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2.
Int J Epidemiol ; 53(3)2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal colonization by the bacterium Group B streptococcus (GBS) increases risk of preterm birth, a condition that has an important impact on the health of children. However, research studies that quantify the effect of GBS colonization on preterm birth have reported variable estimates of the effect measure. METHODS: We performed a simulated cohort study of pregnant women to assess how timing of exposure (GBS colonization) assessment might influence results of studies that address this question. We used published data on longitudinal maternal GBS colonization and on the distribution of preterm births by gestational age to inform parameters used in the simulations. RESULTS: Assuming that the probability of preterm birth is higher during weeks when pregnant women are colonized by GBS, our results suggest that studies that assess exposure status early during pregnancy are more likely to estimate an association between GBS colonization and preterm birth that is closer to the null, compared with studies that assess exposure either at birth or during gestational weeks matched to preterm births. In sensitivity analyses assuming different colonization acquisition rates and diagnostic sensitivities, we observed similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Accurate quantification of the effect of maternal GBS colonization on the risk of preterm birth is necessary to understand the full health burden linked to this bacterium. In this study, we investigated one possible explanation, related to the timing of exposure assessment, for the variable findings of previous observational studies. Our findings will inform future research on this question.


Assuntos
Idade Gestacional , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Infecções Estreptocócicas , Streptococcus agalactiae , Humanos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/microbiologia , Feminino , Gravidez , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolamento & purificação , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Estudos de Coortes , Fatores de Tempo , Fatores de Risco
3.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304875, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38833438

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that fetal abdominal obesity (FAO) was already observed at the time of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) diagnosis and persisted until delivery despite management in older and/or obese women. In this study, we investigated whether fetuses of women with milder hyperglycemia than GDM have accelerated abdominal growth, leading to adverse pregnancy outcomes. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 7,569 singleton pregnant women who were universally screened using a 50-g glucose challenge test (GCT) and underwent a 3-h 100-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) if GCT result was ≥140mg/dL. GDM, one value abnormality (OVA), and normal glucose tolerance (NGT, NGT1: GCT negative, NGT2: GCT positive & OGTT negative) were diagnosed using Carpenter-Coustan criteria. With fetal biometry data measured simultaneously with 50-g GCT, relative fetal abdominal overgrowth was investigated by assessing the fetal abdominal overgrowth ratios (FAORs) of the ultrasonographically estimated gestational age (GA) of abdominal circumference(AC) per actual GA by the last menstruation period(LMP), biparietal diameter(BPD) or femur length(FL), respectively. FAO was defined as FAOR ≥90th percentile The FAORs of GA-AC/GA-LMP and GA-AC/GA-BPD were significantly higher in OVA subjects compared to NGT subjects but not in NGT2 subjects. Although the frequency of FAO in OVA (12.1%) was between that of NGT (9.6%) and GDM (18.3%) without statistically significant difference, the prevalence of large for gestational age at birth and primary cesarean delivery rates were significantly higher in OVA (9.8% and 29.7%) than in NGT (5.1% and 21.5%, p<0.05). Particularly, among OVA subjects with FAO, the prevalence (33.3% and 66.7%) was significantly higher than in those without FAO (9.7% and 24.2%, p<0.05). The degree of fetal abdominal growth acceleration in OVA subjects was intermediate between that of NGT and GDM subjects. OVA subjects with FAO at the time of GDM diagnosis were strongly associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Obesidade Abdominal , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Obesidade Abdominal/diagnóstico , Adulto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Idade Gestacional , Resultado da Gravidez , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal
4.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304604, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38833446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a serious liver conditions that negatively impacts obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Elevated levels of bile acid, particularly glycine conjugate, may compromise blood flow and cause functional hypoxia-ischemia. AIMS: This meta-analysis aims to assess the association between ICP and key pregnancy outcomes including emergency caesarian sections (C-sections), preeclampsia, hemorrhage, preterm birth, small for gestational age, admission rate to neonatal intensive care union (NICU), gestational age, and stillbirth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Literature search across five databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science) was done to detect relevant studies published up until June 2023. Meta-analysis of the identified studies was done using a random-effects model, and the results presented as Odds ratio (OR). RESULTS: A literature search identified 662 studies. Of them, 21 met the inclusion criteria. There was a significant association between ICP and odds of C-section (OR: 1.42, p <0.001), preeclampsia (OR: 2.64, p <0.001), NICU admission (OR: 2.1, p <0.001), and pre-term birth (OR: 2.64, p <0.001). ICP was not associated with postpartum hemmorhage (OR: 1.31, p = 0.13), small for gestational age (OR: 0.87, p = 0.07), stillbirth (OR: 1.49, p = 0.29). CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm the adverse effects of ICP on co-existing pregnancy complications, obstetric and neonatal outcomes. ICP in associated with severe complications including increased rates of preeclampsia, emergency C-sections, preterm births, l gestational periods and higher rates of NICU admissions. These results may assist healthcare professionals in formulating comprehensive care guidelines for expectant mothers and newborns.


