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1.
Asia Pac J Clin Oncol ; 17 Suppl 3: 27-38, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To establish a set of consensus statements for the management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma, a total of 12 urologists and clinical oncologists from two professional associations in Hong Kong formed an expert consensus panel. METHODS: Through a series of meetings and using the modified Delphi method, the panelists presented recent evidence, discussed clinical experiences, and drafted consensus statements on several areas of focus regarding the management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Each statement was eventually voted upon by every panelist based on the practicability of recommendation. RESULTS: A total of 46 consensus statements were ultimately accepted and established by panel voting. CONCLUSIONS: Derived from recent evidence and expert insights, these consensus statements were aimed at providing practical guidance to optimize metastatic renal cell carcinoma management and promote a higher standard of clinical care.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/terapia , Neoplasias Renais/terapia , Urologia/métodos , Consenso , Hong Kong , Humanos , Metástase Neoplásica
2.
Asia Pac J Clin Oncol ; 17 Suppl 3: 12-26, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To update the Hong Kong Urological Association-Hong Kong Society of Uro-Oncology consensus statements on the management of advanced prostate cancer, the same panelists as in the previous consensus panel held a series of meetings to discuss updated clinical evidence and experiences. METHODS: The previous consensus statements were retained, deleted, or revised, and new statements were added. At the final meeting, all statements were reviewed and amended as appropriate, followed by panel voting. RESULTS: There were significant changes and additions to the previous consensus statements, primarily driven by the advances in androgen receptor signaling inhibitors, treatment sequencing in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, and increasing recognition of oligometastatic prostate cancer since the introduction of prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography. In this update, a total of 59 consensus statements were accepted and established. CONCLUSIONS: The consensus panel updated consensus statements on the management of advanced prostate cancer, aiming to allow physicians in the region to keep abreast of the recent evidence on optimal clinical practices.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Urologia/métodos , História do Século XXI , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia
3.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 30: e32, 2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902775

