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1.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 178, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604448

RESUMO

"Why do people believe blatantly inaccurate news headlines? Do we use our reasoning abilities to convince ourselves that statements that align with our ideology are true, or does reasoning allow us to effectively differentiate fake from real regardless of political ideology?" These were the questions of Pennycook and Rand (2019), and they are more than actual three years later in Eastern Europe (especially in Hungary) in the light of the rise of populism, and the ongoing war in Ukraine - with the flood of disinformation that follows. In this study, using a representative Hungarian sample (N = 991) we wanted to answer the same questions-moving one step forward and investigating alternative models. We aimed to extend the original research with the examination of digital literacy and source salience on media truth discernment. Most of the observations of Pennycook and Rand were confirmed: people with higher analytic thinking were better at discerning disinformation. However, the results are in line with the synergistic integrative model as partisanship interacted with cognitive reflection: anti-government voters used their analytic capacities to question both concordant and discordant fake news more than pro-government voters. Furthermore, digital literacy increased detection, but source salience did not matter when perceiving disinformation.


Assuntos
Desinformação , Resolução de Problemas , Humanos , Hungria , Decepção , Alfabetização
2.
BMC Genomics ; 24(1): 9, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36624381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: German-derived ethnicities are one of the largest ethnic groups in Hungary, dating back to the formation of the Kingdom of Hungary, which took place at the beginning of the 11th century. Germans arrived in Hungary in many waves. The most significant immigration wave took place following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire in East-Central Europe which closed the 150 year long Ottoman occupation. To date, there are no comprehensive genome-wide studies investigating the genetic makeup of the Danube Swabians. Here we analyzed 47 Danube Swabian samples collected from elderly Swabian individuals living in the Dunaszekcso-Bár area, in Danube side villages of Southwest Hungary. These Swabians, according to self-declaration, did not admix with other ethnic groups for 3-6 succeeding generations. Using Illumina Infinium 720 K Beadchip genotype data, we applied allele frequency-based and haplotype-based genome-wide marker data analyses to investigate the ancestry and genetic composition of the collected Danube Swabian samples. RESULTS: Haplotype-based analyses like identity by descent segment analysis show that the investigated Danube Swabians possess significant German and other West European ancestry, but their Hungarian ancestry is also prominent. Our results suggest that their main source of ancestry can be traced back to Western Europe, presumably to the region of Germany. CONCLUSION: This is the first analysis of Danube Swabian population samples based on genome-wide autosomal data. Our results establish the basis for conducting further comprehensive research on Danube Swabians and on other German ethnicities of the Carpathian basin, which can help reconstruct their origin, and identify their major archaic genomic patterns.


Assuntos
Etnicidade , Genética Populacional , Humanos , Idoso , Frequência do Gene , Etnicidade/genética , Europa (Continente) , Hungria
3.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(1)2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36676777

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Medical imaging is a key element in the clinical workup of patients with suspected oncological disease. In Hungary, due to the high number of patients, waiting lists for Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) were created some years ago. The Municipality of Budapest and Semmelweis University signed a cooperation agreement with an extra budget in 2020 (HBP: Healthy Budapest Program) to reduce the waiting lists for these patients. The aim of our study was to analyze the impact of the first experiences with the HBP. Material and Methods: The study database included all the CT/MRI examinations conducted at Semmelweis University with a referral diagnosis of suspected oncological disease within the first 13 months of the HBP (6804 cases). In our retrospective, two-armed, comparative clinical study, different components of the waiting times in the oncology diagnostics pathway were analyzed. Using propensity score matching, we compared the data of the HBP-funded patients (n = 450) to those of the patients with regular care provided by the National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF) (n = 450). Results: In the HBP-funded vs. the NHIF-funded patients, the time interval from the first suspicion of oncological disease to the request for imaging examinations was on average 15.2 days shorter (16.1 vs. 31.3 days), and the mean waiting time for the CT/MRI examination was reduced by 13.0 days (4.2 vs. 17.2 days, respectively). In addition, the imaging medical records were prepared on average 1.7 days faster for the HBP-funded patients than for the NHIF-funded patients (3.4 vs. 5.1 days, respectively). No further shortening of the different time intervals during the subsequent oncology diagnostic pathway (histological investigation and multidisciplinary team decision) or in the starting of specific oncological therapy (surgery, irradiation, and chemotherapy) was observed in the HBP-funded vs. the NHIF-funded patients. We identified a moderately strong negative correlation (r = -0.5736, p = 0.0350) between the CT/MR scans requested and the active COVID-19 case rates during the pandemic waves. Conclusion: The waiting lists for diagnostic CT/MR imaging can be effectively shortened with a targeted project, but a more comprehensive intervention is needed to shorten the time from the radiological diagnosis, through the decisions of the oncoteam, to the start of the oncological treatment.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Listas de Espera , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hungria , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Teste para COVID-19
4.
Orv Hetil ; 164(3): 104-109, 2023 Jan 22.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36681999