Assuntos
Colestase Intra-Hepática , Complicações na Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Humanos , Gravidez , Colestase Intra-Hepática/complicações , Colestase Intra-Hepática/epidemiologia , Feminino , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Cesárea , Idade Gestacional , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional
5.
Codas ; 36(4): e20230100, 2024.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38836827

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To systematically review the literature regarding the impact of prematurity on the transition of food consistencies in infants during the introduction of complementary feeding. RESEARCH STRATEGIES: Searches were conducted in the EMBASE, Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (LILACS), LIVIVO, PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science databases, Google Scholar; for gray literature, searches were conducted on Open Gray, and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses databases, from August 10, 2020, onwards. SELECTION CRITERIA: "PECOS" was selected to determine inclusion criteria: Population (P): Infants; Exposure (E): Prematurity; Comparison (C): Full-term newborns; Outcomes (O): Progression of food consistencies in premature newborns with or without comparison; Study design (S): Cohort study, Case-control; Cross-sectional. DATA ANALYSIS: The methodological quality of the selected observational studies was assessed using the Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (MASTARI). RESULTS: A total of 3,310 articles were found, of which nine were selected for qualitative synthesis. Among the selected studies, a relationship between invasive oral interventions and feeding difficulties was observed for all assessed skills, with feeding difficulties being more frequent in infants with lower gestational age. CONCLUSION: Most studies found no significant relationship between prematurity and difficulties in the progression of food consistencies during the introduction of complementary feeding; only three studies demonstrated such a relationship.


OBJETIVO: Revisar a literatura de maneira sistematizada acerca da relação do impacto da prematuridade na transição das consistências alimentares em lactentes no período de introdução da alimentação complementar. ESTRATÉGIA DE PESQUISA: Foram pesquisados os bancos de dados EMBASE, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS), LIVIVO, PubMed/Medline, Scopus e Web of Science e Google Scholar, Open Grey e ProQuest Dissertations & Theses na literatura cinzenta foram pesquisados desde 10/08/2020. CRITÉRIOS DE SELEçÃO: "PECOS": População (P): Lactentes, Exposição (E): Prematuridade, Comparação (C): Recém-nascidos a termo, Desfecho (O): Progressão de consistências alimentares em recém-nascidos prematuros com ou sem comparação, Tipos de estudos (S): Estudo de coorte; Caso-controle; Transversal. ANÁLISE DOS DADOS: A qualidade metodológica dos estudos observacionais selecionados foi avaliada usando a Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (MASTARI). RESULTADOS: Um total de 3.310 artigos foram encontrados, sendo 9 selecionados para a realização da síntese qualitativa. Nos estudos selecionados foi observada a relação entre intervenções orais invasivas e dificuldade alimentar para todas as habilidades avaliadas e quanto menor a idade gestacional, mais frequente são os comportamentos de dificuldades alimentares. CONCLUSÃO: Não foi observada relação entre a prematuridade e dificuldades na progressão das consistências no período da introdução das consistências alimentares na maioria dos estudos, somente três deles demonstraram tal relação.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Humanos , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Alimentos Infantis , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Idade Gestacional
6.
BMJ Open ; 14(6): e078842, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834326

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated changes in the length of stay (LoS) at a level III/IV neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and level II neonatology departments until discharge home for very preterm infants and identified factors influencing these trends. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study based on data recorded in the Netherlands Perinatal Registry between 2008 and 2021. SETTING: A single level III/IV NICU and multiple level II neonatology departments in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: NICU-admitted infants (n=2646) with a gestational age (GA) <32 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: LoS at the NICU and overall LoS until discharge home. RESULTS: The results showed an increase of 5.1 days (95% CI 2.2 to 8, p<0.001) in overall LoS in period 3 after accounting for confounding variables. This increase was primarily driven by extended LoS at level II hospitals, while LoS at the NICU remained stable. The study also indicated a strong association between severe complications of preterm birth and LoS. Treatment of infants with a lower GA and more (severe) complications (such as severe retinopathy of prematurity) during the more recent periods may have increased LoS. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study highlight the increasing overall LoS for very preterm infants. LoS of very preterm infants is presumably influenced by the occurrence of complications of preterm birth, which are more frequent in infants at a lower gestational age.


