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1.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 580, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the ongoing global outbreak of COVID-19, pregnant women who are susceptible to COVID-19 should be highly concerned. The issue of vertical transmission and the possibility of neonatal infection is a major concern. CASE PRESENTATION: Case 1: A 35-year-old pregnant woman with a gestational age of 37 weeks and 6 days was admitted to our hospital at the point of giving birth. Except for the abnormalities in her chest CT image, she was asymptomatic. She had an uncomplicated spontaneous vaginal delivery, and her infant was discharged home for isolation. Because of the positive result of the maternal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 obtained on the 2nd day after sampling, we transferred the mother to the designated hospital and followed up with her by telephone interviews. Luckily, it was confirmed on February 23 that the newborn did not develop any COVID-19 symptoms after observation for 14 days after birth. Case 2: Another pregnant woman, with a gestational age of 38 weeks and 2 days, was also admitted to our hospital because of spontaneous labor with cervical dilation of 5 cm. Since she had the typical manifestations of COVID-19, including cough, lymphopenia, and abnormal chest CT images, she was highly suspected of having COVID-19. Based on the experience from case 1, we helped the mother deliver a healthy baby by vaginal delivery. On the 2nd day after delivery, the maternal nasopharyngeal swab result was positive, while the infant's result was negative. CONCLUSION: There is still insufficient evidence supporting maternal-fetal vertical transmission for COVID-19-infected mothers in late pregnancy, and vaginal delivery may not increase the possibility of neonatal infection.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Aleitamento Materno , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Tosse , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Linfopenia , Máscaras , Oxigenoterapia , Pandemias , Isolamento de Pacientes , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Testes Sorológicos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
2.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Children born preterm experience socioemotional difficulties, including increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In this secondary analysis, we tested the effect of combined docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) supplementation during toddlerhood on caregiver-reported socioemotional outcomes of children born preterm. We hypothesized that children randomly assigned to DHA + AA would display better socioemotional outcomes compared with those randomly assigned to a placebo. METHODS: Omega Tots was a single-site randomized, fully masked, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial. Children (N = 377) were 10 to 16 months at enrollment, born at <35 weeks' gestation, and assigned to 180 days of daily 200-mg DHA + 200-mg AA supplementation or a placebo (400 mg corn oil). Caregivers completed the Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment and the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Screening Test-II, Stage 2 at the end of the trial. Liner mixed models and log-binomial regression compared socioemotional outcomes between the DHA + AA and placebo groups. RESULTS: Outcome data were available for 83% of children (n treatment = 161; n placebo = 153). Differences between DHA + AA and placebo groups on Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment scores were of small magnitude (Cohen's d ≤ 0.15) and not statistically significant. Children randomly assigned to DHA + AA had a decreased risk of scoring at-risk for ASD on the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Screening Test-II, Stage 2 (21% vs 32%; risk ratio = 0.66 [95% confidence interval: 0.45 to 0.97]; risk difference = -0.11 [95% confidence interval: -0.21 to -0.01]) compared with children randomly assigned to a placebo. CONCLUSIONS: No evidence of benefit of DHA + AA supplementation on caregiver-reported outcomes of broad socioemotional development was observed. Supplementation resulted in decreased risk of clinical concern for ASD. Further exploration in larger samples of preterm children and continued follow-up of children who received DHA + AA supplementation as they approach school age is warranted.


