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1.
Univ. salud ; 27(1): 1-10, enero-abril 2025.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1555921

RESUMO

Introducción: La calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS) y los estados de ánimo son indicadores cruciales del bienestar en adolescentes, pero su relación con estudiantes de Antioquia, Colombia, no ha sido ampliamente estudiada. Objetivo: Determinar la CVRS y los estados de ánimo en escolares de Antioquia-Colombia. Materiales y métodos: Estudio transversal con 1957 escolares de 9 a 20 años. Se aplicaron mediciones de CVRS, ansiedad, depresión, hostilidad y alegría, actividad física, comportamiento sedentario, apoyo social de padres y nivel socioeconómico. Resultados: La calidad de vida alta (CVA) es más elevada en hombres, personas con alegría, estudiantes con apoyo de padres, activos físicamente y personas de nivel socioeconómico alto y medio. AL aumentar un año de edad, disminuye en un 15 % la CVA, y al aumentar la depresión, la ansiedad y el comportamiento sedentario disminuye la CVA. Además, los niveles de depresión y ansiedad son mayores en mujeres, estudiantes mayores, sin apoyo de los padres y personas sedentarias. Conclusiones: La CVRS se asocia con estados de ánimo, actividad física, comportamiento sedentario y apoyo de los padres; mientras que los estados de ánimo se asocian con el sexo, el apoyo de los padres, la CVS y el sedentarismo.


Introduction: Even though health-related quality of life (HRQL) and mood states are key indicators of the well-being of adolescents, their relationship has not been analyzed in students from Antioquia, Colombia. Objective: To determine HRQL and mood states in schoolchildren from Antioquia. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,957 schoolchildren and adolescents aged between 9 and 20 years. Measurements of HRQL, anxiety, depression, hostility and happiness, physical activity, sedentary behavior, parental social support, and socioeconomic status were applied. Results: A high quality of life (HQL) was observed more frequently in male participants, students with parental support, physically active, and those belonging to medium and high socioeconomic status. HQL decreased 15% as their age increased by one year. Also, HQL was reduced when depression, anxiety, and sedentary behavior increased. Furthermore, depression and anxiety levels were higher in women, older students, as well as in those without parental control and with sedentary behavior. Conclusions: HRQL is associated with mood states, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and parental support. In contrast, mood states are related to gender, parental support, HQL, and sedentary lifestyle.


Introdução: A qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde (CVRS) e os estados de humor são indicadores cruciais de bem-estar em adolescentes, mas sua relação com estudantes de Antioquia, Colômbia, não foi amplamente estudada. Objetivo: Determinar a CVRS e os estados de humor em escolares de Antioquia-Colômbia. Materiais e métodos: Estudo transversal com 1.957 escolares de 9 a 20 anos. Foram aplicadas medidas de QVRS, ansiedade, depressão, hostilidade e felicidade, atividade física, comportamento sedentário, apoio social dos pais e nível socioeconômico. Resultados: A alta qualidade de vida (CVA) é maior em homens, pessoas com alegria, estudantes com apoio parental, fisicamente ativos e pessoas de nível socioeconômico alto e médio. À medida que a idade aumenta em um ano, diminui em 15% o CVA, e ao aumentar a depressão, a ansiedade e o comportamento sedentário aumentam, o CVA diminui. Além disso, os níveis de depressão e ansiedade são mais elevados nas mulheres, nos estudantes mais velhos, sem apoio dos pais e nas pessoas sedentárias. Conclusões: A QVRS está associada a estados de humor, atividade física, comportamento sedentário e apoio parental; enquanto os estados de humor estão associados ao sexo, apoio parental, CVS e estilo de vida sedentário.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Saúde , Emoções , Felicidade , Hostilidade
2.
Univ. salud ; 27(1): B1-B9, enero-abril 2025. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1554700

RESUMO

Introducción: Las enfermedades cerebrovasculares son consideradas un problema de salud pública que afectan muchas capacidades en el individuo, entre ellas la comunicación; de esta manera el cuidador cumple un papel fundamental en su recuperación. Objetivo: Describir el rol comunicativo del cuidador en la atención a pacientes con secuelas de accidente cerebrovascular en la ciudad de Sincelejo, Colombia. Materiales y métodos: Paradigma positivista, enfoque cuantitativo y estudio descriptivo de corte transversal realizado con 40 cuidadores, seleccionados según muestreo por criterios y reclutamiento en cadena. Se utilizó una encuesta sociodemográfica, una sobre favorecimiento y bienestar comunicativo y Escala Likert, se realizó análisis de fiabilidad y consistencia interna del instrumento. Resultados: Predominaron cuidadores de sexo femenino, sobresale el cuidador informal, con estudios de secundaria y estrato socioeconómico bajo. Se encontró una actitud favorable en la competencia del ser y saber hacer, prima el buen trato, justicia y respeto. La competencia del saber evidenció actitud desfavorable, caracterizada por un conocimiento limitado frente a la patología, insuficientes destrezas, técnicas y habilidades para cumplir sus funciones y estrategias empleadas. Conclusión: Es necesario cualificar al cuidador en la atención del paciente con accidente cerebrovascular, mediante programas de que dinamicen la competencia del ser, saber y saber hacer


