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1.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48277

RESUMO

Estudo liderado por cientistas da Faculdade de Saúde Pública da USP criou uma medida inovadora para avaliar os desfechos da saúde materno-infantil. A partir do estudo Dias potenciais de gravidez perdidos (DPGP): uma medida inovadora da idade gestacional (IG) para avaliar intervenções e resultados de saúde materno-infantil, os pesquisadores fundamentam o entendimento de que cada dia de gestação, inferior a 40 semanas (ou 280 dias) completas, impacta negativamente na saúde dos bebês.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Idade Gestacional , Nascimento a Termo , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Fatores de Risco
2.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(3): 601-608, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226444

RESUMO

Clinical risk index for babies II (CRIB II) score is simple, validated and widely used risk-adjustment instrument for predicting mortality among preterm low birth weight babies. To assess the efficacy of CRIB II score as a tool to predict the risk for neonatal death among the preterm and LBW babies admitted in NICU of BSMMU, a tertiary care hospital in Bangladesh. This prospective observational study was conducted in Department of Neonatology in BSMMU from September 2016 to August 2017. Inborn preterm neonates with gestational age ≤34 weeks admitted were enrolled in the study. CRIB-II score was calculated for each infant within 1 hour of birth from birth weight, gestational age, sex, admission temperature and base excess. The primary outcome measured in the study was neonatal death or survival up to 28 days. Total 112 patients were finally analyzed in this study. Mean CRIB II score was significantly higher in the non-survivor group compared to the survivor group (p-value <0.0001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis for mortality prediction by CRIB II score, gestational age and birth weight showed AUC 0.87 (95% CI 0.76-0.97), 0.76 (95% CI 0.63-0.88) and 0.79 (95% CI 0.66-0.92) respectively. ROC curve analysis also revealed that the most suitable cut-off points for predicting mortality were 5 for CRIB II score, 32 weeks for gestational age and 1250 gram for birth weight. Using these most suitable cut-off points, CRIB II score had the highest sensitivity and specificity followed by birth weight and gestational age. In this study, CRIB II score was found to be an effective tool for predicting neonatal death among preterm LBW babies. It predicted outcome more accurately than birth weight or gestational age alone.


Assuntos
Morte Perinatal , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Peso ao Nascer , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Medição de Risco
3.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(6)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205479

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: This study aimed to investigate whether mild fetal tricuspid regurgitation (TR) at 11+ 0 to 13+ 6 weeks of gestation affects perinatal outcomes. Since fetal right ventricular load is associated with placental resistance, we hypothesized that fetal mild TR would be associated with perinatal outcomes as a consequence of abnormal placentation. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 435 women with first-trimester scan data. Blood flow across the tricuspid valve was examined in singleton pregnancies between 11+ 0 and 13+ 6 weeks of gestation. Women were categorized according to the presence or absence of fetal mild TR, and the maternal and pregnancy characteristics and perinatal outcomes were compared. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify independent predictors of perinatal outcome. Results: In the group with mild TR, there were more cases of borderline amniotic fluid index, including oligohydramnios (p = 0.031), and gestational age- and sex-specific birth weights were lower (p = 0.012). There were no significant differences in other perinatal outcomes, including preeclampsia, gestational hypertension and small for gestational age. Gestational diabetes (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.514, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.312-0.947) and fetal mild TR (adjusted OR 1.602, 95% CI 1.080-2.384) were identified as factors associated with below borderline amniotic fluid index before birth. The factors that affected gestational age and sex-specific birth weight were also gestational diabetes (adjusted beta coefficient 9.673, p = 0.008) and the presence of fetal mild TR (adjusted beta coefficient -6.593, p = 0.007). Conclusions: Mild fetal TR observed in the first trimester is negatively associated with fetal growth and the amniotic fluid index at term but not with other adverse pregnancy or perinatal outcomes due to abnormal placentation.


