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1.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 187, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mastication is important for breaking down food, aiding swallowing and nutrients absorption, and is therefore fundamental to a child's development. Studies have shown poor masticatory function to be associated with younger age and presence of caries. However, studies of the association between masticatory function and malocclusion yielded contradictory results. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate the association between three-dimensional occlusal features with masticatory function, among preschool children in Hong Kong. METHODS: Self-administered questionnaires on masticatory function in three domains, namely general chewing difficulty, requiring help when eating different food types and increased preference for soft food were completed by parents. Information on non-nutritive sucking habits and basic demographics were also collected in the questionnaire. Clinical examinations were conducted to record three-dimensional occlusal features and presence of caries. Baseline investigations and one-year follow-ups were undertaken for 1,566 and 996 preschool children. Association of poor masticatory function with occlusal features, sucking habits and caries was investigated using chi-squared tests. Binomial logistic regressions were then carried out incorporating any significant factors identified. Longitudinal analysis of the one-year follow-up data was carried out to investigate whether improved occlusal features, sucking habits and caries resulted in better masticatory function. RESULTS: In the cross-sectional study, the first domain of general chewing difficulty was associated with caries and thumb/digit sucking. The second domain of requiring help when eating different food types was associated with the male sex, younger age, caries and pacifier use. The last domain of increased preference for soft foods was associated with caries and thumb/digit sucking. Occlusal features, including abnormal overjet and unilateral permanent molars not in contact, were significantly associated with poor masticatory function in the bivariate analyses, but were not significant in the logistic regressions. In the longitudinal analysis, general chewing difficulty was found to improve in those of older age and those with resolved anterior crossbite. Less help was required to eat meat in those with fewer caries. Similarly, less help was required to eat food containing bones in those with reduced pacifier use. Preferences for eating soft foods was reduced in those who developed a normal overjet. CONCLUSIONS: The study identified significant relationships between masticatory difficulties and factors associated with age, gender, active caries, and non-nutritive oral habits such as thumb/digit sucking and pacifier use. Younger children and males required more assistance with certain food types. Active caries and thumb/digit sucking habits contributed to general masticatory difficulties and preference for soft foods. The one-year follow-up indicated that improvement in masticatory function varies across age cohorts and were associated with improved occlusal features, such as resolution of anterior crossbite and normalized overjet, reduced pacifier use, and a decrease in the number of decayed teeth.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão , Humanos , Masculino , Pré-Escolar , Hong Kong , Seguimentos , Estudos Transversais , Sucção de Dedo , Comportamento de Sucção , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 57, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38303003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While clinical diagnosis of mental health issues focuses on factual details represented by literal language (e.g., the onset and process of the triggering event and duration of symptom), the relationship between metaphorical language and psychopathological experiences remains an intriguing question. Focusing on psychological trauma triggered by the 2019-2020 Hong Kong social unrest, this study explored the correlations between trauma victims' quantitative metaphor usage patterns and their experience of specific Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) symptoms. METHODS: Forty-six individuals with trauma exposure within 28 days were recruited through convenience sampling. Each completed a 20- to 30-minute semi-structured interview and filled out the Chinese version of the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire (SASRQ; 1). Metaphors in the interviews were identified using the discourse dynamic approach (2), and clinically interesting categories related to trauma and emotion expression, as revealed by previous literature, were sorted out. Standardized frequencies of the categories were correlated with participants' SASRQ scores of five major ASD symptoms, and the correlational patterns were interpreted from a discourse analytic perspective. RESULTS: The study reveals how metaphor usage patterns can reflect the speakers' differentiated experiences of psychopathological symptoms. Compared with individuals who experienced less trauma, those more disturbed by the re-experiencing symptom were more inclined to use emotion-related metaphors and to metaphorize about the self and the self-society relationship. Individuals who experienced more severe anxiety and hyperarousal showed a heightened awareness of self-related issues and diminished attention to others. Those who suffered from more severe impairment in functioning produced more metaphors in the negative valence. Dissociation and avoidance, which were less experientially salient and intense than the others, were not significantly correlated with metaphor usage patterns. CONCLUSION: This study establishes symptom-level metaphor usage patterns as a previously overlooked but interesting avenue in trauma evaluation, treatment, and research. While the study is confined to a single context, it nevertheless reveals the potential for metaphor research findings to be incorporated as useful materials in psychology education and therapist training.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Metáfora , Humanos , Idioma , Emoções , Hong Kong
3.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0297004, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354175