Introduction: Cerebrovascular diseases are a public health problem affecting the different capabilities of patients, including communication. Thus, caregivers play a fundamental role in their recovery. Objective: To describe the communicative role of caregivers in the support of patients with stroke sequelae in the city of Sincelejo, Colombia. Materials and methods: A positivist paradigm, quantitative approach, and descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out with 40 caregivers, who were selected according to criteria sampling and chain recruitment. A sociodemographic survey about favorability and communicative well-being as well as the Likert Scale were applied. A reliability and internal consistency analysis was conducted. Results: The majority of caregivers were women. Informal caregivers, with high school education, and belonging to low socioeconomic status were also predominant. A positive attitude regarding competences such as being and knowing what to do; appropriate treatment of patients, with justice and respect, were observed as common features. The knowledge competence was considered unfavorable, which was characterized by limited understanding regarding pathology, strategies used, and insufficient skills, techniques, and abilities to fulfill their functions. Conclusions: Caregivers of stroke patients should be qualified through programs that improve the being, knowing, and knowing how to do competencies.


Introdução: As doenças cerebrovasculares são consideradas um problema de saúde pública que afeta diversas capacidades do indivíduo, incluindo a comunicação; desta forma, o cuidador desempenha um papel fundamental na sua recuperação. Objetivo: Descrever o papel comunicativo do cuidador no cuidado de pacientes com sequelas de acidente vascular cerebral na cidade de Sincelejo, Colômbia. Materiais e métodos: Paradigma positivista, abordagem quantitativa e estudo transversal descritivo realizado com 40 cuidadores, selecionados segundo critérios de amostragem e recrutamento em cadeia. Foi utilizado um inquérito sociodemográfico, um de favorabilidade e bem-estar comunicativo e uma Escala Likert, foi realizada uma análise da fiabilidade e consistência interna do instrumento. Resultados: Predominaram cuidadores do sexo feminino, destacando-se os cuidadores informais, com escolaridade média e baixo nível socioeconômico. Encontrou-se na competição uma atitude favorável por ser e saber fazer, prevalecendo o bom tratamento, a justiça e o respeito. A competência conhecimento apresentou atitude desfavorável, caracterizada por conhecimento limitado sobre a patologia, habilidades, técnicas e habilidades insuficientes para cumprir suas funções e estratégias utilizadas. Conclusões: É necessário qualificar o cuidador no cuidado ao paciente com AVC, por meio de programas que potencializem a competência de ser, saber e saber fazer.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino
3.
Int J Nurs Educ Scholarsh ; 22(1)2025 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38459787

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This systematic review of qualitative studies explored interventions to improve student nurses' knowledge, attitudes or willingness to work with older people. Student nurses are likely to encounter older people in all health and aged care settings, however, research demonstrates that few have career aspirations in gerontological nursing. METHODS: Qualitative systematic review method based on the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. RESULTS: Search of Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, EBSCOhost and Scopus yielded 1841 articles which were screened to include primary research about educational interventions to improve student nurses' knowledge, attitudes and/or willingness to work with older people. Data extraction was performed on the 14 included studies, and data were analysed using directed content analysis. The Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) was used the assess the quality of the studies. CONCLUSIONS: Educational interventions included theory or practice courses, or a combination of theory and practice. While most interventions changed nursing students' negative attitudes towards older people, few increased their willingness to work with them. Practice courses had the most significant impact on willingness to work with older people. Quality assessment revealed methodical limitations. More research is needed to better understand the elements of practice interventions that enhance student nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and willingness to work with older people, so that they can be replicated.