RESUMO

With the development of the paediatric oncohaematological care and improving healing results, the focus on survival with high quality of life increases. Some oncohaematological treatments have a high gonadotoxicity and can cause infertility, therefore the fertility preservation is gaining ground worldwide. Most of the fertility preservation procedures are not yet available in childhood in Hungary. One of the main fertility preservation methods is the ovarian cryopreservation followed by ovarian autotransplantation. The aim of this article is to introduce the first prepubertal ovarian cryopreservation procedure in Hungary. The procedure was a collaboration between the 2nd Department of Paediatrics and the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Semmelweis University. The patient treated with lymphoblastic granulomatosis was accepted for allogenic bone marrow transplantation, which conditional therapy has a very high gonadotoxic impact, with a consequential infertility. Also responding to the patient's family request, the oncoteam decided to carry out a fertility preservation procedure, an ovarian cryopreservation. With the necessary permits, we carried out the first laparoscopic ovarian removal for cryopreservation in a prepubertal girl at the 2nd Department of Paediatrics of Semmelweis University, resulting the tissue deep frozen at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Semmelweis University. With the development of oncohaematological treatments, there is a growing need for fertility preservation methods. Most of these are already available for women, but not for the age group under eighteen. The presented ovarian cryopreservation method for the 13-year-old girl is the pioneer case in Hungary. In the future, the authors aim to create a national oncofertility network that can serve as a basis for the smoothest care of similar cases. Orv Hetil. 2023; 164(3): 104-109.


Assuntos
Preservação da Fertilidade , Infertilidade , Neoplasias , Gravidez , Feminino , Criança , Humanos , Adolescente , Hungria , Qualidade de Vida , Ovário/transplante , Criopreservação/métodos , Preservação da Fertilidade/métodos , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/terapia
5.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 76(1)2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36688745

RESUMO

The emergence and spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitals is a major global public health concern. The current study sought to characterize 25 MRSA clinical isolates collected in a Tunisian hospital from December 2015 to September 2016, with the genetic lineages, virulence factors, and antibiotic resistance mechanisms determined for these isolates. Three spa-types were detected: t037 (23 isolates), t932, and t2235 (one isolate each). Isolates were ascribed to agr I (n = 20), agr II (n = 1), with four nontypeable isolates. Depending on sequence type (ST), the 25 MRSA isolates were assigned to two clonal complexes (CC8 and CC5), with a predominance of the lineage ST239-CC8 (n = 24; 96%). All isolates belonging to CC8 had the SCCmec type III, while the unique CC5 isolate had SCCmec type IV. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed high levels of resistance to aminoglycosides, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and rifampicin for the majority of isolates belonging to the ST239-CC8 lineage. The ST149-CC5 isolate was susceptible to non-ß-lactam antibiotics. One isolate harbored the tsst-1 gene (4%); however, lukS/LukF-PV, eta and etb genes were not detected. The MDR ST239-CC8 clone would seem to be widespread in this hospital. Therefore, a rigorous hygienic control system is urgently required.


Assuntos
Queimaduras , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Traumatologia , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Tipagem Molecular , Epidemiologia Molecular , Brasil , Hungria , Genótipo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Antibacterianos
6.
Orv Hetil ; 164(2): 64-69, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36641758

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: According to the literature, mentalizing difficulties and insecure emotional attachment styles occur more frequently among adolescents with eating disorders. The role of mentalization in the relationship between emotional attachment styles and eating attitudes has not been investigated among Hungarian adolescents. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relationship between mentalization, emotional attachment and eating attitudes among adolescents between 14 and 18 years of age. METHOD: After informed consent, 143 adolescents filled out the Reflective Functioning Questionnaire, the Experience in Close Relationship Scale, and the Eating Attitudes Test in our study. RESULTS: The direct path between the emotional attachment total score and dieting was not significant (c' = 0.01, p = 0.31, ß = 0.09), while the indirect path between emotional attachment and eating attitudes through mentalization uncertainty proved to be significant (∑ab = 0.01 [0.01-0.02], ß = 0.07). DISCUSSION: Our results suggest that the attachment style plays a role in dieting through mentalizing among adolescents. CONCLUSION: We recommend mentalization-based methods to change attitudes about dieting among adolescents. Orv Hetil. 2023; 164(2): 64-69.


