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Syst Parasitol ; 101(2): 21, 2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38369578


Larvae of European rose chafer Cetonia aurata (Linnaeus, 1758) and cockchafer Melolontha sp. beetles were collected in Hungary for parasitological study. Intestinal examination revealed the presence of three well-known thelastomatid nematodes belonging to the genus Cephalobellus Cobb, 1920. We report for the first-time Cephalobellus cuspidatum (Rudolphi, 1814) Leibersperger, 1960, C. osmodermae Leibersperger, 1960, and C. potosiae Leibersperger, 1960 in Hungary, all found in scarab beetle larvae. Due to incomplete original descriptions, a comprehensive redescription with detailed morphological data is presented. Additionally, an identification key for closely related Cephalobellus, Thelastoma and Severianoia species infesting scarab beetles worldwide is provided. Newly generated 18S and 28S rDNA gene sequences of C. osmodermae place it as one of the early branches within Thelastomatidae.

Besouros , Nematoides , Animais , Enterobius , Hungria , Especificidade da Espécie
Front Public Health ; 12: 1152555, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38327575


Introduction: Spatially segregated, socio-economically deprived communities in Europe are at risk of being neglected in terms of health care. In Hungary, poor monitoring systems and poor knowledge on the health status of people in these segregated areas prevent the development of well-informed effective interventions for these vulnerable communities. Aims: We used data available from National Health Insurance Fund Management to better describe health care performance in segregated communities and to develop more robust monitoring systems. Methods: A cross-sectional study using 2020 health care data was conducted on each general medical practice (GMP) in Hungary providing care to both segregated and nonsegregated (complementary) adult patients. Segregated areas were mapped and ascertained by a governmental decree that defines them as within settlement clusters of adults with low level of education and income. Age, sex, and eligibility for exemption certificate standardized indicators for health care delivery, reimbursement, and premature mortality were computed for segregated and nonsegregated groups of adults and aggregated at the country level. The ratio of segregation and nonsegregation specific indicators (relative risk, RR) was computed with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results: Broad variations between GMPs were detected for each indicator. Segregated groups had a significantly higher rate of health care service use than complementary groups (RR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.219;1.223) while suffering from significantly reduced health care reimbursement (RR = 0.940, 95% CI: 0.929;0.951). The risk of premature mortality was significantly higher among segregated patients (RR = 1.184, 95% CI: 1.087;1.289). Altogether, living in a segregated area led to an increase in visits to health care services by 18.1% with 6.6% less health spending. Conclusion: Adults living in segregated areas use health care services more frequently than those living in nonsegregated areas; however, the amount of health care reimbursement they receive is significantly lower, suggesting lower quality of care. The health status of segregated adults is remarkably lower, as evidenced by their higher premature mortality rate. These findings demonstrate the need for intervention in this vulnerable group. Because our study reveals serious variation across GMPs, segregation-specific monitoring is necessary to support programs sensitive to local issues and establish necessary benchmarks.

Atenção à Saúde , Guanosina Monofosfato , Tionucleotídeos , Humanos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Hungria , Europa (Continente)
Ideggyogy Sz ; 77(1-2): 51-59, 2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321854


Background and purpose:

Neuro­cog­nitive aging and the associated brain diseases impose a major social and economic burden. Therefore, substantial efforts have been put into revealing the lifestyle, the neurobiological and the genetic underpinnings of healthy neurocognitive aging. However, these studies take place almost exclusively in a limited number of highly-developed countries. Thus, it is an important open question to what extent their findings may generalize to neurocognitive aging in other, not yet investigated regions. The purpose of the Hungarian Longitudinal Study of Healthy Brain Aging (HuBA) is to collect multi-modal longitudinal data on healthy neurocognitive aging to address the data gap in this field in Central and Eastern Europe.