RESUMO

AIMS: Suicide accounts for 2.2% of all years of life lost worldwide. We aimed to establish whether infectious epidemics are associated with any changes in the incidence of suicide or the period prevalence of self-harm, or thoughts of suicide or self-harm, with a secondary objective of establishing the frequency of these outcomes. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and AMED were searched from inception to 9 September 2020. Studies of infectious epidemics reporting outcomes of (a) death by suicide, (b) self-harm or (c) thoughts of suicide or self-harm were identified. A random-effects model meta-analysis for the period prevalence of thoughts of suicide or self-harm was conducted. RESULTS: In total, 1354 studies were screened with 57 meeting eligibility criteria, of which 7 described death by suicide, 9 by self-harm, and 45 thoughts of suicide or self-harm. The observation period ranged from 1910 to 2020 and included epidemics of Spanish Flu, severe acute respiratory syndrome, human monkeypox, Ebola virus disease and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Regarding death by suicide, data with a clear longitudinal comparison group were available for only two epidemics: SARS in Hong Kong, finding an increase in suicides among the elderly, and COVID-19 in Japan, finding no change in suicides among children and adolescents. In terms of self-harm, five studies examined emergency department attendances in epidemic and non-epidemic periods, of which four found no difference and one showed a reduction during the epidemic. In studies of thoughts of suicide or self-harm, one large survey showed a substantial increase in period prevalence compared to non-epidemic periods, but smaller studies showed no difference. As a secondary objective, a meta-analysis of thoughts of suicide and self-harm found that the pooled prevalence was 8.0% overall (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.2-12.0%; 14 820 of 99 238 cases in 24 studies) over a time period of between seven days and six months. The quality assessment found 42 studies were of high quality, nine of moderate quality and six of high quality. CONCLUSIONS: There is little robust evidence on the association of infectious epidemics with suicide, self-harm and thoughts of suicide or self-harm. There was an increase in suicides among the elderly in Hong Kong during SARS and no change in suicides among young people in Japan during COVID-19, but it is unclear how far these findings may be generalised. The development of up-to-date self-harm and suicide statistics to monitor the effect of the current pandemic is an urgent priority.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Influenza Pandêmica, 1918-1919 , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Suicídio , Adolescente , Idoso , Criança , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , História do Século XX , Hong Kong , Humanos , Japão , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia
4.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 230, 2021 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the differences in caregiver activity, caregiver burden, and awareness of both caregivers and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) across different Asian locations. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of a multi-national cohort study that aimed to assess caregiver activity and caregiver burden using the Caregiver Activity Scale (CAS) and Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI), respectively. Patients' awareness of their dementia diagnosis was assessed by asking the following yes/no question: "Do you have dementia?" Caregivers' awareness of the patient's dementia diagnosis was assessed by asking the following yes/no question: "Does your patient have dementia?" RESULTS: In total, 524 caregivers of patients with AD from China, Hong Kong, South Korea, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Taiwan participated. The CAS and ZBI score were significantly different across most locations (p < 0.001 and p = 0.033, respectively). Overall, 56.6% of caregivers and 37.5% of patients had awareness of the dementia diagnosis, and the proportion of patients and caregivers with awareness were also different between each location (all, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Caregiving, caregiver burden, and the awareness of caregivers and patients were different across many Asian locations. With understanding of cultural differences, further public education on dementia could help increase the awareness of patients and caregivers and reduce caregiver burden. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT02262975 . Registered 13 October 2014.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Demência , China , Estudos de Coortes , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/terapia , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , República da Coreia , Singapura/epidemiologia , Taiwan , Tailândia
5.
Global Health ; 17(1): 43, 2021 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The negative impact of COVID-19 pandemic on public mental health can be persistent and substantial over a long period of time, but little is known regarding what psychological factors or processes can buffer such impact. The present study aimed to examine the mediating roles of coping, psychological flexibility and prosociality in the impacts of perceived illness threats toward COVID-19 on mental health. METHOD: Five-hundred and fourteen Hong Kong citizens (18 years or above) completed an online survey to measure illness perceptions toward COVID-19, coping, psychological flexibility, prosociality, and mental health, together with their socio-demographic variables. Structural equation modelling was used to explore the explanatory model that was the best-fit to illustrate the relationships between these constructs. RESULTS: Serial mediation structural equation model showed that only psychological flexibility (unstandardised beta coefficient, ß = - 0.12, 95% CI [- 0.20, - 0.02], p = 0.031) and prosociality (unstandardised ß = 0.04, 95% CI [0.01, 0.08], p = 0.001) fully mediated the relationship between illness perceptions toward COVID-19 and mental health. In addition, psychological flexibility exerted a direct effect on prosociality (standardised ß = 0.22, 95% CI [0.12, 0.32], p < 0.001). This best-fit model explained 62% of the variance of mental health. CONCLUSIONS: Fostering psychological flexibility and prosocial behaviour may play significant roles in mitigating the adverse effects of COVID-19 and its perceived threats on public mental health.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Saúde Mental , Comportamento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 250, 2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is on one hand sufficient evidence showing strong association between resilience and self-rated successful aging. On the other hand, strength training could contribute the cultivation of resilience among older adults. Therefore, the current study aims to examine the effectiveness of resistance training on resilience among Chinese older adults in Hong Kong. METHODS: This study will apply a three-group, double blinded (outcome assessors and data analysts), randomized controlled trial (RCT) to examine the effectiveness of the interventions on resilience, functional fitness, and health related quality of life immediately after a 16-week intervention, as well as the residual effects 12 weeks after completion of the interventions. DISCUSSION: It is expected that resistance training is promising or even superior to aerobic training in the improvement of resilience. Given the limited evidence on the literature, it is urgently needed to explore the effects of resistance training on the improvement of resilience in older adults. Findings of the current study can contribute to the development of effective resistant training programs for the promotion of resilience among older adults. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial is registered at the ClinicalTrials.gov PRS (Trial ID: NCT04690465 ; Date of First Posted: 30/12/2020).