Assuntos
Geriatria , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Idoso , Humanos , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Competência Clínica
4.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 54(4): 11-27, oct.-dic. 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-229226

RESUMO

La formación docente es esencial dentro del proceso de educación inclusiva permitiendo responder a la diversidad de los estudiantes a partir de estrategias que promuevan su aprendizaje y participación. Este estudio analiza la formación en inclusión de 253 docentes de instituciones públicas mediante el Cuestionario de Valoración Docente de la Inclusión Educativa (CEFI-R). Los resultados indican niveles bajos de formación en las dimensiones concepciones, apoyos y metodologías. Lo que sugiere que no existe una preparación integral del profesorado para la inclusión y los planes de formación deben abordar desde aspectos conceptuales hasta la implementación de ajustes en el aula. (AU)


Teacher training is essential within the inclusive education process, allowing students to respond to diversity through strategies that promote their learning and participation. This study analyzes the inclusion training of 253 teachers in public institutions, through the Cuestionario de Valoración Docente de la Inclusión Educativa (CEFI-R). The results indicate low levels of training in the conceptual dimensions, supports and methodologies. This suggests that there is no comprehensive preparation of teachers for inclusion and training plans should address conceptual aspects to the implementation of adjustments in the classroom. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Capacitação de Professores/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais
5.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 54(4): 29-48, oct.-dic. 2024.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-229227

RESUMO

Esta investigación busca profundizar en la segregación escolar del alumnado con necesidades educativas especiales del segundo ciclo de Educación Infantil estimando su magnitud, determinando la incidencia de la titularidad del centro y de su adscripción al Programa Bilingüe y describiendo su evolución. Para ello, se realiza un estudio ex post facto con datos de los 10.182 estudiantes del segundo ciclo de Educación Infantil matriculados en alguno de los 77 centros ordinarios públicos y privados-concertados situados en dos ciudades de tamaño medio-grande de la Comunidad de Madrid. Los resultados indican que la magnitud de la segregación escolar está en torno al 0.20 (ISG); que la incidencia de la titularidad es baja (4.6 %), pero es alta la del Programa Bilingüe (17.2 % de promedio); y que la segregación ha descendido ligeramente en los últimos años, pero las diferencias entre centros atendiendo a su titularidad y adscripción al Programa Bilingüe han crecido. Con ello, se concluye que hay que prestar atención a la segregación en Educación Infantil y tomar medidas para combatirla. También se destaca la necesidad de replantear el Programa Bilingüe por su incidencia en la segregación escolar. (AU)


This research aims to explore the school segregation of students with special educational needs in the second cycle of Early Childhood Education by estimating its magnitude, determining the incidence of school ownership and affiliation to the Bilingual Program, and describing its evolution. To achieve this, we conduct an ex post facto study with data from the 10,182 students enrolled in one of the 77 public and private-subsidised schools in the Community of Madrid. The results indicate that the magnitude of school segregation is around 0.20 (ISG); that the incidence of school ownership is low (4.6 %), while the incidence of the Bilingual Program is high (17.2 % on average); and that segregation has slightly decreased in recent years, however the differences between schools based on ownership and affiliation to the Bilingual Program have increased. Therefore, we conclude that it is necessary to address segregation in Early Childhood Education and that measures need to be taken to combat it. We also highlight the importance of reconsidering the Bilingual Program due to its impact on school segregation. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Deficiências da Aprendizagem , Educação/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 54(4): 49-64, oct.-dic. 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-229228

RESUMO

El paradigma de apoyos y el de calidad de vida se han transformado en guías fundamentales para los avances en el ámbito de la discapacidad intelectual (DI). Con base en una muestra de 93 personas adultas con DI, se analiza, desde un enfoque cuantitativo no experimental, la relación entre la calidad de vida y las necesidades de apoyo, aplicando la escala INICO-FEAPS y la escala de Intensidad de Apoyos (SIS) para cada constructo. Los principales resultados evidencian que existe una relación fuerte e indirecta entre calidad de vida y necesidades de apoyos, y también la relevancia de analizar dichos resultados desde variables como grado de discapacidad, sexo o nivel socioeconómico. La discusión permite inferir la necesidad de discutir nuevas estrategias en torno a categorías como el grado de discapacidad, la autodeterminación e inclusión social, como elementos facilitadores de la calidad de vida y apoyos desde un enfoque integral que contribuya al desarrollo de estrategias de programas sociales para la población con DI. (AU)


The support paradigm and the quality of life paradigm have become fundamental guides for progress in the field of Intellectual Disability (ID). Based on a sample of 93 adults with ID, the relationship between Quality of Life and Support Needs is analyzed from a non-experimental quantitative approach, applying the INICO-FEAPS scale and the SIS Support Intensity scale for each construct. The main results show that there is a strong and indirect relationship between quality of life and support needs, and the relevance of analyzing these results from variables such as the degree of disability, sex or socioeconomic level. The discussion allows us to infer the need to discuss new strategies around categories such as the degree of disability, self-determination and social inclusion, as facilitating elements of quality of life and supporting a comprehensive approach that contributes to the development of social program strategies for the population with ID. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Deficiência Intelectual , Qualidade de Vida , Pessoas com Deficiência , Chile , Estudos de Amostragem
7.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 54(4): 65-83, oct.-dic. 2024.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-229229