Assuntos
Idade Gestacional , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Tempo de Internação , Humanos , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Feminino , Masculino , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/terapia , Sistema de Registros , Morbidade/tendências , Recém-Nascido Prematuro
7.
Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J ; 24(2): 259-267, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38828256

RESUMO

Objectives: This study aimed to determine the rate and severity patterns of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and identify antenatal and postnatal factors associated with BPD in preterm infants <32 weeks of gestational age (GA). Methods: This retrospective observational study included preterm neonates <32 weeks of gestation admitted into the neonatal intensive care unit between January 2010 and December 2017 at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman. A data set of antenatal and perinatal factors were collected. BPD was defined as the need for oxygen and/or respiratory support at 36 weeks post-menstrual age (PMA). Infants with and without BPD were compared in their antenatal and perinatal factors. Results: A total of 589 preterm infants <32 weeks were admitted. Among them, 505 (85.7%) survived to 36 weeks' PMA and 90 (17.8%) had BPD. The combined BPD and mortality rate was 28.4%. Grades 1, 2 and 3 BPD constituted 77.8%, 7.8% and 14.4%, respectively. BPD was associated with lower GA, lower birth weight, need for intubation at resuscitation, lower Apgar scores, longer duration of ventilation, surfactant therapy and higher rates of neonatal morbidities. On binary logistic regression analysis, predictors of BPD were longer duration of ventilation, intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) and necrotising enterocolitis (NEC). Conclusion: In an Omani centre, 17.8% of preterm infants (<32 weeks GA) developed BPD. Various perinatal and neonatal factors were associated with BPD. However, longer duration of ventilation, IVH grades 1 and 2 and NEC stages II and III were significant predictors. Future multicentre research is necessary to provide the overall prevalence of BPD in Oman to help optimise the resources for BPD prevention and management in preterm infants.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar , Idade Gestacional , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Humanos , Omã/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Displasia Broncopulmonar/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Prevalência , Masculino , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/organização & administração , Centros de Atenção Terciária/organização & administração , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Gravidez , Lactente
8.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 59(6): e14621, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38828534

RESUMO

Estimating the parturition date in dogs is challenging due to their reproductive peculiarities that. Ultrasonographic examination serves as a tool for studying embryo/foetal biometry and estimating the time of parturition by measuring foetal and extra-foetal structures. However, due to reproductive differences among various dog breeds, such estimates may have a non-significant pattern, representing inaccuracies in the estimated date of birth. This study aimed to monitor pregnant Toy Poodle bitches and establish relationships between ultrasonographically measured foetal and extra-foetal dimensions and the remaining time until parturition. Eighteen pregnant Toy Poodle bitches were subjected to weekly ultrasonographic evaluations and measurements of the inner chorionic cavity diameter, craniocaudal length (CCL), biparietal diameter (BPD), diameter of the deep portion of diencephalo-telencephalic vesicle (DPTV), abdominal diameter, thorax diameter (TXD), placental thickness and the renal diameter (REND). These parameters were retrospectively correlated with the date of parturition and linear regressions were established between gestational measurements and days before parturition (DBP). All analyses were conducted using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (IBM® SPSS®) program at a 5% significance level. The foetal measurements that showed a high correlation (r) and reliability (R2) with DBP were BPD [(DBP = [15.538 × BPD] - 39.756), r = .97 and R2 = .93], TXD [(DBP = [8.933 × TXD] - 32.487), r = .94 and R2 = .89], DPTV [(DBP = [34.580 × DPTV] - 39.403), r = .93 and R2 = .86] and REND [(DBP = [13.735 × REND] - 28.937), r = .91 and R2 = .82]. This statistically validates the application of these specific formulas to estimate the parturition date in Toy Poodle bitches.