Assuntos
Ácido Araquidônico/administração & dosagem , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/prevenção & controle , Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/administração & dosagem , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Croat Med J ; 61(4): 338-345, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881432

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the association between the FokI (rs2228570), ApaI (rs7975232), Bsml (rs1544410), TaqI (rs 731236), and Cdx2 (rs11568820) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB), as well as their effect on clinical characteristics of women with SPTB and their newborns. METHODS: This case-control study enrolled women who gave birth at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Medical Center Ljubljana between 2010 to 2019. Cases were 118 women with spontaneous initiation of PTB after natural conception and 119 controls with a term singleton delivery after an uncomplicated pregnancy. The molecular analysis of VDR SNPs employed polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. RESULTS: Patients and controls did not significantly differ in the distribution of genotype or allele SNP frequencies. However, the FokI polymorphism had a significant effect on newborn birth weight in women with SPTB but not in controls (F=5.17, P=0.007, one-way ANOVA with post-hoc Scheffe test), with newborns of FokI TT carriers having the lowest birth weight (P=0.011). No other VDR SNP was associated with any other clinical characteristic of women with SPTB and their newborns. CONCLUSION: The TT genotype of the VDR FokI polymorphism is associated with newborn birth weight in women of European origin with SPTB.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Nascimento Prematuro/genética , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Idade Gestacional , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
4.
Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol ; 27(2): 105-109, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874043

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is becoming a leading cause of preventable blindness. The current study aimed to assess ROP and its risk factors in Tabuk City, Northern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in King Khalid Hospital, Tabuk City, Saudi Arabia. The premature infants' records during the period of January 2016 to April 2018 were approached. One hundred and eight records were eligible; the infants' gestational age, weight, if received oxygen, surfactant use, blood transfusion, intraventricular hemorrhage, and patent ductus arteriosus were reported. Chi-square test was used to compare premature infants and their counterparts regarding various risk factors. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Out of 108 premature infants, 33.3% had ROP (Many were sightthreatening [stages required treatment] and more than twothirds involving both eyes); a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) was evident between infants with prematurity, and low birth weight. No significant differences were found regarding other risk factors (P > 0.05). Only 8.3% received interventional therapy. CONCLUSION: ROP is common in King Khalid Hospital, which is the referral tertiary hospital in Tabuk city, KSA . The low birth weight is a significant risk factor to develop ROP. Many of ROP cases were sightthreatening (cases that required treatment) and most cases involving both eyes. Treatment availability at Tabuk city is recommended, instead of referral to another centers especially among those with low weight at birth.


Assuntos
Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia , Peso ao Nascer , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi ; 55(9): 627-632, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957751

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of monochorionic monoamniotic (MCMA) twin pregnancy. Methods: The clinical data of 60 MCMA twin pregnant women who were terminated in Peking University Third Hospital from January 2011 to December 2019 were collected, and the general clinical data, prenatal examination and pregnancy outcomes were analyzed retrospectively. Results: The age of 60 MCMA twin pregnant women was (31.0±4.1) years old, among which 44 cases were primiparas (73%, 44/60) and 16 cases were multiparas (27%, 16/60). Fifty-eight cases were diagnosed as MCMA twin pregnancy prenatally and were confirmed after delivery. Median ultrasonic diagnosis of gestational age was 12 weeks (range: 8-30 weeks). In the 60 MCMA twin pregnancies, 6 cases were conjoined twins, 5 cases were complicated with twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence (TRAPS), and 10 cases were diagnosed as other fetal malformation by prenatal ultrasound examination. Among the 60 MCMA twin pregnant women, 19 cases had spontaneous abortion or induced abortion due to fetal malformation, fetal death or other reasons within 28 weeks of pregnancy, 41 cases entered the perinatal period, a total of 70 newborns survived. The main cause of perinatal fetal or neonatal death was fetal dysplasia. Conclusions: There is a high incidence of fetal abnormality and perinatal mortality in MCMA twin pregnancy. Accurate early diagnosis, enhanced management and monitoring during pregnancy, and individualized treatment are the keys to improve MCMA twin pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
Âmnio/diagnóstico por imagem , Placenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Gravidez de Gêmeos , Gêmeos Monozigóticos , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/métodos , Adulto , Âmnio/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Perinatal , Placenta/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
S Afr Med J ; 110(6): 502-504, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: South Africa (SA) has a high disease burden of HIV/AIDS. Previously, studies have shown that HIV-infected women have adverse pregnancy outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of HIV infection on neonatal birthweight, head circumference, birth length and duration of pregnancy. METHODS: This was a retrospective study, and data were obtained from the maternity records of women who delivered at Stanger Hospital, SA, from August to December 2016. Pregnancies were dated using an early ultrasound scan. Women with comorbidities that are known to affect birth anthropometry were excluded, as well as all self-reported smokers. Women were divided into HIV-infected and HIV-non-infected groups and compared. RESULTS: Among the 392 women included in the cohort, 171 (43.6%) were HIV-infected and 221 (56.4%) were non-infected. All HIV-infected women were receiving antiretroviral therapy. There was no significant difference in neonatal birthweight, head circumference, birth length or duration of pregnancy between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: HIV infection that has been treated does not appear to be an independent risk factor for fetal growth restriction or preterm delivery in an SA population.