Assuntos
Emoções , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Adolescente , Hungria , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 75, 2023 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36627594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Burnout is one of the most extensively studied phenomena of the twenty-first century; which has been extensively studied among helping professions, although it can be broadened to several other types of occupation. Based on our knowledge and literature search, no similar studies have been carried out among postal workes to date. METHODS: This cross-sectional questionnaire-based epidemiological study was carried out between May 2021 and January 2022 in five counties in Hungary with the recruitment of postal delivery workers focusing on (1) the prevalence of burnout among postal delivery workers; (2) including the role of demographic parameters, duration of employment as well as the presence of secondary employment; (3) and also analyzed the role of several risk factors and medical conditions; (4) and we also examined the possible association between depression, insomnia and quality of life and burnout. RESULTS: Overall 1300 questionnaires were successfully delivered and 1034 responses received (response rate of 79.5%). Three hundred sixty-eight males (35.6%) and six hundred sixty-six females (64.4%) participated in our study. The prevalence of burnout was 50.8% (525/1034) in this study population (mean score 2.74 ± 0.33). Logistic regression analysis showed that female gender [OR = 2.380, 95% CI: 1.731 to 2.554], first workplace [OR = 1.891, 95% CI: 1.582 to 2.162] and working more than 30 years [OR = 1.901, 95% CI: 1.608 to 2.326] have significantly increased the likelyhood of burnout as well as the history of muscoskeletal pain [OR = 1.156, 95% CI: 1.009 to1.342], current quality of life [OR = 1.602, 95% CI: 1.473 to 1.669] and the presence of sleep disturbance [OR = 1.289, 95% CI: 1.066 to 1.716]. CONCLUSION: This is the first study in Hungary to investigate the prevalence of burnout among postal workers and to explore the relationship between burnout and mental health problems. Our study underlines the clinical importance of burnout and draws attention to the need for appropriate prevention and treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Qualidade de Vida , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Hungria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Esgotamento Psicológico , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 78, 2023 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Within the last decades, a substantial number of reports have established bullying behaviours as a severe risk to the health and safety of workers. However, in Hungary, the severity of this issue remains largely unknown. Therefore, the current study aimed to 1) determine the prevalence of offensive workplace behaviours in the Hungarian working population and 2) examine the relationship between exposure to these offensive behaviours and certain mental health indicators. METHODS: The cross-sectional analyses of the present study are based on a sample of 13,104 active workers being representative of the Hungarian working population according to gender, age, educational level, and 18 occupational sectors. The mid-length version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire II (COPSOQ II) was used to measure workplace offensive behaviours (bullying, sexual harassment, threats of violence, and physical violence) in the 12 months preceding the survey. Examined mental health correlates included depressive symptomatology (Beck Depression Inventory), functional somatic symptoms (PHQ-15), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale), and general well-being (WHO Well-being Index). RESULTS: Almost half (48.7%) of the sample reported exposure to some form of offensive behaviour; 37.6% of participants reported occasional-, while 11.1% reported weekly or daily exposure. More women than men were exposed to offensive workplace behaviours, and those targeted the most were individuals aged 18-29 and in companies employing 20-49 employees. Top managers reported the lowest amount of bullying, while unskilled labourers reported the most frequent exposure. A moderately strong relationship was discovered between exposure to workplace offensive behaviours and all indicators of mental health. CONCLUSION: Workplace bullying was revealed to be a significant public health concern according to this large, representative data set from Hungary. Strategies to reduce the occurrence and impact of these behaviours on employee health should be a priority for occupational health and safety interventions.