Assuntos
Parto , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Cães/embriologia , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/veterinária , Biometria , Feto/anatomia & histologia , Feto/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Placenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/fisiologia , Idade Gestacional
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12884, 2024 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839838

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to develop a real-time risk prediction model for extrauterine growth retardation (EUGR). A total of 2514 very preterm infants were allocated into a training set and an external validation set. The most appropriate independent variables were screened using univariate analysis and Lasso regression with tenfold cross-validation, while the prediction model was designed using binary multivariate logistic regression. A visualization of the risk variables was created using a nomogram, while the calibration plot and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to calibrate the prediction model. Clinical efficacy was assessed using the decision curve analysis (DCA) curves. Eight optimal predictors that namely birth weight, small for gestation age (SGA), hypertensive disease complicating pregnancy (HDCP), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), multiple births, cumulative duration of fasting, growth velocity and postnatal corticosteroids were introduced into the logistic regression equation to construct the EUGR prediction model. The area under the ROC curve of the training set and the external verification set was 83.1% and 84.6%, respectively. The calibration curve indicate that the model fits well. The DCA curve shows that the risk threshold for clinical application is 0-95% in both set. Introducing Birth weight, SGA, HDCP, GDM, Multiple births, Cumulative duration of fasting, Growth velocity and Postnatal corticosteroids into the nomogram increased its usefulness for predicting EUGR risk in very preterm infants.


Assuntos
Idade Gestacional , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Curva ROC , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gravidez , Masculino , Nomogramas , Peso ao Nascer , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Risco , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/diagnóstico , Modelos Logísticos
10.
Clin Epigenetics ; 16(1): 74, 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic modifications, particularly DNA methylation (DNAm) in cord blood, are an important biological marker of how external exposures during gestation can influence the in-utero environment and subsequent offspring development. Despite the recognized importance of DNAm during gestation, comparative studies to determine the consistency of these epigenetic signals across different ethnic groups are largely absent. To address this gap, we first performed epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of gestational age (GA) using newborn cord blood DNAm comparatively in a white European (n = 342) and a South Asian (n = 490) birth cohort living in Canada. Then, we capitalized on established cord blood epigenetic GA clocks to examine the associations between maternal exposures, offspring characteristics and epigenetic GA, as well as GA acceleration, defined as the residual difference between epigenetic and chronological GA at birth. RESULTS: Individual EWASs confirmed 1,211 and 1,543 differentially methylated CpGs previously reported to be associated with GA, in white European and South Asian cohorts, respectively, with a similar distribution of effects. We confirmed that Bohlin's cord blood GA clock was robustly correlated with GA in white Europeans (r = 0.71; p = 6.0 × 10-54) and South Asians (r = 0.66; p = 6.9 × 10-64). In both cohorts, Bohlin's clock was positively associated with newborn weight and length and negatively associated with parity, newborn female sex, and gestational diabetes. Exclusive to South Asians, the GA clock was positively associated with the newborn ponderal index, while pre-pregnancy weight and gestational weight gain were strongly predictive of increased epigenetic GA in white Europeans. Important predictors of GA acceleration included gestational diabetes mellitus, newborn sex, and parity in both cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the consistent DNAm signatures of GA and the utility of Bohlin's GA clock across the two populations. Although the overall pattern of DNAm is similar, its connections with the mother's environment and the baby's anthropometrics can differ between the two groups. Further research is needed to understand these unique relationships.


Assuntos
Povo Asiático , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Sangue Fetal , Idade Gestacional , População Branca , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Povo Asiático/genética , Canadá , Estudos de Coortes , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Sangue Fetal/química , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , População Branca/genética
11.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1386309, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38846494

RESUMO

Introduction: Leptin and its receptors are expressed by the human placenta throughout gestation, yet the role of leptin in early human placental development is not well characterized. Leptin is overexpressed in the placentas from preeclamptic (PE) pregnancies. PE can result from the impaired invasion of fetal placental cells, cytotrophoblasts (CTBs), into the maternal decidua. We hypothesized that elevated leptin levels would impair human CTB invasion. Methods: The effects of leptin on the invasion of human CTBs were evaluated in three cell models, HTR-8/SVneo cells, primary CTBs, and placental villous explants using invasion assays. Further, leptin receptor expression was characterized in all three cell models using RT-PCR. Further phosphokinase assays were performed in HTR-8/SVneo cells to determine signaling pathways involved in CTB invasion in response to differential leptin doses. Results: We found that, prior to 8 weeks gestation, leptin promoted CTB invasion in the explant model. After 11 weeks gestation in explants, primary CTBs and in HTR-8/SVneo cells, leptin promoted invasion at moderate but not at high concentrations. Further, leptin receptor characterization revealed that leptin receptor expression did not vary over gestation, however, STAT, PI3K and MAPK pathways showed different signaling in response to varied leptin doses. Discussion: These data suggest that the excess placental leptin observed in PE may cause impaired CTB invasion as a second-trimester defect. Leptin's differential effect on trophoblast invasion may explain the role of hyperleptinemia in preeclampsia pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Idade Gestacional , Leptina , Receptores para Leptina , Trofoblastos , Humanos , Trofoblastos/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Trofoblastos/patologia , Leptina/metabolismo , Leptina/farmacologia , Feminino , Gravidez , Receptores para Leptina/metabolismo , Receptores para Leptina/genética , Placenta/metabolismo , Placenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Placenta/patologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/metabolismo , Pré-Eclâmpsia/patologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Transdução de Sinais , Placentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 431, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38879535