Assuntos
Treinamento de Resistência , Idoso , China , Exercício Físico , Hong Kong , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
7.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 261, 2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Informal caregiving for people with dementia can negatively impact caregivers' health. In Asia-Pacific regions, growing dementia incidence has made caregiver burnout a pressing public health issue. A cross-sectional study with a representative sample helps to understand how caregivers experience burnout throughout this region. We explored the prevalence and contributing factors of burnout of caregivers of community-dwelling older people with dementia in Hong Kong (HK), China, and New Zealand (NZ) in this study. METHODS: Analysis of interRAI Home Care Assessment data for care-recipients (aged ≥65 with Alzheimer's disease/other dementia) who had applied for government-funded community services and their caregivers was conducted. The sample comprised 9976 predominately Chinese in HK and 16,725 predominantly European in NZ from 2013 to 2016. Caregiver burnout rates for HK and NZ were calculated. Logistic regression was used to determine the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of the significant factors associated with caregiver burnout in both regions. RESULTS: Caregiver burnout was present in 15.5 and 13.9% of the sample in HK and NZ respectively. Cross-regional differences in contributing factors to burnout were found. Care-recipients' ADL dependency, fall history, and cohabitation with primary caregiver were significant contributing factors in NZ, while primary caregiver being child was found to be significant in HK. Some common contributing factors were observed in both regions, including care-recipients having behavioural problem, primary caregiver being spouse, providing activities-of-daily-living (ADL) care, and delivering more than 21 h of care every week. In HK, allied-health services (physiotherapy, occupational therapy and speech therapy) protected caregiver from burnout. Interaction analysis showed that allied-health service attenuates the risk of burnout contributed by care-recipient's older age (85+), cohabitation with child, ADL dependency, mood problem, and ADL care provision by caregivers. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights differences in service delivery models, family structures and cultural values that may explain the cross-regional differences in dementia caregiving experience in NZ and HK. Characteristics of caregiving dyads and their allied-health service utilization are important contributing factors to caregiver burnout. A standardized needs assessment for caregivers could help policymakers and healthcare practitioners to identify caregiving dyads who are at risk of burnout and provide early intervention.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Vida Independente , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Esgotamento Psicológico/epidemiologia , China , Estudos Transversais , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Nova Zelândia
8.
Asia Pac J Clin Oncol ; 17 Suppl 3: 48-54, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860643

RESUMO

AIM: In response to the fast-developing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, special arrangement and coordination are urgently required in the interdisciplinary care of patients across different medical specialties. This article provides recommendations on the management of different stages of localized or metastatic prostate cancer (PC) amid this pandemic. METHODS: The Hong Kong Urological Association and Hong Kong Society of Uro-oncology formed a joint discussion panel, which consisted of six urologists and six clinical oncologists with extensive experience in the public and private sectors. Following an evidence-based approach, the latest relevant publications were searched and reviewed, before proceeding to a structured discussion of relevant clinical issues. RESULTS: The joint panel provided recommendations for PC management during the pandemic, in terms of general considerations, diagnostic procedures, different disease stages, treatment modules, patient support, and interdisciplinary collaboration. The overall goal was to minimize the risk of infection while avoiding unnecessary delays and compromises in management outcomes. Practical issues during the pandemic were addressed such as the use of invasive diagnostic procedures, robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy, hypofractionated radiotherapy, and prolonged androgen deprivation therapy. The recommendations were explicated in the context of Hong Kong, a highly populated international city, in relation to the latest international guidelines and evidence. CONCLUSION: A range of recommendations on the management of PC patients during the COVID-19 pandemic was developed. Urologists, oncologists, and physicians treating PC patients may refer to them as practical guidance.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Oncologia , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Sociedades Médicas
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800988

RESUMO

Limited research has been conducted on community college (CC) transfer students' (TS) experiences in four-year universities, particularly in Asian contexts. To fill this research gap, in this qualitative study, 124 TS from various disciplines in a Hong Kong university participated in 39 focus groups and seven individual interviews. Unlike their Western counterparts, our TS were relatively better prepared and more academically adaptive. Nevertheless, their social integration was restricted by a lack of time for extra-curricular activities, a sense of inferiority and incompetence, and restricted social circles that did not enable interaction with non-TS. These challenges and their implications are discussed. In particular, this study has highlighted differences between the special education systems for CC transfer in Hong Kong and those in Western CC models. The study has also highlighted the study-induced stress, and poor self-perceptions that TS experience, despite their academic abilities.


Assuntos
Estudantes , Universidades , Grupos Focais , Hong Kong , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804725

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic itself and related public health measurements have had substantial impacts on individual social lives and psychological and mental health, all to the detriment of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). There have been extensive studies investigating the mental health of people in different populations during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, few studies have explored the impact of COVID-19 and its association with HRQoL. To fill this research gap and provide further empirical evidence, this study examined the impact of COVID-19 on Hong Kong people and evaluated its association with HRQoL. A total of 500 participants were randomly recruited to complete an online questionnaire on their concerns related to COVID-19. This entailed responding to the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF instrument. Data were collected between 24 April and 3 May 2020. Independent t-tests and multiple linear regressions were used to examine the association between the impact of COVID-19 and HRQoL. Overall, 69.6% of participants were worried about contracting COVID-19, and 41.4% frequently suspected themselves of being infected. Furthermore, 29.0% were concerned by the lack of disinfectants. All of these findings were associated with poorer HRQoL in the physical and psychological health, social relationships, and environment domains. On the other hand, 47.4% of participants were concerned that they may lose their job because of the pandemic, while 39.4% were bothered by the insufficient supply of surgical masks. These two factors were associated with poorer HRQoL in the physical and psychological health and environment domains. The adverse impact of COVID-19 on individuals is multifactorial, affecting all aspects of HRQoL. In addition to enhancing anti-epidemic efforts, it is equally important to implement public health and social welfare measures, thereby diminishing the adverse impact of COVID-19 on overall well-being.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806138