. Methods:

We adapted the Australian Ima­ging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study of aging study protocol to local circumstances and collected demographic, lifestyle, men­tal and physical health, medication and medical history related information as well as re­cor­ded a series of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. In addition, participants were al­so offered to participate in the collection of blood samples to assess circulating in­flam­matory biomarkers as well as a sleep study aimed at evaluating the general sleep quality based on multi-day collection of subjective sleep questionnaires and whole-night elec­troencephalographic (EEG) data.

. Results:

Baseline data collection has al­ready been accomplished for more than a hundred participants and data collection in the se­cond
session is on the way. The collected data might reveal specific local trends or could also indicate the generalizability of previous findings. Moreover, as the HuBA protocol al­so offers a sleep study designed for tho­rough characterization of participants’ sleep quality and related factors, our extended multi-modal dataset might provide a base for incorporating these measures into healthy and clinical aging research. 

. Conclusion:

Besides its straightforward na­tional benefits in terms of health ex­pen­di­ture, we hope that this Hungarian initiative could provide results valid for the whole Cent­ral and Eastern European region and could also promote aging and Alzheimer’s disease research in these countries.


Envelhecimento , Encéfalo , Masculino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Hungria , Austrália , Encéfalo/patologia , Envelhecimento/patologia , Biomarcadores
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 4387, 2024 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38388769


Methionine (Met) plays a substantial role in poultry due to its involvement in several pathways, including enhancing antioxidant status and improving growth performance and health status. This study examined how in ovo feeding of Met affects hatching performance, antioxidant status, and hepatic gene expression related to growth and immunity in the TETRA-SL LL hybrid (TSL) commercial layer and Hungarian partridge colored hen (HPC) indigenous genotypes. The eggs were injected with saline, DL-Met, and L-Met on 17.5 days of embryonic development. The results showed that the in ovo feeding of DL-Met significantly increased the hatching weight and ferric reducing the ability of the plasma (FRAP) compared with L-Met. The in ovo feeding of either Met source enhanced the liver health and function and hepatic antioxidant status of the chicks. The genotype's differences were significant; the TSL genotype had better hatching weight, an antioxidant defense system, and downregulated growth-related gene expression than the HPC genotype. In ovo feeding of either Met source enhanced the chicks' health status and antioxidant status, and DL-Met improved the hatching weight of the chicks more than L-Met. Genotype differences were significantly evident in the responses of growth performance, antioxidant status, blood biochemical parameters, and gene expression to Met sources.

Antioxidantes , Galinhas , Animais , Feminino , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Metionina/metabolismo , Hungria , Racemetionina/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 174, 2024 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38388925


BACKGROUND: The aim of our cross-sectional study was to evaluate the current situation and curriculum of nontechnical skills (NTS) training in the undergraduate education of health care professionals in Hungary. METHODS: All institutes with relevant NTS training in Hungarian faculties of medicine and faculties of health sciences were asked to fill out a 19-item questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were performed, and the characteristics of NTS teaching and non-NTS teaching institutes were compared. The independent predictors of teaching NTS in a particular institute were identified with multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: Seventy-seven institutes responded (52% response rate), of which 66% trained NTS. The most frequent method of NTS training is talking about them during a practice or lecture, and less than half of NTS respondents use simulation. The most frequent cause of not teaching NTS is a lack of human or technical resources. The type of faculty (p = 0.025), academic year (p = 0.001), field of medicine (p = 0.025), and importance of teamwork (p = 0.021) differed between NTS and noNTS institutes. Teaching students in academic year two represented the only independent predictor of NTS education (p = 0.012). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that the undergraduate curriculum of Hungarian universities includes some type of NTS education; however, this education requires further development.