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the potential connections between marginal cord insertion during the first trimester and furcate cord insertion later in pregnancy. METHODS: This is a prospective study of screening data on the cord insertion site in 3178 singleton pregnancies. The cord insertion site was examined in two stages. The first stage was screening for the cord insertion site between 10-13 weeks of gestation, the purpose is to determine the category of umbilical cord insertion. The second stage, performed at 22-28 weeks of gestation, was to follow up on the relationship between the cord insertion site and the placenta and to identify any changes in the category of umbilical cord insertion. This was performed to diagnose or exclude furcate cord insertion by identifying whether the umbilical cord trunk separated or branched before it reached the placenta. Factors influencing progression to furcate cord insertion and perinatal complications were assessed. RESULTS: Fourteen cases (0.44%) with progression to furcate cord insertion, all of which showed marginal cord insertion on ultrasound in the first trimester (p < 0.001). without progression to furcate cord insertion, there were no changes in the category of umbilical cord insertion in 3050 cases (96.40%) compared to the early pregnancy. 114 cases (3.60%) with changes in the category of umbilical cord insertion that was not consistent with furcate cord insertion. A total of 14 cases progressed to furcate cord insertion, all showed the cord insertion site were in close proximity, and 11 (78.57%) cases showed a low insertion site (p < 0.001). Regarding the choice of mode of delivery, elective caesarean delivery was done in 8/14 (57.14%). The incidences of spontaneous vaginal delivery were 5/14 (35.71%) (p < 0.001). One (7.14%) case of progression to furcate cord insertion due to haematoma at the root of the umbilical cord ended with an emergency caesarean section. In terms of perinatal complications, marginal cord insertion that progressed to furcate cord insertion had higher incidences of SGA infants, abnormal placental morphology, retention of the placenta, and cord-related adverse pregnancy outcomes than not progressed to furcate cord insertion (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Marginal cord insertion in the first trimester has the potential to progress to furcate cord insertion. We suggest that ultrasound-diagnosed marginal cord insertion in the first trimester should be watched carefully in the second trimester, which is clinically useful to accurately determine the category of cord insertion and to improve the rate of prenatal diagnosis of furcate cord insertion.


Assuntos
Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Cordão Umbilical , Humanos , Gravidez , Feminino , Cordão Umbilical/diagnóstico por imagem , Cordão Umbilical/anatomia & histologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto , Placenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Idade Gestacional , Recém-Nascido
13.
Cereb Cortex ; 34(6)2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38879758

RESUMO

Placental-related fetal growth restriction, resulting from placental dysfunction, impacts 3-5% of pregnancies and is linked to elevated risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. In response, the fetus employs a mechanism known as brain-sparing, redirecting blood flow to the cerebral circuit, for adequate supply to the brain. In this study we aimed to quantitatively evaluate disparities in gyrification and brain volumes among fetal growth restriction, small for gestational age and appropriate-for gestational-age fetuses. Additionally, we compared fetal growth restriction fetuses with and without brain-sparing. The study encompassed 106 fetuses: 35 fetal growth restriction (14 with and 21 without brain-sparing), 8 small for gestational age, and 63 appropriate for gestational age. Gyrification, supratentorial, and infratentorial brain volumes were automatically computed from T2-weighted magnetic resonance images, following semi-automatic brain segmentation. Fetal growth restriction fetuses exhibited significantly reduced gyrification and brain volumes compared to appropriate for gestational age (P < 0.001). Small for gestational age fetuses displayed significantly reduced gyrification (P = 0.038) and smaller supratentorial volume (P < 0.001) compared to appropriate for gestational age. Moreover, fetal growth restriction fetuses with BS demonstrated reduced gyrification compared to those without BS (P = 0.04), with no significant differences observed in brain volumes. These findings demonstrate that brain development is affected in fetuses with fetal growth restriction, more severely than in small for gestational age, and support the concept that vasodilatation of the fetal middle cerebral artery reflects more severe hypoxemia, affecting brain development.