RESUMO

The construction of expressways in China has produced diverse habitats along slopes characterized by steep gradients, uneven water distribution, poor soil conditions, and no routine maintenance. Manually planting beneficial species is an essential method of effectively improving slope soils to prevent soil erosion. However, few studies have evaluated the reclamation effects and plant community composition and structure used to restore slopes along expressways. This study focused on the Zhengzhou-Xinxiang section of the Beijing-Hong Kong-Macao Expressway. A total of 10 representative plant communities were evaluated using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP)-fuzzy integrated evaluation method. The sites were divided into four layers, namely, plant communities, soil nutrients, soil physical properties, and other ecological factors, and 14 indicators were assessed. The evaluation results showed that four of these plant communities (PCs) were excellent, three PCs were good, one PC was normal, two PCs were poor. The four excellent PCs had high Shannon-Wiener index, pielou index, richness index or community productivity. It is worth noting that most excellent plant community structures were tree + shrub + herb. Based on these results, we recommend that fill slopes should be restored using a combination of trees, herbs, and shrubs; also, the vegetation should include native plants, such as B. papyrifera, U. pumila, A. fruticosa, and Cynodon dactylon (L.). This study could provide ideas for plant community composition and structure of new highway slopes in similar climate environment, and provide theoretical support for plant community composition and structure and soil improvement for the existing slope.


Assuntos
Plantas , Solo , Hong Kong , Macau , Pequim , Solo/química , Ecossistema , China , Árvores
4.
J Med Internet Res ; 26: e51908, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence supports the effectiveness of serious games in health education, but little is known about their effects on the psychosocial well-being of children in the general population. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the potential of a mobile game-based safety education program in improving children's safety and psychosocial outcomes. METHODS: Safe City is a mobile roleplaying game specifically designed to educate children in Hong Kong about safety. This randomized controlled trial included 340 children in grades 4 through 6. Intervention arm participants (n=170) were instructed to play the Safe City mobile game for 4 weeks, whereas control arm participants (n=170) received a safety booklet. All participants completed a survey on safety knowledge and behaviors and psychosocial problems at baseline (T1), 1 month postintervention (T2), and 3 months postintervention (T3). Cumulative game scores and mini-game performance were analyzed as a proxy for the extent of exposure to the game. Outcome data were analyzed using 2-sample 2-tailed t tests to compare mean change from T1 to T2 and to T3 for intervention versus control arm participants. The association of game use with outcome changes postintervention was analyzed using generalized additive models. RESULTS: No significant differences were found in mean changes between the intervention and control arms. However, use analyses showed that higher game scores were associated with improvements in safe behavior (P=.03) and internalizing problems (P=.01) at T3. Matching and Spot the Danger mini-game performance significantly predicted improvements in safety knowledge at T2 and T3. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of use has shown that playing the Safe City mobile game can result in significant improvements in safety knowledge and reductions in unsafe behavior and internalizing problems. These findings provide evidence for the positive impact of serious games on psychological and social well-being, highlighting the potential of technology-driven interventions to assist children in learning about safety and preventing injuries. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.org NCT04096196; https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT04096196. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.2196/17756.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Jogos de Vídeo , Criança , Humanos , Educação em Saúde , Hong Kong , Conhecimento
6.
J Med Virol ; 96(2): e29326, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38345166