RESUMO

La falta de información sobre el uso de la tecnología en niños con trastorno del espectro autista (TEA) de diferentes perfiles puede dificultar que docentes y alumnos se estén beneficiando del apoyo tecnológico más eficaz y ajustado a sus necesidades. El objetivo de esta revisión fue analizar y sintetizar la evidencia científica sobre la eficacia de los recursos tecnológicos en la mejora de la comprensión emocional de estudiantes con TEA con perfiles de alto y bajo funcionamiento. Para ello se realizó una revisión sistemática de las publicaciones científicas indexadas en algunas de las bases de datos de mayor relevancia siguiendo los criterios establecidos en la declaración PRISMA. En total se analizaron 38 artículos que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión preestablecidos. Los resultados muestran la importancia de diseñar sistemas versátiles que puedan personalizarse y adaptarse en tiempo real y en contextos naturales con un enfoque claramente inclusivo. Pero también sugieren que la tecnología puede no ser una herramienta de intervención complementaria adecuada para todos los niños con TEA. Lo que subraya la necesidad de ensayos adicionales bien controlados sobre las características que permitan identificar qué estudiantes podrían o no beneficiarse de diferentes modalidades de tecnología. (AU)


The lack of information on the use of technology in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) of different profiles can make it difficult for teachers and students to benefit from the most effective technology support tailored to their needs. The aim of this review was to analyze and synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of technological resources in improving the emotional understanding of students with high and low functioning ASD profiles. A systematic review of the scientific publications indexed in some of the most relevant databases was carried out following the criteria established in the PRISMA declaration. A total of 38 articles that met the pre-established inclusion criteria were analyzed. The results show the importance of designing versatile systems that can be customized and adapted in real time and in natural contexts with a clearly inclusive approach. But they also suggest that technology may not be an appropriate complementary intervention tool for all children with ASD. This underlines the need for additional well-controlled tests on the characteristics that would allow identifying which students might or might not benefit from different technology modalities. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Tecnologia Educacional , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico
8.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 54(4): 11-27, oct.-dic. 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-EMG-556

RESUMO

La formación docente es esencial dentro del proceso de educación inclusiva permitiendo responder a la diversidad de los estudiantes a partir de estrategias que promuevan su aprendizaje y participación. Este estudio analiza la formación en inclusión de 253 docentes de instituciones públicas mediante el Cuestionario de Valoración Docente de la Inclusión Educativa (CEFI-R). Los resultados indican niveles bajos de formación en las dimensiones concepciones, apoyos y metodologías. Lo que sugiere que no existe una preparación integral del profesorado para la inclusión y los planes de formación deben abordar desde aspectos conceptuales hasta la implementación de ajustes en el aula. (AU)


Teacher training is essential within the inclusive education process, allowing students to respond to diversity through strategies that promote their learning and participation. This study analyzes the inclusion training of 253 teachers in public institutions, through the Cuestionario de Valoración Docente de la Inclusión Educativa (CEFI-R). The results indicate low levels of training in the conceptual dimensions, supports and methodologies. This suggests that there is no comprehensive preparation of teachers for inclusion and training plans should address conceptual aspects to the implementation of adjustments in the classroom. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Capacitação de Professores/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais
9.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 54(4): 29-48, oct.-dic. 2024.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-EMG-557

RESUMO

Esta investigación busca profundizar en la segregación escolar del alumnado con necesidades educativas especiales del segundo ciclo de Educación Infantil estimando su magnitud, determinando la incidencia de la titularidad del centro y de su adscripción al Programa Bilingüe y describiendo su evolución. Para ello, se realiza un estudio ex post facto con datos de los 10.182 estudiantes del segundo ciclo de Educación Infantil matriculados en alguno de los 77 centros ordinarios públicos y privados-concertados situados en dos ciudades de tamaño medio-grande de la Comunidad de Madrid. Los resultados indican que la magnitud de la segregación escolar está en torno al 0.20 (ISG); que la incidencia de la titularidad es baja (4.6 %), pero es alta la del Programa Bilingüe (17.2 % de promedio); y que la segregación ha descendido ligeramente en los últimos años, pero las diferencias entre centros atendiendo a su titularidad y adscripción al Programa Bilingüe han crecido. Con ello, se concluye que hay que prestar atención a la segregación en Educación Infantil y tomar medidas para combatirla. También se destaca la necesidad de replantear el Programa Bilingüe por su incidencia en la segregación escolar. (AU)