Assuntos
Placenta , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/epidemiologia , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal
4.
JAMA ; 326(2): 145-153, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255007

RESUMO

Importance: Timely delivery of infants suspected of having fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a balance between preventing stillbirth and minimizing prematurity, particularly because many infants with suspected FGR have normal growth. Objective: To explore the association between iatrogenic delivery for suspected FGR and childhood school outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective whole-population cohort study linking perinatal data from births 32 weeks' or more gestation between January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2013, to developmental and educational test scores at preparatory school, and at school grades 3, 5, and 7 in Victoria, Australia. Follow-up was concluded in 2019. Exposures: Suspicion or nonsuspicion of FGR, presence or absence of iatrogenic delivery (defined as early induction of labor or cesarean delivery prior to labor) for suspected FGR, and presence or absence of small for gestational age (SGA). Main Outcomes and Measures: The coprimary outcomes were being in the bottom 10th percentile on 2 or more of 5 developmental domains at school entry and being below the national minimum standard on 2 or more of 5 educational domains in grades 3, 5, or 7. Results: In the birth population of 705 937 infants, the mean gestation at birth was 39.1 (SD, 1.5) weeks and the mean birth weight was 3426 (SD, 517) grams. The birth population linked to 181 902 children with developmental results and 425 717 children with educational results. Compared with infants with severe SGA (birth weight <3rd percentile) not suspected of having FGR, infants with severe SGA delivered for suspected FGR were born earlier (mean gestation, 37.9 weeks vs 39.4 weeks). They also had a significantly increased risk of poor developmental outcome at school entry (16.2% vs 12.7%; absolute difference, 3.5% [95% CI, 0.5%-6.5%]); adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.36 [95% CI, 1.07-1.74]) and poor educational outcomes in grades 3, 5, and 7 (for example, in grade 7: 13.4% vs 10.5%; absolute difference, 2.9% [95% CI, 0.4%-5.5%]); aOR, 1.33 [95% CI, 1.04-1.70]). There was no significant difference between infants with normal growth (birth weight ≥10th percentile) delivered for suspected FGR and those not suspected of having FGR in developmental outcome (8.6% vs 8.1%; absolute difference, 0.5% [95% CI, -1.1% to 2.0%]); aOR, 1.17 [95% CI, 0.95-1.45]) or educational outcome in grade 3, 5 or 7, despite being born earlier (mean gestation, 38.0 weeks vs 39.1 weeks). Conclusions and Relevance: In this exploratory study conducted in Victoria, Australia, iatrogenic delivery of infants with severe SGA due to suspected FGR was associated with poorer school outcomes compared with infants with severe SGA not suspected of having FGR. Iatrogenic delivery of infants with normal growth due to suspected FGR was not associated with poorer school outcomes compared with infants with normal growth not suspected of having FGR.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Escolaridade , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Adulto , Criança , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Seguimentos , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Idade Materna , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Nascimento Prematuro , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vitória/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(7): 684-689, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266524

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the incidence and clinical features of sepsis in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. METHODS: The clinical data were collected from VLBW infants, with a birth weight of < 1 500 g, who were admitted to the Department of Neonatology, Maternity Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, from January 2019 to June 2020. The incidence of sepsis, distribution of pathogenic bacteria, and risk factors for sepsis were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 369 infants were enrolled, and 138 infants had sepsis, among whom 84 had early-onset sepsis (EOS) and 54 had late-onset sepsis (LOS). Enterococcus faecalis (24%) and Streptococcus (21%) were the main pathogenic bacteria in infants with EOS, and Staphylococcus (41%) and Enterobacter (29%) were the main pathogenic bacteria in infants with LOS. The incidence of EOS and LOS decreased with the increase of gestational age and birth weight (P < 0.05). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that a high birth weight was a protective factor against EOS (OR=0.996, 95%CI:0.993-0.998, P < 0.05), while vaginal delivery (OR=2.781, 95%CI:1.190-6.500, P < 0.05) was a risk factor for EOS, and long duration of parenteral nutrition was a risk factor for LOS (OR=1.129, 95%CI:1.067-1.194, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Enterococcus faecalis is the most common pathogenic bacteria for EOS, and Staphylococcus is the most common pathogenic bacterium for LOS in VLBW infants. A high birth weight may reduce the risk of EOS in VLBW infants, while vaginal delivery may increase the risk of EOS. Prolonged parenteral nutrition may increase the risk of LOS.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Sepse , Peso ao Nascer , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/etiologia
6.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(7): 690-695, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266525