Assuntos
Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/diagnóstico por imagem , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/patologia , Humanos , Feminino , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Gravidez , Adulto , Idade Gestacional , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/patologia , Masculino , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional
14.
Metabolomics ; 20(4): 65, 2024 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38879866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific clinical syndrome and can be subdivided into early-onset preeclampsia (EOPE) and late-onset preeclampsia (LOPE) according to the gestational age of delivery. Patients with preeclampsia have aberrant lipid metabolism. This study aims to compare serum lipid profiles of normal pregnant women with EOPE or LOPE and screening potential biomarkers to diagnose EOPE or LOPE. METHODS: Twenty normal pregnant controls (NC), 19 EOPE, and 19 LOPE were recruited in this study. Untargeted lipidomics based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was used to compare their serum lipid profiles. RESULTS: The lipid metabolism profiles significantly differ among the NC, EOPE, and LOPE. Compared to the NC, there were 256 and 275 distinct lipids in the EOPE and LOPE, respectively. Furthermore, there were 42 different lipids between the LOPE and EOPE, of which eight were significantly associated with fetal birth weight and maternal urine protein. The five lipids that both differed in the EOPE and LOPE were DGTS (16:3/16:3), LPC (20:3), LPC (22:6), LPE (22:6), PC (18:5e/4:0), and a combination of them were a potential biomarker for predicting EOPE or LOPE. The receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that the diagnostic power of the combination for distinguishing the EOPE from the NC and for distinguishing the LOPE from the NC can reach 1.000 and 0.992, respectively. The association between the lipid modules and clinical characteristics of EOPE and LOPE was investigated by the weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). The results demonstrated that the main different metabolism pathway between the EOPE and LOPE was enriched in glycerophospholipid metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: Lipid metabolism disorders may be a potential mechanism of the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Lipid metabolites have the potential to serve as biomarkers in patients with EOPE or LOPE. Furthermore, lipid metabolites correlate with clinical severity indicators for patients with EOPE and LOPE, including fetal birth weight and maternal urine protein levels.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Lipidômica , Lipídeos , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Humanos , Gravidez , Feminino , Pré-Eclâmpsia/diagnóstico , Pré-Eclâmpsia/sangue , Pré-Eclâmpsia/metabolismo , Lipidômica/métodos , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipídeos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Idade Gestacional
15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13522, 2024 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38866900

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to examine the growth dynamics of the two ossification centers of the body of sphenoid bone in the human fetus, based on their linear, planar and volumetric parameters. The examinations were carried out on 37 human fetuses of both sexes aged 18-30 weeks of gestation, which had been preserved in 10% neutral formalin solution. Using CT, digital image analysis software, 3D reconstruction and statistical methods, we evaluated the size of the presphenoid and postsphenoid ossification centers. The presphenoid ossification center grew proportionately in sagittal diameter, projection surface area and volume, and logarithmically in transverse diameter. The postsphenoid ossification center increased logarithmically in sagittal diameter, transverse diameter and projection surface area, while its volumetric growth followed proportionately. The numerical findings of the presphenoid and postsphenoid ossification centers may be considered age-specific reference values of potential relevance in monitoring the normal fetal growth and screening for congenital disorders in the fetus. The obtained results may contribute to a better understanding of the growing fetal skeleton, bringing new numerical information regarding its diagnosis and development.


Assuntos
Feto , Osteogênese , Osso Esfenoide , Humanos , Osso Esfenoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Esfenoide/embriologia , Osso Esfenoide/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Masculino , Feto/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Imageamento Tridimensional , Idade Gestacional
16.
Birth Defects Res ; 116(6): e2371, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38877674

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study aimed to investigate how congenital heart disease (CHD) affects early neonatal outcomes by comparing Apgar scores and umbilical cord blood gas parameters between fetuses with structural cardiac anomalies and healthy controls. Additionally, within the CHD group, the study explored the relationship between these parameters and mortality within six months. METHODS: Data from 68 cases of prenatally diagnosed CHD were collected from electronic medical records, excluding cases with missing data or additional comorbidities. Only patients delivered by elective cesarean section, without any attempt at labor, were analyzed to avoid potential confounding factors. A control group of 147 healthy newborns was matched for delivery route, maternal age, and gestational week. Apgar scores at 1, 5, and 10 minutes, as well as umbilical cord blood pH, base deficit, and lactate levels, were recorded. RESULTS: Maternal age, gestational week at delivery, and birth weight were similar between the CHD and control groups. While Apgar score distribution was significantly lower at 1st, 5th, and 10th minutes in the CHD group, umbilical cord blood gas parameters did not show significant differences between groups. Within the CHD group, lower umbilical cord blood pH and larger base deficit were associated with mortality within six months. CONCLUSION: Newborns with CHD exhibit lower Apgar scores compared to healthy controls, suggesting potential early neonatal challenges. Furthermore, umbilical cord blood pH and base deficit may serve as predictors of mortality within six months in CHD cases. Prospective studies are warranted to validate these findings and integrate them into clinical practice, acknowledging the study's retrospective design and limitations.