This research aims to explore the school segregation of students with special educational needs in the second cycle of Early Childhood Education by estimating its magnitude, determining the incidence of school ownership and affiliation to the Bilingual Program, and describing its evolution. To achieve this, we conduct an ex post facto study with data from the 10,182 students enrolled in one of the 77 public and private-subsidised schools in the Community of Madrid. The results indicate that the magnitude of school segregation is around 0.20 (ISG); that the incidence of school ownership is low (4.6 %), while the incidence of the Bilingual Program is high (17.2 % on average); and that segregation has slightly decreased in recent years, however the differences between schools based on ownership and affiliation to the Bilingual Program have increased. Therefore, we conclude that it is necessary to address segregation in Early Childhood Education and that measures need to be taken to combat it. We also highlight the importance of reconsidering the Bilingual Program due to its impact on school segregation. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Deficiências da Aprendizagem , Educação/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 54(4): 49-64, oct.-dic. 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-EMG-558

RESUMO

El paradigma de apoyos y el de calidad de vida se han transformado en guías fundamentales para los avances en el ámbito de la discapacidad intelectual (DI). Con base en una muestra de 93 personas adultas con DI, se analiza, desde un enfoque cuantitativo no experimental, la relación entre la calidad de vida y las necesidades de apoyo, aplicando la escala INICO-FEAPS y la escala de Intensidad de Apoyos (SIS) para cada constructo. Los principales resultados evidencian que existe una relación fuerte e indirecta entre calidad de vida y necesidades de apoyos, y también la relevancia de analizar dichos resultados desde variables como grado de discapacidad, sexo o nivel socioeconómico. La discusión permite inferir la necesidad de discutir nuevas estrategias en torno a categorías como el grado de discapacidad, la autodeterminación e inclusión social, como elementos facilitadores de la calidad de vida y apoyos desde un enfoque integral que contribuya al desarrollo de estrategias de programas sociales para la población con DI. (AU)


The support paradigm and the quality of life paradigm have become fundamental guides for progress in the field of Intellectual Disability (ID). Based on a sample of 93 adults with ID, the relationship between Quality of Life and Support Needs is analyzed from a non-experimental quantitative approach, applying the INICO-FEAPS scale and the SIS Support Intensity scale for each construct. The main results show that there is a strong and indirect relationship between quality of life and support needs, and the relevance of analyzing these results from variables such as the degree of disability, sex or socioeconomic level. The discussion allows us to infer the need to discuss new strategies around categories such as the degree of disability, self-determination and social inclusion, as facilitating elements of quality of life and supporting a comprehensive approach that contributes to the development of social program strategies for the population with ID. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Deficiência Intelectual , Qualidade de Vida , Pessoas com Deficiência , Chile , Estudos de Amostragem
11.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 54(4): 65-83, oct.-dic. 2024.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-EMG-559

RESUMO

La falta de información sobre el uso de la tecnología en niños con trastorno del espectro autista (TEA) de diferentes perfiles puede dificultar que docentes y alumnos se estén beneficiando del apoyo tecnológico más eficaz y ajustado a sus necesidades. El objetivo de esta revisión fue analizar y sintetizar la evidencia científica sobre la eficacia de los recursos tecnológicos en la mejora de la comprensión emocional de estudiantes con TEA con perfiles de alto y bajo funcionamiento. Para ello se realizó una revisión sistemática de las publicaciones científicas indexadas en algunas de las bases de datos de mayor relevancia siguiendo los criterios establecidos en la declaración PRISMA. En total se analizaron 38 artículos que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión preestablecidos. Los resultados muestran la importancia de diseñar sistemas versátiles que puedan personalizarse y adaptarse en tiempo real y en contextos naturales con un enfoque claramente inclusivo. Pero también sugieren que la tecnología puede no ser una herramienta de intervención complementaria adecuada para todos los niños con TEA. Lo que subraya la necesidad de ensayos adicionales bien controlados sobre las características que permitan identificar qué estudiantes podrían o no beneficiarse de diferentes modalidades de tecnología. (AU)


The lack of information on the use of technology in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) of different profiles can make it difficult for teachers and students to benefit from the most effective technology support tailored to their needs. The aim of this review was to analyze and synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of technological resources in improving the emotional understanding of students with high and low functioning ASD profiles. A systematic review of the scientific publications indexed in some of the most relevant databases was carried out following the criteria established in the PRISMA declaration. A total of 38 articles that met the pre-established inclusion criteria were analyzed. The results show the importance of designing versatile systems that can be customized and adapted in real time and in natural contexts with a clearly inclusive approach. But they also suggest that technology may not be an appropriate complementary intervention tool for all children with ASD. This underlines the need for additional well-controlled tests on the characteristics that would allow identifying which students might or might not benefit from different technology modalities. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Tecnologia Educacional , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico
13.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(3): [100490], jul.-sept2024. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-231868