Assuntos
Bullying , Saúde Mental , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Hungria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Risco
9.
Orv Hetil ; 164(1): 29-37, 2023 Jan 08.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36617349

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis affects one in three women and one in five men over the age of 50. We do not have an osteoporosis-related knowledge questionnaire over the age of 50, which is considered strong evidence in the prevention and treatment of the disease. OBJECTIVE: Aim of the study was to validate the Hungarian form of the Osteoporosis Questionnaire in Hungarian-speaking women over the age of 50. METHOD: The questionnaire was validated into Hungarian according to Beaton's six-step method. Our sample consisted of 326 women. During our statistical analysis, we calculated descriptive statistics, difference tests, Cronbach's alpha value, and Spearman's correlation coefficient for test-retest and for external validity. Quality of life and physical activity were examined to support the external validity. RESULTS: Our sample (63.08 ± 9.36 years) scored 8.76 ± 6.94 points on the questionnaire. Cronbach's alpha value was 0.89. For the test-retest, Spearman's correlation coefficient showed a value of p≥0.25 for all the questions. Significant correlations were found between knowledge and age (R = 0.37; p<0.001) and years of using hormone replacement therapy (R = 0.34; p = 0.02). The correlation analysis showed significant (p<0.001) correlation between knowledge and all sub-dimensions of quality of life. Significant correlation was found between transport movement (p<0.001; R = 0.21), intensive (p<0.001; R = 0.354), moderate recreational activity (p<0.001; R = 0.348), total moderate (p = 0.041; R = 0.125) total intense movements (p = 0.018; R = 0.145) and knowledge. DISCUSSION: The Hungarian questionnaire was validated in accordance with international practice. CONCLUSION: The Hungarian version of the Osteoporosis Questionnaire is a reliable, adaptable questionnaire for measuring the osteoporosis-related knowledge of the Hungarian female population over 50. Orv Hetil. 2022; 163(51): 29-37.


Assuntos
Osteoporose , Qualidade de Vida , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Hungria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Psicometria , Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1624, 2023 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36709348

RESUMO

The parasitoid wasp, Ixodiphagus hookeri (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), is the natural enemy of a wide range of hard and soft tick species. While these encyrtid wasps are supposed to be distributed worldwide, only a few studies report on their actual distribution around the globe. Within a shotgun sequencing-based metagenome analysis, the occurrence of I. hookeri was screened at multiple Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) tick sampling points in Hungary to contribute to the assessment of the distribution patterns of the parasitoid wasps in Central Europe. To our knowledge, the first report of the species in Hungary and the description of the southernmost I. hookeri associated geoposition in Central Europe took place within our study. I. hookeri infested I. ricinus nymphs were detected at five sampling points in Hungary. The results show that the exact distribution range of I. hookeri is still barely studied. At the same time, unprecedented public health issues being brought about by climate change might require steps toward the exploitation of the tick biocontrol potential and as an ecological bioindicator role of the parasitoid wasp in the future.


Assuntos
Ixodes , Ixodidae , Vespas , Animais , Hungria , Europa (Continente)
11.
Orv Hetil ; 164(4): 148-155, 2023 Jan 29.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36709437

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Congenital aniridia is a rare disease, characterised by the complete or partial absence of the iris, but lesions may be present in all structures of the eye. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of ocular diseases in congenital aniridia by analyzing patients from a Hungarian centre. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients at the Department of Ophthalmology of Semmelweis University, examined between October 2005 and May 2022, have been included. After taking the patients' medical history, a detailed ophthalmological examination has been performed. RESULTS: Of the 82 patients in the database, 33 (age 25.69 ± 17.49 [5-59] years, 17 females [51.51%]) presented for examination and 65 eyes were examined. Nystagmus was found in 45 eyes of 23 patients (69.23%), and the patients' uncorrected distance visual acuity was 0.14 ± 0.128 (0.9 logMAR; 0.63-0.005). The aniridia-associated keratopathy was Grade 0 in 8 eyes (12.3%), Grade 1 in 10 eyes (15.38%), Grade 2 in 16 eyes (24.62%), Grade 3 in 4 eyes (6.15%) and Grade 4 in 25 eyes (38.46%). 30 eyes (46.15%) of 15 patients had secondary glaucoma, 6 eyes (9.2%) of 3 patients were glaucoma suspect. 8 eyes (12.3%) had a clear lens, 44 eyes (67.69%) had cataract, of which 22 (33.84%) were anterior cortical polar cataracts. 13 eyes (20%) were pseudophakic (PCL) and 7 eyes (10.77%) had lens dislocation or zonular insufficiency. Macular hypoplasia was found in 6 eyes of 3 patients (4.6%) and optic nerve head malformation in 2 eyes of 1 patient (3.03%). CONCLUSION: The ocular signs of congenital aniridia are aniridia-associated keratopathy, secondary glaucoma, cataract, macular and optic nerve head hypoplasia. Systematic collaboration of different ophthalmological specialties is required for the management and care of all these ocular abnormalities. Orv Hetil. 2023; 164(4): 148-155.


