Esponjoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Capitato/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Cortical/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Microtomografia por Raio-X
19.
Evol Anthropol ; 30(3): 199-220, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951239

RESUMO

Questions surrounding the timing, extent, and evolutionary consequences of archaic admixture into human populations have a long history in evolutionary anthropology. More recently, advances in human genetics, particularly in the field of ancient DNA, have shed new light on the question of whether or not Homo sapiens interbred with other hominin groups. By the late 1990s, published genetic work had largely concluded that archaic groups made no lasting genetic contribution to modern humans; less than a decade later, this conclusion was reversed following the successful DNA sequencing of an ancient Neanderthal. This reversal of consensus is noteworthy, but the reasoning behind it is not widely understood across all academic communities. There remains a communication gap between population geneticists and paleoanthropologists. In this review, we endeavor to bridge this gap by outlining how technological advancements, new statistical methods, and notable controversies ultimately led to the current consensus.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , DNA Antigo/análise , Introgressão Genética/genética , Homem de Neandertal/genética , Animais , Antropologia Física , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Hominidae/classificação , Hominidae/genética , Humanos , Homem de Neandertal/classificação
20.
Nature ; 593(7857): 95-100, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33953416

RESUMO

The origin and evolution of hominin mortuary practices are topics of intense interest and debate1-3. Human burials dated to the Middle Stone Age (MSA) are exceedingly rare in Africa and unknown in East Africa1-6. Here we describe the partial skeleton of a roughly 2.5- to 3.0-year-old child dating to 78.3 ± 4.1 thousand years ago, which was recovered in the MSA layers of Panga ya Saidi (PYS), a cave site in the tropical upland coast of Kenya7,8. Recent excavations have revealed a pit feature containing a child in a flexed position. Geochemical, granulometric and micromorphological analyses of the burial pit content and encasing archaeological layers indicate that the pit was deliberately excavated. Taphonomical evidence, such as the strict articulation or good anatomical association of the skeletal elements and histological evidence of putrefaction, support the in-place decomposition of the fresh body. The presence of little or no displacement of the unstable joints during decomposition points to an interment in a filled space (grave earth), making the PYS finding the oldest known human burial in Africa. The morphological assessment of the partial skeleton is consistent with its assignment to Homo sapiens, although the preservation of some primitive features in the dentition supports increasing evidence for non-gradual assembly of modern traits during the emergence of our species. The PYS burial sheds light on how MSA populations interacted with the dead.


Assuntos
Sepultamento/história , Fósseis , Esqueleto/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Pré-Escolar , Evolução Cultural/história , Dentição , História Antiga , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Hominidae/classificação , Humanos , Quênia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...