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of anti-suppression exercises in children with small-angle esotropia in achieving binocular vision. Methods: A retrospective review of patients aged 3–8 years who underwent anti-suppression exercises for either monocular or alternate suppression between January 2016 and December 2021 was conducted. Patients with esotropia less than 15 prism diopters (PD) and visual acuity ≥ 6/12 were included. Patients with previous intra-ocular surgery or less than three-month follow-up were excluded. Success was defined as the development of binocular single vision (BSV) for distance, near, or both (measured clinically with either the 4 prism base out test or Worth four dot test) and maintained at two consecutive visits. Qualified success was defined as the presence of diplopia response for both distance and near. Additionally, improvement in near stereo acuity was measured using the Stereo Fly test. Results: Eighteen patients with a mean age of 5.4 ± 1.38 years (range 3–8 years) at the time of initiation of exercises were included in the study. The male female ratio was 10:8. The mean best corrected visual acuity was 0.18 LogMAR unit(s) and the mean spherical equivalent was +3.8 ± 0.14 diopters (D). The etiology of the esotropia was fully accommodative refractive esotropia (8), microtropia (1), post–operative infantile esotropia (4), partially accommodative esotropia (1), and post-operative partially accommodative esotropia (4). Patients received either office-based, home-based, or both modes of treatment for an average duration of 4.8 months (range 3–8). After therapy, BSV was achieved for either distance or near in 66.6 % of patients (95 % CI = 40.03–93.31 %). Binocular single vision for both distance and near was seen in 50 % of children. Qualified success was observed in 38.46% of patients. Persistence of suppression was observed in one patient (5.5 %)... (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Supressão , Visão Binocular , Esotropia , Acuidade Visual , Terapêutica
14.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(3): [100505], jul.-sept2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-231869

RESUMO

Purpose: This study explored whether retinoscopy (RET) provides comparable results of relative peripheral refraction (RPR) to open–field autorefractometry (AR) in myopic subjects.Methods: Peripheral refraction was measured in 20 myopic and 20 control adult subjects. Both central and peripheral refraction (20° nasal and temporal eccentricity) were measured using RET and open-field AR. Differences in the median central spherical equivalent (SE), median RPR, and median J45/J180 power vectors between the RET and AR techniques were analyzed. Moreover, Bland – Altman plots were used to assess the agreement between RET and AR methods for RPR measurements in MG. Results: For MG, the median RPR values were positive (hyperopic shift), and no significant differences were observed between the RET and AR techniques with respect to RPR measurement. In addition, we did not observe any significant differences in the RPR values between the nasal and temporal eccentricities for either the RET or AR technique for myopic subjects. There was also a significant correlation and agreement between the RET and AR technique for RPR measurements. With respect to central refraction, the median SE was slightly more positive for the RET than for the AR technique. Inside the CG, we also found significant correlation between the RET and AR technique for RPR measurements, and we observed a myopic shift in peripheral eccentricities. Conclusion: Our results show that retinoscopy may be a useful tool for objective measurements of RPR in myopic subjects and may be used interchangeably with the open-field AR method in everyday clinical practice. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Retinoscopia , Miopia , Refração Ocular , Visão Ocular , Visão Binocular , Oftalmologistas
15.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(3): [100506], jul.-sept2024. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-231870

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the visual function correlates of self-reported vision-related night driving difficulties among drivers. Methods: One hundred and seven drivers (age: 46.06 ± 8.24, visual acuity [VA] of 0.2logMAR or better) were included in the study. A standard vision and night driving questionnaire (VND-Q) was administered. VA and contrast sensitivity were measured under photopic and mesopic conditions. Mesopic VA was remeasured after introducing a peripheral glare source into the participants' field of view to enable computation of disability glare index. Regression analyses were used to assess the associations between VND-Q scores, and visual function measures. Results: The mean VND-Q score was -3.96±1.95 logit (interval scale score: 2.46±1.28). Simple linear regression models for photopic contrast sensitivity, mesopic VA, mesopic contrast sensitivity, and disability index significantly predicted VND-Q score (P<0.05), with mesopic VA and disability glare index accounting for the greatest variation (21 %) in VND-Q scores followed by photopic contrast sensitivity (19 %), and mesopic contrast sensitivity (15 %). A multiple regression model to determine the association between the predictors (photopic contrast sensitivity, mesopic VA, mesopic contrast sensitivity, and disability index) and VND-Q score yielded significant results, F (4, 102) = 8.58, P < 0.001, adj. R2 = 0.2224. Seeing dark-colored cars was the most challenging vision task. Conclusion: Changes in mesopic visual acuity, photopic and mesopic contrast sensitivity, as well as disability glare index are associated with and explain night driving-related visual difficulties. It is recommended to incorporate measurement of these visual functions into assessments related to driving performance.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Condução de Veículo , Visão Noturna , Acidentes de Trânsito , Visão de Cores , Visão Mesópica , Ofuscação/efeitos adversos
16.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(3): [100497], jul.-sept2024. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-231871