Assuntos
Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Estatura , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia
7.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 22(9): 931-935, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933621

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of gestational age at birth on the neurobehavioral development of preschool children. METHODS: A total of 25 254 preschool children from Ma'anshan of Anhui Province, Taizhou of Zhejiang Province, and Yangzhou of Jiangsu Province were enrolled. The preschool children were divided into three groups based on their gestational ages at birth: preterm group (2 760 cases; 28-36+6 weeks), early term group (6 005 cases; 37-38+6 weeks), and full term group (16 489 cases; ≥39 weeks). The Ages and Stages Questionnaires-Third Edition (ASQ-3) was employed to evaluate the children's neurobehavioral development. RESULTS: The preterm group had significantly lower scores of the five domains of ASQ-3, communication, gross motor, fine motor, problem solving, and personal-social, than the full term group (P<0.05), and significantly lower scores of communication, gross motor, fine motor, and problem solving than the early term group (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in the scores of the five domains of ASQ-3 between the early term and full term groups (P>0.05). The multiple linear regression analysis indicated a significant positive correlation between gestational age and the five domains of ASQ-3 after adjustment for confounding factors including sex, age, body mass index, and parental education level (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Children born preterm have poorer neurobehavioral development than those born full term and early term, whereas children born full term and early term have similar neurobehavioral development. Gestational age at birth is an independent influencing factor for neurobehavioral development in preschool children.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Idade Gestacional , Comportamento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , China , Cidades , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 22(9): 936-941, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933622

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether there is a difference in cerebellar development between appropriate -for-gestational-age (AGA) infants and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants. METHODS: A total of 165 AGA infants and 105 SGA infants, with a gestational age of 26-40+6 weeks, were enrolled in this study. Within 24-48 hours after birth, ultrasound examination was performed to measure the transverse diameter of the cerebellum, the height of the vermis, the area of the vermis, the perimeter of the vermis, and the area and perimeter of the cerebellum on transverse section. A Pearson correlation analysis was used to investigate the correlation between cerebellar measurements and gestational age. RESULTS: In both AGA and SGA infants, all cerebellar measurements were positively correlated with gestational age (r=0.50-0.81, P<0.05). In AGA and SGA infants, there were no significant differences in the measurements between the 25-27+6 weeks, 28-30+6 weeks, and 31-33+6 weeks of gestational age subgroups (P>0.05), while in the 34-36+6 weeks and 37-40+6 weeks subgroups, the SGA infants had significantly lower measurements than the AGA infants (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The SGA infants with a gestational age of <34 weeks have intrauterine cerebellar development similar to AGA infants, but those with a gestational age of ≥34 weeks have poorer intrauterine cerebellar development than AGA infants.