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the condition of enteral feeding and the incidence of feeding intolerance (FI) in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants with a gestational age (GA) of < 28 weeks versus ≥ 28 weeks. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for the ELBW infants who were admitted to the Department of Neonatology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, from January 2018 to January 2020. According to GA, they were divided into two groups:GA < 28 weeks (n=41) and GA ≥ 28 weeks (n=38). The two groups were compared in terms of enteral feeding and incidence rate of FI during hospitalization. RESULTS: Among the 41 infants in the GA < 28 weeks group, 2 (5%) were small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants, while among the 38 infants in the GA ≥ 28 weeks group, 24 (63%) were SGA infants. Compared with the GA ≥ 28 weeks group, the GA < 28 weeks group had significantly longer initial and final time to full enteral feeding (P < 0.05). The GA < 28 weeks group had a significantly higher recurrence rate of FI than the GA ≥ 28 weeks group (54% vs 32%, P < 0.05). Compared with the GA < 28 weeks group, the GA ≥ 28 weeks group had a significantly lower incidence rate of FI within 1-2 weeks after birth (5% vs 29%, P < 0.05) and a significantly shorter duration of FI (P < 0.05). The ELBW infants in the GA ≥ 28 weeks group had a higher velocity of weight gain, a shorter length of hospital stay, and a lower incidence rate of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, but a higher incidence rate of extrauterine growth retardation (EUGR) than the GA < 28 weeks group at discharge (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Compared with the ELBW infants with a GA of < 28 weeks, the ELBW infants with a GA of ≥ 28 weeks have a lower recurrence rate of FI and can achieve full enteral feeding earlier, but with a higher incidence rate of EUGR, suggesting that enteral feeding needs to be more active for the ELBW infants with a GA of ≥ 28 weeks.


Assuntos
Nutrição Enteral , Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer , Peso ao Nascer , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
J Int Med Res ; 49(7): 3000605211028026, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284680

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) is a major complication of extreme prematurity. This systematic review was conducted to summarize the worldwide long-term prevalence of NDI associated with extreme prematurity. METHODS: Embase and MEDLINE databases were searched for epidemiologic and observational/real-world studies, published in English between 2011 and 2016, reporting long-term prevalence of NDI (occurring from 1 year) among extremely preterm infants born at gestational age (GA) ≤28 weeks. RESULTS: Of 2406 articles identified through searches, 69 met the protocol NDI definition (24 North America, 25 Europe, 20 Rest of World). Prevalence of any severity NDI in North America was 8%-59% at 18 months to 2 years, and 11%-37% at 2-5 years; prevalence of moderate NDI in Europe was 10%-13% at 18 months to 2 years, 3% at 2-5 years, and 9%-19% at ≥5 years; prevalence of any NDI in Rest of World was 15%-61% at 18 months to 2 years, and 42% at 2-5 years (no North America/Rest of World studies reported any NDI at ≥5 years). A trend toward higher prevalence of NDI with lower GA at birth was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Extreme prematurity has a significant long-term worldwide impact on neurodevelopmental outcomes.


Assuntos
Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Nascimento Prematuro , Criança , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , América do Norte , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Prevalência
8.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205416

RESUMO

Understanding the role in pediatric obesity of early life feeding practices and dietary intake at school age is essential for early prevention. The study aimed to examine associations of early life feeding practices, environmental and health-related exposures, and dietary intake at school age as determinants of obesity in children aged 10-12 years. In an earlier study of 233 healthy infants in two Arab towns in northern Israel, neonatal history, feeding practices, and health information were obtained up to age 18 months. This follow-up study assessed dietary intake and anthropometric measurements at age 10-12 years using the 24 h recall method. Overall, 174 children participated in this study. Almost all (98%) the children were breastfed. The prevalence of obesity at school age was 42%. A multivariable model adjusted for energy intake and socioeconomic status showed positive associations of total fat intake and of weight-for-height z score, but not feeding practices in infancy, with obesity. Higher gestational age at birth was associated with lower odds of obesity at age 10-12 years. In conclusion, in a population with near universal breastfeeding, gestational age at birth, weight indicators but not feeding practices in infancy, and total fat intake at school age were associated with increased likelihood of obesity.