Currículo , Estudantes , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Hungria , Pessoal de Saúde
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 11(1)2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38413122


INTRODUCTION: Asthma is the most prevalent obstructive pulmonary disease, with drastically improved treatment options over the past decades. However, there is still a proportion of patients with suboptimal level of asthma control, leading to multiple hospitalisation due to severe acute exacerbation (SAE) and earlier death. In our study, we aimed to assess the risk of SAEs and mortality in patients who suffered an SAE. METHODS: The database of the National Health Insurance Fund was used to retrospectively analyse the data of all asthmatic patients who had been hospitalised for an SAE between 2009 and 2019. We used a competing risk model to analyse the effect of each exacerbation on the risk of further SAEs with age, sex, Charlson index and the number of severe and moderate exacerbations included as covariates. RESULT: Altogether, 9257 asthmatic patients suffered at least one exacerbation leading to hospitalisation during the study time. The majority (75.8%) were women, and the average age was 58.24 years. Most patients had at least one comorbidity. 3492 patients suffered at least one further exacerbation and 1193 patients died of any cause. In the competing risk model, each SAE increased the risk of further exacerbations (HR=2.078-7.026; p<0.0001 for each case) but not death. The risk of SAEs was also increased by age (HR=1.008) female sex (HR=1.102) and with the number of days of the first SAE (HR=1.007). CONCLUSIONS: Even though asthma is generally a well-manageable disease, there still are many patients who suffer SAEs that significantly increase the risk of further similar SAEs.

Asma , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hungria/epidemiologia , Asma/epidemiologia , Seguro Saúde , Hospitalização
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 4722, 2024 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38413813


In an increasingly human- and road-dominated world, the preservation of functional ecosystems has become highly relevant. While the negative ecological impacts of roads on ecosystems are numerous and well documented, roadless areas have been proposed as proxy for functional ecosystems. However, their potential remains underexplored, partly due to the incomplete mapping of roads. We assessed the accuracy of roadless areas identification using freely available road-data in two regions with contrasting levels of anthropogenic influence: boreal Canada and temperate Central Europe (Poland, Slovakia, Czechia, and Hungary). Within randomly selected circular plots (per region and country), we visually examined the completeness of road mapping using OpenStreetMap 2020 and assessed whether human influences affect mapping quality using four variables. In boreal Canada, roads were completely mapped in 3% of the plots, compared to 40% in Central Europe. Lower Human Footprint Index and road density values were related to greater incompleteness in road mapping. Roadless areas, defined as areas at least 1 km away from any road, covered 85% of the surface in boreal Canada (mean size ± s.d. = 272 ± 12,197 km2), compared to only 0.4% in temperate Central Europe (mean size ± s.d. = 0.6 ± 3.1 km2). By visually interpreting and manually adding unmapped roads in 30 randomly selected roadless areas from each study country, we observed a similar reduction in roadless surface in both Canada and Central Europe (27% vs 28%) when all roads were included. This study highlights the urgent need for improved road mapping techniques to support research on roadless areas as conservation targets and surrogates of functional ecosystems.

Ecossistema , Humanos , Europa (Continente) , Canadá , Polônia , Hungria
BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care ; 12(1)2024 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38267204


INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for severe COVID-19 infection and is associated with increased risk of complications. The present study aimed to investigate effectiveness and persistence of different COVID vaccines in persons with or without diabetes during the Delta wave in Hungary. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data sources were the national COVID-19 registry data from the National Public Health Center and the National Health Insurance Fund on the total Hungarian population. The adjusted incidence rate ratios and corresponding 95% CIs were derived from a mixed-effect negative binomial regression model. RESULTS: A population of 672 240 cases with type 2 diabetes and a control group of 2 974 102 non-diabetic persons free from chronic diseases participated. Unvaccinated elderly persons with diabetes had 2.68 (95% CI 2.47 to 2.91) times higher COVID-19-related mortality rate as the 'healthy' controls. Primary immunization effectively equalized the risk of COVID-19 mortality between the two groups. Vaccine effectiveness declined over time, but the booster restored the effectiveness against mortality to over 90%. The adjusted vaccine effectiveness of the primary Pfizer-BioNTech against infection in the 14-120 days of postvaccination period was 71.6 (95% CI 66.3 to 76.1)% in patients aged 65-100 years with type 2 diabetes and 64.52 (95% CI 59.2 to 69.2)% in the controls. Overall, the effectiveness tended to be higher in individuals with diabetes than in controls. The booster vaccines could restore vaccine effectiveness to over 80% concerning risk of infection (eg, patients with diabetes aged 65-100 years: 89.1 (88.1-89.9)% with Pfizer-on-Pfizer, controls 65-100 years old: 86.9 (85.8-88.0)% with Pfizer-on-Pfizer, or patients with diabetes aged 65-100 years: 88.3 (87.2-89.2)% with Pfizer-on-Sinopharm, controls 65-100 years old: 87.8 (86.8-88.7)% with Pfizer-on-Sinopharm). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that people with type 2 diabetes may have even higher health gain when getting vaccinated as compared with non-diabetic persons, eliminating the marked, COVID-19-related excess risk of this population. Boosters could restore protection.

COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Idoso , Humanos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , Hungria/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle
BMC Pediatr ; 24(1): 47, 2024 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38225558


PURPOSE: We aimed to elucidate the underlying disease in a Hungarian family, with only one affected family member, a 16-year-old male Hungarian patient, who developed global developmental delay, cognitive impairment, behavioral problems, short stature, intermittent headaches, recurrent dizziness, strabismus, hypermetropia, complex movement disorder and partial pituitary dysfunction. After years of detailed clinical investigations and careful pediatric care, the exact diagnosis of the patient and the cause of the disease was still unknown. METHODS: We aimed to perform whole exome sequencing (WES) in order to investigate whether the affected patient is suffering from a rare monogenic disease. RESULTS: Using WES, we identified a novel, de novo frameshift variant (c.1902dupG, p.Ala636SerfsTer12) of the catenin beta-1 (CTNNB1) gene. Assessment of the novel CTNNB1 variant suggested that it is a likely pathogenic one and raised the diagnosis of CTNNB1 neurodevelopmental disorder (OMIM 615,075). CONCLUSIONS: Our manuscript may contribute to the better understanding of the genetic background of the recently discovered CTNNB1 neurodevelopmental disorder and raise awareness among clinicians and geneticists. The affected Hungarian family demonstrates that based on the results of the clinical workup is difficult to establish the diagnosis and high-throughput genetic screening may help to solve these complex cases.

Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , beta Catenina/genética , Sequenciamento do Exoma , Família , Hungria , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Fenótipo
Nutrients ; 16(2)2024 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38257134


The aim of the present study was two-fold: Firstly, to estimate the prevalence of psychological distress among international students at a Hungarian university two years after the COVID-19 outbreak; and secondly, to identify its demographic and socioeconomic factors, with special regard to the students' food-security status. A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was carried out from 27 March to 3 July 2022 among international students at the University of Debrecen. The questionnaire included information on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, food-security status (six-item United States Department of Agriculture Food Security Survey Module (USDA-FSSM)), and psychological distress (Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21)). Bivariate analysis was conducted to examine the potential associations between demographic/socioeconomic factors and psychological distress. Additionally, multiple logistic regression was employed to further analyze these associations. Of 398 participants, 42.2%, 48.7%, and 29.4% reported mild to extremely severe depression, anxiety, and stress, respectively. The ages 18-24 (AOR = 2.619; 95% CI: 1.206-5.689) and 25-29 (AOR = 2.663; 95% CI: 1.159-6.119), reporting a low perception of health status (AOR = 1.726; 95% CI: 1.081-2.755), and being food insecure (AOR = 1.984; 95% CI: 1.274-3.090) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Being female (AOR = 1.674; 95% CI: 1.090-2.571), reporting a low perception of health status (AOR = 1.736; 95% CI: 1.098-2.744), and being food insecure (AOR = 2.047; 95% CI: 1.327-3.157) were significantly associated with anxiety symptoms. Furthermore, being female (AOR = 1.702; 95% CI: 1.026-2.824)), living with roommates (AOR = 1.977; 95% CI: 1.075-3.635), reporting a low perception of health status (AOR = 2.840; 95% CI: 1.678-4.807), and being food insecure (AOR = 2.295; 95% CI:1.398-3.767) were significantly associated with symptoms of stress. Psychosocial programs combined with strategies to alleviate food insecurity are required to enhance international students' mental health and well-being.