Assuntos
Cerebelo , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Ultrassonografia
9.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): e2020002, 2020 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 virus (SARS-CoV-2) and it is spreading worldwide with an alarming high transmission rate. SARS-CoV-2 usually attacks the lungs causing a wide range of symptoms ranging from mild dyspnea to severe shortness of breath requiring intubation. Elevation of liver transaminases in the patients' sera has been described in up to 53% of the COVID-19 positive patients. The underlying pathogenic mechanisms of the virus on the liver cells are unclear and only few hypotheses are currently available. Data on COVID-19 in pregnant women are lacking and the management of COVID-19 pregnant women is challenging. An elevation of the transaminases during pregnancies infected by SARS-CoV-2 has never been described before. METHODS: Here we presented the case of a 29 years-old patient at 38 weeks of gestation COVID-19 positive with elevated transaminases. RESULTS: The patient showed a progressive decrease of transaminases after the delivery of the fetus. We provided details about the daily transaminases trend, the therapy used and the maternal/neonatal outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: We speculate that in our case the delivery of the fetus contributed to the normalization of the liver enzymes. In patients affected by COVID-19, at term of gestation, with elevated transaminases, delivery of the fetus is an appealing option. If confirmed by larger studies, our proposed management might be incorporated in the obstetrical management guidelines for COVID-19 positive patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/enzimologia , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/enzimologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/enzimologia , Transaminases/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cesárea , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Resultado da Gravidez , Radiografia Torácica
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 676, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Raoultella planticola(R.planticola) is a very rare opportunistic pathogen and sometimes even associated with fatal infection in pediatric cases. Recently,the emergence of carbapenem resistance strains are constantly being reported and a growing source of concern for pediatricians. CASE PRESENTATION: We reported 4 cases of neonatal septicemia caused by Raoultella planticola. Their gestational age was 211 to 269 days, and their birth weight was 1490 to 3000 g.The R. planticola infections were detected on the 9th to 27th day after hospitalization and occured between May and June. They clinically manifested as poor mental response, recurrent cyanosis, apnea, decreased heart rate and blood oxygen, recurrent jaundice, fever or nonelevation of body temperature. The C-reactive protein and procalcitonin were elevated at significantly in the initial phase of the infection,and they had leukocytosis or leukopenia. Prior to R.planticola infection,all of them recevied at least one broad-spectrum antibiotic for 7-27d.All the R.planticola strains detected were only sensitive to amikacin, but resistant to other groups of drugs: cephalosporins (such as cefazolin, ceftetan,etc) and penicillins (such as ampicillin-sulbactam,piperacillin,etc),and even developed resistance to carbapenem. All the infants were clinically cured and discharged with overall good prognosis. CONCLUSION: Neonatal septicemia caused by Raoultella planticola mostly occured in hot and humid summer, which lack specific clinical manifestations. Pediatricians should keep in mind that R. planticola can be a potential source of neonatal sepsis and even has the potential to acquire carbapenem-resistance. Preventing outbreaks of epidemics requires early detection, timely diagnosis and treatment, and active isolation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/diagnóstico , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Sepse Neonatal/diagnóstico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Peso ao Nascer , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Sepse Neonatal/tratamento farmacológico , Piperacilina/farmacologia , Piperacilina/uso terapêutico
12.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 88, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876302

RESUMO

In Brazil, the excess of interventions that anticipate childbirth, such as cesarean sections and labor inductions, has resulted in the shortening of pregnancy, with negative consequences on maternal-infant outcomes. This commentary presents a novel way to measure gestational age: the continuous variable "Potential pregnancy days lost." Using data from the Live Birth Information System (SINASC), we counted the missing days between the period until childbirth and the average duration of pregnancy (280 days), or the lost weeks. This measure can be used as an outcome variable (socioeconomic-demographic characteristics of the mother, type of childbirth, financing, etc.) or exposure variable (for neonatal, infant, and maternal outcomes). The indicator can be used in municipal and national cohorts and intervention studies to analyze hospitals and regions. We discuss the limits and scope of gestational age measures and, given their inaccuracies, the importance of studying their trends.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Brasil , Cesárea , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez
13.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1252: 153-157, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816276

RESUMO

Cancer associated with pregnancy is defined by diagnosis during pregnancy, lactation, or the first year after delivery. The decision about type of treatment depends on the cancer stage and gestational age. Termination of pregnancy does not seem to modify the maternal prognosis for breast cancers. Interdisciplinary meetings and discussions are needed to evaluate and balance the maternal and fetal risks. In this chapter, we discuss about how to prevent or treat maternal and fetal complications of surgery and chemotherapy in pregnancy-associated breast cancer.