RESUMO

The recurrent multiwave nature of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) necessitates updating its symptomatology. We characterize the effect of variants on symptom presentation, identify the symptoms predictive and protective of death, and quantify the effect of vaccination on symptom development. With the COVID-19 cases reported up to August 25, 2022 in Hong Kong, an iterative multitier text-matching algorithm was developed to identify symptoms from free text. Multivariate regression was used to measure associations between variants, symptom development, death, and vaccination status. A least absolute shrinkage and selection operator technique was used to identify a parsimonious set of symptoms jointly associated with death. Overall, 70.9% (54 450/76 762) of cases were symptomatic with 102 symptoms identified. Intrinsically, the wild-type and delta variant caused similar symptoms among unvaccinated symptomatic cases, whereas the wild-type and omicron BA.2 subvariant had heterogeneous patterns, with seven symptoms (fatigue, fever, chest pain, runny nose, sputum production, nausea/vomiting, and sore throat) more frequent in the BA.2 cohort. With ≥2 vaccine doses, BA.2 was more likely than delta to cause fever among symptomatic cases. Fever, blocked nose, pneumonia, and shortness of breath remained jointly predictive of death among unvaccinated symptomatic elderly in the wild-type-to-omicron transition. Number of vaccine doses required for reducing occurrence varied by symptoms. We substantiate that omicron has a different clinical presentation compared to previous variants. Syndromic surveillance can be bettered with reduced reliance on symptom-based case identification, increased weighing on symptoms predictive of death in outcome prediction, individual-based risk assessment in care homes, and incorporating free-text symptom reporting.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Idoso , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Febre
7.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1286596, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347928

RESUMO

Background: This study investigated the public's support for the Living with the Virus (LWV) policy, its associated factors, and related mediations at a time when more countries were considering adopting the LWV policy amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A random, population-based telephone survey was conducted among 500 Chinese adults in Hong Kong during March/April 2022. Results: 39.6% of the participants were supportive/strongly supportive of the LWV policy. Perceived efficacy of the control measures was negatively associated with the support and was partially mediated via the perception that the policy would greatly improve the economy/daily life of the policy. Perceived physical harms of the Omicron variant was negatively associated with the support and was fully mediated via perceived negative impacts of the policy. 26.2%/54.6% believed that the policy would improve the economy/daily life greatly; about 40% perceived negative impacts on deaths and the medical system due to the policy. COVID-19 ever infection did not significantly moderate the studied associations. Conclusion: The public was split regarding the support for the LWV policy and whether it would cause better economy/daily life, unnecessary deaths, and the collapse of the medical system. Health communication is needed in shifting toward the LWV policy.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Análise de Mediação , Adulto , Humanos , Pandemias , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Povo Asiático , COVID-19/epidemiologia
8.
J Headache Pain ; 25(1): 24, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38378448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior research has shown that individual lifestyles were associated with migraine. Yet, few studies focused on combined lifestyles, particularly in Chinese populations. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the relationships of a combined lifestyle index with migraine in Hong Kong Chinese women. METHODS: Baseline data from a cohort study named Migraine Exposures and Cardiovascular Health in Hong Kong Chinese Women (MECH-HK) were used for analysis. In total 3510 women aged 55.2 ± 9.1 years were included. The combined lifestyle index comprised eight lifestyle factors: smoking, physical activity, sleep, stress, fatigue, diet, body mass index, and alcohol. Each component was attributed a point of 0 (unhealthy) or 1 (healthy). The overall index was the sum of these points, ranging from 0 (the least healthy) to 8 points (the healthiest). Migraine was diagnosed by the International Classification of Headache Disorders 3rd edition. Additionally, for women with migraine, the data on migraine attack frequency (attacks/month) was collected. RESULTS: A total of 357 women with migraine (10.2%) were identified. The prevalence of migraine for the 0-3-point, 4-point, 5-point, 6-point, and 7-8-point groups were 18.0% (162/899), 10.9% (86/788), 6.6% (51/776), 6.0% (38/636), and 4.9% (20/411), respectively. In the most-adjusted model, compared to the 0-3-point group, the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the 4-point, 5-point, 6-point, and 7-8-point groups were 0.57 (0.43-0.75), 0.33 (0.24-0.46), 0.30 (0.21-0.44), and 0.25 (0.15-0.41), respectively (all p < 0.001). For each component, migraine was significantly associated with sleep, stress, fatigue, and diet; but was unrelated to smoking, physical activity, body mass index, and alcohol. Among women with migraine, per point increase in the combined lifestyle index was associated with a reduced migraine attack frequency (ß = - 0.55; 95% confidence interval = - 0.82, - 0.28; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A combined lifestyle index was inversely associated with migraine and migraine attack frequency in Hong Kong Chinese women. Adhering to a healthy lifestyle pattern might be beneficial to the prevention of migraine attacks. Conversely, it is also plausible that women with migraine might have a less healthy lifestyle pattern compared to those without headaches.