Assuntos
Índice de Apgar , Gasometria , Sangue Fetal , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Humanos , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Feminino , Gasometria/métodos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cardiopatias Congênitas/sangue , Adulto , Masculino , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Idade Gestacional , Feto , Idade Materna , Peso ao Nascer , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
17.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0303454, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38861517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most neonatal deaths occur among low birth weight infants. However, in resource-limited settings, these infants are commonly discharged early which further exposes them to mortality. Previous studies on morbidity and mortality among low birth weight infants after early discharge mainly focused on very low birth weight infants, and none described post-discharge neonatal mortality. This study aimed to determine the proportion and predictors of mortality among low birth weight neonates discharged from the Special Care Baby Unit at Mulago National Referral Hospital in Uganda. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of 220 low birth weight neonates discharged from the Special Care Baby Unit at Mulago National Referral Hospital. These were followed up to 28 completed days of life, or death, whichever occurred first. Proportions were used to express mortality. To determine the predictors of mortality, Cox hazards regression was performed. RESULTS: Of the 220 enrolled participants, 216 (98.1%) completed the follow-up. The mean gestational age of study participants was 34 ±3 weeks. The median weight at discharge was 1,650g (IQR: 1,315g -1,922g) and 46.1% were small for gestational age. During follow-up, 14/216 (6.5%) of neonates died. Mortality was highest (7/34, 20.6%) among neonates with discharge weights less than 1,200g. The causes of death included presumed neonatal sepsis (10/14, 71.4%), suspected aspiration pneumonia (2/14, 14.3%), and suspected cot death (2/14, 14.3%). The median time to death after discharge was 11 days (range 3-16 days). The predictors of mortality were a discharge weight of less than 1,200g (adj HR: 23.47, p <0.001), a 5-minute Apgar score of less than 7 (adj HR: 4.25, p = 0.016), and a diagnosis of neonatal sepsis during admission (adj HR: 7.93, p = 0.009). CONCLUSION: Post-discharge mortality among low birth weight neonates at Mulago National Referral Hospital is high. A discharge weight of less than 1,200g may be considered unsafe among neonates. Caregiver education about neonatal danger signs, and measures to prevent sepsis, aspiration, and cot death should be emphasized before discharge and during follow-up visits.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Alta do Paciente , Humanos , Uganda/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Lactente , Fatores de Risco , Idade Gestacional
18.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 37(1): 2367082, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38873885