Assuntos
Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Árabes , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Cultura , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Métodos de Alimentação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos
9.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208333

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate the changes in vitamin D levels and factors associated with vitamin D deficiency (VDD) during the first year of life in Korean preterm infants. We enrolled 333 preterm infants who were born at Kyungpook National University Children's Hospital between March 2013 and December 2019. 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels and medical records were collected at birth, 6 months, and 12 months of age. The mean gestational age was 33.4 ± 2.3 weeks and mean 25-OHD levels at birth were 18.2 ± 13.5 ng/mL. The incidence of VDD was 82.8%, 30.6%, and 27.0% at birth, 6 months, and 12 months, respectively. The incidence of severe VDD (25-OHD < 10 ng/mL) was 31.5%, 1.5%, and 0%, at birth, 6 months, and 12 months, respectively. Among infants with severe VDD, the deficiency persisted in 49.6% at 6 months, and 35.3% at 12 months. The strongest predictor of VDD during follow-up was 25-OHD concentration at birth. Vitamin D supplementation at 400 IU/day did not affect vitamin D levels during the first year of life. Therefore, it is important to prevent neonatal VDD through maternal vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy. Further research is needed to determine the optimal vitamin D supplementation dose for Korean preterm infants.


Assuntos
Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/sangue , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitaminas/sangue
10.
JSLS ; 25(2)2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248344

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Cervical ectopic pregnancy is one of the rarest forms of ectopic pregnancy. We present a single center case series of 10 cases of cervical ectopic pregnancy, where 3 patients underwent small-caliber hysteroscopy as a single treatment method. Methods: This was a retrospective study of women treated at our medical center with the diagnosis of cervical ectopic pregnancy from January 1, 2018 to December 31, 2020. Patient characteristics, medical history, obstetric history, diagnostic methods were collected. Small-caliber hysteroscopy treatment was performed in 3 patients and 7 patients underwent dilation and curettage (D&C). Results: We identified 10 patients diagnosed with cervical ectopic pregnancy who were treated at our center. Ultrasonography was used to diagnose all cervical ectopic pregnancies Three patients underwent small-caliber hysteroscopy as a single treatment option, while D&C was performed in 7 patients. Patients who underwent small-caliber hysteroscopy had a median gestational age at diagnosis of 7 weeks and initial ßHCG < 10,000 mIU/mL. These patients had shorter hospital stay and a lower estimated blood loss than patients who underwent D&C. Conclusions: In our experience, small-caliber hysteroscopy is a safe and effective single treatment option for cervical ectopic pregnancy, but requires a skilled and experienced gynecologist.


Assuntos
Colo do Útero/cirurgia , Histeroscópios , Histeroscopia/instrumentação , Gravidez Ectópica/cirurgia , Adulto , Dilatação e Curetagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Histeroscopia/métodos , Gravidez , Gravidez Ectópica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia
11.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199338

RESUMO

The fecal metabolome in early life has seldom been studied. We investigated its evolution in pre-term babies during their first weeks of life. Multiple (n = 152) stool samples were studied from 51 babies, all <32 weeks gestation. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed by headspace solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Data were interpreted using Automated Mass Spectral Deconvolution System (AMDIS) with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) reference library. Statistical analysis was based on linear mixed modelling, the number of VOCs increased over time; a rise was mainly observed between day 5 and day 10. The shift at day 5 was associated with products of branched-chain fatty acids. Prior to this, the metabolome was dominated by aldehydes and acetic acid. Caesarean delivery showed a modest association with molecules of fungal origin. This study shows how the metabolome changes in early life in pre-term babies. The shift in the metabolome 5 days after delivery coincides with the establishment of enteral feeding and the transition from meconium to feces. Great diversity of metabolites was associated with being fed greater volumes of milk.