RESUMO

Background: Standard precautions prevent the spread of infections in healthcare settings. Incompliance with infection control guidelines of healthcare workers (HCWs) may increase their risk of exposure to infectious disease, especially under pandemics. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of compliance with the infection prevention and control practices among HCWs in different healthcare settings and its relationship with their views on workplace infection control measures during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Nurses in Hong Kong were invited to respond to a cross-sectional online survey, in which their views on workplace infection and prevention policy, compliance with standard precautions and self-reported health during pandemics were collected. Results: The respondents were dissatisfied with workplace infection and prevention policy in terms of comprehensiveness (62%), clarity (64%), timeliness (63%), and transparency (60%). For the protective behavior, the respondents did not fully comply with the standard precautions when they were involved in medical care. Their compliance was relatively low when having proper patient handling (54%) and performing invasive procedures (46%). A multivariate analysis model proved that the level of compliance of the standard precautions was positively associated with the satisfaction on infection control and prevention policy among high risk group (0.020; 95% CI: 0.005-0.036), while older respondents had higher level of compliance among the inpatient and outpatient groups (coefficient range: 0.065-0.076). The higher level of compliance was also significantly associated with working in designated team and having chronic condition of the respondents among high-risk and inpatient groups. Conclusions: Standard precautions are the most important elements to reduce cross-transmission among HCWs and patients while the satisfaction on infection control and prevention policy would increase the compliance among the high-risk group. An overall suboptimal compliance and poor views on the infection prevention and control guidelines is a warning signal to healthcare system especially during pandemics.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Estudos Transversais , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Pessoal de Saúde , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Políticas , Padrões de Referência
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808448

RESUMO

Service-learning is a widely adopted educational pedagogy and philosophy. With the support from the Wharf (Holdings) Limited (Group), service-learning was conducted in the "Project WeCan" in Hong Kong. Prior to COVID-19, traditional service-learning was implemented with students learning in the classroom and applying their knowledge and skills to the community through providing direct face-to-face service. With the COVID-19 outbreak in the 2019-20 academic year, school lockdown measures appeared. Students had to learn online and to design and implement service offsite. As the impacts of this rapid shift in paradigm remain unknown, this study examined changes in university students using a pretest-posttest design (n = 124) and perceptions of service-learning experience via the subjective outcome evaluation design (n = 192) under COVID-19. The authors also investigated service recipients' (n = 56) satisfaction with service activities they participated in during the pandemic. Both objective outcome evaluation and subjective outcome evaluation findings revealed that service providers (university students) and recipients (secondary school students) experienced benefits from the Project. Findings support the benefits of online service-learning in "Project WeCan" even during unprecedented times such as COVID-19.


Assuntos
China , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos
13.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249423, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798204

RESUMO

Despite the wide adoption of emergency remote learning (ERL) in higher education during the COVID-19 pandemic, there is insufficient understanding of influencing factors predicting student satisfaction for this novel learning environment in crisis. The present study investigated important predictors in determining the satisfaction of undergraduate students (N = 425) from multiple departments in using ERL at a self-funded university in Hong Kong while Moodle and Microsoft Team are the key learning tools. By comparing the predictive accuracy between multiple regression and machine learning models before and after the use of random forest recursive feature elimination, all multiple regression, and machine learning models showed improved accuracy while the most accurate model was the elastic net regression with 65.2% explained variance. The results show only neutral (4.11 on a 7-point Likert scale) regarding the overall satisfaction score on ERL. Even majority of students are competent in technology and have no obvious issue in accessing learning devices or Wi-Fi, face-to-face learning is more preferable compared to ERL and this is found to be the most important predictor. Besides, the level of efforts made by instructors, the agreement on the appropriateness of the adjusted assessment methods, and the perception of online learning being well delivered are shown to be highly important in determining the satisfaction scores. The results suggest that the need of reviewing the quality and quantity of modified assessment accommodated for ERL and structured class delivery with the suitable amount of interactive learning according to the learning culture and program nature.