Assuntos
Cefaleia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Fadiga
9.
Hong Kong Med J ; 30(1): 44-55, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38327165

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The fifth wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Hong Kong was dominated by the Omicron variant, which may cause more upper airway involvement in children. This study was performed to identify any associations between the Omicron variant of COVID-19 and croup in children. METHODS: This retrospective study reviewed the electronic medical records of patients admitted to Tuen Mun Hospital in Hong Kong from 1 January 2018 to 31 March 2022 under the diagnostic code for croup (J05.0 in the International Classification of Diseases 10th Edition). Patients were categorised into three groups according to their admission periods, namely, non-COVID-19, COVID-19-pre-Omicron, and COVID-19-Omicron groups. Disease associations and severity were compared according to incidence, Westley Croup Score, length of hospital stay, medication use, respiratory support, and intensive care unit admissions. RESULTS: The COVID-19 incidence among patients with croup was significantly higher in the COVID-19-Omicron group than in the COVID-19-pre-Omicron group (90.0% vs 2.0%; P<0.001). Compared with patients in the COVID-19-pre-Omicron and non-COVID-19 groups, patients in the COVID-19-Omicron group also had a higher Westley score (moderate and severe disease in the COVID-19-Omicron group: 56.7%; COVID-19-pre-Omicron group: 22.0%, P=0.004; non-COVID-19 group: 24.8%, P<0.001), longer median hospital stay (COVID-19-Omicron group: 3.00 days; COVID-19-pre-Omicron group: 2.00 days, P<0.001; non-COVID-19 group: 2.00 days, P=0.034), and higher mean dexamethasone requirement (COVID-19-Omicron group: 0.78 mg/kg; COVID-19-pre-Omicron group: 0.49 mg/kg, P<0.001; non-COVID-19 group: 0.58 mg/kg, P=0.001). CONCLUSION: The Omicron variant of COVID-19 is associated with croup and can cause more severe disease in Hong Kong children.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Crupe , Infecções Respiratórias , Criança , Humanos , Crupe/epidemiologia , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Hong Kong Med J ; 30(1): 25-31, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38327202

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused extensive disruption of public health worldwide. There were reports of COVID-19 patients having multiple complications. This study investigated COVID-19 from a genetic perspective. METHODS: We conducted RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis of respiratory tract samples from 24 patients with COVID-19. Eight patients receiving mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were regarded as severe cases; the remaining 16 patients were regarded as non-severe cases. After quality control, statistical analyses were performed by logistic regression and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to identify genes associated with disease severity. RESULTS: Six genes were associated with COVID-19 severity in both statistical tests, namely RPL15, BACE1-AS, CEPT1, EIF4G1, TMEM91, and TBCK. Among these genes, RPL15 and EIF4G1 played roles in the regulation of mRNA translation. Gene ontology analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in nervous system diseases. CONCLUSION: RNA sequencing analysis showed that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection is associated with the overexpression of genes involved in nervous system disorders.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/genética , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases , Análise de Sequência de RNA
11.
Hong Kong Med J ; 30(1): 33-43, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38369958

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic created many challenges for Hong Kong residents attempting to maintain healthy lifestyle habits. This study aimed to measure the prevalences of unhealthy dietary habits and physical inactivity levels in Hong Kong Chinese, identify associated factors, and conduct a time trend analysis during the third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted in Hong Kong by simple random sampling. The survey comprised socio-demographic characteristics, clinical information, the Hong Kong Diet Score (HKDS), smoking and alcohol consumption, and a Chinese version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form. The composite outcome was low HKDS, physical inactivity, smoking, and alcohol consumption. We used 14 Health Behaviour Survey reports from 2003 to 2019 to establish a trend analysis regarding fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity level, smoking, and alcohol consumption. RESULTS: We performed 1500 complete telephone surveys with a response rate of 58.8%. Most participants were older adults (≥65 years, 66.7%), women (65.6%), and married (77.9%). The HKDS was significantly lower in men, single individuals, low-income participants, alcohol drinkers, and patients with diabetes mellitus or renal disease. Participants who were single, undergoing long-term management of medical diseases, or had diabetes or renal diseases exhibited greater likelihood of physical inactivity. CONCLUSION: Prevalences of unhealthy lifestyle habits were high among men, single individuals, and chronic disease patients during the third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Hong Kong. The adoption of physical activity habits tended to decrease in the past two decades.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar
12.
J Med Virol ; 96(2): e29460, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38348874