Assuntos
Fezes/química , Metabolômica/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Nutrição Enteral , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Modelos Lineares , Gravidez , Microextração em Fase Sólida
12.
Arkh Patol ; 83(4): 29-34, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278758

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the parameters of myocardial structural injuries developed in chronic intrauterine hypoxia conditions in newborns at 22-27 weeks' gestation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A battery of morphological techniques, including organometry studies and separate weighing of the heart; 3D histology; morphometry with the determination of the area of cardiomyocyte nuclei, the specific area of the muscular and interstitial components of the right ventricular myocardium; immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies to transforming growth factor ßi (TGF-ßi), cardiac troponin T (cTnT), and transmission electron microscopy, was used to examine heart samples from 30 deceased newborns at 22-27 weeks' gestation who developed in chronic intrauterine hypoxia conditions. A control group consisted of hearts from 20 extremely low body weight (ELBW) newborns, the main cause of whose death was asphyxia caused by the premature detachment of a normally positioned placenta. RESULTS: Analysis of the organometric parameters of heart samples from newborns at 22-27 weeks' gestation, who had experienced chronic intrauterine hypoxia, revealed right ventricular hypertrophy with increases in the area of cardiomyocyte nuclei and in the specific area of the muscle component compared to the control group. Impaired myocardial microcirculation and destructive changes in cardiomyocytes were diagnosed in conjunction with the decreased troponin T and increased TGF-ß1 expressions. Incomplete differentiation of cardiomyocytes and their myofibrillar component was revealed at the myocardial ultrastructural level in ELBW newborns who had experienced chronic intrauterine hypoxia. CONCLUSION: The parameters of myocardial structural rearrangement in ELBW newborns who had experienced chronic intrauterine hypoxia are compensatory right ventricular hypertrophy, microcirculatory disorders, destructive changes in cardiomyocytes, decreased cTnT and increased TGF-ß1 expressions in conjunction with impaired cardiomyocyte differentiation.


Assuntos
Hipóxia , Miocárdio , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Ventrículos do Coração , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Microcirculação , Gravidez
13.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 358, 2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215722

RESUMO

Accelerated epigenetic aging relative to chronological age has been found to be associated with higher risk of mortality in adults. However, little is known about whether and how in utero exposures might shape child gestational epigenetic age (EA) at birth. We aimed to explore associations between maternal psychosocial risk factors and deviation in child gestational EA at birth (i.e., greater or lower EA relative to chronological age) in a South African birth cohort study-the Drakenstein Child Health Study. Maternal psychosocial risk factors included trauma/stressor exposure; posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); depression; psychological distress; and alcohol/tobacco use. Child gestational EA at birth was calculated using an epigenetic clock previously devised for neonates; and gestational EA deviation was calculated as the residuals of the linear model between EA and chronological gestational age. Bivariate linear regression was then used to explore unadjusted associations between maternal/child risk factors and child gestational EA residuals at birth. Thereafter, a multivariable regression method was used to determine adjusted associations. Data from 271 maternal-child dyads were included in the current analysis. In the multivariable regression model, maternal PTSD was significantly and negatively associated with child gestational EA residuals at birth (ß = -1.95; p = 0.018), controlling for study site, sex of the child, head circumference at birth, birthweight, mode of delivery, maternal estimated household income, body mass index (BMI) at enrolment, HIV status, anaemia, psychological distress, and prenatal tobacco or alcohol use. Given the novelty of this preliminary finding, and its potential translational relevance, further studies to delineate underlying biological pathways and to explore clinical implications of EA deviation are warranted.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
14.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202034