Assuntos
Aniridia , Catarata , Doenças da Córnea , Glaucoma , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Hungria/epidemiologia , Aniridia/complicações , Aniridia/epidemiologia , Aniridia/genética , Glaucoma/complicações , Transtornos da Visão
12.
Orv Hetil ; 164(4): 132-139, 2023 Jan 29.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36709435

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The digitalization of healthcare is one of the most topical issues in terms of the present and future of healthcare. The coronavirus pandemic has shed light on the potential inherent in these technologies, and at the same time brought to the surface countless tasks and problems that need to be solved. OBJECTIVE: In our national survey, our aim is to find out how medical doctors are adapting to digital healthcare solutions. METHOD: Between July 2021 and May 2022, we conducted an online questionnaire survey among doctors working in Hungary. 1774 people answered our questions, including 1576 general practitioners and 198 dentists. In this paper, the 1576 general practitioners' responses are presented. RESULTS: 78.8% of the respondent doctors recommend websites to their patients on a more or less regular basis, 52.8% have recommended apps and 46.0% have recommended social media resources. The respondent doctors perceive a high demand from patients for communication by e-mail (83.7% indicated). 86.4% of doctors are aware of telemedicine solutions and 47.5% of respondents would like to use them intensively in the next 3 years. A significant proportion of respondents would like to use apps (56.2%), sensors, portable diagnostic devices (49.0%) and artificial intelligence (28.3%) in the next 3 years. Websites, apps and social media resources are significantly more frequently recommended by general practitioners and they are the ones who are most in favour of the use of the internet for patient health and telemedicine. CONCLUSION: Our respondents manifest fundamentally positive feelings towards the digitalization of healthcare and are characterized by a cautious openness regarding the implementation and adaptation of technologies. Orv Hetil. 2023; 164(4): 132-139.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Clínicos Gerais , Humanos , Hungria , Inteligência Artificial , Atenção à Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280480, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36662799

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Comparing the scientific output of different researchers applying for a grant is a tedious work. In Hungary, to help reviewers to rapidly rank the scientific productivity of a researcher, a grant decision support tool was established and is available at www.scientometrics.org. In the present study, our goal was to assess the impact of this decision support tool on grant review procedures. METHODS: The established, publicly available scientometric portal uses four metrics, including the H-index, the yearly citations without self-citations, the number of publications in the last five years, and the number of highly cited publications of a researcher within eleven independent scientific disciplines. Publication-age matched researchers are then ranked and the results are provided to grant reviewers. A questionnaire was completed by reviewers regarding utilization of the scientometric ranking system. The outcome of the grant selection was analyzed by comparing scientometric parameters of applying and funded applicants. We compared three grant allocation rounds before to two grant allocation rounds after the introduction of the portal. RESULTS: The scientometric decision support tool was introduced in 2020 to assist grant selection in Hungary and all basic research grant applicants (n = 6,662) were screened. The average score of funded proposals compared to submitted proposals increased by 94% after the introduction of the ranking. Correlation between ranking scores and actual grant selection was strong in life and material sciences but some scientific panels had opposite correlation in social sciences and humanities. When comparing selection outcome to H-index across all applicants, both type I and type II errors decreased. All together 540 reviewers provided feedback representing all eleven scientific disciplines and 83.05% of the reviewers (especially younger reviewers) found the ranking useful. CONCLUSIONS: The scientometric decision support tool can save time and increase transparency of grant review processes. The majority of reviewers found the ranking-based scientometric analysis useful when assessing the publication performance of an applicant.


Assuntos
Eficiência , Organização do Financiamento , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pesquisadores , Hungria
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674026