Assuntos
Complicações Neoplásicas na Gravidez/terapia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Aborto Induzido , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactação , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Gravidez
14.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 58(8): 653-660, 2020 Aug 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842386

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of extrauterine growth retardation (EUGR) in very low birth weight infants (VLBWI). Methods: This prospective, multicenter observational cohort study was conducted based on Shandong Neonatal Network (SNN). The clinical data of the VLBWI (n=1 051), who were admitted to 27 neonatal intensive care units from January 1, 2018 to December 31, 2018, were collected and analyzed. According to the weight at discharge or 36 weeks of postmenstrual age, all the enrolled VLBWI were assigned into EUGR group and non-EUGR group. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to detect the risk factors for EUGR in preterm small for gestational age (SGA) and non-SGA infants. Results: A total of 1 051 VLBWI were enrolled, with 51.7% (543/1 051) male. The incidence of EUGR in the whole group was 60.7% (638/1 051), and were 78.3% (90/115) and 46.9% (53/113) in extremely low birth weight infant (ELBWI) and extremely preterm infants (EPI), respectively. The incidence of EUGR in SGA and non-SGA infants were 87.6% (190/217) and 53.7% (448/834), respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that, withholding feeds (OR=1.531, 1.237, 95%CI: 1.180-1.987, 1.132-1.353, both P<0.01) and time to achieve full enteral feeding (OR=1.090, 1.023, 95%CI: 1.017-1.167, 1.002-1.045, P=0.014, 0.034) were independent risk factors of EUGR in both SGA and non-SGA infants. For SGA infants, cesarean delivery was an independent risk factor for EUGR (OR=8.147, 95%CI: 2.127-31.212, P=0.002); while for non-SGA infants, hypertensive disorders during pregnancy (OR=2.572, 95%CI: 1.496-4.421, P=0.001) and the duration of invasive ventilation (OR=1.050, 95%CI: 1.009 - 1.092, P=0.016) were independent risk factors of EUGR. Besides, moderate and severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (OR=2.241, 95%CI: 1.173-4.281, P=0.015), necrotizing enterocolitis (OR=5.633, 95%CI: 1.333-23.796, P=0.019) and retinopathy of prematurity (OR=2.219, 95%CI: 1.268-3.885, P=0.005) were associated with EUGR. Conclusions: The incidence of weight-defined EUGR is high in VLBWI, especially in preterm SGA infants. Avoiding delaying feeds after birth and achieving full enteral feeding early may reduce the incidence of EUGR.