RESUMO

Purpose: To compare the eye defocus curves (DCs) obtained with stimuli on red, green, and white backgrounds and to investigate the applicability of the duochrome test (DT) in different age groups. Methods: 12 elderly (ELD: 59.3 ± 3.9 years) and 8 young (YG: 22.1 ± 1.1 years) subjects were recruited. An optometric assessment with the DT was carried out to obtain the subjective refraction at distance. DCs at distance on green, white, and red backgrounds were measured and the following parameters were deduced: dioptric difference between red-green, green-white, red-white focal positions (minima of the DCs), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and widths of the DCs for red, green, and white. Results: The DC difference between the green-white focal positions (mean ± standard deviation) was -0.12±0.17 diopters (D) (ELD, p = 0.012) and -0.11±0.12 D (YG, p = 0.039), while the red-white difference was not statistically significant. The DC red-green difference was 0.20±0.16 D (ELD, p = 0.002) and 0.18±0.18 D (YG, p = 0.008). The ELD BCVA with green background was significantly worse than BCVA with red (p = 0.007) and white (p = 0.007). The mean value of the DC's width in ELD for green (1.01±0.36 D) was higher than for red (0.77±0.21 D) and for white (0.84±0.35 D), but with no statistical significance. Conclusion: Both age groups showed a slight focusing preference for red when using white light. Moreover, ELD showed a worse BCVA with a green compared to a red background. Despite these results deduced by DC analyses, these aspects do not compromise the possibility of using the DT in clinical practice both in the young and in the elderly. Furthermore, the difference of about 0.20 D between red-green DC in both groups confirms the clinical appropriateness of the widespread use of 0.25 D step as the standard minimum difference in power between correcting lenses.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Idoso , Visão Ocular , Acuidade Visual , Fundo de Olho , Lentes de Contato , Testes Visuais
17.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(3): [100510], jul.-sept2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-231872

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the association between visual symptoms and use of digital devices considering the presence of visual dysfunctions. Methods: An optometric examination was conducted in a clinical sample of 346 patients to diagnose any type of visual anomaly. Visual symptoms were collected using the validated SQVD questionnaire. A threshold of 6 hours per day was used to quantify the effects of digital device usage and patients were divided into two groups: under and above of 35 years old. A multivariate logistic regression was employed to investigate the association between digital device use and symptoms, with visual dysfunctions considered as a confounding variable. Crude and the adjusted odds ratio (OR) were calculated for each variable. Results: 57.02 % of the subjects reported visual symptoms, and 65.02% exhibited some form of visual dysfunction. For patients under 35 years old, an association was found between having visual symptoms and digital device use (OR = 2.10, p = 0.01). However, after adjusting for visual dysfunctions, this association disappeared (OR = 1.44, p = 0.27) and the association was instead between symptoms and refractive dysfunction (OR = 6.52, p < 0.001), accommodative (OR = 10.47, p < 0.001), binocular (OR = 6.68, p < 0.001) and accommodative plus binocular dysfunctions (OR = 46.84, p < 0.001). Among patients over 35 years old, no association was found between symptoms and the use of digital devices (OR = 1.27, p = 0.49) but there was an association between symptoms and refractive dysfunction (OR = 3.54, p = 0.001). Conclusions: Visual symptoms are not dependent on the duration of digital device use but rather on the presence of any type of visual dysfunction: refractive, accommodative and/or binocular one, which should be diagnosed.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Visão Ocular , Testes Visuais , Campos Visuais , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual , Visão Binocular , Inquéritos e Questionários , Optometria
18.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(3): [100491], jul.-sept2024. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-231873