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has posed a huge challenge to the world in recent years. The development of vaccines that are as effective as possible and accessible to society offers a promising alternative for addressing the problems caused by this situation as soon as possible and to restore the pre-epidemic system. The present study investigated the preferences of residents in Hungary's second-largest city (Debrecen) for the COVID-19 vaccine. To achieve this aim, a discrete choice experiment was conducted with 1011 participants, and the vaccine characteristics included in the design of the experiment were determined by qualitative methods and a pilot survey: (1) country of origin; (2) efficiency; (3) side effect; and (4) duration of protection. During the data collection at three vaccination sites, respondents were asked to choose between three vaccine alternatives and one "no choice" option in eight decision situations. Discrete choice model estimations were performed using a random parameter logit (RPL) specification with the final model extended to include a latent variable measuring pandemic awareness. The results showed that the vaccine with a Chinese country of origin is the least preferred among the respondents, while the Hungarian and the European vaccines are the most preferred. Furthermore, the increase in the vaccine efficiency level increased the respondents' sense of utility for the vaccine; the short-term side effect was preferred to the long-term one; and the increase in the duration of protection provided by the vaccine increased the respondents' sense of utility for the vaccine. Based on the parameter estimated for the latent variable, it can be concluded that as the level of pandemic awareness (which is more positive among people with chronic diseases and less important among health workers) increases, the choice of a vaccine option becomes more preferred among respondents compared to the "no choice". The results of our investigation could contribute towards increasing compliance in the case of the vaccination-rejecting population, not only for COVID-19, but for any kind of vaccination procedure.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Humanos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Hungria , Comportamento de Escolha , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinação
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674133

RESUMO

Patients with comorbidities and obesity are more likely to be hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), to have a higher incidence of severe pneumonia and to also show higher mortality rates. Between 15 March 2020 and 31 December 2021, a retrospective, single-center, observational study was conducted among patients requiring hospitalization for COVID-19 infection. Our aim was to investigate the impact of comorbidities and lifestyle risk factors on mortality, the need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission and the severity of the disease among these patients. Our results demonstrated that comorbidities and obesity increased the risk for all investigated endpoints. Age over 65 years and male sex were identified as independent risk factors, and cardiovascular diseases, cancer, endocrine and metabolic diseases, chronic kidney disease and obesity were identified as significant risk factors. Obesity was found to be the most significant risk factor, associated with considerable odds of COVID-19 mortality and the need for ICU admission in the under-65 age group (aOR: 2.95; p < 0.001 and aOR: 3.49, p < 0.001). In our study, risk factors that increased mortality and morbidity among hospitalized patients were identified. Detailed information on such factors may support therapeutic decision making, the proper targeting of vaccination campaigns and the effective overall management of the COVID-19 epidemic, hence reducing the burden on the healthcare system.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Masculino , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Hungria , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Fatores de Risco , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Hospitais
17.
Nature ; 613(7945): 704-711, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36482134

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, sizeable groups of unvaccinated people persist even in countries with high vaccine access1. As a consequence, vaccination became a controversial subject of debate and even protest2. Here we assess whether people express discriminatory attitudes in the form of negative affectivity, stereotypes and exclusionary attitudes in family and political settings across groups defined by COVID-19 vaccination status. We quantify discriminatory attitudes between vaccinated and unvaccinated citizens in 21 countries, covering a diverse set of cultures across the world. Across three conjoined experimental studies (n = 15,233), we demonstrate that vaccinated people express discriminatory attitudes towards unvaccinated individuals at a level as high as discriminatory attitudes that are commonly aimed at immigrant and minority populations3-5. By contrast, there is an absence of evidence that unvaccinated individuals display discriminatory attitudes towards vaccinated people, except for the presence of negative affectivity in Germany and the USA. We find evidence in support of discriminatory attitudes against unvaccinated individuals in all countries except for Hungary and Romania, and find that discriminatory attitudes are more strongly expressed in cultures with stronger cooperative norms. Previous research on the psychology of cooperation has shown that individuals react negatively against perceived 'free-riders'6,7, including in the domain of vaccinations8,9. Consistent with this, we find that contributors to the public good of epidemic control (that is, vaccinated individuals) react with discriminatory attitudes towards perceived free-riders (that is, unvaccinated individuals). National leaders and vaccinated members of the public appealed to moral obligations to increase COVID-19 vaccine uptake10,11, but our findings suggest that discriminatory attitudes-including support for the removal of fundamental rights-simultaneously emerged.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Internacionalidade , Preconceito , Recusa de Vacinação , Vacinação , Humanos , Direitos Civis/psicologia , Comportamento Cooperativo , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Alemanha , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Hungria , Obrigações Morais , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Política , Preconceito/psicologia , Preconceito/estatística & dados numéricos , Romênia , Estereotipagem , Estados Unidos , Vacinação/psicologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Recusa de Vacinação/psicologia , Recusa de Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
J Environ Manage ; 328: 116966, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36521222