Assuntos
Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Peso ao Nascer , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Transtornos do Crescimento , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
15.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32848028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Preterm infants with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) are known to have worse neurodevelopmental outcomes, but there is no substantial evidence to support an underlying pathophysiology. We aimed to examine whether cerebral oxygenation differs in those infants who develop NEC compared to cerebral oxygenation in those who do not. METHODS: We examined 48 infants <30 weeks' gestation admitted to a tertiary level NICU from October 2016 to May 2018. Infants with birth weight less than or equal to the second percentile, abnormal antenatal dopplers or twin-to-twin-transfusion-syndrome were excluded. Cerebral oximetry measurements were performed by using a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) monitor weekly for 60 minutes, allowing measurement of cerebral tissue oxygenation index from the first week of life to 36 weeks postconceptional age. Weekly clinical status was also recorded. NEC was defined as greater than or equal to Bell stage 2. RESULTS: The median birth weight was 884 g (range of 460-1600 g), the median weeks' gestational age was 26 + 3/7 (23 + 0/7 to 29 + 6/7), and 52% were girls. In total, 276 NIRS measurements were completed, and 7 infants developed NEC. NIRS measurements from 1 infant with NEC and 4 infants without NEC who developed hemorrhagic parenchymal infarcts were excluded from analysis. Infants who developed NEC had significantly lower cerebral tissue oxygenation index than those who did not (P = .011), even when adjusted for confounders, including gestational age, birth weight, patent ductus arteriosus, enteral feeds, sex, ethnicity, and hemoglobin. CONCLUSIONS: Infants with NEC have significantly lower cerebral tissue oxygenation throughout their neonatal intensive care stay in comparison with those who did not develop NEC. This is a novel finding and could explain their worse neurodevelopmental outcome.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Enterocolite Necrosante/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/diagnóstico por imagem , Enterocolite Necrosante/etiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Oximetria/instrumentação , Oximetria/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Fatores de Tempo
16.
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003182, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fetal smoke exposure is a common and key avoidable risk factor for birth complications and seems to influence later risk of overweight. It is unclear whether this increased risk is also present if mothers smoke during the first trimester only or reduce the number of cigarettes during pregnancy, or when only fathers smoke. We aimed to assess the associations of parental smoking during pregnancy, specifically of quitting or reducing smoking and maternal and paternal smoking combined, with preterm birth, small size for gestational age, and childhood overweight. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed an individual participant data meta-analysis among 229,158 families from 28 pregnancy/birth cohorts from Europe and North America. All 28 cohorts had information on maternal smoking, and 16 also had information on paternal smoking. In total, 22 cohorts were population-based, with birth years ranging from 1991 to 2015. The mothers' median age was 30.0 years, and most mothers were medium or highly educated. We used multilevel binary logistic regression models adjusted for maternal and paternal sociodemographic and lifestyle-related characteristics. Compared with nonsmoking mothers, maternal first trimester smoking only was not associated with adverse birth outcomes but was associated with a higher risk of childhood overweight (odds ratio [OR] 1.17 [95% CI 1.02-1.35], P value = 0.030). Children from mothers who continued smoking during pregnancy had higher risks of preterm birth (OR 1.08 [95% CI 1.02-1.15], P value = 0.012), small size for gestational age (OR 2.15 [95% CI 2.07-2.23], P value < 0.001), and childhood overweight (OR 1.42 [95% CI 1.35-1.48], P value < 0.001). Mothers who reduced the number of cigarettes between the first and third trimester, without quitting, still had a higher risk of small size for gestational age. However, the corresponding risk estimates were smaller than for women who continued the same amount of cigarettes throughout pregnancy (OR 1.89 [95% CI 1.52-2.34] instead of OR 2.20 [95% CI 2.02-2.42] when reducing from 5-9 to ≤4 cigarettes/day; OR 2.79 [95% CI 2.39-3.25] and OR 1.93 [95% CI 1.46-2.57] instead of OR 2.95 [95% CI 2.75-3.15] when reducing from ≥10 to 5-9 and ≤4 cigarettes/day, respectively [P values < 0.001]). Reducing the number of cigarettes during pregnancy did not affect the risks of preterm birth and childhood overweight. Among nonsmoking mothers, paternal smoking was associated with childhood overweight (OR 1.21 [95% CI 1.16-1.27], P value < 0.001) but not with adverse birth outcomes. Limitations of this study include the self-report of parental smoking information and the possibility of residual confounding. As this study only included participants from Europe and North America, results need to be carefully interpreted regarding other populations. CONCLUSIONS: We observed that as compared to nonsmoking during pregnancy, quitting smoking in the first trimester is associated with the same risk of preterm birth and small size for gestational age, but with a higher risk of childhood overweight. Reducing the number of cigarettes, without quitting, has limited beneficial effects. Paternal smoking seems to be associated, independently of maternal smoking, with the risk of childhood overweight. Population strategies should focus on parental smoking prevention before or at the start, rather than during, pregnancy.