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: It is currently unknown whether adjunctive azithromycin prophylaxis at the time of non-elective cesarean has differential effects on neonatal outcomes in the context of prematurity. The objective of this study was to compare whether neonatal outcomes differ in term and preterm infants exposed to adjunctive azithromycin prophylaxis before non-elective cesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: A planned secondary analysis of a multi-center randomized controlled trial that enrolled women with singleton pregnancies ≥24 weeks gestation undergoing non-elective cesarean delivery (during labor or ≥4 h after membrane rupture). Women received standard antibiotic prophylaxis and were randomized to either adjunctive azithromycin (500 mg) or placebo. The primary composite outcome was neonatal death, suspected or confirmed neonatal sepsis, and serious neonatal morbidities (NEC, PVL, IVH, BPD). Secondary outcomes included NICU admission, neonatal readmission, culture positive infections and prevalence of resistant organisms. Odds ratios (OR) for the effect of azithromycin versus placebo were compared between gestational age strata (preterm [less than 37 weeks] versus term [37 weeks or greater]). Tests of interaction examined homogeneity of treatment effect with gestational age. RESULTS: The analysis includes 2,013 infants, 226 preterm (11.2%) and 1,787 term. Mean gestational ages were 34 and 39.5 weeks, respectively. Within term and preterm strata, maternal and delivery characteristics were similar between the azithromycin and placebo groups. There was no difference in the odds of composite neonatal outcome between those exposed to azithromycin versus placebo in preterm neonates (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.48-1.41) and in term neonates (OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.77-1.46), with no difference between gestational age strata (p = 0.42). Analysis of secondary outcomes also revealed no differences in treatment effects within or between gestational age strata. CONCLUSION: Exposure to adjunctive azithromycin antibiotic prophylaxis for non-elective cesarean delivery does not increase neonatal morbidity or mortality in term or preterm infants. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01235546.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Azitromicina , Cesárea , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Humanos , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idade Gestacional , Nascimento a Termo , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia
19.
Echocardiography ; 41(6): e15833, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38873982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal echocardiographic assessment of fetal cardiac function has become increasingly important. Fetal two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) allows the determination of global and segmental functional cardiac parameters. Prenatal diagnostics is relying increasingly on artificial intelligence, whose algorithms transform the way clinicians use ultrasound in their daily workflow. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of whether less experienced operators can handle and might benefit from an automated tool of 2D-STE in the clinical routine. METHODS: A total of 136 unselected, normal, singleton, second- and third-trimester fetuses with normofrequent heart rates were examined by targeted ultrasound. 2D-STE was performed separately by beginner and expert semiautomatically using a GE Voluson E10 (FetalHQ®, GE Healthcare, Chicago, IL). Several fetal cardiac parameters were calculated (end-diastolic diameter [ED], sphericity index [SI], global longitudinal strain [EndoGLS], fractional shortening [FS]) and assigned to gestational age (GA). Bland-Altman plots were used to test agreement between both operators. RESULTS: The mean maternal age was 33 years, and the mean maternal body mass index prior to pregnancy was 24.78 kg/m2. The GA ranged from 16.4 to 32.0 weeks (average 22.9 weeks). Averaged endoGLS value of the beginner was -18.57% ± 6.59 percentage points (pp) for the right and -19.58% ± 5.63 pp for the left ventricle, that of the expert -14.33% ± 4.88 pp and -16.37% ± 5.42 pp. With increasing GA, right ventricular endoGLS decreased slightly while the left ventricular was almost constant. The statistical analysis for endoGLS showed a Bland-Altman-Bias of -4.24 pp ± 8.06 pp for the right and -3.21 pp ± 7.11 pp for the left ventricle. The Bland-Altman-Bias of the ED in both ventricles in all analyzed segments ranged from -.49 mm ± 1.54 mm to -.10 mm ± 1.28 mm, that for FS from -.33 pp ± 11.82 pp to 3.91 pp ± 15.56 pp and that for SI from -.38 ± .68 to -.15 ± .45. CONCLUSIONS: Between both operators, our data indicated that 2D-STE analysis showed excellent agreement for cardiac morphometry parameters (ED and SI), and good agreement for cardiac function parameters (EndoGLS and FS). Due to its complexity, the application of fetal 2D-STE remains the domain of scientific-academic perinatal ultrasound and should be placed preferably in the hands of skilled operators. At present, from our perspective, an implementation into clinical practice "on-the-fly" cannot be recommended.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia , Coração Fetal , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Coração Fetal/diagnóstico por imagem , Coração Fetal/fisiopatologia , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/métodos , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Adulto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos de Viabilidade , Idade Gestacional
20.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 430, 2024 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38877391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the prognosis of the remaining fetus in twin pregnancy after experiencing one fetal demise in the first trimester according to the location of the demised fetus. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of twin pregnancies with one fetal demise after the first trimester (14 weeks of gestation) delivered between September 2004 and September 2022. The study population was divided into two groups based on the location of the demised fetus as determined by the last recorded ultrasonography results: Group 1 included twin pregnancies where the presenting fetus was demised (n = 36) and Group 2 included twin pregnancies where the non-presenting fetus was demised (n = 44). The obstetric and neonatal outcomes were also reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 80 pregnant women were included. The median gestational age for the diagnosis of fetal demise was 24.1 weeks. The gestational age of the demised fetus was not different between Groups 1 and 2; however, the gestational age of the remaining fetus at delivery was significantly earlier in Group 1 than it was in Group 2 (33.8 vs. 37.3 weeks, P = .004). The rate of preterm birth before 28 weeks was almost five times higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 (22.2% vs. 4.5%, P = .037). Regression analysis demonstrated significant differences between Groups 1 and 2. Respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, patent ductus arteriosus, retinopathy of prematurity, and jaundice were more common in Group 1 than in Group 2; however, the association was not significant after adjusting for gestational age at delivery. CONCLUSIONS: When the presenting fetus is demised in a twin pregnancy, the remaining fetus tends to be delivered earlier than when the non-presenting fetus is demised.


Assuntos
Morte Fetal , Idade Gestacional , Gravidez de Gêmeos , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto , Prognóstico , Recém-Nascido , Nascimento Prematuro , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Feto/diagnóstico por imagem
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