RESUMO

A cross-sectional study in 2021-23 collected oral rinse gargle samples from an human papillomaviruses (HPV) vaccine-naïve general adult population in Hong Kong. HPV was detected by a PCR using SPF10 primers, and genotyped by a linear array covering 25 genotypes. Epidemiologic information including sociodemographics, medical history, oral health, and sexual behavior were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. Altogether, 2323 subjects aged 18-75 (median 47) years with 50.1% male were recruited. The prevalence for oral HPV infection with all genotypes combined, high-risk, and low-risk genotypes was 1.5%, 0.7%, and 0.7%, respectively; and with no statistically significant difference between participant gender. The prevalence increased with age and was highest in women at 45-54 years (2.7% for all genotypes combined), and highest in men aged >64 years (4.1% for all genotypes combined). HPV52 was the most common genotype among all participants. Univariate analysis suggested more lifetime sexual or oral sexual partners as risk factors, but they did not reach statistical significance upon multivariate analysis; whereas higher educational level had an independent protective effect. To conclude, oral HPV prevalence increased with age in Hong Kong. Strategies to prevent oral HPV infection and the associated cancers are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Sexual , Fatores de Risco , Papillomaviridae/genética , Genótipo
13.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 53, 2024 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38195512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-institutionalised older adults is the majority of older adults in Hong Kong. The study aimed to examine erosive tooth wear (ETW) and its association with dental conditions and oral hygiene habits among non-institutionalised older adults in Hong Kong. METHODS: This cross-sectional study recruited dentate adults aged 60 or above from nine elderly daycare centres in the five main districts of Hong Kong. The study consists of a questionnaire survey and a clinical examination. A researcher used a questionnaire to collected the participants' demographic information, oral hygiene habits such as toothbrushing habits and dental visit behaviour. A calibrated examiner performed an oral examination in the daycare elderly centre to assess the ETW using basic erosive wear (BEWE) criteria. Oral hygiene was recorded using visible plaque index. Prosthetic status was recorded using the World Health Organization criteria. Logistic regression was used to examine the correlation between ETW and the dental conditions and oral hygiene habits. RESULTS: This study recruited 433 dentate adults and 333 adults were female (77%). Their age ranged from 60 to 99 years and their mean age was 74 years (SD = 7). They all had ETW (BEWE > 0). Over half of them (57%) had BEWE score of 3, indicating severe ETW. Analysis showed increasing age (OR = 1.030, p = 0.029) and older adults with untreated dental caries had higher odds (OR = 1.822, p = 0.002) of presenting severe ETW. No other associations were found between the ETW and the factors studied. CONCLUSION: Hong Kong non-institutionalised older adults aged 60 or above had ETW and more than half of them had severe ETW. Increasing age and having untreated dental caries were associated with severe ETW.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Desgaste dos Dentes , Idoso , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Higiene Bucal
14.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 160, 2024 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38212752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research has well-documented that family functioning is an important predictor of individuals' physical and mental health. However, relatively little research has explored family functioning at the family and population levels, such as changes in family functioning across years and whether predictors of family functioning differ across different family structures. Understanding of the changes in family functioning across years and factors promoting family functioning will inform the development of preventive measures to enhance family health and resilience. Objectives of the study were: (1) to examine the changes in family functioning across a 6-year study period and (2) to study protective factors associated with family functioning and the extent to which the factors are the same or different across different family structures. METHOD: The study involved secondary data analysis of the biannual Family Survey carried out by the Family Council, an advisory body to the Hong Kong government. A series of ANOVA and regression analyses were conducted using data of four population-based cross-sectional household surveys conducted in Hong Kong in 2011, 2013, 2015, and 2017. RESULTS: There were some fluctuations in overall family functioning scores across the study period, but no significant difference was found between the scores in 2011 and 2017. Different predictors of family functioning were found for different family types, and frequent family communication was a common protective factor for most family types, including never married, married/cohabiting with children, and married/cohabiting with no children. CONCLUSION: The study is among the first to examine changes in family functioning at the population level. Monitoring and addressing family functioning may help tackle various social problems and future public health crises. Interventions to promote family functioning should address both common and different protective factors of different family types.