Assuntos
Pais , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/diagnóstico , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/tendências
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236695, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785282

RESUMO

The goal of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of the neonatal diagnosis-related group scheme in patients affected by respiratory distress syndrome. The variable costs of individual patients in the same group are examined. This study uses the data of infants (N = 243) hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the Gaslini Children's Hospital in Italy in 2016. The care unit's operating and management costs are employed to estimate the average cost per patient. Operating costs include those related to personnel, drugs, medical supplies, treatment tools, examinations, radiology, and laboratory services. Management costs relate to administration, maintenance, and depreciation cost of medical equipment. Cluster analysis and Tobit regression are employed, allowing for the assessment of the total cost per patient per day taking into account the main cost determinants: birth weight, gestational age, and discharge status. The findings highlight great variability in the costs for patients in the same diagnosis-related group, ranging from a minimum of €267 to a maximum of €265,669. This suggests the inefficiency of the diagnosis-related group system. Patients with very low birth weight incurred costs approximately twice the reimbursement set by the policy; a loss of €36,420 is estimated for every surviving baby with a birth weight lower than 1,170 grams. On the contrary, at term, newborns cost about €20,000 less than the diagnosis-related group reimbursement. The actual system benefits hospitals that mainly treat term infants with respiratory distress syndrome and penalizes hospitals taking care of very low birth weight patients. As a result, strategic behavior and "up-coding" might occur. We conduct a cluster analysis that suggests a birth weight adjustment to determine new fees that would be fairer than the current costs.


Assuntos
Grupos Diagnósticos Relacionados/economia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/economia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/economia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Custos Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso/fisiologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Tempo de Internação/economia , Masculino , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236805, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790689

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To predict spontaneous preterm birth among pregnant women in an African American population using first trimester peripheral blood maternal immune cell microRNA. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective nested case-control study in pregnant patients enrolled between March 2006 and October 2016. For initial study inclusion, samples were selected that met the following criteria: 1) singleton pregnancy; 2) maternal body mass index (BMI) <30 kg/m2; 3) blood sample drawn between 6 weeks to 12 weeks 6 days gestation; 4) live born neonate with no detectable birth defects. Using these entry criteria, 486 samples were selected for study inclusion. After sample quality was confirmed, 139 term deliveries (38-42 weeks) and 18 spontaneous preterm deliveries (<35 weeks) were selected for analysis. Samples were divided into training and validation sets. Real time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (rt-qPCR) was performed on each sample for 45 microRNAs. MicroRNA Risk Scores were calculated on the training set and area-under-the-curve receiver-operating-characteristic (AUC-ROC) curves were derived from the validation set. RESULTS: The AUC-ROC for the validation set delivering preterm was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.69 to 0.88; p = 0.0001), sensitivity 0.89, specificity of 0.71 and a mean gestational age of 10.0 ±1.8 weeks (range: 6.6-12.9 weeks). When the validation population was divided by gestational age at the time of venipuncture into early first trimester (mean 8.4 ±1.0 weeks; range 6.6-9.7 weeks) and late first trimester (mean 11.5±0.8 weeks; range 10.0-12.9 weeks), the AUC-ROC scores for early and late first trimester were 0.79 (95% CI: 0.63 to 0.91) and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.66 to 0.92), respectively. CONCLUSION: Quantification of first trimester peripheral blood MicroRNA identifies risk of spontaneous preterm birth in samples obtained early and late first trimester of pregnancy in an African American population.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/sangue , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Linfócitos/citologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
19.
Pediatrics ; 146(Suppl 1): S13-S17, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737227

RESUMO

Although parents are typically the most appropriate decision-makers for their children, there are limits to this authority. Medical providers may be ethically obligated to seek state intervention against a parental decision if the parent places a child at significant and imminent risk of serious harm. When parents make medical decisions for their children, they assess both the projected benefits and risks of their choices for their family. These assessments are impacted by uncertainty, which is a common feature of neonatal intensive care. The relative presence or absence of uncertainty may impact perceptions of parental decisions and a medical provider's decision to seek state intervention to overrule parents. In this article, we propose a model integrating prognostic uncertainty into pediatric decision-making that may aid providers in such assessments. We will demonstrate how to apply this model to 3 neonatal cases and propose that the presence of greater uncertainty ought to permit parents greater latitude to incorporate family values into their decision-making even if these decisions are contradictory to the recommendations of the medical team.