Assuntos
Educação a Distância , Satisfação Pessoal , Psicologia Educacional , Estudantes/psicologia , /prevenção & controle , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
14.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 18(1): 33, 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hong Kong is a densely populated city with a low incidence and mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The city imposed different levels of social distancing including, the closure of sports venues and restrictions on eateries. This inevitably affects the eating behaviour and physical activities of the population. We examined the changes in eating behavior and physical activities before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, and identified sociodemographic factors associated with the behavioral changes. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study via a random telephone survey of Chinese adults conducted in Hong Kong from May to June, 2020 - a period in which social distancing measures were being imposed. We measured the physical activity habits from four aspects and dietary consumption patterns from seven aspects before and during the pandemic based on the World Health Organization's guidelines and previous publications. RESULTS: In total, 724 participants were recruited. Individuals were found to cook more frequently at home (p < 0.001) and order take-out (p < 0.001) during the COVID-19 pandemic. While no significant change in the frequency of fast food consumption was observed, we found significant increases in the frequency of eating fruits (p < 0.001) and vegetables (p = 0.004). The frequencies of walking, moderate-intensive sports, and high-intensity sports were significantly reduced (p < 0.001). We found that healthy lifestyle behaviors during the pandemic were negatively associated with participants' economic status. CONCLUSIONS: Social distancing measures likely provided an opportunity for individuals to stay home and thus eat healthier. However, in a prolonged period of social restrictions, a lower physical activity level poses a risk to public health. Public health officials are thus advised to monitor physical health on a population-wide basis. The findings highlighted the importance of interventions tailored to individuals who have prolonged home stays - particularly for individuals in the low economic group.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telefone
15.
Int J Health Geogr ; 20(1): 17, 2021 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The urban built environment (BE) has been globally acknowledged as one of the main factors that affects the spread of infectious disease. However, the effect of the street network on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) incidence has been insufficiently studied. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, which causes COVID-19, is far more transmissible than previous respiratory viruses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, which highlights the role of the spatial configuration of street network in COVID-19 spread, as it is where humans have contact with each other, especially in high-density areas. To fill this research gap, this study utilized space syntax theory and investigated the effect of the urban BE on the spatial diffusion of COVID-19 cases in Hong Kong. METHOD: This study collected a comprehensive dataset including a total of 3815 confirmed cases and corresponding locations from January 18 to October 5, 2020. Based on the space syntax theory, six space syntax measures were selected as quantitative indicators for the urban BE. A linear regression model and Geographically Weighted Regression model were then applied to explore the underlying relationships between COVID-19 cases and the urban BE. In addition, we have further improved the performance of GWR model considering the spatial heterogeneity and scale effects by adopting an adaptive bandwidth. RESULT: Our results indicated a strong correlation between the geographical distribution of COVID-19 cases and the urban BE. Areas with higher integration (a measure of the cognitive complexity required for a pedestrians to reach a street) and betweenness centrality values (a measure of spatial network accessibility) tend to have more confirmed cases. Further, the Geographically Weighted Regression model with adaptive bandwidth achieved the best performance in predicting the spread of COVID-19 cases. CONCLUSION: In this study, we revealed a strong positive relationship between the spatial configuration of street network and the spread of COVID-19 cases. The topology, network accessibility, and centrality of an urban area were proven to be effective for use in predicting the spread of COVID-19. The findings of this study also shed light on the underlying mechanism of the spread of COVID-19, which shows significant spatial variation and scale effects. This study contributed to current literature investigating the spread of COVID-19 cases in a local scale from the space syntax perspective, which may be beneficial for epidemic and pandemic prevention.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído , Hong Kong , Humanos , Pandemias
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801332

RESUMO

Research on older adults' behaviors, living environments, and their quality of life (QoL) has grown rapidly. Viewing behaviors, although broadly acknowledged as critical for older adults' QoL, have not been systematically examined in situ. What affects the viewing behaviors of older adults in neighborhood open space (NOS) is still unclear. This study conducted unobtrusive continuous observations in NOS of two residential estates in Hong Kong. With spatio-temporal analyses with ArcGIS Pro and statistical analyses with SPSS, principal influential factors to viewing behaviors of older adults in NOS were identified, including distances for viewing, landscape attractiveness, body supporting elements, as well as moving and interactive behaviors. How these factors would affect older adults' well-being and QoL is discussed from the perspectives of supportive landscape design, sense of control, prospect and refuge, and social support, etc. Corresponding design implications are proposed to enrich existing NOS design knowledge for older adults' quality of life.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Características de Residência , Estudos Transversais , Hong Kong , Apoio Social
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808847