RESUMO

Background and objectives: The invention described herein is a prototype based on computer vision technology that measures depth perception and is intended for the early examination of stereopsis. Materials and methods: The prototype (software and hardware) is a depth perception measurement system that consists on: (a) a screen showing stereoscopic models with a guide point that the subject must point to; (b) a camera capturing the distance between the screen and the subject's finger; and (c) a unit for recording, processing and storing the captured measurements. For test validation, the reproducibility and reliability of the platform were calculated by comparing results with standard stereoscopic tests. A demographic study of depth perception by subgroup analysis is shown. Subjective comparison of the different tests was carried out by means of a satisfaction survey. Results: We included 94 subjects, 25 children and 69 adults, with a mean age of 34.2 ± 18.9 years; 36.2 % were men and 63.8 % were women. The DALE3D platform obtained good repeatability with an interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between 0.94 and 0.87, and coefficient of variation (CV) between 0.1 and 0.26. Threshold determining optimal and suboptimal results was calculated for Randot and DALE3D test. Spearman's correlation coefficient, between thresholds was not statistically significant (p value > 0.05). The test was considered more visually appealing and easier to use by the participants (90 % maximum score). Conclusions: The DALE3D platform is a potentially useful tool for measuring depth perception with optimal reproducibility rates. Its innovative design makes it a more intuitive tool for children than current stereoscopic tests. Nevertheless, further studies will be needed to assess whether the depth perception measured by the DALE3D platform is a sufficiently reliable parameter to assess stereopsis.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Visão Binocular , Percepção de Profundidade , Visão Ocular , Testes Visuais
19.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(3): [100508], jul.-sept2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-231874

RESUMO

Purpose: To report the visual and refractive characteristics and the prevalence of amblyopia in patients with different types of Duane's Retraction Syndrome (DRS). Method: This retrospective study was performed on hospital records of 582 DRS patients at Farabi Hospital, Iran, from 2012 to March 2022. Results: The mean age of patients was 19.4 ± 11.9 (range, 3–70) years [335 (57.6 %) females and 247 (42.4 %) males (P < .001)]. DRS type I, II, III, and IV were presented in 347 (59.6 %), 148 (25.4 %), 82 (14.1 %), and 5 (0.9 %) patients, respectively. There were 530 (91.1 %) patients with unilateral and 52 (8.9 %) with bilateral involvement. In the unilateral patients, the DRS eyes' corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) and astigmatism were significantly worse than the Non-DRS Eyes (P < .001). The mean amount of all refractive and visual parameters in bilateral patients' right or left eyes was significantly lower than in unilateral patients' non-DRS eyes (all P < .05). Anisometropia was observed in 75(12.9 %) of the patients. Amblyopia was observed in 18.5 % (98 patients) and 36.5 % (19 patients) of unilateral and bilateral DRS patients, respectively (P < .001). In unilateral patients, amblyopia was found in 57 (16.4 %) patients with Type I, 22 (14.9 %) patients with Type II, 16 (19.5 %) patients with Type III, and 3 (60 %) patients with Type IV. Forty-four (37.6 %) of patients with amblyopia had anisometropia. Conclusion: This large-scale study indicates that DRS types differ in terms of refractive error, visual acuity, and the prevalence of amblyopia and anisometropia. Clinicians should be aware of the clinical features associated with different types of DRS.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Visão Ocular , Ambliopia , Síndrome da Retração Ocular , Erros de Refração , Anisometropia
20.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(3): [100512], jul.-sept2024. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-231875

RESUMO

Purpose: In children under 20 years, refractive development targets a cycloplegic refractive error of +0.5 to +1.5D, while presbyopes over 40 years generally have non-cycloplegic errors of ≥ +1D. Some papers suggest these periods are separated by a period of myopic refractive error (i.e., ≤ –0.50D), but this remains unclear. Hence, this work investigates the mean cycloplegic refractive error in adults aged between 20 – 40 years. Methods: In 2002 a cross-sectional study with stratified cluster sampling was performed on the population of Tehran, providing cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic refractive error data for the right eyes of 3,576 participants, aged 30.6 ± 18.6 years (range: 1–86 years). After grouping these data into age groups of 5 years, the refractive error histogram of each group was fitted to a Bigaussian function. The mean of the central, emmetropized peak was used to estimate the mean refractive error without the influence of myopia. Results: The mean cycloplegic refractive error at the emmetropized peak decreased from +1.10 ± 0.11D (95 % confidence interval) to +0.50 ± 0.04D before 20 years and remains stable at that value until the age of 50 years. The non-cycloplegic refractive error also sees a stable phase at 0.00 ± 0.04D between 15 – 45 years. After 45 – 50 years both cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic refractive error become more hypermetropic over time, +1.14 ± 0.12D at 75 years. Conclusions: The cycloplegic refractive error in adults is about +0.50D between 20 – 50 years, disproving the existence of the myopic period at those ages.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Visão Ocular , Testes Visuais , Erros de Refração , Emetropia , Estudos Transversais , Irã (Geográfico)
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