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Saúde Mental , Criança , Humanos , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Int J Equity Health ; 23(1): 8, 2024 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38233876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Female migrant domestic workers (MDW), approximately 8.5 million globally, often live in their employer's home under vulnerable conditions. In Hong Kong, MDWs currently comprise 5% of the population. This study was conducted to assess the association between employment conditions and mental health, and the mediating roles stress and job satisfaction have, among female MDWs in Hong Kong. METHODS: Participants completed an online cross-sectional survey. A total of 1,965 survey were collected between August 2020 and August 2021. Questions in the survey were related to MDWs background information, employment conditions, stress, job satisfaction, and two mental health outcomes: anxiety and depression. An employment conditions score was created to assess the cumulative effect poor employment conditions had on mental health. A multicategorical parallel mediation analysis was used to assess the direct effect employment conditions have on mental health and the indirect effects through stress and job satisfaction. RESULTS: Overall, 17.7% of MDWs were reported to be suffering from anxiety and 30.8% from depression. An increase in poor employment conditions was statistically associated with an increase in both outcomes, while stress levels and job satisfaction mediated this association. CONCLUSIONS: The findings call for increased scrutiny of employment conditions and mental well-being of MDWs.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Migrantes , Humanos , Feminino , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Análise de Mediação , Emprego/psicologia
16.
BMC Med ; 22(1): 30, 2024 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38273323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Incorrect drug 'allergy' labels remain a global public health concern. Identifying regional trends of drug allergy labeling can guide appropriate public health interventions, but longitudinal or population drug allergy studies remain scarce. We analysed the serial epidemiology of drug allergy labeling to identify specific subgroups at highest risk of drug allergy labeling for potential interventions. METHODS: Longitudinal, population-wide drug allergy labels and clinical data from over 7,337,778 individuals in Hong Kong between 2016 and 2021 were analysed. RESULTS: The absolute prevalence and incidence of documented drug allergy were 5.61% and 277/100,000 population, respectively. Annual incidence of new allergy labels was stable between 2016 and 2019, until a significant drop in 2020 (-16.3%) during the COVID19 pandemic. The most common allergy labels were anti-infectives (245,832 [44.5%]), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (106,843 [19.3%]), and nervous system drugs (45,802 [8.3%]). The most common labeled culprits for the most severe immediate-type (anaphylaxis) and non-immediate-type (Stevens-Johnson syndrome) reactions were beta-lactams and nervous system drugs, respectively. For individuals at highest risk of labeling, there was significantly higher incidence of overall drug and beta-lactam allergy labeling amongst individuals aged > 40 years which contributed to the majority of newly labeled allergies (377,004, 68.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to traditional dogma, we identified disproportionately higher incidence of drug allergy labeling amongst older individuals, rather than the paediatric age group. We advocate for more population-wide drug allergy studies to investigate this phenomenon in other cohorts as well as future preventative and delabeling efforts focusing on the adult population.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade a Drogas , Hipersensibilidade , Adulto , Humanos , Criança , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/epidemiologia , beta-Lactamas , Antibacterianos
17.
J Affect Disord ; 349: 583-595, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38176449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examined the cumulative risk of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors and the associations between overall lifestyle and common mental disorders (CMDs), insomnia, stress, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and functional impairment. Additionally, the treatment preferences for managing CMDs and insomnia were examined. METHODS: A survey was conducted on 1487 Chinese Hong Kong adults, assessing their lifestyle behaviors (i.e., diet and nutrition, substance use, physical activity, stress management, restorative sleep, social support, and environmental exposures), mental health-related outcomes, and treatment preferences via a vignette. RESULTS: The findings revealed significant additive relationships between the number of 'worse' lifestyle domains and the risk of all outcomes. A healthier overall lifestyle was significantly associated with reduced risks of all outcomes (AORs = 0.88 to 0.93). Having healthier practices in diet and nutrition, substance use, stress management, restorative sleep, and social support domains were significantly associated with lower risks of all outcomes (AORs = 0.93 to 0.98), except that substance use was not significantly associated with stress. Physical activity was inversely associated with only depressive symptoms (AOR = 0.98), anxiety symptoms (AOR = 0.99), and stress (AOR = 0.99). Environmental exposures were not significantly associated with functional impairment but with all other outcomes (AORs = 0.98 to 0.99). Besides, lifestyle interventions (55 %) were significantly more preferred for managing CMDs and insomnia relative to psychotherapy (35.4 %) and pharmacotherapy (9.6 %). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings underscore the importance of considering lifestyle factors when managing CMDs, insomnia, stress, HRQOL, and functional impairment, with a particular emphasis on adopting a multicomponent treatment approach.