RESUMO

Professional development has been recognized as one of the strategies to effectively combat sexual prejudice and negative attitudes against lesbian, gay, bisexual, questioning/queer (LGBQ+) individuals and sexual minorities. Nevertheless, studies related to LGBQ+-inclusive training are rarely found in the Chinese Hong Kong context, where sexual prejudice still prevails without the establishment of antidiscrimination law. Sociocultural considerations, such as religious and parental influences, are obstacles to discussing the reduction of sexual prejudices, both within wider society and social work organizations, without institutional support. This paper aims to understand social workers' perspectives on prejudice reduction training themes and perceived cultural barriers through qualitative in-depth interviews with 67 social workers. Qualitative thematic analysis yielded the following themes: (1) understanding sexuality; (2) initiating training legitimately; (3) contesting religious and cultural assumptions; (4) resolving value and ethical dilemma; (5) selecting relevant knowledge; (6) implementing diverse training strategies. The study suggests that social workers and service providers need to understand how sexual prejudice is manifested in Hong Kong through unique cultural forces. LGBQ+-inclusive content, addressing updated concepts and prejudice-free language, should be incorporated into the training curriculum. Intergroup contact, professional reflection, and experiential learning are suggested as training strategies (190).


Assuntos
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Assistentes Sociais , China , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Idioma , Preconceito
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809686

RESUMO

This study aims to examine the mechanism of how supportive interaction and facilitator input variety in mutual aid groups impact treatment adherence of young people with chronic health conditions, with consideration of time effects, which have been rarely studied in the existing literature. A stratified random sample of 391 individuals aged 12-45 years with chronic health conditions were recruited from mutual aid groups in Hong Kong and completed both the baseline and 12-month follow-up surveys. The results of the structural equation modeling indicated that supportive interaction and facilitator input variety positively predicted treatment adherence in a delayed condition, whereas members' treatment adherence in the baseline survey had reversed effects on members' supportive interaction in the follow-up survey. The findings of this study shed light on the dynamic mechanism of the mutual aid groups and provide important implications to promote better rehabilitation outcomes of young people with chronic health conditions.


Assuntos
Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Hong Kong , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33919888

RESUMO

This study aimed to compare the mediation of psychological flexibility, prosociality and coping in the impacts of illness perceptions toward COVID-19 on mental health among seven regions. Convenience sampled online survey was conducted between April and June 2020 from 9130 citizens in 21 countries. Illness perceptions toward COVID-19, psychological flexibility, prosociality, coping and mental health, socio-demographics, lockdown-related variables and COVID-19 status were assessed. Results showed that psychological flexibility was the only significant mediator in the relationship between illness perceptions toward COVID-19 and mental health across all regions (all ps = 0.001-0.021). Seeking social support was the significant mediator across subgroups (all ps range = <0.001-0.005) except from the Hong Kong sample (p = 0.06) and the North and South American sample (p = 0.53). No mediation was found for problem-solving (except from the Northern European sample, p = 0.009). Prosociality was the significant mediator in the Hong Kong sample (p = 0.016) and the Eastern European sample (p = 0.008). These findings indicate that fostering psychological flexibility may help to mitigate the adverse mental impacts of COVID-19 across regions. Roles of seeking social support, problem-solving and prosociality vary across regions.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808349

RESUMO

The term "Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) tourists" refers to individuals who obtain PrEP in other countries and use it in their home countries. A prospective observational cohort study was conducted among a group of men who have sex with men (MSM) who obtained PrEP in private clinics in Thailand and used it in Hong Kong. Participants completed two web-based self-administered surveys when obtaining PrEP in Thailand and three months afterwards. Out of 110 participants at baseline, 67 completed the follow-up. The prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing was 47.8% during the follow-up period. Eleven participants received an STI diagnosis, and seven of them were incident infections in the past three months. Participants who perceived a higher chance for STI infection (adjusted odds ratios (AOR): 1.90, 95% CI: 1.00, 3.75) and reported higher intention to take up STI testing at baseline (AOR: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.50) were more likely to receive STI testing during the follow-up period. Baseline perceptions that service providers would think they were having risky behaviors because of PrEP use was negatively associated with the dependent variable (AOR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.31, 0.86). Service planning and health promotion related to STI testing is needed for MSM "PrEP tourists".


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Homossexualidade Masculina , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Tailândia
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