RESUMO

Breast milk is widely recognized as the best source of nutrition for both full term and premature babies. We aimed to identify clinical results of the implementation of a breast milk bank for premature infants under 37 weeks in a level III hospital. 722 neonates under 37 weeks, hospitalized in the Neonatal intensive care unit (ICU), who received human breast milk from the institution's milk bank 57% (n = 412) vs. mixed or artificial 32% (n = 229), at day 7 of life. An exploratory data analysis was carried out. Measures of central tendency and dispersion were used, strength of association of odds ratio (OR) and its confidence intervals (95% confidence interval (CI)). 88.5% had already received human milk before day 7 of life. Those who received human milk, due to their clinical condition, had 4 times a greater chance of being intubated (OR 4.05; 95% CI 1.80-9.11). Starting before day 7 of life decreases the opportunity to develop necrotizing enterocolitis by 82% (adjusted odds ratio (ORa) 0.18; 95% CI 0.03-0.97), intraventricular hemorrhage by 85% (ORa 0.15; 95% CI 0.06-0.45) and sepsis by 77% (ORa 0.23; 95% CI 0.15-0.33). Receiving human milk reduces the probability of complications related to prematurity, evidencing the importance that breast milk banks play in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bancos de Leite , Leite Humano , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is a common mood disorder during pregnancy impacting one in every seven women. Children exposed to prenatal depression are more likely to be born at a low birth weight and develop chronic diseases later in life. A proposed hypothesis for this relationship between early exposure to adversity and poor outcomes is accelerated aging. Telomere length has been used as a biomarker of cellular aging. We used high-resolution telomere length analysis to examine the relationship between placental telomere length distributions and maternal mood symptoms in pregnancy. METHODS: This study utilised samples from the longitudinal Grown in Wales (GiW) study. Women participating in this study were recruited at their presurgical appointment prior to a term elective caesarean section (ELCS). Women completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and trait subscale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Telomere length distributions were generated using single telomere length analysis (STELA) in 109 term placenta (37-42 weeks). Multiple linear regression was performed to examine the relationship between maternally reported symptoms of depression and anxiety at term and mean placental telomere length. RESULTS: Prenatal depression symptoms were significantly negatively associated with XpYp telomere length in female placenta (B = -0.098, p = 0.026, 95% CI -0.184, -0.012). There was no association between maternal depression symptoms and telomere length in male placenta (B = 0.022, p = 0.586, 95% CI -0.059, 0.103). There was no association with anxiety symptoms and telomere length for either sex. CONCLUSION: Maternal prenatal depression is associated with sex-specific differences in term placental telomeres. Telomere shortening in female placenta may indicate accelerated placental aging.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/complicações , Depressão/complicações , Placenta/patologia , Encurtamento do Telômero , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Idade Materna , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Fatores Sexuais
17.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The small-for-gestational-age (SGA) in infants is related to an increased risk of developing Non-Communicable Diseases later in life. The Mediterranean diet (MD) is related to lower odds of being SGA. The study explored retrospectively the association between SGA, maternal MD adherence, lifestyle habits and other SGA risk factors during pregnancy. METHODS: One hundred women (16-44 years) with a pregnancy at term were enrolled. Demographic data, parity, pre-gestational BMI, gestational weight gain, pregnancy-related diseases, and type of delivery were collected. The MD adherence (MEDI-LITE score ≥ 9), physical activity level, and smoking/alcohol consumption were registered. SGA neonates were diagnosed according to the neonatal growth curves. RESULTS: Women were divided into "SGA group" vs. "non-SGA group". The MD was adopted by 71% of women and its adherence was higher in the "non-SGA group" (p = 0.02). The prevalence of pregnancy-related diseases (gestational diabetes/pregnancy-induced hypertension) was higher in the "SGA group" (p = 0.01). The logistic regression showed that pregnancy-related diseases were the only independent risk factor for SGA. CONCLUSIONS: MD may indirectly reduce the risk of SGA since it prevents and exerts a positive effect on pregnancy-related diseases (e.g., gestational diabetes and hypertension). The small sample size of women in the SGA group of the study imposes a major limitation to the results and conclusions of this research, suggesting however that it is worthy of further investigation.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Estilo de Vida , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Itália/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Política Nutricional , Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Trials ; 22(1): 492, 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tactile maneuvers stimulating spontaneous respiratory activity in preterm infants are recommended since birth, but data on how and how often these maneuvers are applied in clinical practice are unknown. In the last years, most preterm newborns with respiratory failure are preferentially managed with non-invasive respiratory support and by stimulating spontaneous respiratory activity from the delivery room and in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), in order to avoid the risks of intubation and prolonged mechanical ventilation. METHODS: Preterm infants with gestational age < 31 weeks not intubated in the delivery room and requiring non-invasive respiratory support at birth will be eligible for the study. They will be randomized and allocated to one of two treatment groups: (1) the study group infants will be subject to the technique of respiratory facilitation within the first 24 h of life, according to the reflex stimulations, by the physiotherapist. The newborn is placed in supine decubitus and a slight digital pressure is exerted on a hemithorax. The respiratory facilitation technique will be performed for about three minutes and repeated for a total of 4/6 times in sequence, three times a day until spontaneous respiratory activity is achieved; thus, no respiratory support is required; (2) the control group infants will take part exclusively in the individualized postural care program. They will perform the technique of respiratory facilitation and autogenous drainage. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of early respiratory physiotherapy in reducing the incidence of intubation and mechanical ventilation in the first week of life (primary outcome). DISCUSSION: The technique of respiratory facilitation is based on reflex stimulations, applied early to preterm infant. Slight digital pressure is exerted on a "trigger point" of each hemithorax, to stimulate the respiratory activity with subsequent increase of the ipsilateral pulmonary minute ventilation and to facilitate the contralateral pulmonary expansion. This mechanism will determine the concatenation of input to all anatomical structures in relation to the area being treated, to promote spontaneous respiratory activity and reducing work of breathing, avoiding or minimizing the use of invasive respiratory support. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN-CTR Clinical Trial UMIN000036066. Registered on March 1, 2019. Protocol 1. https://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido , Insuficiência Respiratória , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112400, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116331