Pandemias , Angústia Psicológica , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Hungria/epidemiologia , Universidades , Insegurança Alimentar
Int Wound J ; 21(1): e14655, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38272822


The prevention of pressure ulcer (PU) or pressure injury (PI) wounds is of public health importance in developed countries, including Hungary. The study aimed to assess the PU/PI prevention and care practices of Hungarian public hospitals and identify organizational and management factors. In 2022, a national, questionnaire-based survey of inpatient institutions relevant to PU/PI care was conducted, providing a picture of the practices of 86 hospitals for the year 2019. The questionnaire was processed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. The survey results show that good practices in Hungary are isolated, the reporting system is inhomogeneous, and documentation is not uniform across our institutional system. Of the 86 institutions, 71.0% operate a PU prevention team, 64.0% use prophylactic dressings, and 88.3% use an anti-decubitus mattress, with an average ratio of 26.1% to the number of beds. Less than half of the institutions reported the incidence of hospital acquired pressure injuries (HAPIs). In this sample, we found no significant association between hospital type and hospital size with the incidence of full-thickness HAPIs (stage III and IV wounds). Developing a comprehensive PU/PI reporting system and updating the national PU/PI prevention and care guidelines are essential in Hungary.

Lesão por Pressão , Humanos , Hungria , Lesão por Pressão/prevenção & controle , Hospitais Públicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Leitos
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(2)2024 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38279271


Albinism is characterized by a variable degree of hypopigmentation affecting the skin and the hair, and causing ophthalmologic abnormalities. Its oculocutaneous, ocular and syndromic forms follow an autosomal or X-linked recessive mode of inheritance, and 22 disease-causing genes are implicated in their development. Our aim was to clarify the genetic background of a Hungarian albinism cohort. Using a 22-gene albinism panel, the genetic background of 11 of the 17 Hungarian patients was elucidated. In patients with unidentified genetic backgrounds (n = 6), whole exome sequencing was performed. Our investigations revealed a novel, previously unreported rare variant (N687S) of the two-pore channel two gene (TPCN2). The N687S variant of the encoded TPC2 protein is carried by a 15-year-old Hungarian male albinism patient and his clinically unaffected mother. Our segregational analysis and in vitro functional experiments suggest that the detected novel rare TPCN2 variant alone is not a disease-causing variant in albinism. Deep genetic analyses of the family revealed that the patient also carries a phenotype-modifying R305W variant of the OCA2 protein, and he is the only family member harboring this genotype. Our results raise the possibility that this digenic combination might contribute to the observed differences between the patient and the mother, and found the genetic background of the disease in his case.

Albinismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Hungria , Mutação , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Albinismo/genética , Patrimônio Genético
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0294762, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38198442