Assuntos
Temas Bioéticos , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/ética , Pais , Incerteza , Família , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Masculino , Cuidados Paliativos , Consentimento dos Pais/ética , Prognóstico , Estenose da Valva Pulmonar/cirurgia , Valores Sociais , Suspensão de Tratamento/ética
20.
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003271, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation during pregnancy is hypothesized to influence fetal growth. Eicosanoids, an important class of lipid mediators derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids, can act as both direct influences and biomarkers of inflammation through a variety of biological pathways. However, quantifying these distinct inflammatory pathways has proven difficult. We aimed to characterize a comprehensive panel of plasma eicosanoids longitudinally across gestation in pregnant women and to determine whether levels differed by infant size at delivery. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Our data come from a case-control study of 90 pregnant women nested within the LIFECODES prospective birth cohort study conducted at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts. This study included 31 women who delivered small for gestational age (SGA) babies (SGA, ≤10th percentile), 28 who delivered large for gestational age (LGA) babies (≥90th percentile), and 31 who delivered appropriate for gestational age (AGA) babies (controls, >10th to <90th percentile). All deliveries occurred between 2010 and 2017. Most participants were in their early 30s (median age: 33 years), of white (60%) or black (20%) race/ethnicity, and of normal pre-pregnancy BMI (median BMI: 23.5 kg/m2). Women provided non-fasting plasma samples during 3 prenatal study visits (at median 11, 25, and 35 weeks gestation) and were analyzed for a panel of eicosanoids. Eicosanoids were grouped by biosynthetic pathway, defined by (1) the fatty acid precursor, including linoleic acid (LA), arachidonic acid (AA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and (2) the enzyme group, including cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX), or cytochrome P450 (CYP). Additionally, the concentrations of the 4 fatty acids (LA, AA, DHA, and EPA) were measured in maternal plasma. Analytes represent lipids from non-esterified plasma. We examined correlations among eicosanoids and trajectories across pregnancy. Differences in longitudinal concentrations between case groups were examined using Bayesian linear mixed effects models, which included participant-specific random intercepts and penalized splines on gestational age. Results showed maternal plasma levels of eicosanoids and fatty acids generally followed U-shaped curve patterns across gestation. Bayesian models showed that associations between eicosanoids and case status varied by biosynthetic pathway. Eicosanoids derived from AA via the CYP and LOX biosynthetic pathways were positively associated with SGA. The adjusted mean concentration of 12-HETE, a LOX pathway product, was 56.2% higher (95% credible interval 6.6%, 119.1%) among SGA cases compared to AGA controls. Eicosanoid associations with LGA were mostly null, but negative associations were observed with eicosanoids derived from AA by LOX enzymes. The fatty acid precursors had estimated mean concentrations 41%-97% higher among SGA cases and 33%-39% lower among LGA cases compared to controls. Primary limitations of the study included the inability to explore the potential periods of susceptibility of eicosanoids on infant size due to limited sample size, along with the use of infant size at delivery instead of longitudinal ultrasound measures to estimate fetal growth. CONCLUSIONS: In this nested case-control study, we found that eicosanoids and fatty acids systematically change in maternal plasma over pregnancy. Eicosanoids from specific inflammation-related pathways were higher in mothers of SGA cases and mostly similar in mothers of LGA cases compared to controls. These findings can provide deeper insight into etiologic mechanisms of abnormal fetal growth outcomes.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Eicosanoides/sangue , Idade Gestacional , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional/fisiologia , Gravidez/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Prospectivos
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