RESUMO

The associations of bisphenol A exposure during pregnancy with risk of preterm birth (PTB) and changes in gestational age have remained controversial. To conduct the meta-analysis, the relevant studies were searched through PubMed, OVID, and Web of Science from inception through June 17, 2020. Data were independently extracted and analyzed using odds ratio (OR) or regression coefficient (ß) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We identified 668 references and included 7 studies for preterm birth and 9 studies for gestational age. The included studies reported that the median or geometric mean (GM) of maternal urinary BPA ranged from 0.48 to 6.44 ng/ml. The meta-analysis estimated OR to be 1.36 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.69) for preterm birth associated with maternal urinary BPA exposure during pregnancy. In the subgroup analysis based on BPA exposure level, a significant association was observed between preterm birth and higher BPA exposure among the populations had BPA median or GM concentrations higher than 2.16 ng/ml (OR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.38, 2.47). In the subgroup analyses by maternal urinary BPA exposure assessed in different trimesters, a significant association of preterm birth was only observed with BPA assessed in the third trimester (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.15, 2.09). In addition, higher maternal urinary BPA exposure during pregnancy was associated with decreased gestational age by 0.50 (-0.87, -0.13) days, and the subgroup analyses also showed that only BPA exposure in the third trimester was associated with decreased gestational age by 1.36 (-2.21, -0.52) days. This meta-analysis demonstrated that higher BPA exposure was associated with an increased risk of preterm birth and decreased length of gestational age, and suggested that BPA exposure in the third trimester of pregnancy may be a critical susceptible period of preterm birth.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Idade Gestacional , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Trimestres da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(24): e26303, 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy can produce a certain effect for preterm birth (PTB), but there is no research showing whether vitamin D deficiency has a consistent effect in different pregnancies; thus, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 24 observational studies, grouping them according to the gestational age at the time of serum sampling, to investigate whether vitamin D deficiency in different periods of gestation has different effects on PTB and to provide an evidence-based basis for pregnant women to measure and supplement vitamin D. METHODS: The databases PubMed-Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, EBSCO, CBM, and CNKI were searched until February 2020. Two researchers independently assessed the eligibility and quality of studies, and STATA 12.0 software was used for meta-analysis. RESULT: Seven cohort studies, 13 case-control studies, and 4 cross-sectional studies were included from 2500 articles by inclusion and exclusion criteria. After adjusting for age, race, and other confounding factors, meta-analysis results showed that vitamin D deficiency in the first trimester, the second trimester, and the third trimester did not increase the risk of PTB (odds ratio (OR) = 1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.88, 1.16), P = .867; OR = 1.12, 95%CI (0.92, 1.37), P = .249; OR = 1.05, 95%CI (0.87, 1.27), P = .602). However, there was moderate heterogeneity in the study of vitamin D deficiency in the second trimester, and subgroup analysis suggested that vitamin D deficiency in the second trimester may increase the risk of PTB (OR = 1.33, 95%CI (1.15, 1.54), P = .000). A sensitivity analysis of the second trimester showed that excluding any 1 study did not significantly change the results. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency in early and late pregnancy may not be associated with PTB, while vitamin D deficiency in middle pregnancy is likely to have an important effect on PTB. Vitamin D levels should be measured in the second trimester of pregnancy, and vitamin D supplements should be provided if necessary.


Assuntos
Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Trimestres da Gravidez/sangue , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/sangue , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/terapia , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
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