Assuntos
Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Adulto , Saúde Mental , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/terapia , Estilo de Vida , Hong Kong/epidemiologia
18.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 199: 116002, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38181470

RESUMO

Bacteria play important roles in coral health, yet little is known about the dynamics of coral-associated bacterial communities during coral bleaching. Here, we reported the dynamic changes of bacterial communities in three scleractinian corals (Montipora peltiformis, Pavona decussata and Platygyra carnosa) during and after bleaching through amplicon sequencing. Our results revealed that the bacterial composition and dominant bacteria varied among the three coral species. The higher susceptibility of M. peltiformis to bleaching corresponded to a lower bacterial community diversity, and the dominant Synechococcus shifted in abundance during the bleaching and coral recovery phases. The resilient P. decussata and P. carnosa had higher bacterial diversity and a more similar bacterial composition between the healthy and bleached conditions. Overall, our study reveals the dynamic changes in coral-associated microbial diversity under different conditions, contributing to explaining the differential susceptibility of corals to extreme climate conditions.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Synechococcus , Animais , Antozoários/microbiologia , Hong Kong , Clima , Recifes de Corais
19.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 199: 115964, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38194823

RESUMO

Diagnosis of eutrophication requires evidence of disturbance to the balance of organisms. We describe a tool, the Plankton Community Integrity Index (PCII), derived from the Plankton Index (PI) for tracking change in the seasonal patterns of abundance of diatom and dinoflagellate lifeforms when plotted in state space. The tool uses a nutrient-minimum reference period to interpret PCII values as status indicators, with values close to 1 indicating "High" status and 0.6 a Biological Water Quality Criterion (BioWQC) target set at the "Fair"/"Good" status boundary. It has been applied to Hong Kong marine waters, using data from monthly samples from 1995 through 2021. A preliminary analysis, required for the PI method, confirmed monsoonal seasonality in the diatom lifeform. In 5 of the 9 water bodies examined, PCII time series correlated with those of Total Inorganic Nitrogen (TIN). Since 2020, all Water Control Zones met the operationally defined BioWQC target.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Fitoplâncton , Hong Kong , Eutrofização , Qualidade da Água
20.
Chemosphere ; 351: 141208, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38219986

RESUMO

Plastics are indispensable in modern society but also pose a persistent threat to the environment. In particular, microplastics (MPs) have a substantial environmental impact on ecosystems. Municipal solid waste landfill leachates are a source of MPs, but leakage of MPs from leachates has only been reported in a few studies. As a modern city, Hong Kong has a remarkably high population density and a massive plastic waste generation. However, it depends on conventional landfilling for plastic waste management and traditional thermal ammonia stripping for leachate treatment. Yet, the MP leakage from landfill leachates in Hong Kong has not been disclosed. This is the first study that aimed to identify, quantify, and characterise MPs in raw and treated leachates, respectively, from major landfill sites in Hong Kong. The concentrations of MPs varied from 49.0 ± 24.3 to 507.6 ± 37.3 items/L among the raw leachate samples, and a potential correlation was found between the concentration of MPs in the raw leachate sample from a given landfill site and the annual leachate generation of the site. Most MPs were 100-500 µm fragments or filaments and were transparent or yellow. Regarding the polymeric materials among the identified MPs, poly(ethylene terephthalate) and polyethylene were the most abundant types, comprising 45.30% and 21.37% of MPs, respectively. Interestingly, leachates treated by ammonia stripping contained higher concentrations of MPs than raw leachate samples, which demonstrated that the traditional treatment process may not be sufficient regarding the removal of emerging pollutants, such as MPs. Overall, our findings provide a more comprehensive picture of the pollution of MPs in landfill leachates in Hong Kong and highlight the urgent need for adopting the consideration of MPs into the conventional mindset of waste management systems in Hong Kong.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Hong Kong , Amônia , Ecossistema , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , China
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