Tuberculosis (TB) is a bacterial infection that is well-known in the palaeopathological record because it can affect the skeleton and consequently leaves readily identifiable macroscopic alterations. Palaeopathological case studies provide invaluable information about the spatio-temporal distribution of TB in the past. This is true for those archaeological periods and geographical regions from when and where no or very few TB cases have been published until now-as in the Sarmatian period (1st-5th centuries CE) in the Barbaricum of the Carpathian Basin. The aim of our paper is to discuss five newly discovered TB cases (HK199, HK201, HK225, HK253, and HK309) from the Sarmatian-period archaeological site of Hódmezovásárhely-Kenyere-ér, Bereczki-tanya (Csongrád-Csanád county, Hungary). Detailed macromorphological evaluation of the skeletons focused on the detection of bony changes likely associated with different forms of TB. In all five cases, the presence of endocranial alterations (especially TB-specific granular impressions) suggests that these individuals suffered from TB meningitis. Furthermore, the skeletal lesions observed in the spine and both hip joints of HK225 indicate that this juvenile also had multifocal osteoarticular TB. Thanks to the discovery of HK199, HK201, HK225, HK253, and HK309, the number of TB cases known from the Sarmatian-period Carpathian Basin doubled, implying that the disease was likely more frequent in the Barbaricum than previously thought. Without the application of granular impressions, the diagnosis of TB could not have been established in these five cases. Thus, the identification of TB in these individuals highlights the importance of diagnostics development, especially the refinement of diagnostic criteria. Based on the above, the systematic macromorphological (re-)evaluation of osteoarchaeological series from the Sarmatian-period Carpathian Basin would be advantageous to provide a more accurate picture of how TB may have impacted the ancestral human communities of the Barbaricum.

Doenças Ósseas , Tuberculose Meníngea , Tuberculose Osteoarticular , Xanthosoma , Humanos , Hungria , Arqueologia , Transtornos da Memória , Verduras
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 37, 2024 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38238830


BACKGROUND: Burnout is still one of the leading mental health problems. According to research results over the past decades, healthcare workers, including paramedics, are considered a high-risk group. In concordance with these results, the available resources need to prioritize monitoring paramedics' mental health. METHODS: In our study, we investigated whether the available test batteries measuring burnout could be reduced while maintaining their effectiveness. We reduced the 21-item Burnout Measurement and the 8-item version of the Psychosomatic Symptom Scale using the data of 727 Hungarian paramedics. We selected the top four items of the questionnaires that were significantly correlated with the original Burnout Measure Index and the Psychosomatic Scale Index. The classification efficiency of the shortened list of items was based on the initial risk categories of the Burnout Measure and its sensitivity was analyzed using Binary Logistic regression and ROC curves. We then used Two-Step Cluster Analysis to test the ability of the shortened Burnout Measure Index to develop new risk categories. The reliability indicators were also explored. RESULTS: The results show that the Burnout Measurement can be reduced to 4 items with a classification efficiency of 93.5% in determining the level of burnout. The 5-item reduction of the Psychosomatic Symptom Scale can classify subjects to the appropriate intervention level for burnout with an efficiency of 81.6%. The ROC analysis suggests that the shortened questionnaires have an excellent separative ability to discriminate between the initial risk groups. Three new risk categories were also identified as a result of the cluster analysis. CONCLUSION: The shortened scales may be proven effective in resource management, which could significantly quicken the assessment of burnout in the future. The abbreviated scale is also suitable for classifying subjects into risk categories. However, further research is needed to see whether the shortened scales can be used as a diagnostic tool.

Esgotamento Profissional , Paramédico , Humanos , Hungria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Esgotamento Profissional/diagnóstico , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 21452, 2023 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38052841


Monitoring the effective reproduction number [Formula: see text] of a rapidly unfolding pandemic in real-time is key to successful mitigation and prevention strategies. However, existing methods based on case numbers, hospital admissions or fatalities suffer from multiple measurement biases and temporal lags due to high test positivity rates or delays in symptom development or administrative reporting. Alternative methods such as web search and social media tracking are less directly indicating epidemic prevalence over time. We instead record age-stratified anonymous contact matrices at a daily resolution using a longitudinal online-offline survey in Hungary during the first two waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. This approach is innovative, cheap, and provides information in near real-time for estimating [Formula: see text] at a daily resolution. Moreover, it allows to complement traditional surveillance systems by signaling periods when official monitoring infrastructures are unreliable due to observational biases.

COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Número Básico de Reprodução , Hospitalização , Hungria