RESUMO

An understanding of traditional ecological knowledge systems is increasingly acknowledged as a means of helping to develop global, regional and national, but locally relevant policies. Pastoralists often use lands that are unsuitable for crops due to biophysical and climatic extremities and variabilities. Forage plants of pastures are utilized by herding communities by applying locally relevant multigenerational knowledge. We analyzed the forage-related knowledge of pastoralists and herders by reviewing scientific papers and video documentaries on forage plants and indicators, their use in land management, and plant-livestock interactions. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with key knowledge holders in Iran, Mongolia, Kenya, Poland and Hungary. We found 35 indicators used by herders to describe forage species. The indicators described botanical features, livestock behavior during grazing, and the impact of plants on livestock condition and health. The indicators were used in context-specific management decisions, with a variety of objectives to optimize grazing. We identified ten global principles, including, among others, a livestock-centered perspective, close monitoring and targeted pasturing of various (preferred or avoided) forages, and the use of different livestock types and well-planned spatial movements at multiple scales to optimize the utilization of available plant resources. Although pastoralists vary greatly across the globe, the character and use of their traditional forage-related knowledge do seem to follow strikingly similar principles. Understanding these may help the local-to-global-level understanding of these locally specific systems, support bottom-up pastoral initiatives and discussions on sustainable land management, and help to develop locally relevant global and national policies.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Gado , Animais , Ecossistema , Produtos Agrícolas , Hungria
19.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 82: 102306, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36521336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Hungarian National Cancer Registry (HNCR) was legally established as a population-based cancer registry in 1999, and its operation started in 2000 supporting the planning and development of the Hungarian oncology network as well as informing national cancer control policies. Ensuring comparable, accurate, and complete data on malignant and in situ neoplasms is critical in determining the applicability of the database. The aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive evaluation of the data quality at the HNCR. METHODS: Based on qualitative and semiquantitative methods from current international guidelines, we assess the comparability, completeness, validity, and timeliness of the collected data over the diagnostic period 2000-2019, with a focus on the year 2018. RESULTS: Coding practices and the classification system used at the HNCR are based on the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10), which differs from the internationally recommended ICD-O. The annual trends in incidence did not indicate major fluctuations, that may have resulted from data collection discrepancies, while comparisons of the mortality-to-incidence ratio (M:I) compared with 1 minus 5-year observed survival indicated some systematic differences requiring further exploration. The age-standardized (European standard) incidence rate per 100 000 measured by the HNCR in 2018 was very high: 647.9 for men and 501.6 for women, 11.6% and 14.6% higher than the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) estimates respectively. Behind the overall differences between the two data sources, we identified that the vast majority were due to ill-defined ICD codes: malignant neoplasm of other and ill-defined sites (C76), and malignant neoplasm without specification of site (C80). Otherwise, there were no major discrepancies by localization. The proportion of morphologically verified cancer cases was 57.8% overall, that of death certificates was 2.3%, and that of unknown primary tumors was 1.4%. CONCLUSION: Further implementations and interventions are required to ensure that the operations, coding practices, and the classification system used at the national registry are in accordance with international standards, and to increase the completeness and validity of the collected cancer data. In particular, the low morphologically verified proportion questions the overall accuracy of the stated diagnoses within the database. Nevertheless, our examination implies that the data of the HNCR are reasonably comparable, and without doubt fulfill the requirements to support national oncology services and cancer planning. However, most importantly, a review of registry personnel and resource requirements to run the national population-based cancer registry should be an essential part of Hungary's national cancer strategy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas , Neoplasias , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Hungria/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Coleta de Dados , Incidência
20.
Trauma Violence Abuse ; 24(1): 203-217, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190024

RESUMO

Alarmed by research that reveals Hungary as having one of the lowest reporting rates in cases of sexual violence in Europe, this article provides an overview of the research that explains why, historically, sexual violence has been and continues to be underreported all over the globe, from law enforcement and criminal justice perspective. Furthermore, we describe the unique circumstances that might influence Hungarian victims of sexual violence to make formal reports. Among other possible factors, we discuss rape myth acceptance, victim blaming, feminist activism, institutional betrayal, and media representations of rape. In an effort to provide insight into Hungarian gender politics, this article raises salient theoretical works on gender ideology and gender policy in contemporary Hungary. This article concludes with a discussion on what implications such research in Hungary may have on a global understanding of sexual violence reporting.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Humanos , Hungria , Aplicação da Lei , Feminismo
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